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Crazy Crow Trading Post Welding Manual
Crazy Crow Trading
Post
Welding Manual
Crazy Crow Trading Post Welding Manual <a href=A worker’s guide to welding safely and efficiently " id="pdf-obj-0-4" src="pdf-obj-0-4.jpg">

Welding Manual

Created by: John Smith

April 2014

Welding Manual Created by: John Smith April 2014
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Table of Contents

Contents

INTRODUCTION .....................................................................vii

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

1

HEAD SAFETY

5

LUNGS AND EAR

6

SKIN SAFETY

7

FEET SAFETY

8

HAND SAFETY

9

TYPES

11

ARC WELDING

14

MIG WELDING

15

TIG WELDING

16

COMMON WELDER

17

WELDER SETTINGS

21

WIRE SPEED

24

VOLTAGE

26

HOW TO WELD

29

32

39

FIRST AID HELP

53

INDEX

55

Introduction

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vii

The purpose for the welding manual at Crazy Crow Trading Post is to keep workers safe from injury, and to help teach them to weld efficiently. Proper welding knowledge is important for many reasons:

a good weld is a strong weld, correct settings make welding easier, and welding is a dangerous activity.

The beginning of the manual contains a section which implements safety precautions and what to wear for full protection. For a novice welder, this is the most important section to read.

Welding is a complicated process with several particular procedures the user needs to follow to guarantee an effective and safe weld.

The manual will teach workers proper procedure and safety when welding on company property.

Safety Equipment

Safety Equipment

Safety Equipment

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3

All safety equipment should be worn at all times to protect from eye damage, burns, or oxide inhalation.

Burns are the most common injury to welders due to sparks landing on the skin. Welding arcs are very intense and can cause burns to skin and eyes with just a few minutes of exposure.

Head- Welding Helmet, hand shield, or

goggles (Page 6) Lungs- Respirators (Page 7)

Ears- Ear muffs, ear plugs (Page 7)

Exposed skin- Fire/Flame Resistant

clothing and aprons (Page 8) Feet- Boots, or closed toe shoes (Page 9)

Hands- Insulated Gloves (Page 10)

Head Safety

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5
Head Safety 5 To protect the head and face, wear a welding helmet or darkened goggles.

To protect the head and face, wear a welding helmet or darkened goggles. This equipment protects you from radiation, sparks, intense light, and irritation or chemical burns.

Wear fire resistant head coverings under the helmet where appropriate.

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6

Lungs and Ear Safety

6 Lungs and Ear Safety A respirator protects against fumes and harmful oxides. Ear muffs protect

A respirator protects against fumes and harmful oxides.

6 Lungs and Ear Safety A respirator protects against fumes and harmful oxides. Ear muffs protect

Ear muffs protect against noise. Use fire resistant ear plugs where sparks or splatter may enter the ear.

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7

Skin Safety

7 Skin Safety Protective clothing is essential for safety. Welding clothes and aprons protect against heat,
7 Skin Safety Protective clothing is essential for safety. Welding clothes and aprons protect against heat,

Protective clothing is essential for safety.

Welding clothes and aprons protect against heat, fires, and burns.

NOTES: Pants should not have cuffs, and shirts should have flaps over pockets or be taped closed.

Because of its durability and resistance to fire, wool clothing is suggested over synthetics. Synthetics should never be worn because it melts when exposed to extreme heat. Cotton can be worn if it is specially treated for fire retardation.

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Feet Safety

8 Feet Safety Boots protect against sparks hitting the feet. In the event of a fire,

Boots protect against sparks hitting the feet. In the event of a fire, the feet will be protected.

Also, rubber-soled safety shoes protect from electric shock.

Steel boots are recommended because heavy metal can fall and smash toes when not properly clamped.

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9

Hand Safety

9 Hand Safety Heavy, flame-resistant gloves should always be worn to protect your hands and wrists
9 Hand Safety Heavy, flame-resistant gloves should always be worn to protect your hands and wrists

Heavy, flame-resistant gloves should always be worn to protect your hands and wrists from burns, cuts and scratches.

As long as they are dry and in good condition, they will offer some insulation against electric shock.

Leather is usually the best material for good welding gloves.

Types of Welders

Types of Welders

Types of Welders

Arc Welders

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Arc Welding is the most popular form of welding. The welder gives off an electric current that moves throughout the metal. The current creates an arc that heats the metals to more than 5,000 degrees.

MIG Welders

MIG (Metal Inert Gas) Welding uses a gas to shield the weld metal while a metal wire dispenses to create the current. This type of welding is the fastest because the welder can operate continuously. MIG Welding is the easiest type of welding.

TIG Welders

TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) Welding is a lot like MIG welding, except it uses tungsten instead of a metal wire. TIG Welding can be used to weld aluminum and stainless steel.

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14

Arc Welding

14 Arc Welding Arc welding was the first form of welding created. Arc welding can be

Arc welding was the first form of welding created. Arc welding can be used outdoors in any type of weather.

Arc welding is simple and requires simple training and minimum equipment. It is not very expensive compared to MIG and TIG welders.

Components of Arc Welding

ARC Welding System

Gun Cable

Ground Clamp

Stick

220 Volt Outlet

14 Arc Welding Arc welding was the first form of welding created. Arc welding can be

MIG Welding

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MIG Welding 15 MIG is best for fabrication of steel because of its speed and ability

MIG is best for fabrication of steel because of its speed and ability to use with one hand.

MIG welding is hard to use outdoors or in windy areas. A good electrical ground is needed for a good weld.

MIG Components

Ground Clamp

Gun Cable

Copper Wire

MIG Welding System

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16

TIG Welding

16 TIG Welding TIG Welding uses higher temperatures than the other types of welding because tungsten

TIG Welding uses higher temperatures than the other types of welding because tungsten has a higher melting point. Consequently, skin is more likely to get burned when TIG welding.

TIG welding is difficult because one hand is used to hold the tungsten rod and the other hand holds the tungsten electrode torch.

TIG welding does not penetrate the metal as deeply as ARC welding and MIG welding even though it operates at higher temperatures.

Common Welder

Common Welder

Common Welder

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The type of welder at Crazy Crow Trading Post is a MIG Welder.

It operates with an oxygen tank attached to the rear of the machine. This machine plugs into a 220 amp wall outlet. Miller MIG Welders are fairly simple to use. Outdoor welding will be VERY DIFFICULT.

Common Welder 19 The type of welder at Crazy Crow Trading Post is a MIG Welder.

Welder Settings

Welder Settings

Welder Settings

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The settings must be correct for optimal performance. The two variables in welder settings are wire speed and voltage.

The new Miller welding machine at Crazy Crow Trading Post is easy to change the settings.

For example: the voltage in the picture below is 26.9 Volts. The wire speed is 561%. To change these settings adjust the knobs to the right of the digital display.

Welder Settings 23 The settings must be correct for optimal performance. The two variables in welder
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Wire Speed

Setting the correct wire speed is important to the appearance and strength of a weld.

TOO SLOW: The wire will make contact with the metal but immediately burn and ball up near the tip. It will be hard to keep a constant arc.

PERFECT: The wire comes out fast enough to make a constant arc, and it will create a sizzle sound.

TOO FAST: The arc will be constant, but it will pop and crackle way too much. The penetration will be far too deep.

The thinner the metal, the wire speed will be set lower. Wire speed will need to be increased if the voltage is increased.

LOOK ON PAGE 17 FOR WIRE SPEED TABLE

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Steel Thickness

Wire Speed %

(mm)

0.6mm wire

0.8mm wire

     

0.8

  • 240 250

1.0

 
  • 250 260

1.2

 
  • 260 275

1.5

 
  • 270 280

2.0

 
  • 280 290

     

3.0

  • 285 300

     

4.0

  • 350 350

5.0

 
  • 400 415

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Voltage

The easiest way to fine tune the setting is to practice on scrap steel of the
The easiest way to fine tune the setting is to
practice on scrap steel of the same thickness
as the steel you want to weld.
High Voltage
Low Voltage

Power settings were increased on a 1 mm sheet of iron from left to right. Too low voltage will make the weld too tall and thin. Too high voltage will create holes in the weld.

LOOK ON PAGE 19 FOR VOLTAGE TABLE

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Steel Thickness

Voltage

(mm)

0.6mm wire

0.8mm wire

     
  • 0.8 21.6

16.5

 
  • 1.0 21.9

18

 
 
  • 1.2 22.2

18.6

 
 
  • 1.5 22.6

19.3

 
 
  • 2.0 23.5

20.5

 
     
  • 3.0 24.9

22.9

     
  • 4.0 26.1

25.8

 
  • 5.0 30.7

29.5

 

How to Weld

How to Weld

How to Weld

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MIG welding is an easy process if you follow these instructions.

  • 1. Plug in the machine

  • 2. Set the machine

  • 3. Turn on the Gas tank

  • 4. Make Area “Fire Safe”

  • 5. Prepare Metal

  • 6. Put on Safety Gear

  • 7. Clamp Ground Cable

  • 8. Clamp Metal Securely

  • 9. Lay the Bead

    • 10. Cool Metal

    • 11. Knock off Slag

    • 12. Grind Bead

Each step will be explained in detail over the next few pages.

Although following these welding procedures will help, practice is the only thing that will make welding easier. The good thing is that welding is like riding a bicycle; if you learn it once, you never forget.

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Welding Steps

  • 1. Plug in the Machine The MIG welding machine at Crazy Crow Trading Post is a 220 volt plug in, so the welder can only plug into big outlets in the shop.

32 Welding Steps 1. Plug in the Machine The MIG welding machine at Crazy Crow Trading
  • 2. Set the Machine Refer back to pages 16-19 to set the right wire speed and voltage. Setting the correct wire speed and voltage can make welding easier and the strength of the weld increases. Most MIG Welders have charts underneath the side of the welder. A tab will release the side and it will flip open for settings help.

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Welding Steps (Cont.)

3. Turn on the Gas Tank

The gas tank is a mixture of CO 2 and Argon. This gas shields the weld as the two metals come together. Without the gas your welds will look brown and splattered. Open the valve about one full turn. Next, set the regulator to approximately 25 PSI.

33 Welding Steps (Cont.) 3. Turn on the Gas Tank The gas tank is a mixture
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Welding Steps (Cont.)

  • 4. Make Area “Fire Safe” The way to make an area fire safe is to clean up any paper or flammables before welding. Welder produce sparks that splatter every direction, so it is crucial to prepare the area for this occurrence.

  • 5. Prepare Metal To weld a metal it must be completely clean the ground will have no interruption. Welding is completed through a constant arc. If this current is interrupted because the metal is rusted, the weld will not look good. To prepare the metal, take a hand grinder and grind the spot you are going to weld.

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Welding Steps (Cont.)

  • 6. Put on Safety Gear Step 6 can be completed by referring back to pages 5-10. This step is crucial to ensure employee safety when welding.

35 Welding Steps (Cont.) 6. Put on Safety Gear Step 6 can be completed by referring
  • 7. Clamp Ground Cable To allow the current to run through the metal you are welding, clamp the ground cable either to the piece of metal or to a metal table the piece is sitting on. If you do not get any kind of spark, check the ground cable.

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Welding Steps (Cont.)

  • 8. Clamp Metal Securely To weld the straightest bead possible, clamp the metal secure so it does not move around during the process.

36 Welding Steps (Cont.) 8. Clamp Metal Securely To weld the straightest bead possible, clamp the
  • 9. Lay the Bead Try to make a small zig-zag pattern with the tip of the welder while pressing the trigger. It will penetrate the metal and lay the bead all at the same time so do not rush this part. This step is the most important so it will be discussed on page 26 also.

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Welding Steps (Cont.)

9. Laying the Bead (Cont.)

The main types of patterns you can use are zig-zag, C-shape, and circular. All patterns are equally effective. Practice starting a bead on scrap metal before you jump onto the piece that counts.

Start slow, and keep a steady pace. Going too fast will leave holes in the weld, and going too slow will make the weld look bad.

37 Welding Steps (Cont.) 9. Laying the Bead (Cont.) The main types of patterns you can
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Welding Steps (Cont.)

  • 10. Cool Metal The metal is going to be very hot after welding so it is necessary to set the metal in a bucket of water before touching it. It will sizzle so wear eye protection.

  • 11. Knock off Slag After cooling the metal, grab a welding hammer and knock off any loose slag attached to the weld. Slag is the residue that occurs when two metals are melted together. Slag looks like hardened charcoal. If you are good, the slag will rise immediately after welding.

38 Welding Steps (Cont.) 10. Cool Metal The metal is going to be very hot after
  • 12. Grind Bead If you want a professional look, grind the bead down a little to make the two pieces of metal even.

Putting Away Welder

Putting Away Welder
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Putting Away Welder

Now that you are finished, it is time to put everything away. To ensure that the process will be the same next time, properly store all items where you can easily locate next time.

Make sure everything has a chance to cool before you start grabbing objects. Unplug the machine from the wall and start wrapping the cables around the gas tank. Turn the valve of the gas tank until it is shut off. (The PSI should be 0 if done correctly)

Store the machine in a dry place that does not experience extreme temperatures.

This machine is very expensive and is company property so take good care of it. You

wouldn’t want Crazy Crow executives coming

into your house and destroying something you

own.

First Aid Help

First Aid Help

First Aid Help

Burns

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For extreme burns from directly touching molten metal go to the hospital or call 911.

If skin blisters up, put an ice pack on it and apply burn cream to the affected area.

For a UV burn, apply Aloe Vera or other sunburn creams for comfort.

Nausea

Nausea means you have inhaled fumes that are not safe for the human body. Welding different metals can produce harmful oxides which should not enter the respiratory system. If you are nauseous or have a headache, drink MILK immediately after welding. This should help keep those fumes from affecting your body. It sounds silly, but the calcium eliminates the harmful oxides. If the symptoms continue after 24 hours see a doctor.

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Index

A… Aid 45 Arc 13, 14 B… Bead 36, 37 Boots 8 Burn 45 C… Clamp 36, 38 E… Ear 6 Equipment 3 F… Feet 8 First Aid 45 G… Ground 35 H… Hands 9 Head 5 How to Weld 31 L… Lungs 6 M… MIG 13, 15 Milk 45 N… Nausea 45 P… Prepare 34 Protection 3, 5 R… Respirators 6

S… Safety 3 Settings 23 Slag 38 Speed 24, 25 Steps 32

T… Tables 25, 27

Tank 33 TIG 13, 16 Types 13 V… Voltage 26 W… Wire 24 Z… Zig-Zag 37