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Coccyx

Coccyx
Coccyx

A coccyx with four vertebrae below the sacrum.


Latin Gray's MeSH TA FMA os coccygis p.106 [1] [2] [3]

Coccyx

A02.2.06.001 FMA:20229 Anatomical terms of bone

[4]

The coccyx (/kksks/ KOK-siks; plural: coccyges), commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in tailless primates. Comprising three to five separate or fused vertebrae (the coccygeal vertebrae) below the sacrum, it is attached to the sacrum by a fibrocartilaginous joint, the sacrococcygeal symphysis, which permits limited movement between the sacrum and the coccyx. The term coccyx comes originally from the Greek and means "cuckoo",[5] referring to the curved shape of a cuckoo's beak when viewed from the side.

Structure
The coccyx is formed of either three, four or five rudimentary vertebrae. It articulates superiorly with the sacrum. In each of the first three segments may be traced a rudimentary body and articular and transverse processes; the last piece (sometimes the third) is a mere nodule of bone. The transverse processes are most prominent and noticeable on the first coccygeal segment. All the segments lack pedicles, laminae and spinous processes. The first is the largest; it resembles the lowest sacral vertebra, and often exists as a separate piece; the remaining ones diminish in size from above downward. Most anatomy books wrongly state that the coccyx is normally fused in adults. In fact it has been shown that the coccyx may consist of up to five separate bony segments, the most common configuration being two or three segments.

Coccyx

Surfaces
The anterior surface is slightly concave and marked with three transverse grooves that indicate the junctions of the different segments. It gives attachment to the anterior sacrococcygeal ligament and the levatores ani and supports part of the rectum. The posterior surface is convex, marked by transverse grooves similar to those on the anterior surface, and presents on either side a linear row of tuberclesthe rudimentary articular processes of the coccygeal vertebrae. Of these, the superior pair are the largest, and are called the coccygeal cornua; they project upward, and articulate with the cornua of the sacrum, and on either side complete the foramen for the transmission of the posterior division of the fifth sacral nerve.

Borders
The lateral borders are thin and exhibit a series of small eminences, which represent the transverse processes of the coccygeal vertebrae. Of these, the first is the largest; it is flattened from before backward, and often ascends to join the lower part of the thin lateral edge of the sacrum, thus completing the foramen for the transmission of the anterior division of the fifth sacral nerve; the others diminish in size from above downward, and are often wanting. The borders of the coccyx are narrow, and give attachment on either side to the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments, to the coccygeus in front of the ligaments, and to the gluteus maximus behind them.

Apex
The apex is rounded, and has attached to it the tendon of the sphincter ani externus. It may be bifid.

Extensor coccygis
The extensor coccygis is a slender muscular fasciculus, which is not always present. It extends over the lower part of the posterior surface of the sacrum and coccyx. It arises by tendinous fibers from the last segment of the sacrum, or first piece of the coccyx, and passes downward to be inserted into the lower part of the coccyx. It is a rudiment of the extensor muscle of the caudal vertebrae of the lower animals.

Sacrococcygeal and intercoccygeal joints


The joints are variable and may be: (1) synovial joints; (2) thin discs of fibrocartilage; (3) intermediate between these two; (4) ossified.

Function
In humans and other tailless primates (e.g., great apes) since Nacholapithecus (a Miocene hominoid),[6][7] the coccyx is the remnant of a vestigial tail, but still not entirely useless; it is an important attachment for various muscles, tendons and ligamentswhich makes it necessary for physicians and patients to pay special attention to these attachments when considering surgical removal of the coccyx. Additionally, it is also a part of the weight-bearing tripod structure which acts as a support for a sitting person. When a person sits leaning forward, the ischial tuberosities and inferior rami of the ischium take most of the weight, but as the sitting person leans backward, more weight is transferred to the coccyx. The anterior side of the coccyx serves for the attachment of a group of muscles important for many functions of the pelvic floor (i.e., defecation, continence, etc.): The levator ani muscle, which include coccygeus, iliococcygeus, and pubococcygeus. Through the anococcygeal raph, the coccyx supports the position of the anus. Attached to the posterior side is gluteus maximus which extend the thigh during ambulation. Many important ligaments attach to the coccyx: The anterior and posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments are the continuations of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments that stretches along the entire spine. Additionally, the lateral sacrococcygeal ligaments complete the foramina for the last sacral nerve. And, lastly, some fibers of the

Coccyx sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments (arising from the spine of the ischium and the ischial tuberosity respectively) also attach to the coccyx. An extension of the pia mater, the filum terminale, extends from the apex of the conus, and inserts on the coccyx.

Clinical significance
Injuring the coccyx can give rise to a painful condition called coccydynia and one or more of the bones or the connections thereof may be broken, fractured tailbone. A number of tumors are known to involve the coccyx; of these, the most common is sacrococcygeal teratoma. Both coccydynia and coccygeal tumors may require surgical removal of the coccyx (coccygectomy). One complication of coccygectomy is a coccygeal hernia.

Additional images

Vertebral column.

Vertebral column.

Left Levator ani from within.

Median sagittal section of male pelvis.

Median sagittal section of female pelvis.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / archive. org/ stream/ anatomyofhumanbo1918gray#page/ 106/ mode/ 2up http:/ / www. nlm. nih. gov/ cgi/ mesh/ 2007/ MB_cgi?mode=& term=Coccyx http:/ / www. unifr. ch/ ifaa/ Public/ EntryPage/ TA98%20Tree/ Entity%20TA98%20EN/ 02. 2. 06. 001%20Entity%20TA98%20EN. htm http:/ / purl. obolibrary. org/ obo/ FMA_20229 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=ko/ kkuc), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A GreekEnglish Lexicon, on Perseus [6] Nakatsukasa 2004, Acquisition of bipedalism (See Fig. 5 (http:/ / www. pubmedcentral. nih. gov/ articlerender. fcgi?artid=1571308& rendertype=figure& id=fig05) entitled First coccygeal/caudal vertebra in short-tailed or tailless primates..) [7] Note: Nacholapithecus and Nakaliphitecus nakayamai are two different species of Miocene hominoids (specimens from Nakali and Nachola respectively). See for example "Comparisons with Other Hominoids" in (Kunimatsu, Nakatsukasa et al. Dec 2007)

Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Nakatsukasa, Masato et al. (December 2007). "A new Late Miocene great ape from Kenya and its implications for the origins of African great apes and humans" (http://www.pnas.org/content/104/49/ 19220.full). PNAS 104 (49): 192205. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0706190104 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas. 0706190104). PMC 2148271 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2148271). PMID 18024593

Coccyx (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18024593). Retrieved January 2010. Nakatsukasa, Masato (May 2004). "Acquisition of bipedalism: the Miocene hominoid record and modern analogues for bipedal protohominids" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1571308). Journal of Anatomy 204 (204(5)): 385402. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-8782.2004.00290.x (http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j. 0021-8782.2004.00290.x). PMC 1571308 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1571308). PMID 15198702 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15198702).

External links
Anatomy photo:41:os-0107 (http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/l41/os0107.htm) at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center "The Female Perineum: Osteology" Coccydynia (coccyx pain, tailbone pain) at eMedicine (http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/ 309486-overview) (Peer-reviewed medical chapter, available free online)

Article Sources and Contributors

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Coccyx Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=603514586 Contributors: 28421u2232nfenfcenc, 2pac 2007, Addingrefs, Aja12aja, Alchemist Jack, Anatomist90, Andycjp, Anthony Appleyard, Antiqueight, Antoshi, Arcadian, Aunt Entropy, Barnt001, Benscripps, Billygoat113, Bob A, Bob the Wikipedian, Bodnotbod, Brookch16, Carl44, Caspian blue, Chochopk, Clawed, Cmanna, Cooladoola, CopperSquare, Cordawg1, Cormag100, Craig Pemberton, Creation7689, DStowens, Dcfleck, Deflective, Dhans86, Discospinster, Doulos Christos, Dysmorodrepanis, EdoDodo, Eeekster, Eleassar, Eric-Wester, Essjay, Ezeu, Fama Clamosa, Fivemack, Frietjes, Gautehuus, Ggolan, Glass Sword, GorillaWarfare, Gouerouz, Gwernol, HKL47, Haemo, Hairy Dude, Hakeem.gadi, Hamtechperson, HenryLi, Heron, Hurriquake, I do not exist, IMSoP, Insanity Incarnate, Iztwoz, J.delanoy, J04n, JakobSteenberg, Jchmiles, Jefdude69, Jeff5102, Jeraphine Gryphon, Jerzy, Jfdwolff, Jjron, Jncraton, Joehall45, John Vandenberg, JohnnyB256, Jonathan.s.kt, Judgeking, Julesd, Jusdafax, Kvan1st, Kwamikagami, LT910001, LeaveSleaves, Livajo, Lukenaylor, MCTales, Macedonian, Marcasm, Marek69, Max Naylor, Mazvydas, Mendaliv, Mikael Hggstrm, Mike Rosoft, Murtasa, Myasuda, Mymyby, Nagy, Nicktfx, Pafsanias, Paxsimius, Phyzome, Pinethicket, Playstationman, Ppe42, Pwjb, Quartus81, Quebec99, Radishes, Raven in Orbit, Renato Caniatti, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rreagan007, SD5, Scottalter, Seaphoto, Silv3rJad3, Slakr, Slinger, Slodave, Stemonitis, T456, Talono, Taoster, Texas William, Tristanb, Ufwuct, Una Smith, Varlaam, WDM27, WadeSimMiser, Was a bee, Wiki13, Wikipelli, Winternest, Yctaabpjic, Yesod, 223 , anonymous edits

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File:Gray100.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gray100.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User Magnus Manske on en.wikipedia File:Illu vertebral column.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Illu_vertebral_column.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: . File:Gray 111 - Vertebral column-coloured.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gray_111_-_Vertebral_column-coloured.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User: Uwe Gille File:Gray404.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gray404.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Keenan Pepper, Was a bee File:Gray1228.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gray1228.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Arcadian, Ephraim33, Was a bee File:Gray1230.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gray1230.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Arcadian, Ephraim33, Magnus Manske, Was a bee

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