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Projecting Ahead

Projecting Ahead
If we superimpose the current well path onto the planned well path, a triangle forms as illustrated below. We can calculate the change necessary to achieve desired inclination and azimuth.

4000 4050 4100 KOP

East
-50 0 50 100 300

True Vertical Depth

4150 4200 4250 4300 4350 4400 4450 4400 4450 4400 4450 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250

Legend Well Plan Actual

100 0 -100

Target at 25 Azimuth

View from Southeast of Rig

Vertical Section on 25.00 azimuth

View down from Rig Floor

Figure 1 Projecting ahead

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Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

North

200

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead


Current: Inclination Azimuth Inclination Azimuth = 6o = 0o (N00E) = 8o = 25o (N25E)

Desired:
1.

Determine the number of degrees change in the hole direction. Direction = (Azimuth 1 - Azimuth 2) Direction = (0 - 25), so the difference between azimuths is 25o

2.

Convert the polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates using the direction from step #1 and the desired inclination.
Polar Coordinates = Desired Inclination at D Direction Rectangular Coordinates = (X, Y)

re esi

dI

ina ncl

tion
Y

D Direction X
X = cos(D Direction) x Desired Inclination(Hypotenuse) Y = sin(D Direction) x Desired Inclination(Hypotenuse)
Figure 2 Conversion of coordinates from polar to rectangular

Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

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Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

Polar Coordinates = Desired Inclination at D Direction Rectangular Coordinates = (X, Y)

s De

In ired

clin

n atio

=8
Y = 3.38

D Direction = 25 X = 7.25
X = cos(D Direction) x Desired Inclination(Hypotenuse) Y = sin(D Direction) x Desired Inclination(Hypotenuse)
Figure 3 Computation of rectangular angle coordinates from change in direction/desired inclination 3.

Subtract the current inclination from the X value.

3.38

25 X = 1.25
X - Current Inclination = New X Value X - 6.0 = 7.25 - 6.0 = 1.25

Figure 4 Determining the new x value

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Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

4.

Create a new triangle from the new set of rectangular coordinates. X = 1.25 and Y = 3.38

y = 3.38

25 X = 1.25
Figure 5 Creating a new triangle

5.

Convert the rectangular coordinates of the new triangle back to polar coordinates
A( Y) by using the following formula: C = atan ----------B(X)

C=?

A = 3.38

25 a = atan(A/B) a = atan(3.38/1.25) a = atan(2.704) a = 69.7


Figure 6 Determining new toolface setting

B = 1.25 Note: a + b = 90 b = 90 - a b = 90 - 69.7 = 20.3

Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

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Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

C = A2 + B2 C = 3.382 + 1.252 25 C = 11.4244 + 1.5625 C = 12.9869 C = 3.60373 = 3.60


Figure 7 Determining dogleg (hypotenuse) 6.

3.60 C=
a
69.7

A = 3.38

B = 1.25

Calculate the length of the triangles hypotenuse. This formula provides acceptable dogleg values for inclinations of less than 30o. In situations where inclination angles are 30o or greater, or for projecting ahead calculations, use the standard dogleg calculation.

Note:

DL = acos ( cos I 1 cos I 2 ) + ( sin I1 sin I 2 cos AZ )

= 3. Dog leg
69.7

60

25

6 7.25

X= 1.25

Figure 8 Completed dogleg calculations

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Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

Y = 3.38

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

The dogleg from our toolface calculation can be used to calculate the amount of hole that needs to be drilled to accomplish the change. You use the following formula:
DL 100 DD = --------------------DLS MAX

where: DL is the calculated dogleg. DLSMAX is the maximum acceptable dogleg for this portion of the hole. DD is the drilled distance required to make the change. 100 are the measuring units (substitute 30 if working in meters). Example:
3.6 100 72 ft = --------------------5

The calculated dogleg may also be used to calculate the dogleg severity of the change, if the change is made over a given distance.
DL 100 DLS = --------------------DD

where: DL is the calculated dogleg DLS is the dogleg severity created if the change takes place over a given distance. DD is the given distance in which the directional driller desires the change to be achieved. Example:
3.6 100 4 degrees / 100 DLS = --------------------90 ft

Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

USDDSM04B June 3, 1998

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

During the Build Section, what percent of the footage will be drilling oriented? Where: DL is the Required Dogleg /100 (i.e. build rate). DLO is the Actual Dogleg while drilling oriented /100. DLR is the Actual Dogleg while drilling rotary /100.

( DL DLR ) 100 Percentage Footage Oriented = --------------------------------------------DLO DLR

Where: Planned Build Rate Build Rate while Oriented Build Rate while Rotary = 2.5/100 = 3.5/100 = 0.5/100

( 2.5 0.5 ) 100 Percentage Footage Oriented = ---------------------------------------3.5 0.5 ( 2.0 ) 100 Percentage Footage Oriented = -------------------------3.0 200 Percentage Footage Oriented = -------3.0

Percentage Footage Oriented = 66.67

Percentage Footage Oriented = 67%.

USDDSM04B June 3, 1998

Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

Where: A = Inclination at Survey 1 B = Inclination @ Survey 2 C = Change in Direction To calculate the expected change in direction, use the following formula:
Dogleg sin Toolface Set C = atan -------------------------------------------------------------------A + ( Dogleg cos Toolface )

To calculate the new inclination, use the following formula:


Dogleg sin Toolface Set B = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------sin Expected Change In Direction

To calculate the new inclination, use the following formula:


Dogleg C MAX = asin -------------------------------------------Present Inclination

Example 1
Current Depth = 2000 Current Inclination = 6.0 Current Azimuth = 48.0 You drill 2 joints (62.1 feet) with a toolface setting of 20L. What is the Inclination and Azimuth at the bit if the motor dogleg is expected to be 5/100?

1. 2. 3. 4.

What is the Dogleg for the motor? What is the Change in Direction? What is the Inclination at the Bit? What is the Azimuth at the Bit?

Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

USDDSM04B June 3, 1998

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

1.

What is the Dogleg for the motor?


DL Motor - Distance Drilled Dogleg = ----------------------100 5 - 62.1 Dogleg = -------100

Dogleg = 3.105

2.

What is the Change in Direction?


Dogleg sin Toolface Set Change In Direction = atan -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Current Inc + ( Dogleg cos Toolface ) 3.105 sin 20 Change In Direction = atan -----------------------------------------------6 + ( 3.105 cos 20 ) 1.061973 Change In Direction = atan --------------------8.917746 Change In Direction = 6.79

3.

What is the Inclination at the Bit?


Dogleg sin Toolface Set Bit Inc = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------sin Expected Change In Direction 3.105 sin 20 Bit Inc = -------------------------------sin 6.79 1.061973 Bit Inc = --------------------0.118231 Bit Inc = 8.98

4.

What is the Azimuth at the Bit?


Azimuth At Bit = Current Azimuth Change In Azimuth Azimuth At Bit = 48 6.79 Azimuth At Bit = 41.2

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Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

Example 2
Current Depth = 2000 Current Inclination = 4.1 Current Azimuth = 67.3 You drill 3 joints (92.5 feet) with a toolface setting of 45 (Magnetic Toolface). What is the Inclination and Azimuth at the bit if the motor dogleg is expected to be 3/100?

1. 2. 3. 4.

What is the Dogleg for the motor? What is the Change in Direction? What is the Inclination at the Bit? What is the Azimuth at the Bit?

1.

What is the Dogleg for the motor?


DL Motor - Distance Drilled Dogleg = ----------------------100 3 Dogleg = ------- 92.5 100

Dogleg = 2.775

2.

What is the Change in Direction? (Find Toolface first)


Toolface = Magnetic Toolface Setting Current Azimuth Toolface = 45 67.3 = 22.3 = 22.3 L Dogleg sin Toolface Set Change In Direction = atan -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Current Inc + ( Dogleg cos Toolface ) 2.775 sin 22.3 Change In Direction = atan --------------------------------------------------------4.1 + ( 2.775 cos 22.3 ) 1.052991 Change In Direction = atan --------------------6.667457 Change In Direction = 8.97

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Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

USDDSM04B June 3, 1998

Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

3.

What is the Inclination at the Bit?


Dogleg sin Toolface Set Bit Inc = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------sin Expected Change In Direction 2.775 sin 22.3 Bit Inc = ------------------------------------sin 8.97 1.052991 Bit Inc = --------------------0.155917 Bit Inc = 6.75

4.

What is the Azimuth at the Bit?


Azimuth At Bit = Current Azimuth Change In Azimuth Azimuth At Bit = 67.3 8.97 Azimuth At Bit = 58.33

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Copyright 1998, Sperry-Sun, a division of Dresser Industries, Inc.

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Calculating the Toolface Setting to Project Ahead

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USDDSM04B June 3, 1998