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Adverbs are used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb:


[1] Mary sin s beautifully [!] "avid is extremely c#ever [$] %his car oes incredibly fast

&n [1], the adverb beautifully te##s us ho' Mary sin s( &n [!], extremely te##s us the de ree to 'hich "avid is c#ever( )ina##y, in [$], the adverb incredibly te##s us ho' fast the car oes( *efore discussin the meanin of adverbs, ho'ever, 'e 'i## identify some of their forma# characteristics(

Formal Characteristics of Adverbs


)rom our e+am,#es above, you can see that many adverbs end in -ly( More ,recise#y, they are formed by addin -ly to an adjective:

Adjective slow Adverb

quick

soft

sudden

gradual

slowly quickly softly suddenly gradually

*ecause of their distinctive endin s, these adverbs are -no'n as -LY A".E/*0( 1o'ever, by no means a## adverbs end in -ly( 2ote a#so that some adjectives a#so end in -ly, inc#udin costly, deadly, friendly, kindly, likely, lively, manly , and timely( 3i-e adjectives, many adverbs are G/A"A*3E, that is, 'e can modify them usin very or extremely:

softly suddenly slowly

very softly very suddenly e+treme#y slowly

%he modifyin 'ords very and extremely are themse#ves adverbs( %hey are ca##ed "EG/EE A".E/*0 because they s,ecify the de ree to 'hich an adjective or another adverb a,,#ies( "e ree adverbs inc#ude almost, barely, entirely, highly, quite, slightly, totally, and utterly( "e ree adverbs are not radab#e 45extremely very6( 3i-e adjectives, too, some adverbs can ta-e 78MPA/A%&.E and 09PE/3A%&.E forms, 'ith -er and -est:
:ohn 'or-s hard ;; Mary 'or-s harder ;; & 'or- hardest

1o'ever, the majority of adverbs do not ta-e these endin s( &nstead, they form the com,arative usin more and the su,er#ative usin most:

Adverb recently effectively frequently

Comparative more recently

Superlative most recently

more effectively most effectively more frequently most frequently

&n the formation of com,aratives and su,er#atives, some adverbs are irre u#ar:

Adverb well badly little much

Comparative better worse less more

Superlative best worst least most

Adverbs and Adjectives


Adverbs and adjectives have im,ortant characteristics in common ;; in ,articu#ar their radabi#ity, and the fact that they have com,arative and su,er#ative forms( 1o'ever, an im,ortant distin uishin feature is that adverbs do not modify nouns, either attributive#y or ,redicative#y:

Adjective "avid is a happy chi#d "avid is happy

Adverb 5"avid is a happily chi#d 5"avid is happily

%he fo##o'in 'ords, to ether 'ith their com,arative and su,er#ative forms, can be both adverbs and adjectives:
early, far, fast, hard, late

%he fo##o'in sentences i##ustrate the t'o uses of early:

Adjective &<## catch the early train

Adverb & a'o-e early this mornin

%he com,arative better and the su,er#ative best, as 'e## as some 'ords denotin time interva#s 4daily, weekly, monthly6, can a#so be adverbs or adjectives, de,endin on ho' they are used( =e have incor,orated some of these 'ords into the fo##o'in e+ercise( 0ee if you can distin uish bet'een the adverbs and the adjectives(

&n each of the fo##o'in ,airs, indicate 'hether the hi h#i hted 'ord is an adverb or an adjective:

1a. My train arrived usual 1b. I'm

late, as

Adverb Adjective

atchin! the late film


Adverb Adjective

"a. My brother loves

fast cars

Adverb Adjective

"b. #e drives too fast


Adverb Adjective

$a. %his e&ercise is harder than I thou!ht $b. I hope you'll try harder in future

Adverb Adjective

Adverb Adjective

'a. The Times is published

daily
'b. The Times is a daily ne spaper

Adverb Adjective

Adverb Adjective

(a. )ou've just ruined my best shirt

Adverb

Adjective

(b. Computers *ic* them

or* best if you


Adverb Adjective

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7onjunctions are used to e+,ress a connection bet'een 'ords( %he most fami#iar conjunctions are and, but, and or:
Pau# and "avid co#d and 'et tired but ha,,y s#o'#y but sure#y tea or coffee hot or co#d

%hey can a#so connect #on er units:


Pau# ,#ays footba## and "avid ,#ays chess & ,#ay tennis but & don<t ,#ay 'e## =e can eat no' or 'e can 'ait ti## #ater

%here are t'o ty,es of conjunctions( 788/"&2A%&2G 782:927%&820 4or sim,#y 788/"&2A%8/06 connect e#ements of >e?ua#< syntactic status:
Pau# and "avid & ,#ay tennis but & don<t ,#ay 'e## meat or fish

&tems 'hich are connected by a coordinator are -no'n as 782:8&20( 0o in I play tennis but I don't play well, the conjoins are [I play tennis] and [ I don't play well]( 8n the other hand, 09*8/"&2A%&2G 782:927%&820 4or 09*8/"&2A%8/06 connect e#ements of >une?ua#< syntactic status:

& #eft ear#y because & had an intervie' the ne+t day =e visited Madame %ussaud<s while 'e 'ere in 3ondon &<## be home at nine if & can et a ta+i

8ther subordinatin conjunctions inc#ude although, because, before, since, till, unless, whereas, whether 7oordination and subordination are ?uite distinct conce,ts in rammar( 2otice, for e+am,#e, that coordinators must a,,ear between the conjoins: [Pau# ,#ays footba##] and ["avid ,#ays chess]
@5 nd ["avid ,#ays chess] [Pau# ,#ays footba##]

1o'ever, 'e can reverse the order of the conjoins, ,rovided 'e -ee, the coordinator bet'een them: ["avid ,#ays chess] and [Pau# ,#ays footba##] &n contrast 'ith this, subordinators do not have to occur bet'een the items they connect::
& #eft ear#y because & had an intervie' the ne+t day @!ecause & had an intervie' the ne+t day, & #eft ear#y

*ut if 'e reverse the order of the items, 'e either chan e the meanin com,#ete#y:
& #eft ear#y because & had an intervie' the ne+t day @& had an intervie' the ne+t day because & #eft ear#y

or 'e ,roduce a very dubious sentence:


&<## be home at nine if & can et a ta+i

@A& can et a ta+i if &<## be home at nine

%his sho's that items #in-ed by a subordinator have a very s,ecific re#ationshi, to each other ;; it is a re#ationshi, of syntactic de,endency( %here is no syntactic de,endency in the re#ationshi, bet'een conjoins( =e 'i## further e+,#ore this to,ic 'hen 'e #oo- at the rammar of c#auses(

&n each of the fo##o'in sentences a conjunction is hi h#i hted( &s it a coordinator or a subordinatorA 1. %he proposal could not have been considered further unless it had been si!ned by all the members bac* in May
7oordinator 0ubordinator

". +ast year -isa

e visited ,enice and

7oordinator 0ubordinator

$. #ave there been any developments since met. e last

7oordinator 0ubordinator

'. Conversation used to be entertainment, hereas no it's a means of e&chan!in! information


7oordinator 0ubordinator

(. Me!

ill drin* red or

hite

ine

7oordinator 0ubordinator

/. I find it very difficult to for!ive,

7oordinator

althou!h I do eventually
0. 1aren's definitely comin! don't thin* -ete can ma*e it

0ubordinator

but I

7oordinator 0ubordinator

&n each of the fo##o'in sentences, indicate 'hether the hi h#i hted noun is count or non;count(

1. %he board ill meet tomorro to consider your application.

7ount 2on;count

". %he information you !ave to the detective as very misleadin!.

7ount 2on;count

$. I thou!ht it

as a stran!e

comment to ma*e.
'. Smo*in! dama!es your

7ount 2on;count

health. music at

7ount 2on;count

(. 2ean is studyin! colle!e.

7ount 2on;count

/. I'll have a brandy, please.

7ount 2on;count

&n each of the fo##o'in sentences a ,ronoun has been hi h#i hted( =hat ty,e of ,ronoun is itA

Persona# /ef#e+ive

1. +et's contact one another once e've made some pro!ress.

Possessive /e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca# &nterro ative

Persona# /ef#e+ive Possessive

". She

ants to do it herself.

/e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca# &nterro ative

Persona# /ef#e+ive Possessive

$. I can't find them.

/e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca# &nterro ative

Persona# /ef#e+ive Possessive

'. I can't believe it's finally

ours.

/e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca# &nterro ative

Persona# /ef#e+ive

(. %he !irl ho usually cuts my hair has on the lottery.

Possessive /e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca# &nterro ative

Persona# /ef#e+ive Possessive

/. #e

ants to !o to Scarborou!h.

/e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca# &nterro ative

0. 3hy are you shoutin! at me.

Persona# /ef#e+ive Possessive /e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca#

&nterro ative

Persona# /ef#e+ive Possessive

4. 2im !ave

me the last copy.

/e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca# &nterro ative

Persona# /ef#e+ive

5. 6obody said a

Possessive

ord all ni!ht.

/e#ative &ndefinite /eci,roca#

Exercise Complete the sentences with a suitable article. 1. I want apple from that basket.

2.

church on the corner is progressive.

3. Miss Lin speaks

Chinese.

. I borrowe!

pencil from "our pile of pencils an! pens.

#. $ne of the stu!ents sai!% &

professor is late to!a".&

'. Eli likes to pla"

volle"ball.

(. I bought

umbrella to go out in the rain.

). M" !aughter is learning to pla"

violin at her school.

*. +lease give me

cake that is on the counter.

1,. I live! on

Main -treet when I first came to town.

11. .lban" is the capital of

/ew 0our -tate.

12. M" husban!1s famil" speaks

+olish.

13.

apple a !a" keeps the !octor awa".

1 .

ink in m" pen is re!.

1#. $ur neighbors have

cat an! a !og.