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PROJECT REPORT ON MANUFACTURING OF PACKAGING GRADE PAPER

Submitted to the department of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Bharat Institute of Technology Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow

Guided By: Dr. M.C. Bansal (HOD chem. dept)

Submitted By: Raveen Sharma(1012851032) TanushreeBhardwaj(1012851039) PrateekModi(1012851027) PulkitGoyal(1012851029) AvinashPuri(1012851009.) Mohd.Owais(1012851022) (CH,IV Year)

MANUFACTURING OF PACKAGING GRADE PAPER

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this submission is our own work and that to the best of our knowledge and belief, it contain no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in text.

PulkitGoyal Mohd.Owais Tanushree Avinash Puri Prateek Modi Raveen Sharma

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the projrct entitled Manufacturing of packaging grade of paper submittedby PrateekModi, Raveen Sharma, MohdOwais, Tanushree, Pulkit, Avinash under minor project program in Chemical Engineering at the Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut is an authentic work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance.

Asst. Prof ANUJ KUMAR Chemical Engineering Bharat Institute of Technology Meerut-250003

Asst. Prof Neha Goyal Chemical Engineering Bharat Institute of Technology Meerut-250003

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our gratitude to Dr. M.C Bansal , Chemical Engineering, Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut for providing us the object. We would also like to thank him for providing us all the facilities required for completing the report.

We are extremely thankful to Mr.AnujKumar and Ms Neha Goyal,Asst Professor, Chemical Department, Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut and also to all other faculty members for introducing and guiding us as time permitted. Above all, we acknowledge our thanks to the support rendered by our project group members and our colleagues for encouraging us during the completion of the project. We are also grateful to our fellow mates, who supported us at every step of the preparation of this project.

SUMMARY

Paper is manufacturing from raw material containing cellulose fibers, generally wood, recycled paper and agricultural residue. In developing countries, about 60% of cellulose fibers originated from non-wood raw materials such as bagasse, cereal straw, bamboo, reeds, esparto grass, jute, flax, and sisal. The main steps in pulp and paper manufacturing are: Raw material preparation and handling. Pulp manufacturing, Pulp washing and screening.Chemical recovery, Bleaching, stock preparation and paper making. Pulp mills and paper mills may exist separately or as integrated operations. An integrated mill is one that conducts pulp manufacturing on-site. Nonintegrated mills have no capacity for pulping but must bring pulp to the mill from an outside source. Integrated mills have the advantage of using common auxiliary systems for both pulping and papermaking such as steam, electric generation, and waste water treatment. Transportation cost is also reducing. Nonintegrated mills require less land, energy, and water than integrated mills. Their location can, therefore, be in a more open setting where they are close to large work force populations and perhaps to their customers. A paper mill can house a single paper machine or several machines. Each machine can make a single grade of paper or a variety of papers. A dedicated machine usually manufactures a commodity grade paper such as liner board or tissue. Machines designed to make specialty grade typically have more operating flexibility and will manufacture many types of paper. The basic process of papermaking remains the same despite the type of paper manufactured or the size of the machine. Papermaking is vast, multidisciplinary technology, where significant advances have taken place in all the areas of paper making in the recent years. The complexity of the processes, the scale of operation and production speeds leaves little room for error or malfunction. Modern papermaking thus needs advanced process control and diagnostic methods, with profound understanding of the mechanism involved. Paper industry is often referred to as a capital-intensive industry because of the enormous investment in an integrated modern paper mill. The paper industry is also said to be water intensive, as almost all of the processing operations in the industry use water suspensions of fibers or chemicals. The industry is also highly energy-intensive. The power consumption in an integrated

paper mill is about 1000 to 1400 KWH, steam consumption is about 8 to 10 tons and water consumption is about 100 to 150m3 per ton of finished paper. In comparisons to an integrated paper the data for a waste paper based mill is about 600 to 800 KWH, steam consumption is about 3-5 tons and water consumption is about 40-50 m3/ton of finished paper. Further, if the waste paper based mill is having cogeneration system, it shall make it highly profitable venture. This makes the waste paper based mill more attractive and a basis for considering this project. The paper industry is also known as pollution intensive. The discharges from paper industries include solid waste, liquid effluent and gaseous emission. There are regulatory limits enforced on the discharge of these pollutants by the regulatory authorities and the industries expected to treat its effluent to meet the standards. In some of the states, zero effluent discharge is being implemented in waste paper based mill.

MANUFACTURING OF PACKAGING GRADE PAPER

INTRODUCTION Packaging paper or Paperboard is a paper-based material that is generally thicker than paper. It is easy to cut and form and is both lightweight and strong, which makes it ideal for packaging. Paperboard packaging comes in several different grades that possess unique characteristics making each grade suitable for different packaging requirements and needs. Paperboard is a thick paper based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0.25 mm, 0.0098 in or 10 points) than paper. According to ISO standards, paperboard is a paper with a basis weight (grammage) above 224 g/m2, but there are exceptions. Paperboard can be single or multi-ply. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in packaging. Another end-use would be graphic printing, such as book and magazine covers or postcards. Sometimes it is referred to as cardboard, which is a generic, lay term used to refer to any heavy paper pulp based board. Paperboard is also used in fine arts for creating sculptures. The process of paper recycling involves mixing used paper with water and chemicals to break it down. It is then chopped up and heated, which break it down further into strands of cellulose, a type of organic plant material; this resulting mixture is called pulp, or slurry. It is strained through screens, which remove any glue or plastic that may still be in the mixture the cleaned, de linked, bleached, and mixed with water. Then it can be made into new paper. The same fibres can be recycled about seven times, but they get shorter every time and eventually are strained out. In India only about 20% waste paper is recovered annually. Low recovery is on account of alternate use of paper in wrapping, packing, etc. The lack of source segregation results in contamination of waste paper and becoming unstable. In comparison in developed countries the percentage of recovery of waste paper is very high. For instance in Germany it is 73%, Sweden 69% and Italy 45%. In India mills depending on waste paper for recycling are facing a shortage of raw material while the demand is growing as the mills are expanding. In a recent report, Central Pulp & Paper Research Institute (CPPRI), Saharanpur has started that by 2010 about half of the global amount of fibres used in paper making will be recycled fibres, sourcing in India is a challenge. Import of waste

paper has increased significantly during 1995-2003 onwards since industries dependence is increasing on imported RCP due to in constant supply of indigenous RCP & the recovery of indigenous of RCP being low due to an organised collection system IPMA feels paper recycle, yield the overall contest of waste management, needs to be looked at as an enterprise. Since record paper has potential to substitute a high cost and inadequate primary raw material, due recognition should be given by the industry as well as government to essential secondary raw material.

Common terms associated with packaging paper Basis Weight (US): Is the weight 1,000 square feet (93 m2) of paperboard. Brightness: Brightness is a technical term that is defined as the amount of bluewhite light that a paper reflects. This property is very subjective and individual to each buyer and end use, as skin colour and food are better reproduced on warm (yellow) whites and not blue whites. Grammage: The grammage of the paperboard is assessed in accordance ISO 536. Grammage expresses weight per unit area and is measured in g/m2. PH: Surface pH is measured on a water extract and is on a scale of 0-14, 0 being acidic, 7 neutral and 14 alkaline. Stiffness: Stiffness is one of the most important properties of paperboard as it affects the ability of cartons to run smoothly through the machine that erects, fills and closes them. Stiffness also gives strength and reduces the propensity of a carton to bulge under the weight of settling flowable contents such as cereals. Although most paper strength properties increase with increasing sheet density, stifness does not. A rule of thumb is that stiffness is proportional to the 1.6 power of sheet caliper. The species of fiber used has an effect on stiffness, other things being equal. Northern softwood species impart superior stiffness compared to southern softwoods. Other factors which affect board stiffness include coatings and moisture content. Smoothness: Smoothness is particularly important when being used for printing, the smoother the paperboard, the better the image quality, because of better ink coverage. Smoothness is measured using air leak methods the greater the rate of air leakage, at a specific air pressure, from under a cylindrical knife placed on the surface, the rougher the surface.

Caliper/Thickness: In the United States caliper is usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (0.001) or points, where a sheet of paperboard with a thickness of 0.024 would be 24 points. In Europe it is often sold in g/m2, however the thickness of the board is measured in micron(m) (1m = 0.001mm) (also referred to as a micrometer) Paperboard also tends to be referred to with thickness rather than weight. Whiteness: It refers ideally to the equal presence of all colours, because a truly white sheet will reflect all wavelength of visible light equally.

1. PAPER 1.1 INTRODUCTION Paper is a felted sheet of fibres formed on a fine screen from a waste suspension of pulp. Pulp is obtained by chemical and/or mechanical processing of fibrous raw materials, from wood/non-wood origin. In order for the fibres to be useful for paper making, they must be capable of being matted into a uniform sheet. They must also develop strong bonds between fibres at the points of contact. Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibres, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags ,and drying them into flexible sheet. Paper is versatile material with many uses. While the main use is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning productsparticularly in Asian cultures. Most recovered paper is recycled back into paper and paperboard products. With a few exception, recovered paper is generally recycled into a grade similar to, or of lower quality than grade of the original product . For example, old corrugated boxes are used to make new recycled corrugated boxes. Recovered printing and writing paper can be used to make new recycled copy paper. Recovered paper can be used in a variety of other product as well. Recycled pulp can be moulded into egg cartons and fruit trays. Recovered paper can be used for few , ceiling and wall insulation, paint filler and roofing. 1.2 PROPERTIES OF PAPER (a) Basis weight (GSM) : The weight or substance per unit area is obviously fundamental in paper and paper board products. The basis weight of paper is weight per unit area. This can be expressed as the weight in grams per square metre(GSM or Gram Per Meter square), pounds per thousand square feet or weight in kg or pounds per ream (500 sheets) of a specific size. REAM WIGHT is a common term to signify the weight of a lot or batch of paper. Control or basis weight is important as all other properties are affected. Variation in moisture content in paper affects the gram mage.

(b) Brightness, whiteness and colour : Brightness is defined as the percentage reflectance of blue light only at a wavelength of 457nm. Whiteness refers to the extent that paper diffusively reflects light at all wavelengths throughout the visible spectrum. Whiteness is appearance term. Colour is anaesthetic value. Colour may be appear different when view under a different light source. Brightness is arbitrarily defined, but carefully standardised, blue reflectance that is used throughout the pulp and paper industry for the control of milk processes and in certain type of research and development programs brightness is not whiteness. However the brightness value of the pulp and pigments going into the paper an excellent measure of the maximum brightness that can be achieved with proper tinting. The colour of paper, like the other materials, depend in the complicated way on the characteristic of the observer and a number of physical factors such as the spectral energy distribution of the illuminate, the geometry of laminating and viewing, the nature and extent of the surround and the optical characteristic of the paper itself. (c) Bulk: Bulk is a term to indicate volume or thickness in relation to weight. it is the reciprocal of density. It is calculated from caliper and base weight. Sheet bulk release to all other sheet properties. Decrease the bulk or in other words increase the density, and the sheet gets smoother glossies less opaque, darker, lower in strength etc. (d) Dimensional stability: An important consequence of the absorption and de-absorption of moisture by paper is the change in dimension that usually a companies changes in moisture content. Such change in dimension may seriously affect register in printing process and interfere with the use of such items as tabulating cards. Uneven dimensional changes cause undesirable cockling and curling. Dimensional changes in paper originate in the swelling and contraction of the individual fibers. It has been observe that cellulose fibers swell in diameter from 15 to 20% in passing from the dry condition to the fiber saturation point. It is impossible to be precise about the degree of the swelling because paper making fibers differ considerably in this property, and because the irregular cross section of fibers creates difficulty in

defining diameter. Change that occurs in the dimension of papers with variation in the moisture content is an important consideration in the use of paper. All paper expand with increase moisture content and contract with decrease moisture content, but the rate and extant of changes vary with different papers. (e) Folding endurance: Folding endurance is the is the papers capability of with standing multiple folds before it break. It is defines as the numbers of double fold that strip of 15 mm wide and 100 mm length can be withstand under a specified load before it breaks. It is important for printing grade where the paper is subjected to multiple folds like in books, maps or pamphlets. Fold test is also important for carton, boxboard and cover paper etc. folding endurance is a requirement in bond, currency, map, blueprint and record papers (f) Formation: Formation is an indication of how the fibers and fillers are distributed in the sheet formation play an important role as most of the paper properties depend on it. Paper that is poorly formed will have weak, thin spots and thick spots. These will affect properties like calliper strength etc. (g) Gloss: It is specularly and diffusively reflected light component measurement against the non standard. Gloss is important for printing such things as magazine advertisement. The level of gloss desired is very important on the end use of a paper. Gloss and smoothness are different properties and not dependent on each other. (h) Machine and cross direction: Paper has a definite grain direction due to greater orientation of fibers in the direction of travel of the paper machine. This grain dirction is known as machine direction. The cross direction is the direction of paper at right angle to the machine direction. Some of the properties vary with the MD and CD and hence the values are reported in both the direction .while sheeting the paper, machine and cross

direction are to be kept in mind and the sheet cutting to be done to suite the end user requirement. Example: 1. All printing papers are to be cut in long run. 2. Book papers fold better and the book stays open better if the sheet are out so that the machine direction run up and down the pages. 3. Wrap around labels for metals cans and bottles are to be cut with machine direction vertical to obtained grater flexibility about the can. (i)Moisture: Most physical properties of paper under go changes as a result of variation in moisture content. Water has an effect of plasticizing the cellulose fiber and of relaxing and weakening the inter fiber bonding. The electrical resistance and the dielectric constant of paper both vary with moisture content. The absorption and reflectance of certain bands of infrared and microwave radiation by paper are affected by its moisture content. The amount water present in the sheet of paper is usually expressed as a percent. Poor moisture control can adversely affect many paper properties. (j) Opacity: Opacity is the measure of how much light is kept away from passing through a sheet. A perfectly opaque paper is the one that is absolutely impervious to the passage of all visible light. It the ratio of diffused reflectance and the reflectance of single sheet backed by a black body. Opacity is important in printing paper, book paper etc. (k) Porosity: Because paper is composed of randomly felted layer of fiber, it follows that the structure has varying degree of porosity. Thus the ability of fluid, both liquid and gases, to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper. Paper is highly porous material and contain as such 70% air. Porosity is highly critical factor in printing papers, laminating paper, filter paper. Porosity is the measurement of the total connecting air voids, both vertical

and horizontal, that exist in a sheet. Porosity of sheet is an indication of absorptivity or the ability of the sheet to accept ink or water. Porosity can also be a factor in a vacuum feeding operation on a printing press. (l) Sizing (cob): Because paper is composed of a randomly felted layer of fiber, its structure has a varying degree of porosity. Thus, the ability of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper. The need to the limit the spreading of ink resulted in sizing the paper with gelatinous vegetable materials which had the effect of sealing or filling the surface pores. Later, the term sizing was applied to the treatment of paper stock prior to the formation of the sheet, with water-repellent materials such as rosin or wax. (m) Smoothness: Smoothness is concerned with the surface contour of paper. It is the flatness of the surface under testing conditions which considers roughness, liveliness, and compatibility. In most of the uses of paper, the character of the surface is of great importance. It is common to say that paper has a smooth or rough texture. The term finish and pattern are frequently used in describing the contour or appearance of paper surfaces. Smoothness is important for writing, where it affects the ease of travel of the pen over the surface. Finish is important in bag paper as it is related to the tendency of the bag to slide with stacked. Smoothness also gives eye appeal as a rough paper is unattractive. (n) Stiffness: Stretch is the amount of distortion which paper undergo under tensile stress. Stretch elongation usually expressed, as percent stretch to rupture. Stretch can be related to the papers ability to conform and maintain conformance to a particular contour,e.g Copier paper, multicolour offset liquid packing cartons base papers etc. Stretch is higher in cross direction than machine direction.

(o) Thickness: Thickness or Caliper of paper is measured with a micrometre as the perpendicular distance between two circular planes, parallel surface under a pressure of 1kg centimetre square. Caliper is a critical measurement of uniformity. Variation in caliper can affect several basic properties including strength, optical and roll quality. Thickness is important in filling cards, printing papers, condenser paper, saturating papers etc. 1.3 USES OF PAPPER: Paper may be impregnated, enamelled, metalized, made to look like parchment, creped, water-proofed, waxed, glazed, sensitized, bent, turned, folded , twisted, crumpled, cut, torn. It may be coloured coated or even written on it can be laminated with fabric, plastic and metal. It can be opaque or transparent. The various uses of paper can be: a. Agriculture It can be used in making sacks, seed packets, and animal bedding. b. Building It is used as a wallpapers, damp- proof courses, roofing and decorative laminates for furniture. c. Bussiness Printout sheets, circulars sales and service manuals, brochures, and letter heading. d. Cars It is used in making of fascia boards, door and roof liners,filters, the highway, code and driving liscenses. e. Communications It is used in the manufacturing of writing pads, envelops newspapers, greeting cards, calanders, and identity cards.

f. Domestic products Tissues, paper plates and cups, toilet papers, kitchen towel, lamp shades. g. Education Books, exercise book, wall chart, flip chart, and report cards. h. Entertainments Menu cards, paper hats, crackers, fire works, playing cards, board games, kites and race cards. i. Filtration Filters for water, air, coffee, medicine, beer and oil. j. Money; finance; security Bank notes, insurance forms, cheque books, postal orders, cash bags and security papers that contain special marking which are only visible when subjected to ultra violet light.

2. PAPER MANUFACTURING 2.1 Raw material The above mentioned fibrous material can either come from fresh (virgin) sources (e.g. wood) or from recycled waste paper. Around 90% of virgin paper is made from woodpulp .Today paperboard packaging in general, and especially products from certified sustainable sources, are receiving new attention, as manufacturers dealing with environmental, health, and regulatory issues look to renewable resources to meet increasing demand. It is now mandatory in many countries for paper-based packaging to be manufactured wholly or partially from recycled material. Raw materials include:

Hardwood: Ca .05 inches (1.3 mm) (length) e.g, Birch which has short fibres. It is generally more difficult to work with; however, it does provide higher tensile strength, but lower tear and other strength properties. Although its fibres are not as long and strong as those in softwood, they make for a stiffer product defined by some stifness tests. Hardwood fibres fill the sheet better and therefore make a smoother paper that is more opaque and better for printing. Hardwood makes an excellent corrugating medium. Softwood: Ca .13 inches (3.3 mm) (length) e.g. Pine and spruce which have typically long fibres and make superior paperboard in services where strength is important. Softwood makes excellent linerboard. Recycled: Used paper is collected and sorted and usually mixed with virgin fibres in order to make new material. This is necessary as the recycled fibre often loses strength when reused; the added virgin fibres enhance strength. Mixed waste paper is not usually deinked (skipping the deinking stage) for paperboard manufacture and hence the pulp may contain traces of inks, adhesives, and other residues which together give it a grey colour. Products made of recycled board usually have a less predictable composition and poorer functional properties than virgin fibre-based board. Health risks have been associated with using recycled material in direct food contact. Swiss studies have shown that recycled material can contain significant portions of mineral oil, which may migrate into packed foods. (Mineral oil levels of up to 19.4 mg/kg were found in rice packed in recycled board.

2.2PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

Conveyor

Pulper

High density cleaner

Screening

Dispersion

Refining

Thickner

Head box

Paper machine

Reeling

Drying

Pressing

Formation

2.3PROCESS DESCRIPTION : The manufacturing of paper from waste raw material begins with the pulping of he waste paper obtained from various sources. The paper production process in a non integrated mill can mainly be divided into 4 stages, namely : Stock preparation Paper machine system Finishing and converting Utility section

2.3.1 Stock preparation : Stock preparation is a term used to cover those paper making operation involving: Repulping of waste paper in a pulper. Addition of various chemicals and fillers. Mechanical treatment to make fibers form into a sheet of paper. A typical continuous stock preparation system is shown in figure 2.1. The proper portion of various pulp forming the pulp mixture are first added into a hydra pulper. Depending on a requirement, dyes, size, alum, etc. are also added and mixed thoroughly at this point. The pulp mixture is then pumped to a machine chest where the consistency is carefully control through the use of automatic consistency regulators. 2.3.1.1Screening and cleaning : The objective of pulp cleaning and screening is to remove dirt and foreign matter such as silver, great, bark, sand, stones, metals piece, plastic, clips etc. The operating principle of screening depend on the size whereas the clean is based on difference in specific gravity. In modern waste paper based stock preparation, the screen receives the stock at around 4% consistency.

Coarse screen This is to remove oversize material such as knots, silver and undergrounded pieces of wood. The screen usually have opening of 5 to 10mm in size and may be vivratory, mechanical, open rotary and centrifugal rotary. Fine screen Fine screen is to remove fibre bundles and practicals that are 4 to 20 times larger than average.The size of the opening is normally vary from 2 to 2.5m. In earlier stages open screening were applied. They are vibrating screens and open centrifugal screens. In modern mills closed screens technology is used. This operates under pressure with no free liquid surface. Centrifugal cleaners Centrifugal cleaning is the most common device used in pulp cleaning to remove bark, sand, grit and other small particles. Here dilute pulp (less than 1% consistency) is fed tangentlilly is a conical separator body causing rapid spinning of the pulp and the downward movement in the cone. Small surface area particles and high specific gravity particles will move downward and lighter and clean fibres carried upward to the accepted discharge.

2.3.1.2 Stock refining This is a mechanical process which act on fibres to give them increase surface area. Greater flexibility and smooth surfaces. The consistency norm for the refiner is in the range of 4% to 4.5%. The specific consumption energy for different types of the refiner is given in table 2.1. (ENERGY MANAGEMENT CENTER 1995). KLINE (1991) says that the consistency norm for conical refiner is in the range of 2 to 10 % whereas for double disc refiners it can go up to 30%. Type of refiner Specific energy consumption (KWh/tone of pulp) Conical 9-13 Double disc 7-9 Triple disc 6 Beaters(slushing and refining) 14-18 Hydra pulper(mainly slushing) 11-14 Table 2.1 Comparative Power Consumption of Different Refiners Used (Energy management centre, 1995) 2.3.1.3 Thickening After screening or cleaning the pulp is usually thickened or de-watered from about .5% consistency to 3 to 14% consistency. Depending on the usage and storage requirement. The thickening is done by either gravity dackers or vaccum filters. In newly built paper mills a counter washing principle is adopted . Here the pulp is thickened to a consistency of 30% before transferring to the paper mill. 2.3.2. Paper machine system The paper machine is the mechanical system used to convert pulp into paper. All paper machines consist of a wet or forming section, a press section and dryer section. 2.3.2.1 Forming The most common wet and machines in use are Fourdriner Twin wire former

Cylinder machine Fourdriner The pulp suspension enters the head box at around 0.5% consistency and flows through the slice opening onto the travelling fourdriner screen. The opening speed of fourdriner machines typically varies from 10 to 50m/min. KLINE (1991) says this speed is normally around 120m/min and will vary according to grammage of paper. Twin wire paper machine: Here the stock is directed through nozzles over the full width of the machine between two fourdriner type wires. SCACHINGG (1991) describe the basic design for twin wire press process for sheet drying applications.This paper says that the energy required for twin wire paper machine is 85% less than that fourdriner machines. Cylinder machine: Cylinder machine are used primarily for the production of heavy grade of paper or board and may use one or multiple cylinder to form the web depending on the product. The machine operatres at 40m/min on average. Here also the consistency of the stock arriving at the paper machine is around 0.5%. 2.3.2.2 Pressing After the forming section followed by the suction boxes, sheet is transferred from a wire to pick up felt or first pressed felt by suction pick up roll and enters to the press section where additional moisture removal is achieved. The web attains the consistency of between 30 to 45% before leaving the press section. 2.3.2.3 Dryer section The dryer section normally consist of series of steam drying rollers into which paper is led by a dryer fabric. The drying section of the machines is enclosed with machine hoods and vents for removal of moisture led in air as drying takes place.

The size press is done after the main dryer section. The web is usually quite dry between 4 to 12% moisture content before entering the size press. The dried web enters the calendar stack where it is compressed and given a smooth surface prior to reeling. 2.3.3 Finishing and converting Finishing operation refers to those performed in the finishing room where the paper is prepare for shipment. Finishing operation can produce about 10% of the total production ad dry broke which is re-pulped and recycled at the stock prepration department.

2.3.4 Utility section The utility section comprises water supply, boiler house and electric power supply. The steam requirement is met by boilers. Normally the make-up water requirement for the boiler is met by softner plant (CHANDAK),(1995).

2.4 ENERGY UTILISATION IN PAPER INDUSTRY: Paper industry is an energy intensive industry. RAGAN (1990) points out that in India, energy cost for an integrated mill contribute to 16 to40% of the production cost of paper. The energy requirement is mainly for heatused in steam generation/process heating and as mechanical power to run the plant electrical motors. Basically energy consumption can be illustrated as in fig. 2.2. Steam requirement is met by boilers of capacities ranging from 5 to 10 tonnes of steam/hr. The maximum steam pressure rating is 10kg/cm square. The process steam consumption is 2 tonnes/per tonn of paper produced at a pressure of 4kg/cm sq in the paper machine. This is conformed by ENERGY MANAGEMENT CENTER (1995) where it is stated that the fig varies from 1.9-to 2.0 tonnes/tonn of paper. Specific electrical energy consumption for stock preparation and paper machine is given by 238KWh and 518KWh per tonn of paper respectively.

7% 16% Fuel Electricity 77% Others

Figure 2.2: Energy Consumption Patterns in a Paper mill

3. MATERIAL BALANCE:

Data: 1000 ton/day of raw material supplied (dry basis). 3.1 CONVEYOR: Raw material feed =1000ton/day =41.667ton/hr Moisture content = 10%of raw material = 0.1*41.667 = 4.1667ton/hr Total raw material feed = 41.667+4.1667 = 45.834ton/hr 3.2 PULPER: Feed from conveyor = 45.834ton/hr

Caustic added

= 5% of feed =0.05*45.834 = 2.293ton/hr

Pulp consistency Total mixture Water Content

= 5% pulp is present = 833.3ton/hr =833.34-41.667-2.292 = 789.381ton/hr

Impurities removed by ragger = 0.2% of pulp = 0.002*41.667 = 0.08334ton/hr Pulp content remained = 41.667-0.08334 = 41.54ton/hr Total mixture to HDC = 41.514+789.381+2.292= 833.257ton/hr

3.3 HIGH DENSITY CLEANER: Feed from pulper Impurities removal = 833.257ton/hr =1.8% of pulper remained = 0.018*41.584 = .7845ton/hr

Pulp remained

= 41.584-0.7485 = 40.85ton/hr

Total mixture to course screening =833.257-0.7845 = 8321.51ton/hr 3.4 COARSE SCREENING: Feed from HDC Impurity removal =832.51ton/hr =0.9% of pulp remained = 0.009*48.35 = 0.3675ton/hr Pulp remained = 40.835- 0.3675 =40.4675ton/hr Total mixture to fine screen = 832.51-0.3675 = 832.142ton/hr 3.5 FINE SCREENING: Feed from coarse screening Impurity removal = 832.142ton/hr = 0.3% of pulp remained = 0.003*40.4675

= 0.1214ton/hr Pulp remained =40.4675-0.1214 = 40.3561ton/hr Total mixture to centricleaners = 832.0206ton/hr

3.6 CENTRICLEANERS : Feed from fine screen Impurity removal = 832.0206ton/hr = 0.2% of pulp remained = 0.086ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Total mixture to thickners =8% of pulp mixture =5043.26ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr = 5043.1793ton/hr

3.7 THICKNERS: Feed from centricleaners Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to dispersion = 5043.1793ton/hr = 12% of pulp mixture =335.545ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr = 295.2796ton/hr =335.545ton/hr

3.8 DISPERSION:

Feed from thickners Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to refining

= 335.545ton/hr = 28% of pulp mixture =143.805ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr = 103.5396ton/hr =143.805ton/hr

3.9 REFINER: Feed from dispersion Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to head box = 143.805ton/hr = 5% of pulp mixture =805.03ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr =765.0426ton/hr = 805.308ton/hr

3.10 PAPER MACHINE: Feed from refiners = 805.308ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to formation = 1% of pulp mixture =80.53*10^3ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr =80.49*10^3 = 80.53*10^3ton/hr

3.11 FORMATION: Feed from paper machine = 80.53*10^3ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to pressing = 24% of pulp mixture =167.77ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr =127.5060ton/hr =167.77ton/hr

3.12 PRESSING: Feed from formation= 167.77ton/hr Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content Total mixture to drying = 50% of pulp mixture =80-.537ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr =40.260ton/hr =80.53ton/hr

3.13 DRYING: Feed from pressing Pulp consistency Total mixture Pulp remained Moisture content 3.14 REELING: = 80.53ton/hr = 92% of pulp mixture =43.776ton/hr =40.2654ton/hr =3.5006ton/hr

Feed from drying Pulp consistency Total mixture Paper manufacture

= 80.53ton/hr = 92% of pulp mixture =43.776ton/hr =1050.40ton/hr

4. ENERGY BALANCES:

4.1 PULPER: Heat added to pulper :Q=mc(T1-T2) =4.1667*4.18*(45-25) =348.336J 4.2 DISPERSION: Heat added to dispersion:Q = m*C*(T3-T4) = 103.5396*4.18*(60-38) = 9521.520J 4.3 HEAD BOX: Heat added remove from head box :Q = m*C*(T5-T6) = 80530*4.18*(60-42) = 6059.08KJ

4.4 DRYERS: Heat added to dryers :Q = m*C*(T7-T8) = 200*2.09*(100-35) = 27170 J

5.EQUIPMENT DESIGN

5.1 THICKENER DESIGN 5.1.1 Size of Thickener As a first step we can either use the thickener flux (m2/ton/day) or the rise rate, depending if solids loading is the dominant (eg. Platinum Tailing ) or feed flow rate (e.g. Clarification or low feed solids). Say, we have a coal tailing application and test work shows a rise of 2m/h with a pulp feed flow rate of 200m3/h. Thus, rise rate Thus,Area D = pulp flow rate/ Area = /4 = Pulp flow rate/ Rise rate

= 4*flow rate/3.14*rise rate = 11.3

Use 12m diameter

5.1.2 Torque requirements: In order to select the drive we need to calculate the torque required. A factor (ZFactor) is used based on the following: Material type Particle size distribution Size Range Thickener type Underflow density required Rheology

Now, T= Torque = KxL2 Where T D = Max operating torque in ft. lbs = Thickener diameter in feet

Typical K-L Factors are:

Light duty: 5-10 Medium duty: 10-20 Heavy duty: 20-35 Extra heavy duty: >35 Therfore for a 12m diameter high rate thickener with the coal tailings duty, we can use medium duty (K-Factor= 15).

Torque

= 15x (12x3.281)2 = 23.252x 1.35 Nm = 31.390 Nm

Thus, actual K-Factor = 17.1

5.1.3 Gear box output speed We generally operate at a thickener rate speed of 8 to 12m/min Thus gear box output rpm = rate tip speed (m/min)/*diameter (m) = 8/ ( * 12) = 0.21 rpm

5.1.4 Electric motor sizing To size an electric motor, we would use the following calculation:P = 2NT/ 60*E* 1000

N = Actual Gearbox output speed rpm T = Trip torque (Nm) E = Overall efficiency = 0.5 P = Power (kW) Therefore, for our 10m thickener, P = 2* 0.21 *36000/ 60*0.5 *1000 = 1.6 kW = Use 2.2 kW We would not recommend being tight in motor selection since the price difference of being conservative in electric motor selection is minimal.

5.2 CLARIFIER DESIGN Objectives - To separate biomass from liquid and then return biomass to the activated sludge process so that SRT>> HRT - To meet total suspended solids discharge limit - To thicken sludge in the underflow (Less volume to pump for removal) - Tank shape - Circular: small to medium/ large size plants (up to 200 MGD) - Rectangular: huge plants (> 200 MGD)

Design considerations Overflow rate or surface-settling rate Detention period Weir loading rate Tank shape and dimensions Solid loading rate Influent structure Effluent structure Sludge collection and removal

Typical Design Value Overflow rates Average flows : 500-1,100 gal/ft. day (15-32m/m2. day) Peak design flows: 1300-1600gal/ft.day (40-48m3/m2. day) Solid loadings Average flows Peak design flows: 49- 144 and 100-220 kg/m2.day Tank shape: circular, rectangular, or square Circular tank diameter : 30-200ft (10-60) (< 5 SWD) Depth : 13- 20 ft (4-6m) for circular and rectangular tanks

5.2.1 Surface area of secondary clarifier

1. Establish design flow Design flow to the secondary clarifier = Average design flow + RAS- MLSS wasted = 0.486 day/86,400 sec = 0.769m3/sec Design flow to each secondary clarifier = 0.769/ 4 = 0.192 m3/sec 2. Prepare flux curves 3. Determine limiting solids-loading rate Sludge flux (SF) =2 kg/m2.hr =48 kg/m2.day =9.81 lb/ft2.day 4. Calculate area and diameter of the secondary clarifier Area =QX/SF Q =0.192 m3/sec*3600 sec/hr =691 m3/hr A =(691 m3/hr*3.75 kg/m3)/2 kg/m2.day =1,296 m2 Diameter =(1296*4)1/2/3.14 =40.7 m(134 ft) Actual area =(3.14/4)*40.72=1,301 m2 5. Check the overflowrate at average design flow m3/sec + 0.292m3/sec -752m3/day x

Overflow rate =Q/A

=0.193 m3/sec* =12.8m3/m2.day

<15 m3/m2.day 6. Check the clarifier area for clarification requirement Calculated overflow rate =12.8 m3/m2.day=0.533 m/hr MLSS conc. At 0.533 m/hr settling rate = 4,400 mg/l>3750 mg/l;thus the area for classification will be sufficien 7. Check the overflow rate at peak design flow At peak design flow plus recirculation,the flow to each clarifier =(1.321+0.292) m3/sec4 = 0.403 m3/sec Overflow rate =0.403 m3/sec86,400 sec/day1,301 m2 =26.8 m3/m2.day<35 m3/m2.day 8. Calculate the solids loadings The solids loading at average design flow= 0.192 m3/sec 3,750 gm/m31000g =86,400 sec/day1,301 m2 =47.8 kg/m2.day<48 kg/m2.day Solids loading at peak design flow=0.403 m3/sec3,750 g/m31000g86400 sec/day1,301 m2 =100.4 kg/m2.day<150 kg/m2.day Solids loading at peak design flow when three clarifiers are in operation = 0.538 m3/sec3,750 g/m31000g86400 sec/day1,301 m2 =134 kg/m2.day <150 kg/m2.day 5.2.2 Depth of secondary clarifier Liquid length of the secondary clarifier = depth of clear water zone+ depth of thickening zone + depth of sludge storage zone. 1. Determine clear water and settling zones The clear water and settling zones are generally 1 to 1.5m and 1.5 to 2m, respectively. Provide 3m clear water and settling zones. 2. Compute the depth of thickening zone.

Assume that under normal condition, the mass of sludge retained in the clarifier is 30% of the mass of solids in the aeration basin, and the average concentration of sludge in the clarifier is 7000mg/lt. Total mass of solid in BNR reactor = 3750gm/m3 1000g (2631m3 + 2631m3 +11560m3) = 63083kg Total mass of solid in each clarifier = 0.3*63083kg/4 = 4731kg Depth of thickening zone = total solid in clarifier concentration * area = 4731kg* 1000gm/kg (7000kg/m3 * 1301m2) = 4731kg Depth of thickening zone = total solids in the clarifier (Concentration * area) = 4731kg * 1000gm/kg (7000gm/m3 * 1301 m2) = 0.52m 3. Compute the depth of sludge storage zone The sludge storage zone is provided to store the sludge in the clarifier. Provided the sludge storage capacity for one day under sustained peak flow rate and BOD5 loadings. Assume that the sustained flow rate and sustained BOD. Factors are 2.5 and 1.5, respectively.

Total volatile solids produced under sustain loadings =1.5* 2.5 * 2820 kg/ day (# 35 in AS Design slide) = 10575 kg/ day Provide one day storage for solids Total solid stored per clarifier = 20.575kg/4 = 2644kg Total solid stored in each clarifier = 2644 kg + 4731kg (thickening zone) = 7375kg. Clarifire depth for solids storage = 7375*1000 gm per kg (7000 gm per m3)=0.8m 4. Compute total depth of clalifier Total depth of clarifier= 3.0m+0.5m=0.8m=4.3m Provide average side water depth in the clarifier= 4.5m(14.8 ft.)

For additional safety provide a free board of 0.5m Total depth of clarifier = 5m.

5.2.3 Influent structure It consist of acentral feed well. An influent pipe is installed across the clarifier that will discharge into the central feed well. The influent will pass under the baffle and then distribute uniformly throughout the tank. 5.2.4 Effluent structure It consist of effluent baffles, v-notches, effluent launder, effluent box, and a pressureoutlet pipe: 1. Select weir arrangements and dimension of the effluent launder, effluent box, and outlet sewer provide 90 standard V-notches on the weir plates that shall be installed on one side of the effluent launder. 2. Provide width of launder = 0.5m 3. Length of effluent weir plate=p(40.7-1)m 124.7m 4. Provide 8 cm deep 90V-notches at 39.5 cm centre-to-centre. 5. Total # of notches = 124.7m/(39.5 cm/notch*m/100 cm)= 316 6. to compute head over V-notch at averages design flow.

6.Material of Construction 6.1 GENERAL : This selection of material of construction plays a vital role in the success or added importance. A broad range of material is available for corrosive service. Material of construction may be divided into two general classification of metals and nonmetals. Pure metals and metallic alloys are included under the first classification plastics, rubber and glass come under non-metal. The most important characteristics to be consider when selecting a material of construction are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Material properties as strength , toughness, hardness etc. The effect of high and low temperature on mechanical properties. Corrosion resistance. Ease of fabrication forming, welding, casting . Availability in standard sizes- plates, section, tubes etc. Cost.

6.2EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES : The tensile strength of metals decreases with temperature. The tensile strength of mild steel is 450 N/mm^2 at 500 C. if the equipment is being designed to operate at high temperature. The stainless steel is superior in their respect to plain carbon steel. 6.3CORROSION RESISTANCE: For the selection of material it is convenient to classify corrosion into the following categories: 1. General wastage of material uniform corrosion 2. Galvanic corrosion dissimilar metal in contact 3. Pitting localised attack

4. Inter granular corrosion 5. Stress corrosion 6. Erosion corrosion 7. Corrosion fatigue 8. High temperature oxidation 9. Hydrogen embrittlement

6.4 HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION CORROSION : Corrosion is normally associated with aqueous solution but oxidation can occur in dry condition. Chromium is the most effective alloying element to give resistance to oxidation forming a tenacious oxide film. Chromium alloy is specified for temperature above 500 degree centigrade in oxidising atmosphere. 6.5SELECTION FOR CORROSION RESISTANCE : In order to select the correct material of construction, the process environment to which the material will be exposed must be clearly defined. Addition to the main corrosive element present, the following factors must be considered: 1. Temperature affect corrosion rate and mechanical properties. 2. Pressure 3. pH 4. Presence of trace impurities- stress corrosion 5. The amount of aeration- differential corrosion cell 6. Steam velocity- erosion corrosion 7. Heat transfer rate differential temperature 6.6COMMONLY USED MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION :

Low carbon steel is the most commonly used engineering material. It is cheap, is available in a wide range of standard form and sizes, and can be easily worked and welded. It is good tensile strength and ductility. 6.6.1 Stainless steel: The stainless steel is the most frequently used corrosion material in the chemical industry. To impact corrosion resistance the chromium content must be above 12%. Nickel is added to improve corrosion resistance in non-oxidising. A wide range of stainless steel is available. Type 304 is most generally used. 6.6.2 Nickel: Pure nickel and fixed alloy are useful with dry halogen gases. The main used for equipment handling caustic alkalis at temperature above that at which carbon steel could above 70 C. Nickel is not sufficient to corrosion like stainless steel. 6.6.3 Monel : Monel the classic nickel copper alloy with the metal in the ratio 2:1 is probably, after stainless steel, the most commonly alloy used for chemical plant. It is easily worked and has good mechanical propertiesup to 500 degree centigrade. It is more expensive thenstainless steel but is not susceptible to stress cession cracking in chloride solution. Monel has good resistance to dilute mineral acid and can be cured in reducing condition when the stainless steel would be unsuitable. It may be used for equipment handling alkalis, organic acid, salt, and sea water. 6.6.4 Inconel: Inconel is used primarily for acid resistance at high temperature. It maintains its strength at elevated temperature and is resistant to furnace gases. 6.7PLASTIC- MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION FOR CHEMICAL PLANTS: Plastic are being increasingly used as corrosion resistant material for chemical plants construction, they can be divided into two broad classes: 1. Thermoplastic material for polyvinyl chloride and poly ethylene

2. Thermo setting material, which have a rigid cross link structure for ethylene. The polyesters and epoxy resins. 3. 6.7.1 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) PVC is probably most commonly used thermo plastic material in the chemical industry. It is resistant to most inorganic acid except strong sulphuric and citric acids and inorganic salt solution. 6.7.2 Poly tetraflouroethylene (PTFE) PTFE known under the trade name Teflon and fleuron is resistance to all chemical except alkalis and fluorine and can be used at temperature up to 200 C. it is relatively week material but its mechanical strength can be improved by addition fillers. It is also used as liner for vessels.

7 SIZE OF EQUIPMENTS

7.5PULPER: 7.5.1 Description :The pulper is a facility to facilitate maceration of collected waste paper to form a slurry and to remove large foreign materials. The pulper swells fibers to promote maceration and adds a small amount of caustic soda to help remove inks when the paper treated require deinking. Formally waste paper was soaked in water at a lower rate of several % and vigorously agitated by a rapidly revolving impeller to achieve maceration by slashing,in such an operation foreign materials were crushed.The drawbacks were that the crushed foreign materials must be removed in the subsequent processes and the rotation and agitation consumed a large amount of power,in other words,the former process was very low in energy efficiency the secondary pulper consist of preliminary maceration and continuously removes foreign material without breaking them.

Use of the secondary pulper could reduce the degree of maceration and hence could achieve energy saving in the total operation of waste paper processing.

Fig 1. Example of continuous separation pulper systems with foreign material removal

7.1.2Structure explanation, shape, and/or system diagram; In general, the pulper operation is either in batch or continuous depending on weather the liquor is at high concentration or at medium concentration. The operation consist in separating coarse raw material and eliminating such heavy weight foreign material as metal and feeding the coarse raw material to the secondary separation pulper. The secondary separation pulper is equipped with punched plate screens and a rotating impeller macerator for preliminary maceration and removal of large foreign material intact to finally send the treated material to the subsequent process.

Table 1 Effect of secondary separation pulper (feed: Collected waste corrugated fibreboard) After introduction secondary separation pulper 67 m-cu pulper (550 67 m-cu pulper (550kW) kW) 365 t/D 445 t/D (20% increase) by Once or twice a day Not necessary the Varying b/w 2.0% and Stable at about 3.5% 3.5% Table 7.1 Conventional system

Major equipment Production Pulper cleaning blowing Concentration of finished slurry

7.1.3 Energy saving effect :Addition of the secondary separation pulpercould increase processing capacity by 20%. However, it does not achieved energy saving in the maceration process alone. It could facilitate the subsequent dust removal operation by removing foreign materials without crushing them. For this reason, it has a great energy saving effect on the total processing of waste paper in this way. 7.1.4 Remarks:The average electric power consumption in the maceration process 66 kW per ton, when processing old news paper including deinking and 52 kWh/ton when processing used corrugated fiber board.

7.2 HIGH CONCENTRATION SIZE PRESS: 7.2.1 Description:

The size press coats sizing fluid in the surface of the paper at the dryer part to improve the printing performance. Formally, it was difficult to coat the sizing fluid of high concentration. This improvement enables to coat high concentration sizing fluid, reduces the drying load, and make high speed coating possible. 7.2.2 Structure explanation, shape, and/or system diagram : 1). The improved size pressed is equipped with coater heads constituted of metaling rods or blades which control the coating thickness. 2). The coating weight is control by the shape of grooves of metaling rods, the angle of the blade, and linear pressure. The coating weight on the front and rear sides can be controlled separately. The coating weight can also be controlled along the width.

Fig.1. size press of gate-roll type blade type Figure 7.2

Fig.2. size press of rod-

7.2.3 Energy saving effect The consumption of drying steam after coating is reduced by 50%.

7.3 DRYER WITH DRYER BARS INSTALLED INSIDE FOR PAPER MAKING MACHINE:7.3.1 Description When a paper making machine is run faster than 300m/min, steam condensate in dryer drums covers the entire inside surface of the dryer drums and heat transfer is reduced. This phenomenon is known as rimming (fig 1). In order to increase the heat transfer efficiency and save energy consumption by a high speed papermaking machine, a number of fixed siphom tubes, called dryer bars, are installed inside of dryer drums. 7.3.2 Structure, explanation, shape and system diagram: 1. 15 To 30 pieces of bar are attached to the inside surface of the dryer drum in a ring form at fixed interval along the axial direction. The cross-sectional area of a bar is about 6cm-sq. 2. The steam condensate existing between the bars is maintained in the state of turbulent flow with a rotation of the drum and the heat transfer is maintained high. 3. The bars are fixed in a ring form in direct contact with a inside surface of dryer drum.

7.4ROTATIONAL CONTROL OF EQUIPMENT IN A PAPER MAKING PROCESS: 7.4.1 Description: The pulp and paper mills operate a large number rotating machines: pumps, blowers and others. The paper making machines, in particular, continuously operate large machines. The present case incorporated rotation control in the newly installed paper machine and thus promote energy saving. 7.4.2 Structure, explanation, shape and system diagram: 1. Press pit pulper: The press pit pulper requires a processing capacity of 360tons/day, while the paper making machine run out of paper: However under normal conditions it operates at a rate of 30ton/day. The rotation is reduced to 40% of the capacity to reduce energy consumption under normal operating conditions, with a provision to automatically increase the rotation to 100% in case of paper making machine running out of paper. Thus, energy consumption is reduced to normal operating conditions. Specification of the facilities Motor with eddy current coupling : 215 kW, 1480 rpm Output in case of paper making machine running out of paper: 156 kW, 1440 rpm Output under normal condition: 72 kW, 1000rpm Operation hour a year : 8000(with high speed operation 200 hr) Energy savings :(156-72)*(8000-200)= 655000 kWh

8 PLANT UTILITIES Utilities are the essential requirement of any plant after a raw material. That is why their proper utilization, conversion and optimization are becoming more important. The utilization used in the DME plant: 1). Instrument air 2). Steam boiler feed water 3). General water 4). Electrical power 5). Fuel gas 6). Air process and instrumentation

8.1 AIR PROCESS AND INSTRUMENTATION Air process is utilised in all pneumatic units of plant. Moisture is the greatest enemy of the system and is therefore methodically removed from air before it is used. Moisture can cause rust and scale formation which cause result in clogging of the orifices. Also pressure drop increases and the sludge could be formed due to condensation of moisture in the lines and equipments. The air is compressed in reciprocating compressor. There is one or more compressor to provide the required air at a specific pressure during cooling water droplets condensed and are separated. However at exit of the cooler, the air is saturated with water vapour. To completely remove the moisture desiccants like silica gel, activated alumina and molecular sieves are used. These desiccants are referable by heating desiccants which have already adsorbed the water vapour. The reactivation temperature is 140-210 C. The desiccants work in 7-8 hrworking and 7-8 hr off cycle. The resultant air is : dry air. This air should be of good quality, free of all air is passed through filters. If present in air, dust particles may get deposited on catalyst and deactivated. The plant uses pneumatic control for

all the equipments. Then air should be of prescribed quality, i.e. compressed and dematerialized. Air is passed through silica gel and filters and compressed to 5-6 atm pressure. Filters are provided in the lines and the supply lines through the individual instruments should be connected at the top of the instrumentation air header.

8.2 HEAT TRANSFER MEDIA To remove the heat generated in the reactor as the result of exothermic reaction, fused salt may be used. Fused salt is a eutectic mixture of NaNO3(7%) KNO3(53%) and NaNO2(40%). Dowtherm is not suitable for the purpose as it start decomposing at the prevailing temperature. Fused salt is a melted mixture of the three components and because of its higher heat carrying capacity one is suitable for the purpose. Its heat capacity is higher then many other heat transfer media. At the same it is quit suitable up to 550 C. As the temperature of the fused salts never reaches even 400 C, it is stable at the operating temperature. Steam is used as a heating media at different places in the plant including : the re-boiler of the distribution columns at the same time is generated in a waste heat at a pressure of 1.01 bars and is obtained also from process streams coming as a bottom product from distillation columns. Steam generated from the salt is high pressure steam and is used for the power generation purpose. Water used for steam generated is demineralized water and is obtained by removal of hardness of water. 8.3 WATER: No plant runs without water although there are many plants which do not require air or heat transfer media or refrigeration for plant operation. Water may be needed as process water, cooling water or boiler feed water. Need of water in one or another form or all forms varies from plant to plant. Water is also used after demineralized for the steam generation purpose. The total amount of water required for the purpose depend upon the amount of steam to be generated and its pressure and temperature.

pH Turbidity Free carbon di oxide Total hardness

7-9 50 ppm 5 ppm 85- 150 ppm Table 8.1

Normal water coming from rivers and lakes is impure and it hardness is quite high. This water cannot be used for steam generation because of its fouling and corrosive tendencies at higher temperatures. Water is therefore removed of its hardness using carbonates of sodium and potassium zeolites are also used for water softening. The boiler feed water needs extra purification. It is free of calcium and magnesium ions by treating it with sodium carbonate. Silica particles should also be removed; oil is removed to prevent carbonaceous deposits. This water is then aerated to remove CO2. Thereby preventing the formation of carbonic acid. No cooling tower is required, because cooling water to be used in the partial condenser is at 60 degree centigrade and the outlet will therefore be at high temperature and it cannot be cooled by cooling tower because of the following reasons: Water flow rate is very less for cooling tower to be installed. Cooling water at 69 C is highly corrosive. Thus demineralized water is preferred for cooling in partial condenser. 8.4 REFRIGRATION The temperature is maintained at various points in the plant are above normal temperatures and cooling below atmospheric is not at all required. So no refrigeration unit are required. 8.5 ELECTRIC POWER The power requirement 1 hour plant is not high because there is no moving equipment nor there is any agitators etc. Power required for pumps, compressors and lights can be achieved partially by the generation of power through high pressure steam. The high pressure steam can also be generated from gas, coal or oil fired boilers and two steams are collected in same here.

INSTRUMENTATION Instrumentation is provided the key process variables during the plant operations. They may be incorporated in automatic control loops, or used for the manual monitoring of the process operation. They may also be part of an automatic computer data logging system. Instruments monitoring critical process variables will be fitted automatic alarms to alert the operation to critical and hazardous situations. It is desirable that the process variable to measured directly; often however , this is impractical and some depended variable, that is easier to measure, is monitored to its place. For example, in the control of the distillation Column the continuous, online analysis of the over head product is desirable, but difficult and expensive to achieve reliably. So temperature is often monitored as an indication of composition. The temperature instrument may form a part of a control loop controlling, say reflux flow; with the composition of the overhead checked frequently by sampling and laboratory analysis. 9.1 Instrumentation air: The primary objective of the designer when specifying and control objectives are: 1. Safe plant operation: To keep the processing variables within known safe operating limits. To detect dangerous situations and to provide alarms and automatic shutdown system. To provide inter-lock and alarms to prevent dangerous operating procedures. 2. Production rate: To achieve the design product output. 3. Product quailties To maintain the product composition within the specified quality standards. 4. Cost

To operate at the lowest production cost, with the other objectives. These are not separate objectives and must be considered together. The order in which they are listed is not mean to employ the presidency of any objective over another, other than that of putting safety first. Product quality, production rate and the cost of production will be dependent on sale requirement for example it may be better strategy to produce the better quality product at a higher cost.

9.2 AUTOMATIC CONTROL SCHEMES Specialists usually do the detail designed and specification of the automatic control schemes for a large product. 9.3 GUIDED RULE: The following procedures can be used when drawing up preliminary P AND I DIAGRAM: 1. Identify and draw in those control loops that are obviously needed for steady state plant operation such as: Level control Flow control Pressure control Temperature control

2. Identify the key process variables that need to be control to achieve the specified product quality. Include control loop using direct measurement of the controlled variable, where possible: if not practicable select a suitable dependent variable. 3. Identify and include those additional control loops required for safe operation. 4. Decide and show those ancillary instruments needed for the monitoring of the plant operation by operators: and for trouble shooting and plant development. It is well worthwhile including additional connection for instrument which may be needed for future trouble shooting and plant development, even if the instrument

are not installed permanently. This would include extra thermowells, pressure tapping, orifice flangesand extra sample points. 5. Decide on the location of the sample point. 6. Decide on the need for recorders and the location of the read out points, local and control rooms. This step would be done in conjunctions with step 1-4. 7. Decide on the alarms and interlocks needed: this would be done in conjunction with step 3.

9.4 TYPICAL CONTROL SYSTEM: 9.4.1 level control: In any equipment where an interface exist between two phase (e.g. liquid- vapor), some means of maintain the interface at required level must be provided. This may be incorporated in the design of the equipment. Figure shown a typical arrangement, as is usually done for the decanters by automatic control of the flow of the equipment. Level control arrangement finds position at the base of a column. The control valve should be placed on the discharge line from the pump. 9.4.2 Pressure control: Pressure control will be necessary for the most stumps handling vapor or gas. The method of controlling will depend on the nature of process. Typical schemes are proposed when vented gas was toxic, or valuable. In these circumstances the vent should be taken to a vent recovery system, such as scrubber. 9.4.3 Flow control: Flow control is usually associated with inventory control in a storage tank or other equipment. There must be a reservoir to take up the charges ions flow rate. To provide flow control on a compressor or pump at a fix speed and a supplying a near constant output, a by-pass control would be used. 9.4.4 Heat exchanger:

In the simplest arrangement, the temperature being control by varying the flow of cooling and the heating medium. If the exchange is between two process streams whose flows a fixed by-pass control will have to be used. 9.4.5 Condenser control: Temperature control is unlikely to be effective for condenser, unless the liquid stream is sub cooled. Pressure control is often used, or control based on outlet coolant temperature. 9.4.6 Re-boiler and vaporizer: As with condensers, temperature control is not effective, as the saturated vapor temperature is at constant pressure. Level control is often use for vaporizer; the controller controlling the stream supply to the heating surface, with the liquid feed to the vaporizer on flow control. Increase in the feed result in automatic increase in stream to the vaporizer, increase flow and maintain the level constant. 9.4.7 Cascade control: With the arrangement, the output of one controller is used to adjust set point of another. Cascade control can give smoother control in situation where direct control of the variable would lead to unstable operation. The slave controller can be used to compensate for any short- term variations in a service stream flow, which would upset the control variable; the primary (master) controller long term variation. 9.4.8 Ratio control: Ratio control can be used where it is desired to maintain two flow at a constant ratio for e.g., reactor feeds and distillation column reflux. 9.4.9 Distillation column control: The primary objective of distillation column control is to maintain the specified composition of the top and bottom products, and any side streams; correcting for the effects of disturbances in : Feed flow rate, composition and temperature. Stream supply pressure

Cooling water pressure and header temperature. Ambient composition, which causes changes in internal reflux. The compositions are controlled by regulating reflux flow and boil up. The column overall material balance must be control; distillation column has little surge capacity (hold up) and the flow of distillate and bottom product and side streams must match the feed flows. A variety of controls schemes have been devised for distillation column control. Column pressure is normally controlled at a constant value. The feed flow-rate is often set by the level controller on a preceding column it can be independently controlled if the column is fed from a storage or surge tank feed temperature is not normally controlled, unless a feed preheated is used. Temperature is often used as an indication of composition. The temperature sensor should be located at the position in the column where the rate of change of temperature with change in composition of the key component in a maximum. Near top and bottom of the column the change is useless mall. With multi component systems, temperature is not unique function of composition. Top temperature usually controlled by varying the reflux ratio, and bottom temperatures by varying the boil-up rate if reliable on-line analyzers are available they can be incorporated in the control loop, but more complex equipment will be needed. Differential; pressure control is often used on packed column to ensure the packing operates at the correct loading. Additional temperature indication or recording points should be includedup the column for monitoring column performance and for trouble shooting. 9.4.10 Reactor control: The schemes used for reactor control depending on the process at the type reactor. If reliable online analyzer is available, and the reactor dynamics are suitable, the product composition can be monitored continuously and the reactor conditions and feed flow controlled automatically the desired product composition and yield. Reactor temperature will normally be controlled by regulating the flow of heating or cooling medium. Pressure is usually held constant. Material balance control will be necessary to maintain the correct the flow of reactants to the reactor and the flow of products and unreacted materials from reactor.

9.4.11Alarms, Safety, Trips and Interlocks alarms: Alarms are used to alert operators of serious and potentially hazardous deviation in process conditions. Key instruments are fitted with switches and really to operate audible and visual alarms on the control panels and enunciators panels, where delay or lack of response, by the operator is likely to lead to the rapid development of hazardous situations, the instruments would be fitted with a trip system to pumps, closing valve, operating emergency systems. The basic components of the automatic control systems are: 1.A sensor to monitor control variable and to provide an output signal when a present value is exceeded. 2. A link to transfer the signals to the actuator, usually consisting if a system pneumatic or electrical relays. 3. An actuator to carry out the required action; closed or open a valve, switch off a motor. 9.5 SAFETY: A safety trip can be incorporated in a control loop, as shown in figure. In this system, high temperature alarm operates a solenoid valve, releasing the air on the pneumatic activators, closing the valve on a high temperature. However the safe operations of such a system will dependent on the reliability of the control equipment, and for potential hazardous situation it is better practice to specify a separate trip system; as shown in the figure. Provision must be made for the periodic checking of the trip system to ensure the system operates when needed. 9.5.1 INTERLOCKS: It is employed where it is necessary to follow a fixed sequence of operations. For example, during a plant start-up and shut down, or in batch operation interlocks are included to prevent operators, departing from the required sequence. They may be incorporated in the controlled system design as the pneumatic or electrical

relays, or may be mechanical interlocks. Special locks with various properties and key system are available.

9.5.2 COMPUTERS AND MICROPROCESSORS IN PROCESS CONTROL: Computers are being increasingly used for data login, process monitoring and controlled. They have largely suppressed the strip charts and analog controllers seen in the older plants. The long instruments panels and mimic flow charts displays have been replaced by intelligent video display units. This provides a window on the process. Operator and technical supervisor can call up and display any section of the process to review the operating parameters and adjust control setting. Abnormal and alarm situation are highlighted and displayed. Historical operating data is retained in the computer memory. Averages and trends can be displayed, for plant investigation and trouble shooting. Software to continuously update and optimized plant performance can be incorporated in the computer control systems. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used for the control and interlocking of the processes where a sequential operating step has to be carried out, such as in the batch processes and in the start-up and shut-down of the continuous process.

10. PLANT LAYOUT Many different factor must be considered for plant location. Primarily the plant should be located where the minimum cost of production and distribution can be obtained, but other factor such as room of expansion and general living condition are also important. An appropriate idea as to the plant location should be obtained before a design project reaches the detailed estimated stage. The choice of final site should first be based on the complete survey of the advantage and this advantage of various geographical areas and ultimately on the advantages and disadvantages of available real estate. Following factor should be considered in choosing a plant site: 1. Raw materials 2. Markets 3. Energy availability 4. Climate 5. Transport facility 6. Water supply 7. Labor supply 8. Water disposal 9. Taxation and legal restriction 10. Site characteristics 11. Community factors 10.1 RAW MATERIAL: The source of raw material is one of the most important factors influencing the selection of the plant site. This is true if large volume of raw material are consumed, because location near the transportation and storage changes availability and reliability of supply. 10.2 MARKETS:

The location of a markets on intermediate distribution center effect the cost of the product distribution and the time required for the transportation. Proximate in to the major market is an important consideration in the selection of plant site, because the buyer usually find it advantageous to purchase from nearby sources. Market are needed for buy product as well as major final products. 10.3 ENERGY AVAILABILITY: Power and steam is required in most industrial plant and fuel is ordinarily required to supply these utilities. 10.4 CLIMATE Excessive humidity of extremes of hot cold weather have a serious effect on the economic operation of the plant, and the factors should be examined when selecting a plant site. 10.5 TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES: The kind amount of products and the raw materials determine the suitable type of transportation facilities. Motor trucking facilities are extensively used and served as useful supplement to rail and water facilities. Atleast two type of transport facility should be available. 10.6 WATER SUPPLY: Water is used for cooling, washing, steam generation in the industries. The planttherefore must be located where a dependable supply of water is available. A large river or lake is preferable, although deep wells may be satisfactory if amount of water required not too great. The temperature, mineral content, slit and sand contents bacteriological content, and cost of supply and purification treatment must be considered. 10.7 WASTE DISPOSAL: There are many legal restrictions on disposing of waste minerals from the process industries. The site selected for a plant should have adequate capacities and facilities for correct water disposal. The permissible tolerance levels for various

methods of waste disposal must be considered carefully and attention should be given to potential requirements for additional waste treatment facilities. 10.8 LABOR SUPPLY: The type of supply of labor available in the vicinity of the proposed plant site must be examined. 10.9 TAXATION AND LEGAL RESTRICTION: State and local text rate on the property, income and unemployment insurance vary from location to another. Local regulations on building codes, nuisance aspects and transportation facility have a major influence on the final choice of a plant site.

10.10 SITE CHARACTERSTICS: The topography of the land and the soil must be considered, since either or both may have a pronounced effect on the construction cost. Seismological zone in which the site is must be considered. The cost of the land is important, as well as local building coast and living condition. Additional space is required for future expansion. 10.11 FLOOD AND THE PROTECTION: Before choosing the plant site, the regional history natural events, also flood should be examined and the consequence of such occurrences should be considered. Protection from losses by is another important factor. In case of major fire, assistance from outside fire department should be available. 10.12 COMMUNITY FACTOR: It is certain minimum number of facilities for the satisfactory living of the plant personal do not exist, it often become a burden for the plant to subside such facilities cultural facilities of the community to sound growth, example libraries, school, civic theater, means of recreation etc.

11.SOURCES OF POLUTION AND ITS CHARACTERSTICS

11.1 STOCK PREPARATION: Cleaner and screen rejects can be uo to few percent of total production, normally below 1%. It is not possible to define an acceptable rate of suspended solids discchrge since it depends on product specification and cleanliness of raw materials. The BOD of discharge is genrally negligible unless there are significant leaks, or other losses due to equipment weaknesses. There is no significant atmospheric emission or solid wate from stock preparation department. 11.2 PAPER MACHINE SYSTEM: Stock generally arrived at the paper machine area at a constancy of between 3-12% consistency. The final product is about 90% dry, so that from about 7-30 tonns of water must be discharged per ton of paper produced. In addition, up to 15 tons of water per ton of paper added by paper machine shower and agitator seal water, which must be discharge at the same point. RAYTHEON ENGINEERS and CONSULTANTS INC (1995) say that the typical water consumption for a secondary fiber mill is 12 meter per ton paper produced. MYREEN (1994) confirms it by indicating the fresh water consumption in paper and board mill vary between 2-20 meter per ton of paper produced depending in the grade required. It also indicates that water discharge in cubic meter per ton of paper produced as follows: News print : 5-15 Light weight paper : 12-20 Wood free printing paper : 5-10 METCALF and EDDY (1991) says that fresh water consumption value vary between 120-158m3/ton of paper produced this may be a general values since it does not give the specification such as the type of raw material, type of process etc. About 1.5 ton of water per ton of paper is evaporated and a large portion of remaining water is used for stock dilution prior to the paper machine area. But KLINE (1991) says about 2 tons of water per ton of water evaporated.

11.3 FINISHING AND CONVERTING: Most of the finishing operation produced little or no liquid waste, except in the case of coating operation. This can generate 10 % of the total production as dry brock which is repulped and recycled at the stock preparation department. 11.4 UTILLITY SECTION: Practically all paper mills have boilers which use bunker carbon oil as fuel. When oil is burned, particulate matter and sulfur compounds are formed. The amount of sulfur compounds depends on the amount of sulfur in the oil (TUPAS, 1995). Mills that use saw dust as fuel will emit unburned carbon particles to the atmosphere when there is no complete combustion.

12.COGENRATION IN PAPER MILL

12.1 INTRODUCTION: Cogeneration or combine heat or power is the use of a heat engine or power station to simultaneously generate electricity and useful heat. Co-generation is thermodynamically efficient use of fuel. In separate production of electricity, some energy must be discarded as waste heat, but in cogeneration this thermal energy is put to use. The supply of high temperature heat first drives a gas or steam turbines power generator and a resulting low temperature waste heat is then used for water or space heating as described in cogeneration. The 1990s have seen a tremendous growth in electricity production by cogeneration. In contrast to conventional power plant, cogeneration facilities can be developed, sited and constructed in relatively short time periods. This produces electricity where it is needed(thereby a wording construction and maintenance of extensive transmission line), and allows efficiency to be gained Inthe system by sitting these plants in proximity to industries that can utilize steam, such as pulp and paper mills. Cogeneration plant developed by pulp and paper mills can also be an effective means of managing waste. The two largest waste volumes from typical pulp and paper mills are wood waste and sludge. The wood waste material are largely bark and saw dust, which are waste material from operation of the wood room and / or saw mill. Sludges are settling suspended solids present in the mean effluent stream which are removed through primary clarification. Sludges are periodically disposed of through land spreading, and wood waste is periodically removed of side by contractor, although burning and land filling are the most common management techniques. Pulp and paper mills have been burning wood waste and sludge in combination fuel fired boilers from many years. This technology is the new one. However, in an increasingly competitive world, economics are requiring that pulp means become more self-sufficient. One effective means of addressing this through selfproduction steam and electricity with in the mill property. This introduces

cogeneration. Cogeneration simply means using the fuel twice, that is, for generation of shaft power and usable exhaust heat. A multi fuel cogeneration plant involves using more than one fuel. As examples of recent pulp mill power facilities, this means using wood waste/sludge and natural gas as fuel. The pulp and paper industry is significant consumer of energy. Combined heat and power (CHEP)plant can be designed to meet the mill heat or electricity requirement. In most cases, the captive power plant is designed to satisfy a mills electricity requirement with the remaining heat supplied by low cost package boilers, which result out of island mode operation. To maximize thermal efficiency; the CHP plant should be designed to meet heat demand with excess electricity sold to the grid. Potential for further CHP used in the industry may be limited by economies of scale which make investment in small plant less economical. The ability to sell access power to grid may become crucial in making CHP investments more attractive in tne industry. Most energy used in papermaking is for pulping and paper drying. The need for large amount of makes combined heat-and-power (CHP) attractive technology in the sector, and the Indian paper mills have therefore consciously and increasingly opted for their own CHP unit. The National Energy Map for India- a technology vision for 2030 reports that 81% of all Indians paper mills used cogeneration with in their plants. This statement however may lead to a misinterpretation or reality or a wrong perception of the quality and real penetration of CHP in the sector. 12.2 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION FOR COGENERATION: The following represents some of the area that a mill must consider when deciding whether or not to build a cogeneration power plant: Current availability of electricity for the mill; Reliability of electricity supply; Power purchased cost; Usefulness of additional steam; Reliability of stream from the existing power boilers; Costs of stream production and cost effectiveness of the existing power boiler system; and

Existing power boiler/ hog fuel boiler emission relative to existing environmental regulations. 12.3 CAPTIVE POWER GENERATION The overall electrical consumption of the indian pulp and paper sector in 20052006 was 3,986.47GWh/a according to the report of central electrical authority( CEA) that provides data on captive power plants larger than 1MW. It mention that the installed captive generating capacity was 862.8 MW as shown in the following table: Installed capacity(as on 31.03.06) Yearly [GHW] 3451 525 4.92 3980 generation (2005/06) Load factor [-] 0.534 0.489 0.157 0.526 Table 12.1 generating capacity in the paper industry distributed by generation technology The reported captive power generation technology in the Indian pulp and paper sector is based on steam turbines accounting for 85% of the sectors captive generation capacity. The sector is generating about 81% of required power in captive plants while the remaining 90% is purchased from commercial utilities providers. However, generated electricity is used also for non-industrial purposes. In aggregate, 3.2% of power during that year was exported to utilities and up to 8.2% was used to power auxiliary services, such as employee homes, schools, etc. More than 77% of the captive of power generation in the pulp and paper sector is located in only 8 states, namely Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, MP, Maharashtra, and Gujarat as shown in fig 1. 12.4 ESTIMATE OF CHP POTENTIAL: The Indian paper production can be classified into three categories on the basis of raw material used for pulp and paper production: wood-based, agro-based and Unit [MW] Steam 736.8 Diesel 122.5 Wind 3.58 total 862.8

recycled material-based paper production. Their estimated average heat consumption are given in table Pape No.o Power Thermal r f consumption consumption prod. mill specif Secto Specific sector s ic r [Mt/ a] Wood based Agro based RCF based Avera ge Total 2 2.1 3.3 7.4 (ca.) [kWh [GW el/tpaper hel/a] ] 20 1400 2800 130 350 500 1200 800 1076 2520 2640 7960 [tsteam/tpa per] 12 9 5 8.0 Power Therma CH to heat l load P ratio Pot enti al [GWhth/a [-] [MWth] [M ] Wel] 16825 13250 11567 41642 0.166 0.190 0.228 0.201 2086 1643 1434 5163 417 329 287 103 3

Table 12.2 Energy consumption in the Indian pulp and paper industry an estimated CHP potential (*with assumed plant load factor of 0.92) In order to estimate the potential of CHP in the pulp and paper industry, this study assumes that the steam for each paper plant is generated via a CHP cycle, with a back pressure turbine delivering a power to heat ratio of 0.20. capital utilization factor of the paper industry is assumed to be 0.92 living to a theoretical full load operation of 8060 hr/year, the resulting potential of the 3 categories of the paper plant is calculated as follows : Wood-based plant : 417 MW Agro-based plant : 329 MW Recycling paper plant : 287 MV

The CHP potential can be considered as a conservative estimate due to the fact that plant load factors estimated as 0.92 are relatively high compare to the average plant load factor of 0.554 of existing steam based power plants. Additionally, this study is modeled on the basis of state of the art technology, but still with moderate power to heat ratio. As seen in table 1, captive steam based power plants larger then 1 MW generated 3451 GWh of electricity in 2005-2006. Assuming that all these plant are equipped back pressure turbines with a power to heat ratio of 0.20, these plant would generated 17250 GWh of thermal energy, about 41 % of heat demand of the entire sector. Consequently, the remaining heat, 59% of the total, must be generated either In low pressure steam boilers or in CHP plants smaller then 1MW. As small CHP plants are not implemented potential with in the pulp and paper sector can be estimate to be above 60% with the above met assumptions, this is equivalent to 600MW electrical generation capacities. 12.5 CONCLUSION The potential of CHP in the Indian pulp and paper sector is significant. More then 60% of the required heat is generated via regular low pressure steam boilers. Additionally, the installed CHP plants could be improved significantly as regards energy efficiency. Consequently, the electrical generating potential in the sector is atleast 600MW. A barrier for CHP may be relatively low plant load factor of 0.534, indicating fluctuation in heat or electricity demand necessitating special care to be taken in plant design and demand side energy management. An optimum plant design and plant operation can be identified by computer simulation leading to the most energy efficient and, therefore, economic solution CHP plant. By removing institutional barriers and promoting latest technology and optimum plant layout, the Indian pulp and paper sector could generate electricity via energy efficient CHP mode not only to satisfy its own needs. It could also export electricity to the grid. Therefore, CHP can contribute towords sustaining Indias economic growth and ecological friendly future.

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