Submitted to the department of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Bharat Institute of Technology Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow

Guided By: Dr. M.C. Bansal (HOD chem. dept)

Submitted By: Raveen Sharma(1012851032) TanushreeBhardwaj(1012851039) PrateekModi(1012851027) PulkitGoyal(1012851029) AvinashPuri(1012851009.) Mohd.Owais(1012851022) (CH,IV Year)



We hereby declare that this submission is our own work and that to the best of our knowledge and belief, it contain no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in text.

PulkitGoyal Mohd.Owais Tanushree Avinash Puri Prateek Modi Raveen Sharma

Prof ANUJ KUMAR Chemical Engineering Bharat Institute of Technology Meerut-250003 Asst. MohdOwais. Tanushree. Raveen Sharma. Meerut is an authentic work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance. Asst.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the projrct entitled ‘Manufacturing of packaging grade of paper’ submittedby ‘PrateekModi. Avinash’ under minor project program in Chemical Engineering at the Bharat Institute of Technology. Pulkit. Prof Neha Goyal Chemical Engineering Bharat Institute of Technology Meerut-250003 .

We are extremely thankful to Mr. Bharat Institute of Technology. Meerut and also to all other faculty members for introducing and guiding us as time permitted.C Bansal . Meerut for providing us the object. Above all. Chemical Engineering.AnujKumar and Ms Neha Goyal. Bharat Institute of Technology. we acknowledge our thanks to the support rendered by our project group members and our colleagues for encouraging us during the completion of the project.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our gratitude to Dr. We are also grateful to our fellow mates. . Chemical Department. M.Asst Professor. who supported us at every step of the preparation of this project. We would also like to thank him for providing us all the facilities required for completing the report.

Each machine can make a single grade of paper or a variety of papers. Nonintegrated mills require less land. jute. Machines designed to make specialty grade typically have more operating flexibility and will manufacture many types of paper. be in a more open setting where they are close to large work force populations and perhaps to their customers. An integrated mill is one that conducts pulp manufacturing on-site. generally wood. about 60% of cellulose fibers originated from non-wood raw materials such as bagasse. and water than integrated mills. energy. Nonintegrated mills have no capacity for pulping but must bring pulp to the mill from an outside source. with profound understanding of the mechanism involved. A paper mill can house a single paper machine or several machines. where significant advances have taken place in all the areas of paper making in the recent years. and sisal. and waste water treatment. electric generation. Their location can. Pulp manufacturing. reeds. The industry is also highly energy-intensive. The paper industry is also said to be water intensive. Pulp washing and screening. A dedicated machine usually manufactures a commodity grade paper such as liner board or tissue. The complexity of the processes. flax. Modern papermaking thus needs advanced process control and diagnostic methods. the scale of operation and production speeds leaves little room for error or malfunction. Paper industry is often referred to as a capital-intensive industry because of the enormous investment in an integrated modern paper mill. Transportation cost is also reducing.SUMMARY Paper is manufacturing from raw material containing cellulose fibers. therefore. cereal straw. stock preparation and paper making. Bleaching. bamboo. esparto grass. In developing countries. recycled paper and agricultural residue. The power consumption in an integrated . Integrated mills have the advantage of using common auxiliary systems for both pulping and papermaking such as steam. as almost all of the processing operations in the industry use water suspensions of fibers or chemicals. The main steps in pulp and paper manufacturing are: Raw material preparation and handling. Papermaking is vast. multidisciplinary technology.Chemical recovery. Pulp mills and paper mills may exist separately or as integrated operations. The basic process of papermaking remains the same despite the type of paper manufactured or the size of the machine.

a . Further.paper mill is about 1000 to 1400 KWH. The paper industry is also known as pollution intensive. it shall make it highly profitable venture. if the waste paper based mill is having cogeneration system. liquid effluent and gaseous emission. zero effluent discharge is being implemented in waste paper based mill. This makes the waste paper based mill more attractive and a basis for considering this project. In some of the states. steam consumption is about 3-5 tons and water consumption is about 40-50 m3/ton of finished paper. The discharges from paper industries include solid waste. There are regulatory limits enforced on the discharge of these pollutants by the regulatory authorities and the industries expected to treat its effluent to meet the standards. In comparisons to an integrated paper the data for a waste paper based mill is about 600 to 800 KWH. steam consumption is about 8 to 10 tons and water consumption is about 100 to 150m3 per ton of finished paper.


Sometimes it is referred to as cardboard. de linked. or slurry. and because it is strong. In India only about 20% waste paper is recovered annually. but they get shorter every time and eventually are strained out.INTRODUCTION Packaging paper or Paperboard is a paper-based material that is generally thicker than paper. Low recovery is on account of alternate use of paper in wrapping. such as book and magazine covers or postcards. In a recent report. etc. According to ISO standards. In India mills depending on waste paper for recycling are facing a shortage of raw material while the demand is growing as the mills are expanding. Import of waste . bleached. sourcing in India is a challenge. Another end-use would be graphic printing. Then it can be made into new paper. and mixed with water. Paperboard is a thick paper based material. Paperboard packaging comes in several different grades that possess unique characteristics making each grade suitable for different packaging requirements and needs. which makes it ideal for packaging. which remove any glue or plastic that may still be in the mixture the cleaned. is lightweight. The same fibres can be recycled about seven times. For instance in Germany it is 73%. Paperboard is also used in fine arts for creating sculptures. Central Pulp & Paper Research Institute (CPPRI). this resulting mixture is called pulp. which is a generic. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed. It is easy to cut and form and is both lightweight and strong. Saharanpur has started that by 2010 about half of the global amount of fibres used in paper making will be recycled fibres. is used in packaging. In comparison in developed countries the percentage of recovery of waste paper is very high.0098 in or 10 points) than paper. but there are exceptions. packing. The process of paper recycling involves mixing used paper with water and chemicals to break it down.25 mm. a type of organic plant material. The lack of source segregation results in contamination of waste paper and becoming unstable. It is strained through screens. which break it down further into strands of cellulose. It is then chopped up and heated. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard. paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0. Sweden 69% and Italy 45%. Paperboard can be single or multi-ply. lay term used to refer to any heavy paper pulp based board. 0. paperboard is a paper with a basis weight (grammage) above 224 g/m2.

due recognition should be given by the industry as well as government to essential secondary raw material.paper has increased significantly during 1995-2003 onwards since industries dependence is increasing on imported RCP due to in constant supply of indigenous RCP & the recovery of indigenous of RCP being low due to an organised collection system IPMA feels paper recycle. needs to be looked at as an enterprise. . Since record paper has potential to substitute a high cost and inadequate primary raw material. yield the overall contest of waste management.

A rule of thumb is that stiffness is proportional to the 1. the smoother the paperboard. 0 being acidic. 7 neutral and 14 alkaline.Common terms associated with packaging paper Basis Weight (US): Is the weight 1. Stiffness: Stiffness is one of the most important properties of paperboard as it affects the ability of cartons to run smoothly through the machine that erects. as skin colour and food are better reproduced on „warm‟ (yellow) whites and not blue whites. Smoothness is measured using air leak methods – the greater the rate of air leakage. fills and closes them. from under a cylindrical knife placed on the surface. . Grammage: The grammage of the paperboard is assessed in accordance ISO 536.6 power of sheet caliper. at a specific air pressure. This property is very subjective and individual to each buyer and end use. stifness does not. the rougher the surface. PH: Surface pH is measured on a water extract and is on a scale of 0-14.000 square feet (93 m2) of paperboard. The species of fiber used has an effect on stiffness. Grammage expresses weight per unit area and is measured in g/m2. Although most paper strength properties increase with increasing sheet density. Other factors which affect board stiffness include coatings and moisture content. the better the image quality. other things being equal. Stiffness also gives strength and reduces the propensity of a carton to bulge under the weight of settling flowable contents such as cereals. because of better ink coverage. Brightness: Brightness is a technical term that is defined as the amount of bluewhite light that a paper reflects. Northern softwood species impart superior stiffness compared to southern softwoods. Smoothness: Smoothness is particularly important when being used for printing.

024” would be 24 points.001mm) (also referred to as a micrometer) Paperboard also tends to be referred to with thickness rather than weight.Caliper/Thickness: In the United States caliper is usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (0. In Europe it is often sold in g/m2. Whiteness: It refers ideally to the equal presence of all colours.001”) or points. where a sheet of paperboard with a thickness of 0. . however the thickness of the board is measured in micron(μm) (1μm = 0. because a truly white sheet will reflect all wavelength of visible light equally.

2 PROPERTIES OF PAPER (a) Basis weight (GSM) : The weight or substance per unit area is obviously fundamental in paper and paper board products. paint filler and roofing. The basis weight of paper is weight per unit area. Most recovered paper is recycled back into paper and paperboard products. in many cleaning productsparticularly in Asian cultures. In order for the fibres to be useful for paper making. They must also develop strong bonds between fibres at the points of contact. Variation in moisture content in paper affects the gram mage. While the main use is for writing and printing upon. Recovered paper can be used for few . or of lower quality than grade of the original product . Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon. Recycled pulp can be moulded into egg cartons and fruit trays.and drying them into flexible sheet. they must be capable of being matted into a uniform sheet. PAPER 1. printing upon.1. ceiling and wall insulation. rags . 1. Recovered paper can be used in a variety of other product as well. With a few exception. For example. recovered paper is generally recycled into a grade similar to. Pulp is obtained by chemical and/or mechanical processing of fibrous raw materials.1 INTRODUCTION Paper is a felted sheet of fibres formed on a fine screen from a waste suspension of pulp. drawing or for packaging. This can be expressed as the weight in grams per square metre(GSM or Gram Per Meter square). REAM WIGHT is a common term to signify the weight of a lot or batch of paper. Control or basis weight is important as all other properties are affected. Recovered printing and writing paper can be used to make new recycled copy paper. Paper is versatile material with many uses. it is also widely used as a packaging material. It is produced by pressing together moist fibres. from wood/non-wood origin. typically cellulose pulp derived from wood. pounds per thousand square feet or weight in kg or pounds per ream (500 sheets) of a specific size. . old corrugated boxes are used to make new recycled corrugated boxes.

the geometry of laminating and viewing. but carefully standardised. The colour of paper. the nature and extent of the surround and the optical characteristic of the paper itself. Decrease the bulk or in other words increase the density. and because the irregular cross section of fibers creates difficulty in . It is calculated from caliper and base weight. whiteness and colour : Brightness is defined as the percentage reflectance of blue light only at a wavelength of 457nm. Such change in dimension may seriously affect register in printing process and interfere with the use of such items as tabulating cards.(b) Brightness. It has been observe that cellulose fibers swell in diameter from 15 to 20% in passing from the dry condition to the fiber saturation point. Colour may be appear different when view under a different light source. darker. Sheet bulk release to all other sheet properties. (d) Dimensional stability: An important consequence of the absorption and de-absorption of moisture by paper is the change in dimension that usually a companies changes in moisture content. lower in strength etc. However the brightness value of the pulp and pigments going into the paper an excellent measure of the maximum brightness that can be achieved with proper tinting. Brightness is arbitrarily defined. depend in the complicated way on the characteristic of the observer and a number of physical factors such as the spectral energy distribution of the illuminate. Dimensional changes in paper originate in the swelling and contraction of the individual fibers. blue reflectance that is used throughout the pulp and paper industry for the control of milk processes and in certain type of research and development programs brightness is not whiteness. Whiteness refers to the extent that paper diffusively reflects light at all wavelengths throughout the visible spectrum. Uneven dimensional changes cause undesirable cockling and curling. Whiteness is appearance term. like the other materials. it is the reciprocal of density. (c) Bulk: Bulk is a term to indicate volume or thickness in relation to weight. It is impossible to be precise about the degree of the swelling because paper making fibers differ considerably in this property. Colour is anaesthetic value. and the sheet gets smoother glossies less opaque.

The cross direction is the direction of paper at right angle to the machine direction. Some of the properties vary with the MD and CD and hence the values are reported in both the direction . but the rate and extant of changes vary with different papers. map.while sheeting the paper. Fold test is also important for carton. The level of gloss desired is very important on the end use of a paper. It is defines as the numbers of double fold that strip of 15 mm wide and 100 mm length can be withstand under a specified load before it breaks. blueprint and record papers (f) Formation: Formation is an indication of how the fibers and fillers are distributed in the sheet formation play an important role as most of the paper properties depend on it. It is important for printing grade where the paper is subjected to multiple folds like in books. (g) Gloss: It is specularly and diffusively reflected light component measurement against the non standard. Gloss is important for printing such things as magazine advertisement. Paper that is poorly formed will have weak.defining diameter. currency. maps or pamphlets. All paper expand with increase moisture content and contract with decrease moisture content. folding endurance is a requirement in bond. Change that occurs in the dimension of papers with variation in the moisture content is an important consideration in the use of paper. thin spots and thick spots. Gloss and smoothness are different properties and not dependent on each other. (h) Machine and cross direction: Paper has a definite grain direction due to greater orientation of fibers in the direction of travel of the paper machine. (e) Folding endurance: Folding endurance is the is the papers capability of with standing multiple folds before it break. This grain dirction is known as machine direction. boxboard and cover paper etc. These will affect properties like calliper strength etc. machine and cross .

filter paper. (j) Opacity: Opacity is the measure of how much light is kept away from passing through a sheet. Book papers fold better and the book stays open better if the sheet are out so that the machine direction run up and down the pages. 3. (k) Porosity: Because paper is composed of randomly felted layer of fiber. Paper is highly porous material and contain as such 70% air. Thus the ability of fluid. Porosity is the measurement of the total connecting air voids. It the ratio of diffused reflectance and the reflectance of single sheet backed by a black body. The electrical resistance and the dielectric constant of paper both vary with moisture content. A perfectly opaque paper is the one that is absolutely impervious to the passage of all visible light. Porosity is highly critical factor in printing papers. The absorption and reflectance of certain bands of infrared and microwave radiation by paper are affected by its moisture content. Example: 1. All printing papers are to be cut in long run. Opacity is important in printing paper. Water has an effect of plasticizing the cellulose fiber and of relaxing and weakening the inter fiber bonding. to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper. Wrap around labels for metals cans and bottles are to be cut with machine direction vertical to obtained grater flexibility about the can. The amount water present in the sheet of paper is usually expressed as a percent. 2. book paper etc. both liquid and gases.direction are to be kept in mind and the sheet cutting to be done to suite the end user requirement. laminating paper. both vertical . Poor moisture control can adversely affect many paper properties. (i)Moisture: Most physical properties of paper under go changes as a result of variation in moisture content. it follows that the structure has varying degree of porosity.

where it affects the ease of travel of the pen over the surface. both liquid and gaseous. (l) Sizing (cob): Because paper is composed of a randomly felted layer of fiber. the character of the surface is of great importance. and compatibility. Later. Smoothness is important for writing. liveliness.g Copier paper. It is common to say that paper has a smooth or rough texture. that exist in a sheet. Stretch is higher in cross direction than machine direction. (n) Stiffness: Stretch is the amount of distortion which paper undergo under tensile stress. . Finish is important in bag paper as it is related to the tendency of the bag to slide with stacked. the term “sizing” was applied to the treatment of paper stock prior to the formation of the sheet. The term finish and pattern are frequently used in describing the contour or appearance of paper surfaces. Porosity of sheet is an indication of absorptivity or the ability of the sheet to accept ink or water. The need to the limit the spreading of ink resulted in “sizing” the paper with gelatinous vegetable materials which had the effect of sealing or filling the surface pores. Smoothness also gives eye appeal as a rough paper is unattractive.and horizontal. (m) Smoothness: Smoothness is concerned with the surface contour of paper. with water-repellent materials such as rosin or wax. Stretch can be related to the paper‟s ability to conform and maintain conformance to a particular contour. It is the flatness of the surface under testing conditions which considers roughness. as percent stretch to rupture. In most of the uses of paper.e. Stretch elongation usually expressed. its structure has a varying degree of porosity. Porosity can also be a factor in a vacuum feeding operation on a printing press. the ability of fluids. Thus. multicolour offset liquid packing cartons base papers etc. to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper.

envelops newspapers. bent. c. enamelled. b. crumpled. twisted. It may be coloured coated or even written on it can be laminated with fabric. sensitized. saturating papers etc. waxed. creped. circulars sales and service manuals. plastic and metal. water-proofed. made to look like parchment.filters. code and driving liscenses. condenser paper. the highway. Variation in caliper can affect several basic properties including strength. . e. calanders. parallel surface under a pressure of 1kg centimetre square. 1. The various uses of paper can be: a. optical and roll quality. brochures. d. damp. It can be opaque or transparent. folded . torn. roofing and decorative laminates for furniture. greeting cards. metalized. Bussiness Printout sheets. door and roof liners. Cars It is used in making of fascia boards.proof courses. Agriculture It can be used in making sacks. turned. and identity cards. Thickness is important in filling cards.3 USES OF PAPPER: Paper may be impregnated. seed packets. glazed. Building It is used as a wallpapers. Caliper is a critical measurement of uniformity. printing papers.(o) Thickness: Thickness or Caliper of paper is measured with a micrometre as the perpendicular distance between two circular planes. Communications It is used in the manufacturing of writing pads. and letter heading. and animal bedding. cut.

insurance forms. Education Books. lamp shades. j. paper hats. Domestic products Tissues. exercise book. finance. and report cards. postal orders. beer and oil. g. board games. kitchen towel. Filtration Filters for water. paper plates and cups. cheque books. air. Entertainments Menu cards. h. flip chart. fire works. wall chart. cash bags and security papers that contain special marking which are only visible when subjected to ultra violet light. coffee. . security Bank notes.f. Money. kites and race cards. playing cards. toilet papers. medicine. crackers. i.

and regulatory issues look to renewable resources to meet increasing demand. Hardwood fibres fill the sheet better and therefore make a smoother paper that is more opaque and better for printing. It is now mandatory in many countries for paper-based packaging to be manufactured wholly or partially from recycled material. Swiss studies have shown that recycled material can contain significant portions of mineral oil. it does provide higher tensile strength. Mixed waste paper is not usually deinked (skipping the deinking stage) for paperboard manufacture and hence the pulp may contain traces of inks. Recycled: Used paper is collected and sorted and usually mixed with virgin fibres in order to make new material. as manufacturers dealing with environmental. Products made of recycled board usually have a less predictable composition and poorer functional properties than virgin fibre-based board.g. and other residues which together give it a grey colour. This is necessary as the recycled fibre often loses strength when reused. (Mineral oil levels of up to 19. Softwood: Ca .05 inches (1. and especially products from certified sustainable sources. Raw materials include:  Hardwood: Ca .3 mm) (length) e. wood) or from recycled waste paper. Health risks have been associated with using recycled material in direct food contact.2. It is generally more difficult to work with. Birch which has short fibres.Today paperboard packaging in general. Although its fibres are not as long and strong as those in softwood. adhesives.1 Raw material The above mentioned fibrous material can either come from fresh (virgin) sources (e.g. PAPER MANUFACTURING 2. which may migrate into packed foods.g. Hardwood makes an excellent corrugating medium.4 mg/kg were found in rice packed in recycled board. the added virgin fibres enhance strength. Softwood makes excellent linerboard.13 inches (3. Around 90% of virgin paper is made from woodpulp . but lower tear and other strength properties. they make for a stiffer product defined by some stifness tests. are receiving new attention. however.   . Pine and spruce which have typically long fibres and make superior paperboard in services where strength is important. health.3 mm) (length) e.

2.2PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM Conveyor Pulper High density cleaner Screening Dispersion Refining Thickner Head box Paper machine Reeling Drying Pressing Formation .

bark.1Screening and cleaning : The objective of pulp cleaning and screening is to remove dirt and foreign matter such as silver. clips etc. are also added and mixed thoroughly at this point. The pulp mixture is then pumped to a machine chest where the consistency is carefully control through the use of automatic consistency regulators.1.1. 2.2.  Addition of various chemicals and fillers. sand. The operating principle of screening depend on the size whereas the clean is based on difference in specific gravity. . In modern waste paper based stock preparation. alum. great.3PROCESS DESCRIPTION : The manufacturing of paper from waste raw material begins with the pulping of he waste paper obtained from various sources. namely :     Stock preparation Paper machine system Finishing and converting Utility section 2. metals piece. The paper production process in a non integrated mill can mainly be divided into 4 stages.  Mechanical treatment to make fibers form into a sheet of paper. size.3. A typical continuous stock preparation system is shown in figure 2. Depending on a requirement.1 Stock preparation : Stock preparation is a term used to cover those paper making operation involving:  Repulping of waste paper in a pulper. plastic. etc. The proper portion of various pulp forming the pulp mixture are first added into a hydra pulper. dyes.3. the screen receives the stock at around 4% consistency. stones.

Coarse screen This is to remove oversize material such as knots, silver and undergrounded pieces of wood. The screen usually have opening of 5 to 10mm in size and may be vivratory, mechanical, open rotary and centrifugal rotary. Fine screen Fine screen is to remove fibre bundles and practicals that are 4 to 20 times larger than average.The size of the opening is normally vary from 2 to 2.5m. In earlier stages open screening were applied. They are vibrating screens and open centrifugal screens. In modern mills closed screens technology is used. This operates under pressure with no free liquid surface. Centrifugal cleaners Centrifugal cleaning is the most common device used in pulp cleaning to remove bark, sand, grit and other small particles. Here dilute pulp (less than 1% consistency) is fed tangentlilly is a conical separator body causing rapid spinning of the pulp and the downward movement in the cone. Small surface area particles and high specific gravity particles will move downward and lighter and clean fibres carried upward to the accepted discharge. Stock refining This is a mechanical process which act on fibres to give them increase surface area. Greater flexibility and smooth surfaces. The consistency norm for the refiner is in the range of 4% to 4.5%. The specific consumption energy for different types of the refiner is given in table 2.1. (ENERGY MANAGEMENT CENTER 1995). KLINE (1991) says that the consistency norm for conical refiner is in the range of 2 to 10 % whereas for double disc refiners it can go up to 30%. Type of refiner Specific energy consumption (KWh/tone of pulp) Conical 9-13 Double disc 7-9 Triple disc 6 Beaters(slushing and refining) 14-18 Hydra pulper(mainly slushing) 11-14 Table 2.1 Comparative Power Consumption of Different Refiners Used (Energy management centre, 1995) Thickening After screening or cleaning the pulp is usually thickened or de-watered from about .5% consistency to 3 to 14% consistency. Depending on the usage and storage requirement. The thickening is done by either gravity dackers or vaccum filters. In newly built paper mills a counter washing principle is adopted . Here the pulp is thickened to a consistency of 30% before transferring to the paper mill. 2.3.2. Paper machine system The paper machine is the mechanical system used to convert pulp into paper. All paper machines consist of a wet or forming section, a press section and dryer section. Forming The most common wet and machines in use are  Fourdriner  Twin wire former

 Cylinder machine Fourdriner The pulp suspension enters the head box at around 0.5% consistency and flows through the slice opening onto the travelling fourdriner screen. The opening speed of fourdriner machines typically varies from 10 to 50m/min. KLINE (1991) says this speed is normally around 120m/min and will vary according to grammage of paper. Twin wire paper machine: Here the stock is directed through nozzles over the full width of the machine between two fourdriner type wires. SCACHINGG (1991) describe the basic design for twin wire press process for sheet drying applications.This paper says that the energy required for twin wire paper machine is 85% less than that fourdriner machines. Cylinder machine: Cylinder machine are used primarily for the production of heavy grade of paper or board and may use one or multiple cylinder to form the web depending on the product. The machine operatres at 40m/min on average. Here also the consistency of the stock arriving at the paper machine is around 0.5%. Pressing After the forming section followed by the suction boxes, sheet is transferred from a wire to pick up felt or first pressed felt by suction pick up roll and enters to the press section where additional moisture removal is achieved. The web attains the consistency of between 30 to 45% before leaving the press section. Dryer section The dryer section normally consist of series of steam drying rollers into which paper is led by a dryer fabric. The drying section of the machines is enclosed with machine hoods and vents for removal of moisture led in air as drying takes place.

2. The web is usually quite dry between 4 to 12% moisture content before entering the size press. The process steam consumption is 2 tonnes/per tonn of paper produced at a pressure of 4kg/cm sq in the paper machine.3. Steam requirement is met by boilers of capacities ranging from 5 to 10 tonnes of steam/hr.(1995). energy cost for an integrated mill contribute to 16 to40% of the production cost of paper.4 Utility section The utility section comprises water supply. Finishing operation can produce about 10% of the total production ad dry broke which is re-pulped and recycled at the stock prepration department.4 ENERGY UTILISATION IN PAPER INDUSTRY: Paper industry is an energy intensive industry.9-to 2.3 Finishing and converting Finishing operation refers to those performed in the finishing room where the paper is prepare for shipment. RAGAN (1990) points out that in India. 2. The maximum steam pressure rating is 10kg/cm square. Specific electrical energy consumption for stock preparation and paper machine is given by 238KWh and 518KWh per tonn of paper respectively. The dried web enters the calendar stack where it is compressed and given a smooth surface prior to reeling.2. This is conformed by ENERGY MANAGEMENT CENTER (1995) where it is stated that the fig varies from 1. The energy requirement is mainly for heatused in steam generation/process heating and as mechanical power to run the plant electrical motors. 2. Basically energy consumption can be illustrated as in fig. boiler house and electric power supply.The size press is done after the main dryer section. The steam requirement is met by boilers.3. .0 tonnes/tonn of paper. Normally the make-up water requirement for the boiler is met by softner plant (CHANDAK). 2.

1 CONVEYOR: Raw material feed =1000ton/day =41.2: Energy Consumption Patterns in a Paper mill 3. 3.1*41.667 = 4.1667 = 45.7% 16% Fuel Electricity 77% Others Figure 2.1667ton/hr Total raw material feed = 41.667+4.834ton/hr .2 PULPER: Feed from conveyor = 45.667ton/hr Moisture content = 10%of raw material = 0. MATERIAL BALANCE: Data: 1000 ton/day of raw material supplied (dry basis).834ton/hr 3.

05*45.667 = 0.292= 833.08334 = 41.834 = 2.Caustic added = 5% of feed =0.08334ton/hr Pulp content remained = 41.514+789.381ton/hr Impurities removed by ragger = 0.667-2.257ton/hr .292 = 789.293ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Water Content = 5% pulp is present = 833.667-0.34-41.002*41.2% of pulp = 0.381+2.3ton/hr =833.54ton/hr Total mixture to HDC = 41.

018*41.9% of pulp remained = 0.3675 = 832.3 HIGH DENSITY CLEANER: Feed from pulper Impurities removal = 833.51ton/hr =0.35 = 0.003*40.4675ton/hr Total mixture to fine screen = 832.257ton/hr =1.584 = .142ton/hr = 0.7845ton/hr Pulp remained = 41.4675 .257-0.3675ton/hr Pulp remained = 40.3.8% of pulper remained = 0.7845 = 8321.009*48.142ton/hr 3.51ton/hr 3.51-0.3675 =40.3% of pulp remained = 0.0.7485 = 40.835.584-0.5 FINE SCREENING: Feed from coarse screening Impurity removal = 832.85ton/hr Total mixture to course screening =833.4 COARSE SCREENING: Feed from HDC Impurity removal =832.

7 THICKNERS: Feed from centricleaners Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to dispersion = 5043.3561ton/hr Total mixture to centricleaners = 832.545ton/hr 3.6 CENTRICLEANERS : Feed from fine screen Impurity removal = 832.8 DISPERSION: .1793ton/hr = 12% of pulp mixture =335.086ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Total mixture to thickners =8% of pulp mixture =5043.26ton/hr =40.0206ton/hr = 0.4675-0.1214 = 40.= 0.0206ton/hr 3.2654ton/hr = 295.1214ton/hr Pulp remained =40.2% of pulp remained = 0.1793ton/hr 3.2796ton/hr =335.2654ton/hr = 5043.545ton/hr =40.

03ton/hr =40.53*10^3ton/hr .545ton/hr = 28% of pulp mixture =143.805ton/hr 3.308ton/hr 3.49*10^3 = 80.9 REFINER: Feed from dispersion Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to head box = 143.805ton/hr =40.0426ton/hr = 805.308ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to formation = 1% of pulp mixture =80.2654ton/hr = 103.10 PAPER MACHINE: Feed from refiners = 805.Feed from thickners Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to refining = 335.5396ton/hr =143.805ton/hr = 5% of pulp mixture =805.2654ton/hr =765.2654ton/hr =80.53*10^3ton/hr =40.

11 FORMATION: Feed from paper machine = 80.2654ton/hr =127.77ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to drying = 50% of pulp mixture =80-.77ton/hr 3.12 PRESSING: Feed from formation= 167.2654ton/hr =3.77ton/hr =40.776ton/hr =40.3.5006ton/hr .537ton/hr =40.5060ton/hr =167.13 DRYING: Feed from pressing Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content 3.53*10^3ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to pressing = 24% of pulp mixture =167.53ton/hr = 92% of pulp mixture =43.2654ton/hr =40.53ton/hr 3.260ton/hr =80.14 REELING: = 80.

776ton/hr =1050.Feed from drying Pulp consistency Total mixture Paper manufacture = 80.53ton/hr = 92% of pulp mixture =43.40ton/hr .

3 HEAD BOX: Heat added remove from head box :Q = m*C*(T5-T6) = 80530*4.1 PULPER: Heat added to pulper :Q=mc(T1-T2) =4.18*(60-38) = 9521.1667*4.18*(45-25) =348.5396*4.520J 4.2 DISPERSION: Heat added to dispersion:Q = m*C*(T3-T4) = 103.4.09*(100-35) = 27170 J . ENERGY BALANCES: 4.18*(60-42) = 6059.08KJ 4.336J 4.4 DRYERS: Heat added to dryers :Q = m*C*(T7-T8) = 200*2.

Say.EQUIPMENT DESIGN 5.Area D = pulp flow rate/ Area = /4 = Pulp flow rate/ Rise rate = √4*flow rate/3. Thus.1 Size of Thickener As a first step we can either use the thickener flux (m2/ton/day) or the rise rate. A factor (ZFactor) is used based on the following:       Material type Particle size distribution Size Range Thickener type Underflow density required Rheology . depending if solids loading is the dominant (eg.1 THICKENER DESIGN 5. Clarification or low feed solids). Platinum Tailing ) or feed flow rate (e.5.1. we have a coal tailing application and test work shows a rise of 2m/h with a pulp feed flow rate of 200m3/h.2 Torque requirements: In order to select the drive we need to calculate the torque required.14*rise rate = 11.3 Use 12m diameter 5. rise rate Thus.1.g.

35 Nm = 31. actual K-Factor = 17.1 5.390 Nm Thus. Torque = 15x (12x3.3 Gear box output speed We generally operate at a thickener rate speed of 8 to 12m/min Thus gear box output rpm = rate tip speed (m/min)/π*diameter (m) = 8/ (π * 12) = 0. lbs = Thickener diameter in feet Typical K-L Factors are: Light duty: 5-10 Medium duty: 10-20 Heavy duty: 20-35 Extra heavy duty: >35 Therfore for a 12m diameter high rate thickener with the coal tailings duty.281)2 = 23.252x 1.1.Now. we can use medium duty (K-Factor= 15). T= Torque = KxL2 Where T D = Max operating torque in ft.21 rpm .

.21 *36000/ 60*0. we would use the following calculation:P = 2πNT/ 60*E* 1000 N = Actual Gearbox output speed rpm T = Trip torque (Nm) E = Overall efficiency = 0.6 kW = Use 2. for our 10m thickener.5.2 kW We would not recommend being tight in motor selection since the price difference of being conservative in electric motor selection is minimal.5 *1000 = 1.1.5 P = Power (kW) Therefore.4 Electric motor sizing To size an electric motor. P = 2* 0.

day) Peak design flows: 1300-1600gal/ft.To thicken sludge in the underflow (Less volume to pump for removal) .Tank shape .144 and 100-220 kg/m2.20 ft (4-6m) for circular and rectangular tanks . day (15-32m/m2.To meet total suspended solids discharge limit .Circular: small to medium/ large size plants (up to 200 MGD) .100 gal/ft.Rectangular: huge plants (> 200 MGD) Design considerations         Overflow rate or surface-settling rate Detention period Weir loading rate Tank shape and dimensions Solid –loading rate Influent structure Effluent structure Sludge collection and removal Typical Design Value    Overflow rates Average flows : 500-1. rectangular.5. day) Solid loadings Average flows Peak design flows: 49.To separate biomass from liquid and then return biomass to the activated sludge process so that SRT>> HRT .day (40-48m3/ Tank shape: circular.2 CLARIFIER DESIGN  Objectives . or square Circular tank diameter : 30-200ft (10-60) (< 5 SWD) Depth : 13.

769/ 4 = 0. Calculate area and diameter of the secondary clarifier Area =QX/SF Q =0.MLSS wasted = 0.192 m3/sec*3600 sec/hr =691 m3/hr A =(691 m3/hr*3.292m3/sec -752m3/day x .81 lb/ft2.486 day/ =48 kg/m2.5.400 sec = 0.7 m(134 ft) Actual area =(3.301 m2 5.14/4)*40.296 m2 Diameter =(1296*4)1/2/ =9.1 Surface area of secondary clarifier 1.72=1. Prepare flux curves 3.2.192 m3/sec 4. Establish design flow Design flow to the secondary clarifier = Average design flow + =1.769m3/sec Design flow to each secondary clarifier = 0. Check the overflowrate at average design flow m3/sec + 0.75 kg/m3)/2 kg/m2. Determine limiting solids-loading rate Sludge flux (SF) =2 kg/m2.14 =40.

5m and Solids loading at peak design flow when three clarifiers are in operation = 0.400 sec/day÷<35 m3/m2. Calculate the solids loadings The solids loading at average design flow= 0.8 kg/m2. Compute the depth of thickening zone. Check the overflow rate at peak design flow At peak design flow plus <15 m3/m2.403 m3/sec×86. At 0.301 m2 =100.192 m3/sec ×3. .750 gm/m3×1000g =86.403 m3/sec Overflow rate =0.4 kg/<48 kg/m2.2.301 m2 =134 kg/<150 kg/m2.400 sec/day÷1.8 m3/m2.403 m3/sec×3.750 g/m3×1000g×86400 sec/day÷1. respectively.301 m2 =26.5 to Solids loading at peak design flow=0.8m3/m2. Check the clarifier area for clarification requirement Calculated overflow rate =12.the flow to each clarifier =( 8. 1.538 m3/sec× 6. Provide 3m clear water and settling <150 kg/m2.Overflow rate =Q/A =0.400 mg/l>3750 mg/l.2 Depth of secondary clarifier Liquid length of the secondary clarifier = depth of clear water zone+ depth of thickening zone + depth of sludge storage zone.292) m3/sec÷4 = 0.193 m3/sec* =12.301 m2 =47.8 m3/ 5.321+0.533 m/hr MLSS conc.750 g/m3×1000g×86400 sec/day÷1.533 m/hr settling rate = 4. Determine clear water and settling zones The clear water and settling zones are generally 1 to 1.thus the area for classification will be sufficien 7. 2.

Total mass of solid in BNR reactor = 3750gm/m3× 1000g× (2631m3 + 2631m3 +11560m3) = 63083kg Total mass of solid in each clarifier = 0. Compute total depth of clalifier Total depth of clarifier= 3. respectively.0m+0.8 ft.Assume that under normal condition.575kg/4 = 2644kg Total solid stored in each clarifier = 2644 kg + 4731kg (thickening zone) = 7375kg. and the average concentration of sludge in the clarifier is 7000mg/lt.5m=0. Clarifire depth for solids storage = 7375*1000 gm per kg (7000 gm per m3)=0.5* 2.8m 4. Total volatile solids produced under sustain loadings =1. Compute the depth of sludge storage zone The sludge storage zone is provided to store the sludge in the clarifier.5 * 2820 kg/ day (# 35 in AS Design slide) = 10575 kg/ day Provide one day storage for solids Total solid stored per clarifier = 20. Factors are 2. Provided the sludge storage capacity for one day under sustained peak flow rate and BOD5 loadings.5m(14.8m=4. the mass of sludge retained in the clarifier is 30% of the mass of solids in the aeration basin. Assume that the sustained flow rate and sustained BOD.52m 3.5 and 1.3*63083kg/4 = 4731kg Depth of thickening zone = total solid in clarifier ÷ concentration * area = 4731kg* 1000gm/kg ÷ (7000kg/m3 * 1301m2) = 4731kg Depth of thickening zone = total solids in the clarifier ÷ (Concentration * area) = 4731kg * 1000gm/kg÷ (7000gm/m3 * 1301 m2) = 0.3m Provide average side water depth in the clarifier= 4.) .5.

and a pressureoutlet pipe: 1. effluent launder. 2. to compute head over V-notch at averages design flow. Length of effluent weir plate=p(40.For additional safety provide a free board of 0.5 cm centre-to-centre. 5. Total # of notches = 124.2. 5. and outlet sewer provide 90˚ standard V-notches on the weir plates that shall be installed on one side of the effluent launder.4 Effluent structure It consist of effluent baffles. An influent pipe is installed across the clarifier that will discharge into the central feed well. effluent box.7m 4.5 cm/notch*m/100 cm)= 316 6. effluent box.5m 3.7-1)m – 124. v-notches. Select weir arrangements and dimension of the effluent launder. 5.7m/(39. Provide width of launder = 0. Provide 8 cm deep 90V-notches at 39. . The influent will pass under the baffle and then distribute uniformly throughout the tank.2.5m Total depth of clarifier = 5m.3 Influent structure It consist of acentral feed well.

Pitting – localised attack . if the equipment is being designed to operate at high temperature. General wastage of material – uniform corrosion 2. The tensile strength of mild steel is 450 N/mm^2 at 500 C.1 GENERAL : This selection of material of construction plays a vital role in the success or added importance. The most important characteristics to be consider when selecting a material of construction are: 1. 6.plates. The stainless steel is superior in their respect to plain carbon steel. Cost. Corrosion resistance. casting . 5. Ease of fabrication – forming. Material of construction may be divided into two general classification of metals and nonmetals.2EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES : The tensile strength of metals decreases with temperature. 4. section. welding. Pure metals and metallic alloys are included under the first classification plastics. 3. Galvanic corrosion – dissimilar metal in contact 3. 6.Material of Construction 6.3CORROSION RESISTANCE: For the selection of material it is convenient to classify corrosion into the following categories: 1. Availability in standard sizes. 2.6. The effect of high and low temperature on mechanical properties. tubes etc. A broad range of material is available for corrosive service. toughness. Material properties as strength . hardness etc. rubber and glass come under non-metal. 6.

6.6COMMONLY USED MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION : . Steam velocity.stress corrosion 5.4. Chromium alloy is specified for temperature above 500 degree centigrade in oxidising atmosphere.differential corrosion cell 6. The amount of aeration. Erosion corrosion 7. Heat transfer rate – differential temperature 6. Inter granular corrosion 5. Presence of trace impurities. Hydrogen embrittlement 6. pH 4. Chromium is the most effective alloying element to give resistance to oxidation forming a tenacious oxide film. High temperature oxidation 9. Pressure 3. 2. the process environment to which the material will be exposed must be clearly defined. Temperature – affect corrosion rate and mechanical properties. the following factors must be considered: 1.5SELECTION FOR CORROSION RESISTANCE : In order to select the correct material of construction. Addition to the main corrosive element present.4 HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION CORROSION : Corrosion is normally associated with aqueous solution but oxidation can occur in dry condition.erosion corrosion 7. Stress corrosion 6. Corrosion fatigue 8.

3 Monel : Monel the classic nickel copper alloy with the metal in the ratio 2:1 is probably. Nickel is not sufficient to corrosion like stainless steel. after stainless steel.MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION FOR CHEMICAL PLANTS: Plastic are being increasingly used as corrosion resistant material for chemical plants construction. Monel has good resistance to dilute mineral acid and can be cured in reducing condition when the stainless steel would be unsuitable. and can be easily worked and welded. 6.6. organic acid.6.4 Inconel: Inconel is used primarily for acid resistance at high temperature.6. the most commonly alloy used for chemical plant. It is good tensile strength and ductility.Low carbon steel is the most commonly used engineering material. It is easily worked and has good mechanical propertiesup to 500 degree centigrade. The main used for equipment handling caustic alkalis at temperature above that at which carbon steel could above 70 C.2 Nickel: Pure nickel and fixed alloy are useful with dry halogen gases. It is cheap. salt. is available in a wide range of standard form and sizes. Thermoplastic material for polyvinyl chloride and poly ethylene . A wide range of stainless steel is available. It maintains its strength at elevated temperature and is resistant to furnace gases. Type 304 is most generally used.6.1 Stainless steel: The stainless steel is the most frequently used corrosion material in the chemical industry. 6. To impact corrosion resistance the chromium content must be above 12%. and sea water. It is more expensive thenstainless steel but is not susceptible to stress cession cracking in chloride solution. they can be divided into two broad classes: 1. 6.7PLASTIC. Nickel is added to improve corrosion resistance in non-oxidising. 6. It may be used for equipment handling alkalis. 6.

5PULPER: 7.2.the former process was very low in energy efficiency the secondary pulper consist of preliminary maceration and continuously removes foreign material without breaking them. it is relatively week material but its mechanical strength can be improved by addition such an operation foreign materials were crushed. 3.1 Description :The pulper is a facility to facilitate maceration of collected waste paper to form a slurry and to remove large foreign other words. It is resistant to most inorganic acid except strong sulphuric and citric acids and inorganic salt solution. 6. which have a rigid cross link structure for ethylene. The pulper swells fibers to promote maceration and adds a small amount of caustic soda to help remove inks when the paper treated require deinking.2 Poly tetraflouroethylene (PTFE) PTFE known under the trade name Teflon and fleuron is resistance to all chemical except alkalis and fluorine and can be used at temperature up to 200 C. Formally waste paper was soaked in water at a lower rate of several % and vigorously agitated by a rapidly revolving impeller to achieve maceration by slashing. The polyesters and epoxy resins. It is also used as liner for vessels.1 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) PVC is probably most commonly used thermo plastic material in the chemical industry.5. 7 SIZE OF EQUIPMENTS 7. 6. Thermo setting material.7.7. .The drawbacks were that the crushed foreign materials must be removed in the subsequent processes and the rotation and agitation consumed a large amount of power.

2Structure explanation. and/or system diagram. shape. Example of continuous separation pulper systems with foreign material removal 7. In general. the pulper operation is either in batch or continuous depending on weather the liquor is at high concentration or at medium concentration. The secondary separation pulper is equipped with punched plate screens and a rotating impeller macerator for preliminary maceration and removal of large foreign material intact to finally send the treated material to the subsequent process. . Fig 1.Use of the secondary pulper could reduce the degree of maceration and hence could achieve energy saving in the total operation of waste paper processing. The operation consist in separating coarse raw material and eliminating such heavy weight foreign material as metal and feeding the coarse raw material to the secondary separation pulper.1.

1.Table 1 Effect of secondary separation pulper (feed: Collected waste corrugated fibreboard) After introduction secondary separation pulper 67 m-cu pulper (550 67 m-cu pulper (550kW) kW) 365 t/D 445 t/D (20% increase) by Once or twice a day Not necessary the Varying b/w 2.1 Conventional system Major equipment Production Pulper cleaning blowing Concentration of finished slurry 7. it does not achieved energy saving in the maceration process alone. For this reason.2.5% Table 7.1 Description: . 7. 7. It could facilitate the subsequent dust removal operation by removing foreign materials without crushing them. when processing old news paper including deinking and 52 kWh/ton when processing used corrugated fiber board.4 Remarks:The average electric power consumption in the maceration process 66 kW per ton.0% and Stable at about 3. However.3 Energy saving effect :Addition of the secondary separation pulpercould increase processing capacity by 20%.2 HIGH CONCENTRATION SIZE PRESS: 7. it has a great energy saving effect on the total processing of waste paper in this way.1.5% 3.

This improvement enables to coat high concentration sizing fluid. The coating weight can also be controlled along the width. The improved size pressed is equipped with coater heads constituted of metaling rods or blades which control the coating thickness. and/or system diagram : 1).2 Structure explanation. The coating weight is control by the shape of grooves of metaling rods. size press of rod- 7. and linear pressure. Formally. it was difficult to coat the sizing fluid of high concentration.2.2. the angle of the blade.2 Fig. reduces the drying load.1. shape. 7.3 Energy saving effect The consumption of drying steam after coating is reduced by 50%. The coating weight on the front and rear sides can be controlled separately.The size press coats sizing fluid in the surface of the paper at the dryer part to improve the printing performance. Fig. .2. and make high speed coating possible. size press of gate-roll type blade type Figure 7. 2).

7. called dryer bars. are installed inside of dryer drums. The steam condensate existing between the bars is maintained in the state of turbulent flow with a rotation of the drum and the heat transfer is maintained high. This phenomenon is known as rimming (fig 1). 2.2 Structure.3. . 3.7. a number of fixed siphom tubes. 15 To 30 pieces of bar are attached to the inside surface of the dryer drum in a ring form at fixed interval along the axial direction. shape and system diagram: 1. steam condensate in dryer drums covers the entire inside surface of the dryer drums and heat transfer is reduced.1 Description When a paper making machine is run faster than 300m/min.3. In order to increase the heat transfer efficiency and save energy consumption by a high speed papermaking machine.3 DRYER WITH DRYER BARS INSTALLED INSIDE FOR PAPER MAKING MACHINE:7. The bars are fixed in a ring form in direct contact with a inside surface of dryer drum. The cross-sectional area of a bar is about 6cm-sq. explanation.

blowers and others.4ROTATIONAL CONTROL OF EQUIPMENT IN A PAPER MAKING PROCESS: 7. Thus. 1440 rpm Output under normal condition: 72 kW. 7. The paper making machines.4. The rotation is reduced to 40% of the capacity to reduce energy consumption under normal operating conditions. 1480 rpm Output in case of paper making machine running out of paper: 156 kW. explanation. Specification of the facilities Motor with eddy current coupling : 215 kW.7.1 Description: The pulp and paper mills operate a large number rotating machines: pumps.4.2 Structure. with a provision to automatically increase the rotation to 100% in case of paper making machine running out of paper. continuously operate large machines. while the paper making machine run out of paper: However under normal conditions it operates at a rate of 30ton/day. Press pit pulper: The press pit pulper requires a processing capacity of 360tons/day. The present case incorporated rotation control in the newly installed paper machine and thus promote energy saving. in particular. 1000rpm Operation hour a year : 8000(with high speed operation 200 hr) Energy savings :(156-72)*(8000-200)= 655000 kWh . energy consumption is reduced to normal operating conditions. shape and system diagram: 1.

That is why their proper utilization. The desiccants work in 7-8 hrworking and 7-8 hr off cycle. Electrical power 5). To completely remove the moisture desiccants like silica gel.8 PLANT UTILITIES Utilities are the essential requirement of any plant after a raw material. Moisture can cause rust and scale formation which cause result in clogging of the orifices. Moisture is the greatest enemy of the system and is therefore methodically removed from air before it is used. The plant uses pneumatic control for . If present in air. Steam boiler feed water 3). Fuel gas 6). The reactivation temperature is 140-210 C. activated alumina and molecular sieves are used. There is one or more compressor to provide the required air at a specific pressure during cooling water droplets condensed and are separated. The resultant air is : dry air. These desiccants are referable by heating desiccants which have already adsorbed the water vapour. This air should be of good quality. Also pressure drop increases and the sludge could be formed due to condensation of moisture in the lines and equipments. General water 4).1 AIR PROCESS AND INSTRUMENTATION Air process is utilised in all pneumatic units of plant. Instrument air 2). However at exit of the cooler. conversion and optimization are becoming more important. free of all air is passed through filters. The air is compressed in reciprocating compressor. The utilization used in the DME plant: 1). dust particles may get deposited on catalyst and deactivated. the air is saturated with water vapour. Air process and instrumentation 8.

Water is also used after demineralized for the steam generation purpose. At the same it is quit suitable up to 550 C. 8. i. Steam is used as a heating media at different places in the plant including : the re-boiler of the distribution columns at the same time is generated in a waste heat at a pressure of 1. Need of water in one or another form or all forms varies from plant to plant.2 HEAT TRANSFER MEDIA To remove the heat generated in the reactor as the result of exothermic reaction. Dowtherm is not suitable for the purpose as it start decomposing at the prevailing temperature. it is stable at the operating temperature. Fused salt is a eutectic mixture of NaNO3(7%) KNO3(53%) and NaNO2(40%). Water used for steam generated is demineralized water and is obtained by removal of hardness of water. Air is passed through silica gel and filters and compressed to 5-6 atm pressure. Fused salt is a melted mixture of the three components and because of its higher heat carrying capacity one is suitable for the purpose. Then air should be of prescribed quality. As the temperature of the fused salts never reaches even 400 C. . Filters are provided in the lines and the supply lines through the individual instruments should be connected at the top of the instrumentation air header. Its heat capacity is higher then many other heat transfer media. compressed and dematerialized. cooling water or boiler feed water. Steam generated from the salt is high pressure steam and is used for the power generation purpose.01 bars and is obtained also from process streams coming as a bottom product from distillation columns.e.all the equipments. 8. fused salt may be used.3 WATER: No plant runs without water although there are many plants which do not require air or heat transfer media or refrigeration for plant operation. The total amount of water required for the purpose depend upon the amount of steam to be generated and its pressure and temperature. Water may be needed as process water.

pH Turbidity Free carbon di oxide Total hardness 7-9 50 ppm 5 ppm 85.5 ELECTRIC POWER The power requirement 1 hour plant is not high because there is no moving equipment nor there is any agitators etc. This water cannot be used for steam generation because of its fouling and corrosive tendencies at higher temperatures. 8. compressors and lights can be achieved partially by the generation of power through high pressure steam. So no refrigeration unit are required. Water is therefore removed of its hardness using carbonates of sodium and potassium zeolites are also used for water softening. coal or oil fired boilers and two steams are collected in same here. This water is then aerated to remove CO2. . The high pressure steam can also be generated from gas. Thereby preventing the formation of carbonic acid. oil is removed to prevent carbonaceous deposits.4 REFRIGRATION The temperature is maintained at various points in the plant are above normal temperatures and cooling below atmospheric is not at all required.1 Normal water coming from rivers and lakes is impure and it hardness is quite high. 8.150 ppm Table 8. It is free of calcium and magnesium ions by treating it with sodium carbonate.  Cooling water at 69 C is highly corrosive. Power required for pumps. Thus demineralized water is preferred for cooling in partial condenser. The boiler feed water needs extra purification. Silica particles should also be removed. No cooling tower is required. because cooling water to be used in the partial condenser is at 60 degree centigrade and the outlet will therefore be at high temperature and it cannot be cooled by cooling tower because of the following reasons:  Water flow rate is very less for cooling tower to be installed.

 To provide inter-lock and alarms to prevent dangerous operating procedures. 9. online analysis of the over head product is desirable. Production rate: To achieve the design product output. that is easier to measure. They may be incorporated in automatic control loops. They may also be part of an automatic computer data logging system. 2. in the control of the distillation Column the continuous. with the composition of the overhead checked frequently by sampling and laboratory analysis. 4.INSTRUMENTATION Instrumentation is provided the key process variables during the plant operations. The temperature instrument may form a part of a control loop controlling. Cost . So temperature is often monitored as an indication of composition. but difficult and expensive to achieve reliably. Safe plant operation:  To keep the processing variables within known safe operating limits.1 Instrumentation air: The primary objective of the designer when specifying and control objectives are: 1. this is impractical and some depended variable. For example.  To detect dangerous situations and to provide alarms and automatic shutdown system. often however . say reflux flow. Instruments monitoring critical process variables will be fitted automatic alarms to alert the operation to critical and hazardous situations. 3. is monitored to its place. It is desirable that the process variable to measured directly. Product quailties To maintain the product composition within the specified quality standards. or used for the manual monitoring of the process operation.

Identify and include those additional control loops required for safe operation. 3. Product quality. Decide and show those ancillary instruments needed for the monitoring of the plant operation by operators: and for trouble shooting and plant development. 4.To operate at the lowest production cost. production rate and the cost of production will be dependent on sale requirement for example it may be better strategy to produce the better quality product at a higher cost. Identify and draw in those control loops that are obviously needed for steady state plant operation such as:     Level control Flow control Pressure control Temperature control 2. These are not separate objectives and must be considered together. Identify the key process variables that need to be control to achieve the specified product quality. with the other objectives.3 GUIDED RULE: The following procedures can be used when drawing up preliminary P AND I DIAGRAM: 1. other than that of putting safety first. It is well worthwhile including additional connection for instrument which may be needed for future trouble shooting and plant development. even if the instrument . Include control loop using direct measurement of the controlled variable. 9. 9. where possible: if not practicable select a suitable dependent variable.2 AUTOMATIC CONTROL SCHEMES Specialists usually do the detail designed and specification of the automatic control schemes for a large product. The order in which they are listed is not mean to employ the presidency of any objective over another.

as is usually done for the decanters by automatic control of the flow of the equipment. 6.4 Heat exchanger: . pressure tapping. This may be incorporated in the design of the equipment. Decide on the need for recorders and the location of the read out points. a by-pass control would be used.vapor).2 Pressure control: Pressure control will be necessary for the most stumps handling vapor or gas. Decide on the alarms and interlocks needed: this would be done in conjunction with step 3. or valuable.3 Flow control: Flow control is usually associated with inventory control in a storage tank or other equipment. Typical schemes are proposed when vented gas was toxic. some means of maintain the interface at required level must be provided.4 TYPICAL CONTROL SYSTEM: 9. 5.4. This would include extra thermowells.g. 9. 9.4. Level control arrangement finds position at the base of a column. There must be a reservoir to take up the charges ions flow rate.1 level control: In any equipment where an interface exist between two phase (e.are not installed permanently. orifice flangesand extra sample points. To provide flow control on a compressor or pump at a fix speed and a supplying a near constant output. 7. local and control rooms. liquid. In these circumstances the vent should be taken to a vent recovery system. such as scrubber. The control valve should be placed on the discharge line from the pump.4. The method of controlling will depend on the nature of process.4. Figure shown a typical arrangement. Decide on the location of the sample point. 9. This step would be done in conjunctions with step 1-4. 9.

. increase flow and maintain the level constant.4.g. which would upset the control variable.In the simplest arrangement. with the liquid feed to the vaporizer on flow control.term variations in a service stream flow. Increase in the feed result in automatic increase in stream to the vaporizer.4. composition and temperature.4. The “slave ” controller can be used to compensate for any short.4. Pressure control is often used. 9.4. 9. correcting for the effects of disturbances in :  Feed flow rate. 9.7 Cascade control: With the arrangement.9 Distillation column control: The primary objective of distillation column control is to maintain the specified composition of the top and bottom products. 9. as the saturated vapor temperature is at constant pressure.6 Re-boiler and vaporizer: As with condensers. the temperature being control by varying the flow of cooling and the heating medium. and any side streams. If the exchange is between two process streams whose flows a fixed by-pass control will have to be used. reactor feeds and distillation column reflux. the primary (master) controller long term variation. unless the liquid stream is sub cooled.8 Ratio control: Ratio control can be used where it is desired to maintain two flow at a constant ratio for e.  Stream supply pressure . the output of one controller is used to adjust set point of another. temperature control is not effective.5 Condenser control: Temperature control is unlikely to be effective for condenser. 9. Level control is often use for vaporizer. the controller controlling the stream supply to the heating surface. or control based on outlet coolant temperature. Cascade control can give smoother control in situation where direct control of the variable would lead to unstable operation.

 Cooling water pressure and header temperature. Temperature is often used as an indication of composition.  Ambient composition. Differential. Near top and bottom of the column the change is useless mall. . With multi component systems.10 Reactor control: The schemes used for reactor control depending on the process at the type reactor. Column pressure is normally controlled at a constant value. If reliable online analyzer is available. and bottom temperatures by varying the boil-up rate if reliable on-line analyzers are available they can be incorporated in the control loop. The temperature sensor should be located at the position in the column where the rate of change of temperature with change in composition of the key component in a maximum. and the reactor dynamics are suitable. The feed flow-rate is often set by the level controller on a preceding column it can be independently controlled if the column is fed from a storage or surge tank feed temperature is not normally controlled. A variety of controls schemes have been devised for distillation column control. the product composition can be monitored continuously and the reactor conditions and feed flow controlled automatically the desired product composition and yield. distillation column has little surge capacity (hold up) and the flow of distillate and bottom product and side streams must match the feed flows.4. pressure control is often used on packed column to ensure the packing operates at the correct loading. Reactor temperature will normally be controlled by regulating the flow of heating or cooling medium. but more complex equipment will be needed. Additional temperature indication or recording points should be includedup the column for monitoring column performance and for trouble shooting. Top temperature usually controlled by varying the reflux ratio. 9. Material balance control will be necessary to maintain the correct the flow of reactants to the reactor and the flow of products and unreacted materials from reactor. unless a feed preheated is used. which causes changes in internal reflux. The compositions are controlled by regulating reflux flow and boil up. Pressure is usually held constant. The column overall material balance must be control. temperature is not unique function of composition.

by the operator is likely to lead to the rapid development of hazardous situations. In this system. For example. An actuator to carry out the required action. as shown in the figure.5 SAFETY: A safety trip can be incorporated in a control loop. Trips and Interlocks alarms: Alarms are used to alert operators of serious and potentially hazardous deviation in process conditions. 2. However the safe operations of such a system will dependent on the reliability of the control equipment. where delay or lack of response. high temperature alarm operates a solenoid valve. Safety.1 INTERLOCKS: It is employed where it is necessary to follow a fixed sequence of operations.9. and for potential hazardous situation it is better practice to specify a separate trip system. closing valve. or in batch operation interlocks are included to prevent operators. Provision must be made for the periodic checking of the trip system to ensure the system operates when needed. departing from the required sequence. closing the valve on a high temperature. 9. Key instruments are fitted with switches and really to operate audible and visual alarms on the control panels and enunciator‟s panels.5. 9. during a plant start-up and shut –down. releasing the air on the pneumatic activators. as shown in figure. A link to transfer the signals to the actuator.11Alarms. 3. the instruments would be fitted with a trip system to pumps. usually consisting if a system pneumatic or electrical relays.4. The basic components of the automatic control systems are: 1. closed or open a valve. switch off a motor.A sensor to monitor control variable and to provide an output signal when a present value is exceeded. They may be incorporated in the controlled system design as the pneumatic or electrical . operating emergency systems.

for plant investigation and trouble shooting. Historical operating data is retained in the computer memory. Averages and trends can be displayed. Operator and technical supervisor can call up and display any section of the process to review the operating parameters and adjust control setting. process monitoring and controlled. This provides a window on the process.2 COMPUTERS AND MICROPROCESSORS IN PROCESS CONTROL: Computers are being increasingly used for data login. Programmable logic controllers (PLC‟s) are used for the control and interlocking of the processes where a sequential operating step has to be carried out. 9. such as in the batch processes and in the start-up and shut-down of the continuous process. They have largely suppressed the strip charts and analog controllers seen in the older plants. .relays. Special locks with various properties and key system are available. or may be mechanical interlocks. Software to continuously update and optimized plant performance can be incorporated in the computer control systems.5. Abnormal and alarm situation are highlighted and displayed. The long instruments panels and “mimic” flow charts displays have been replaced by intelligent video display units.

Energy availability 4. Taxation and legal restriction 10. Community factors 10. 10.10. An appropriate idea as to the plant location should be obtained before a design project reaches the detailed estimated stage.2 MARKETS: . Labor supply 8. Water disposal 9. Markets 3. Transport facility 6. because location near the transportation and storage changes availability and reliability of supply. Primarily the plant should be located where the minimum cost of production and distribution can be obtained. Water supply 7. The choice of final site should first be based on the complete survey of the advantage and this advantage of various geographical areas and ultimately on the advantages and disadvantages of available real estate. Site characteristics 11. Raw materials 2. This is true if large volume of raw material are consumed. Climate 5. PLANT LAYOUT Many different factor must be considered for plant location. Following factor should be considered in choosing a plant site: 1.1 RAW MATERIAL: The source of raw material is one of the most important factors influencing the selection of the plant site. but other factor such as room of expansion and general living condition are also important.

Market are needed for buy product as well as major final products. The temperature. mineral content. steam generation in the industries. The permissible tolerance levels for various . The site selected for a plant should have adequate capacities and facilities for correct water disposal.7 WASTE DISPOSAL: There are many legal restrictions on disposing of waste minerals from the process industries.The location of a markets on intermediate distribution center effect the cost of the product distribution and the time required for the transportation.3 ENERGY AVAILABILITY: Power and steam is required in most industrial plant and fuel is ordinarily required to supply these utilities.5 TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES: The kind amount of products and the raw materials determine the suitable type of transportation facilities.6 WATER SUPPLY: Water is used for cooling. The planttherefore must be located where a dependable supply of water is available. 10. because the buyer usually find it advantageous to purchase from nearby sources. and cost of supply and purification treatment must be considered. Atleast two type of transport facility should be available. Proximate in to the major market is an important consideration in the selection of plant site. although deep wells may be satisfactory if amount of water required not too great. 10. 10. and the factors should be examined when selecting a plant site. A large river or lake is preferable.4 CLIMATE Excessive humidity of extremes of hot cold weather have a serious effect on the economic operation of the plant. washing. slit and sand contents bacteriological content. 10. Motor trucking facilities are extensively used and served as useful supplement to rail and water facilities. 10.

10.9 TAXATION AND LEGAL RESTRICTION: State and local text rate on the property. also flood should be examined and the consequence of such occurrences should be considered. the regional history natural events. 10. school. nuisance aspects and transportation facility have a major influence on the final choice of a plant site.methods of waste disposal must be considered carefully and attention should be given to potential requirements for additional waste treatment facilities. Additional space is required for future expansion. . civic theater. Local regulations on building codes.8 LABOR SUPPLY: The type of supply of labor available in the vicinity of the proposed plant site must be examined. The cost of the land is important. means of recreation etc. In case of major fire. 10. income and unemployment insurance vary from location to another.10 SITE CHARACTERSTICS: The topography of the land and the soil must be considered. Seismological zone in which the site is must be considered. since either or both may have a pronounced effect on the construction cost. 10. assistance from outside fire department should be available. example libraries.12 COMMUNITY FACTOR: It is certain minimum number of facilities for the satisfactory living of the plant personal do not exist.11 FLOOD AND THE PROTECTION: Before choosing the plant site. it often become a burden for the plant to subside such facilities cultural facilities of the community to sound growth. 10. as well as local building coast and living condition. Protection from losses by is another important factor.

so that from about 7-30 tonns of water must be discharged per ton of paper produced. type of process etc. The BOD of discharge is genrally negligible unless there are significant leaks.5 ton of water per ton of paper is evaporated and a large portion of remaining water is used for stock dilution prior to the paper machine area. MYREEN (1994) confirms it by indicating the fresh water consumption in paper and board mill vary between 2-20 meter per ton of paper produced depending in the grade required. In addition. There is no significant atmospheric emission or solid wate from stock preparation department. It is not possible to define an acceptable rate of suspended solids discchrge since it depends on product specification and cleanliness of raw materials.11. The final product is about 90% dry. But KLINE (1991) says about 2 tons of water per ton of water evaporated.1 STOCK PREPARATION: Cleaner and screen rejects can be uo to few percent of total production.SOURCES OF POLUTION AND ITS CHARACTERSTICS 11. It also indicates that water discharge in cubic meter per ton of paper produced as follows:  News print : 5-15  Light weight paper : 12-20  Wood free printing paper : 5-10 METCALF and EDDY (1991) says that fresh water consumption value vary between 120-158m3/ton of paper produced this may be a general values since it does not give the specification such as the type of raw material. About 1. up to 15 tons of water per ton of paper added by paper machine shower and agitator seal water. . RAYTHEON ENGINEERS and CONSULTANTS INC (1995) say that the typical water consumption for a secondary fiber mill is 12 meter per ton paper produced.2 PAPER MACHINE SYSTEM: Stock generally arrived at the paper machine area at a constancy of between 3-12% consistency. normally below 1%. 11. or other losses due to equipment weaknesses. which must be discharge at the same point.

.11. 11. This can generate 10 % of the total production as dry brock which is repulped and recycled at the stock preparation department. particulate matter and sulfur compounds are formed. Mills that use saw dust as fuel will emit unburned carbon particles to the atmosphere when there is no complete combustion.3 FINISHING AND CONVERTING: Most of the finishing operation produced little or no liquid waste.4 UTILLITY SECTION: Practically all paper mills have boilers which use bunker carbon oil as fuel. When oil is burned. The amount of sulfur compounds depends on the amount of sulfur in the oil (TUPAS. except in the case of coating operation. 1995).

The two largest waste volumes from typical pulp and paper mills are wood waste and sludge. which are waste material from operation of the wood room and / or saw mill. The 1990s have seen a tremendous growth in electricity production by cogeneration. In separate production of electricity. but in cogeneration this thermal energy is put to use. This technology is the new one. some energy must be discarded as waste heat. economics are requiring that pulp means become more self-sufficient. such as pulp and paper mills. and wood waste is periodically removed of side by contractor.COGENRATION IN PAPER MILL 12. Pulp and paper mills have been burning wood waste and sludge in combination fuel fired boilers from many years. However. sited and constructed in relatively short time periods. The wood waste material are largely bark and saw dust. In contrast to conventional power plant. This produces electricity where it is needed(thereby a wording construction and maintenance of extensive transmission line). cogeneration facilities can be developed. The supply of high temperature heat first drives a gas or steam turbines power generator and a resulting low temperature waste heat is then used for water or space heating as described in cogeneration. Sludge‟s are periodically disposed of through land spreading.12. This introduces . in an increasingly competitive world.1 INTRODUCTION: Cogeneration or combine heat or power is the use of a heat engine or power station to simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat. and allows efficiency to be gained Inthe system by sitting these plants in proximity to industries that can utilize steam. although burning and land filling are the most common management techniques. Sludge‟s are settling suspended solids present in the mean effluent stream which are removed through primary clarification. One effective means of addressing this through selfproduction steam and electricity with in the mill property. Co-generation is thermodynamically efficient use of fuel. Cogeneration plant developed by pulp and paper mills can also be an effective means of managing waste.

In most cases. that is. for generation of shaft power and usable exhaust heat.a technology vision for 2030” reports that 81% of all Indians paper mills used cogeneration with in their plants. The need for large amount of makes combined heat-and-power (CHP) attractive technology in the sector. A multi fuel cogeneration plant involves using more than one fuel. 12. Potential for further CHP used in the industry may be limited by economies of scale which make investment in small plant less economical. Reliability of stream from the existing power boilers. The ability to sell access power to grid may become crucial in making CHP investments more attractive in tne industry. Cogeneration simply means “using the fuel twice”. which result out of island mode operation. the CHP plant should be designed to meet heat demand with excess electricity sold to the grid. Costs of stream production and cost effectiveness of the existing power boiler system.2 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION FOR COGENERATION: The following represents some of the area that a mill must consider when deciding whether or not to build a cogeneration power plant:       Current availability of electricity for the mill. and . Most energy used in papermaking is for pulping and paper drying. this means using wood waste/sludge and natural gas as fuel. Combined heat and power (CHEP)plant can be designed to meet the mill heat or electricity requirement. To maximize thermal efficiency. Reliability of electricity supply. Power purchased cost. and the Indian paper mills have therefore consciously and increasingly opted for their own CHP unit. As examples of recent pulp mill power facilities. This statement however may lead to a misinterpretation or reality or a wrong perception of the quality and real penetration of CHP in the sector. the captive power plant is designed to satisfy a mills electricity requirement with the remaining heat supplied by low cost package boilers. Usefulness of additional steam.cogeneration. The pulp and paper industry is significant consumer of energy. The “National Energy Map for India.

8 .03.92 3980 generation (2005/06) Load factor [-] 0.5 Wind 3. such as employee homes.58 total 862. Existing power boiler/ hog fuel boiler emission relative to existing environmental regulations.8 Diesel 122. More than 77% of the captive of power generation in the pulp and paper sector is located in only 8 states.06) Yearly [GHW] 3451 525 4.1 generating capacity in the paper industry distributed by generation technology The reported captive power generation technology in the Indian pulp and paper sector is based on steam turbines accounting for 85% of the sectors captive generation capacity.2% was used to power auxiliary services. Maharashtra.489 0.4 ESTIMATE OF CHP POTENTIAL: The Indian paper production can be classified into three categories on the basis of raw material used for pulp and paper production: wood-based. schools. Karnataka. Assam.8 MW as shown in the following table: Installed capacity(as on 31. etc.986.3 CAPTIVE POWER GENERATION The overall electrical consumption of the indian pulp and paper sector in 20052006 was 3. 12. 12. MP. and Gujarat as shown in fig 1. However.2% of power during that year was exported to utilities and up to 8.47GWh/a according to the report of central electrical authority( CEA) that provides data on captive power plants larger than 1MW.534 0. It mention that the installed captive generating capacity was 862. In aggregate. 3. Uttar Pradesh. agro-based and Unit [MW] Steam 736.157 0. generated electricity is used also for non-industrial purposes. Andhra Pradesh. namely Tamil Nadu.526 Table 12. The sector is generating about 81% of required power in captive plants while the remaining 90% is purchased from commercial utilities providers.

with a back pressure turbine delivering a power to heat ratio of 0.92 living to a theoretical full load operation of 8060 hr/year.92) In order to estimate the potential of CHP in the pulp and paper industry.4 (ca.o Power Thermal r f consumption consumption prod.2 Energy consumption in the Indian pulp and paper industry an estimated CHP potential (*with assumed plant load factor of 0.190 0.201 2086 1643 1434 5163 417 329 287 103 3 Table 12.0 Power Therma CH to heat l load P ratio Pot enti al [GWhth/a [-] [MWth] [M ] Wel] 16825 13250 11567 41642 0.3 7.1 3. this study assumes that the steam for each paper plant is generated via a CHP cycle.228 0. capital utilization factor of the paper industry is assumed to be 0. mill specif Secto Specific sector s ic r [Mt/ a] Wood based Agro based RCF based Avera ge Total 2 2. the resulting potential of the 3 categories of the paper plant is calculated as follows : Wood-based plant : 417 MW Agro-based plant : 329 MW Recycling paper plant : 287 MV .recycled material-based paper production. Their estimated average heat consumption are given in table Pape No.166 0.) [kWh [GW el/tpaper hel/a] ] 20 1400 2800 130 350 500 1200 800 1076 2520 2640 7960 [tsteam/tpa per] 12 9 5 8.20.

economic solution CHP plant. CHP can contribute towords sustaining India‟s economic growth and ecological friendly future.554 of existing steam based power plants. 12. Therefore. must be generated either In low pressure steam boilers or in CHP plants smaller then 1MW. Consequently. Consequently. As small CHP plants are not implemented potential with in the pulp and paper sector can be estimate to be above 60% with the above met assumptions. Additionally. Additionally. By removing institutional barriers and promoting latest technology and optimum plant layout. More then 60% of the required heat is generated via regular low pressure steam boilers. the remaining heat.534.20. the installed CHP plants could be improved significantly as regards energy efficiency. captive steam based power plants larger then 1 MW generated 3451 GWh of electricity in 2005-2006. It could also export electricity to the grid. the electrical generating potential in the sector is atleast 600MW. An optimum plant design and plant operation can be identified by computer simulation leading to the most energy efficient and. but still with moderate power to heat ratio. these plant would generated 17250 GWh of thermal energy. 59% of the total. this is equivalent to 600MW electrical generation capacities. this study is modeled on the basis of state of the art technology. As seen in table 1.The CHP potential can be considered as a conservative estimate due to the fact that plant load factors estimated as 0. .92 are relatively high compare to the average plant load factor of 0. therefore. A barrier for CHP may be relatively low plant load factor of 0. the Indian pulp and paper sector could generate electricity via energy efficient CHP mode not only to satisfy its own needs.5 CONCLUSION The potential of CHP in the Indian pulp and paper sector is significant. Assuming that all these plant are equipped back pressure turbines with a power to heat ratio of 0. about 41 % of heat demand of the entire sector. indicating fluctuation in heat or electricity demand necessitating special care to be taken in plant design and demand side energy management.

PA: DasTech Publications. Twede. Illustrated Glossary of Packaging Terminology (Second ed. London: Blackwell Publishing. ^ BundesinstitutfürRisikobewertung. Susan E. Crates and Corrugated Board: Handbook of Paper and Wood Packaging Technology. . Lancaster. Cartons. Food Packaging . ^ ASTM D996 4. "Übergänge von MineralölausVerpackungsmaterialien auf Lebensmittel". Robertson. W.References 1. Retrieved 200907-18. 3.). Selke. (2005). p.Industry Profile. "Migration of mineral oil from packaging materials to foodstuffs (BfR Opinion No. ^ Paperboard Packaging Alliance. M. Global Paper and Paperboard . Retrieved 2010-04-21. 5.). Paper and paperboard packaging technology. ^ Soroka. 111. Gordon L. 2. ^ Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Germany). Institute of Packaging Professionals. 8. "Paperboard Packaging". Paperboard the Iggesund Way. Kirwan. Mark J. 008/2010 of 2009-12-09)". 7. (2004). 9. ISBN 978-1-4051-6845-8. ISBN 978-0-8493-3775-8. 10. p. Retrieved 2010-0421. 10. (1998). Datamonitor (June 2008). Iggesund Paperboard AB (2008).Principle and Practice (2nd Ed. Diana. 6.

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