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# 3.

## 3 CALCULATION OF STORED MATERIAL FROM STRUCTURAL POINT OF VIEW

(For proper working of high level probe a clearance of 2.00 m from top is required)
Volume above cone
= 15117 M3
Volume of cone portion
=
2947 M3
3
Volume of filling concrete
=
55
M
Weight of material
= 25428 T Considering density of material
3.4 VERICAL LOAD CALCULATION FOR DESIGN OF FOUNDATION
1.0 Dead Loads
=
Weight of Roof Slab including supporting Beams
=
Weight of Silo Wall upto Bottom of Inverted Cone
=
Weight of Inverted Cone
=
Weight of Filling Concrete around Inverted Cone
Weight of Intermediate Floors below the Inverted Cone
=
=
Weight of Silo Wall upto Ground Level
=
Weght of Silo Wall From GL to Top of Foundation
=
Weight of Foundation Raft (Net Weight)
=
Weight of Filling above Foundation upto GL
=
Weight of Ground Floor Slab
TOTAL DEAD LOAD =

147.26
5036.74
785.38
137.42
75.40
2356.29
67.09
2451.38
613.55
42.41
11713.00

## 2.0 Material Loads

Material above Cone
Material in Cone portion
Material in Bin below the Inverted Cone
Load on Top from bag Filter, conveyor etc.
Load from air Slide, Fan, Stair Case, Conveyor, Bag Filter
Axial Load in Cone
TOTAL MATERIAL LOAD

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

21164
4126
224
25
15
10
25565

## 3.0 Live Loads

Live Load on Roof Slab
Live on Intermediate Floors below Inverted Cone
TOTAL LIVE LOAD

=
=
=

344.71 T
314.16 T
659.00 T

47.00

1.00

## 3.5 HORIZONTAL LOADS ON SILO STRUCTURE

1.0 Wind Loads
(as per IS: 875 Part 3 - 1987)
Vb
i) Basic wind speed
k1
ii) Probability Factor

1.4

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

T/M

(2 floors @

## (circular raft considered)

(consider 150 thick slab)

T
T
T (consider 160 T bin capacity)
T
T
T

## iii) Terrain height & Struct. Size factor

iv) Terrain height & Struct. Size factor

k2

0.98

(Upto 10.0 M)

k2

1.02

(10.0 M to 15.0 M)

## v) Terrain height & Struct. Size factor

vi) Terrain height & Struct. Size factor

k2

1.05

(15.0 M to 20.0 M)

k2

1.10

(20.0 M to 30.0 M)

## vii) Terrain height & Struct. Size factor

viii) Terrain height & Struct. Size factor

k2

1.15

(30.0 M to 50.0 M)

k2

1.22

## ix) Topography Factor

x) Design wind speed

k3

1.00

Vz

46.06

(Upto 10.0 M)

## xi) Design wind speed

xii) Design wind speed

Vz

47.94

(10.0 M to 15.0 M)

Vz

49.35

(15.0 M to 20.0 M)

## xiii) Design wind speed

xiv) Design wind speed

Vz

51.70

(20.0 M to 30.0 M)

Vz

54.05

(30.0 M to 50.0 M)

Vz

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

57.34
0.127
0.138
0.146
0.160
0.175
0.197

T/M2
T/M2
T/M2
T/M2
T/M2
2
T/M

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

110.761
58.755
26.879
5.976
6.881
11.556
21.334
0.000
0.000

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

## Wind load upto 10.0 M from GL.

Wind load from 10.0 M to 15.0 M.
Wind load from 15.0 M to 20.0 M.
Wind load from 20.0 M to 30.0 M
Wind load from 30.0 M to 50.0 M
Wind load from 50.0M and above

1
2
3
4
5
5
6
7
8

## Wind Load between

Wind Load between
Wind Load between
Wind Load between
Wind Load between
Wind Load between
Wind Load between
Wind Load between
Wind Load between

83.50
50.00
30.00
20.00
17.56
15.00
10.00
0.00
-0.50

## Moment about raft bottom

Moment about raft top
Moment about Invt. Cone bot.

50.00
30.00
20.00
17.56
15.00
10.00
0.00
-0.50
-3.50

M and
M and
M and
M and
M and
M and
M and
M and
M and
=
=
=

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

11738.299
11011.877
6974.051

TM
TM
TM

=
=
=
=
=
=
& at
& at
& at
& at
& at
& at
& at
& at
& at

2.133
2.311
2.449
2.688
2.938
3.306

50.00
30.00
20.00
17.56
15.00
10.00
0.00
-0.50
-3.50

M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

T/M
(on Silo width)
T/M
(on Silo width)
T/M
(on Silo width)
T/M
(on Silo width)
T/M
(on Silo width)
T/M
(on Silo width)
Shear (T)
Moment (TM)
110.761
1855.241
169.516
4658.006
6487.558
196.394
6974.051
202.370
7500.926
209.251
8576.070
220.807
10890.807
242.141
11011.877
242.141
11738.299
242.141

Ta

## a) Fundamental Natural Period of Vibration

b)
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Type of Soil.
Basic Horizontal Seismic coefficient
Importance Factor
Response Reduction Factor
Design Horizontal Seismic coefficient
Item
Top Slab
Top Shell
Bot Shell
Inv. Cone
Equip. Floor
Material
above Inv.
Cone Top
Material
below Inv.
Cone Top

A0

I
R
Ah

0.09
x
sqrt (d)
1.64186 s
Hard
0.016
1.75
3.00
0.02842

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Mass

Moment about
Invt. Cone bot.

2138.759
7711.202
39.867
144.293
7.019

2064.945
7283.036
29.925
128.161
5.269

1620.585
4705.475

615.464

38536.978

36690.586

25575.304

32.541

1061.042

963.420

375.736

49639.159

47165.340

32277.100

62.61

16613.62

65134936

32.61

3239.10

3443796

29011.94

87268574
VB

Soft
1.017

raft top

2603924
15104362
350715
569092
61749

TYPE OF SOIL
Medium
0.828

Moment about

344.62
5174.17
2423.39
790.38
426.68

TOTAL

Hard
0.609

## = Height of the building, in M

= Base dimension of the building at
plinth level, in M

raft bottom

Wihi2
24.605
142.722
3.314
5.377
0.583

Wihi

h
d

Moment about

Ht. from
Base hi
86.93
54.03
12.03
26.83
12.03

VB X

Wi

824.606

Wihi

## 3.6 NET BEARING PRESSURE ON FOUNDATION

Assumed dimension of Raft Foundation

1.0 DL + LL + ML
Load =
Bearing Pressure =

Circular of diameter =
Area =
Allowable Bearing Pressure =

37323.5 T
38.9732 T/M2

## 2.0 DL + LL + Mat. Load + WL

r (max)
Max.Bearing Pressure
r (min)
Min.Bearing Pressure

=
=

3.0 DL + LL + WL
Max.Bearing Pressure

r (max)

Min.Bearing Pressure

r (min)

## 4.0 DL + 0.5LL + Mat. Load + SL

r (max)
Max.Bearing Pressure
r (min)
Min.Bearing Pressure

=
=

M
34
957.67 M2
40 T/M2

Thickness =

OK

42.02 T/M2
35.93 T/M2

OK

15.32 T/M2
9.24 T/M2

OK

51.49 T/M2
25.76 T/M2

3.00

a

a
r

a
b
q

=
=
=

10.050 M
17.00 M
58.46 T/M

## (q = MAX( 1.5*(DL+LL+ML), 1.2*(DL+LL+ML+WL), 1.2*(DL+LL+WL), 1.2*(DL+0.5LL+ML+SL)

has been considered for reinforcement calculation)
0.2
= poinssion's ratio
m =
r/a
r =
b/a
= 1.69154
b =
f0
f1
= 1 - r4
= 1 f2
f3
= r2 loger
= loger
f4
= 1/r2 - 1
k1
k2
Qr

=
=
=
=
=

For r
Mr

Mt

Qr

For r

2
(
-1.0412
2
(
-14.776
a
q
2
1
q a2
16
q a2
16
a
q
2
>
1
q a2
16

m )

( 1

m )

( 3

m )

k1

k1

-(
-

m )

b
b

( 1
( 1

f1

r2

2
b logeb

m )

2
b logeb

m )

Mr

Mt

For

For

qa2 [ k - (
1
16
9.81
r
0
r

For

2.45313

For

4.90625

For

For

For
For
For
For

b
r

[ k1 - (
1

( 3

m )

( 3

m )

m )

( 1

3 +m) + (

3 +m) f1

+ 3m) + (

1 -m)

+ 3m) f1

m )

f1]

b 2f4

1 -m)

b 2f3]

m)

b 2f4

m)

b 2f3]

0.98

f0

0.09

f1

0.05

f2

-0.02

f3

-0.02

f4

0.05

f0

f1

1.00

f2

NA

f3

NA

f4

NA

0.24409 f0

0.99645 f1

0.94

f2

NA

f3

NA

f4

NA

0.48818 f0

0.9432 f1

0.76

f2

NA

f3

NA

f4

NA

7.35938

0.73228 f0

0.71246 f1

0.46

f2

NA

f3

NA

f4

NA

10.475

1.04229 f0

-0.1802 f1

-0.09

f2

0.04

f3

0.04

f4

-0.08

13.7375

1.36692 f0

0.58

f3

0.31

f4

-0.46

17

1.50

f3

0.53

f4

-0.65

r
r

=
=

15.550
13.377

r
r

-0.87 f2
= -2.4911 f1
=
1.69154 f0
-1.86 f2
= -7.1871 f1
=
1.54725 (av distance from outer face of silo wall)
1.33104 (d distance from outer face of silo wall)

## i) At inner face of wall

-1510
Mr =
Mt = -947.13
v) At a distance of 0.75 a
Mr = -1017.5

## ii) At a distance of 0.00 a

iii) At a distance of 0.25 a
iv) At a distance of 0.5 a
Mr = -384.2 TM
Mr = -454.6 TM
Mr = -665.68 TM
Mt = -384.2 TM
Mt = -419.42 TM
Mt = -524.96 TM
TM
vi) At Support (outside face of Silo)
vii) At Mid Point outside Silo
Mr = -1322.9 TM
Mr = -221.28 TM
TM
Mt = -950.1 TM
Mt = -688.58 TM
TM
TM

Mt = -700.86
viii) At End Point outside Silo
ix) At av distance from outer face of silo wall
88.72 T
Mr = -7E-13 TM
Qr =
Mt

-508.57 TM

Qr = 240.48 T

## Reinforcements for Radial Moment

Factored 0.87*
fy*d
Location
Moment
(TM)
N/mm
-1510.0 1047767
At inner face of wall
-384.2 1047767
At Center
-454.6 1047767
At 0.25 a from Center
At 0.50 a from Center
-665.7 1047767
At 0.75 a from Center
-1017.5 1047767
At outside face of Silo
-1322.9 1047767
At midpoint outside Silo -221.3 1047767
At end point outside Silo
0.0
1047767
Reinforcements for Tangential Moment
-947.1 1047767
At inner face of wall
-384.2 1047767
At Center
-419.4 1047767
At 0.25 a from Center
At 0.50 a from Center
-525.0 1047767
At 0.75 a from Center
-700.9 1047767
At outside face of Silo
-950.1 1047767
At midpoint outside Silo -688.6 1047767
At end point outside Silo -508.6 1047767

N/mm3
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343

Reinforcements Required
Steel
Top
Bottom
mm2/M f s in mm f s in mm
51
15848.4 25
NA
32
215
3747.61 32
NA
32
181
4452.18 32
NA
32
122
6602.75 32
NA
32
78
10320.2 32
NA
32
59
13699.5 25
NA
32
376
2138.1 25
NA
32
NA
0
25
NA
32

5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343
5.99343

9562.53
3747.61
4099.15
5162.79
6966.76
9594.22
6839.48
4996.67

0.87*fy2
/(fck*b)

25
32
32
32
32
25
25
25

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32

84
215
196
156
115
84
118
161

Reinforcements Provided
No of
Top
Bottom
Layers
2
mm /M f s in mm f s in mm
100
2
16085 25
100
32
100
1
8042.48 32
100
32
100
1
32
8042.48 32
100
100
1
32
8042.48 32
100
100
2
32
16085 32
100
100
2
16085 25
100
32
100
1
8042.48 25
100
32
100
1
8042.48 25
100
32
Steel

16085
8042.48
8042.48
8042.48
16085
16085
8042.48
8042.48

25
32
32
32
32
25
25
25

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32

## Provide equal reinforcements in two perpendicular directions

Maximum Shear Stress in Foundation
3.10
tc(max) =
Shear Force at a distance av from face of the Silo wall
tv
b

=
=

tc

0.303 N/mm2
0.8 x fck
pt
= 10.5896
= 0.27411
6.89 pt
sqrt ( 0.8 fck) x
0.85
( sqrt ( 1 +
x
5 b) 1)
6 x b
>
tv Hence ok (Shear reinforcement is not required)

0.3796

1.01505

## Shear Force at a distance d from face of the Silo wall

tv
b

=
=

tc

N/mm2
0.8 x fck
= 5.29482
6.89 pt
sqrt ( 0.8 fck)
0.85
x
0.829

pt

0.54823

( sqrt ( 1 +
x
5 b) 6 x b x av
(As per IS 456 : 2000, Clause no. 40.5.1, where av = d)
>

1)

2d

2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1

## 3.8 Pressure Calculation on Silo Wall

Design parameters to determine Bin Forces
A = Horizontal Interior cross-section of the Silo ( Bin)
(a)
D = Internal Diameter of the Silo ( Bin )
(b)
d = Max. Dia. of the Circle that can be inscribed in the Bin
(c)
h = Height of the Bin
(d)
U = Internal perimeter of the Bin
(e)
R = A/U
(f)
W = Bulk Density of Stored Material (As per TKII)
(g)
Z = Depth below the av. fill level upto PCC filling at the bottom of Cone
(i)
(j)
f = Angle of Internal friction of the stored material
(k)
df = 1.0 x f (As per Table 2 of IS:4995 (Part-1), Powdery material)
(l)
de = 1.0 x f (As per Table 2 of IS:4995 (Part-1), Powdery material)
(m)
lf = (As per Table 2 of IS:4995 (Part-1), Powdery material)
(n)
le = (As per Table 2 of IS:4995 (Part-1), Powdery material)
(o)
mf = tan df
(p)
me = tan de
H = Height of Fill considering level surface at top
(q)

314.159
20.00
20.00
65.79
62.83
5.00
1.40
63.44
36
36
36
0.50
0.70
0.72654
0.72654
63.44

M2
M
M
M
M
M
T/M3
M
O
O
O

Determination of Lateral pressure in wall (Ph), Vertical pressure (Pv) and Frictional pressure (Pw)
Maximum pressure
WR
=
Pw
=
WR/m
Ph
f
=
WR/mf /lf
Pv

During Filling
7.00
=
9.63
=
=

19.27

T/M2
T/M2

Zof

R/mflf

13.76

T/M
M

Zoe

R/mele

9.83

## Toal vertical pressure at level Z =p*D*W*R*(Z-Zo

Z
Z / Z0e Z / Z0f (1 - e -Z/Zoe)
(1 - e -Z/Zof)
1st Stage 2nd Stage 3rd Stage 4th Stage 5th Stage

1.

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(M)
0.35
4.85
9.56
9.63
14.60
19.56
19.63
23.59
27.56
27.63
33.60
39.56
39.63
51.54
63.44
46.12

0.036
0.493
0.972
0.980
1.485
1.990
1.997
2.399
2.803
2.810
3.418
4.024
4.031
5.242
6.453
4.691

Z
(M)
0.35
4.85
9.56
9.63
14.60
19.56
19.63
23.59
27.56
27.63
33.60
39.56
39.63
51.54
63.44

## Frictinal Pres. (T/M2) Total Vertical Load due to

friction on Wall (T)
Filling
Emptying
0.176
0.245
5.38
2.079
2.726
425.35
3.505
4.353
1472.77
3.523
4.372
1491.95
4.577
5.415
3019.94
5.310
6.043
4805.24
5.318
6.050
4831.84
5.739
6.365
6376.24
6.055
6.576
7990.18
6.060
6.579
8019.11
6.391
6.770
10522.80
6.605
6.875
13077.73
6.607
6.876
13107.97
6.834
6.963
18285.90
23501.83
6.930
6.989

0.025
0.352
0.695
0.700
1.061
1.421
1.426
1.714
2.002
2.007
2.441
2.874
2.879
3.745
4.609
3.351

0.03497
0.38941
0.62183
0.62451
0.77351
0.86324
0.86422
0.90923
0.93939
0.93982
0.96721
0.98212
0.98224
0.99471
0.99842
0.99082

0.02511
0.29698
0.50071
0.50325
0.65380
0.75856
0.75978
0.81984
0.86498
0.86567
0.91294
0.94354
0.94383
0.97635
0.99004
0.96494

WR
WR/me
WR/me/le
Pi(z)

During Emptying
7.00
=
9.63
=
=

13.76

T/M2
T/M2
T/M2

= (Pi)max x (1 - e ( -Z/Zo ) )

During Emptying
During Filling
0.3370
0.24191
3.7518
2.86133
5.9911
4.82421
6.0170
4.84861
7.4525
6.29919
8.3171
7.30844
8.3264
7.32024
8.7602
7.89890
9.0507
8.33382
9.0549
8.34042
9.3188
8.79590
9.4624
9.09069
9.4636
9.09345
9.5837
9.40686
9.6195
9.53871
9.5463
9.29690

## Patch Loads & Eccentric Loads

The feed and discharge of materials to and from the silo are symmetrical with respect to the silo.
As such, no additional load need be considered on these accounts.
Pneumatic emptying loads
There will be no further increment in pressure for pneumatic emptying as the maximum aeration pressure provided
through air-slides is around 0.7/0.8 bar which is less than the material pressure calculated at that level.
3.9. Calculation of Vertical Stresses in Silo Wall above Inverted Cone Bottom
DL + LL + ML + SL / WL
Net area of concrete in wall
30.278
=
M2
without reinf. at bottom(Ac)
Area of vertical reinforcement
2
0.27618
=
M
at bottom(As)
Modular Ratio (m)
9.33
= 280/3/scbc =
168.18
Section Modulus
Z =
M3
29056
Axial Load
W =
T
(Total Axial Load=Total vertical load on wall due to friction+Selfweight of silo wall+Self weight of roof slab & equipments+Live load on roof)
Bending Moment
M = 32277
TM
(Maximum bending moment due to wind & seismic at top of ring beam)
M/W
3.413
Eccentricity
e =
1.111 M <
M Therefore, the whole section is under compression
0.475
Shell Thickness
t =
M
Dmean = 20.475
Mean dia.
M
M 30 Grade of Concrete
30050
29056
Maximum allowable compressive force in concrete wall
T
>
T
OK
=
10.55 N/mm2
Maximum compressive stress in concrete shell
<
=
Including moment for wind/seismic load. So 33.33% allowable stress will increase

10.64

As reqd.

OK

mm2
Provide 16f @ 120 c/c (IF), 20f @ 120 c/c (OF) upto 3 stage & 12f @ 120 c/c (IF), 16f @ 120 c/c(OF) above 3rd stage of wall
3.10. Design against Hoop Tension due to Load Ph
Minm. % of Vertical Rebars to be provided as per code

0.20

475

rd

Kd

1.0

## Lateral Pressure ( Ph)

Hoop Tension

Steel

from top
(M)
0.35
4.85
9.56
9.63
14.60
19.56
19.63
23.59
27.56
27.63
33.60
39.56
39.63
51.54
63.44

Design

Factored

T/M2
0.337
3.752
5.991
6.017
7.453
8.317
8.326
8.760
9.051
9.055
9.319
9.462
9.464
9.584
9.619

T/M2
0.590
6.566
10.484
10.530
13.042
14.555
14.571
15.330
15.839
15.846
16.308
16.559
16.561
16.772
16.834

T = Ph * D / 2
T/M of Height
6.037
67.216
107.334
107.797
133.516
149.006
149.173
156.944
162.149
162.223
166.951
169.524
169.546
171.699
172.339

mm2/m
257.411
2866.02
4576.64
4596.39
5693.02
6353.48
6360.62
6691.96
6913.9
6917.07
7118.66
7228.37
7229.3
7321.08
7348.39

Reqd.

3.11 Temperature Change through Bin Wall (refer IS: 4995 Part II - 1974)
o
o
90
5
Ti =
To =
C
C
t
( Ti
- To )
o
x
=
46.14
DT =
C
Cc
1 / K
1
1
t
1
1
0.475
1
=
+
+
=
+
+
Ca
Cc
Cs
15
2
7.5
K
et x DT x Ec I
5000
=
x SQRT scu/2
I = 893099 cm4
Therefore, MDT
= 13.0678 T-M/M
Ast
= 1419.62 mm2/M
MDT

Ec

/
=

Kl

## live Load Factor

Height

1.0

Overpressure Co-efficient

## Rebars (IF) (for hoop tension)

f
mm
16
16
16
16
16
16
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20

s reqd. s prov.
mm (c/c) mm (c/c)
1562
90
140
90
88
90
87
70
71
70
63
70
99
75
94
75
91
75
91
75
88
75
87
75
87
65
86
65
86
65

f
mm
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
25
25
25
25
25
25

s reqd. s prov.
mm (c/c) mm (c/c)
203
90
110
90
85
90
85
70
74
70
68
70
68
60
66
60
64
60
101
75
99
75
98
75
98
70
97
70
96
70

0.4375

t
where,
136930.639 kg/cm2

et

0.000011

1.75

## per degree centigrade

i) Calculation of Crack-Width for Silo Wall (refer IS: 4995 Part II - 1974)
f'
wcr
) ssa
= 10^(-6)
( 4 +r
x
[
1
po
f'

po

As

2.00
As
Act

cm

0.05

ssa

Act

4750.00

cm2

po

6
x

ssa

)2

3610.5

ii) Minimum thickness of Silo Wall (refer IS: 4995 Part II - 1974)
t = 10 + 2.5 * ( D - 3 ) / 3
= 241.67
mm
= 219.67
mm
t = 10 + 2.5 * ( h - 6 ) / 12
150 mm (Minimum for Slipform Concrete)
t =
475.00
t(min) = 241.67 mm Provided
=
mm

OK

iii) Minimum thickness of Silo Wall (refer IS: 4995 Part II - 1974)
t(min) = (n*Es + ssa - mst') * (Ty)st
(100*ssa*st')

## n = Concrete shrinkage coefficient

Es = Modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel

## ssa = Stress in reinforcing steel

m = Modular ratio
scbc = Permissible bending stress in concrete

0.003

= 2000000 kg/cm2
1454.87 kg/cm2

= 280/3/scbc
100

## st' = Tensile strength of concrete

9.333

kg/cm

= 1.19*sqrt(scu) =

## (Ty)st = Static ring tensile force per unit length

t(min) = 134.38 mm

1723

6.52

kg/cm3

kg/cm

## 3.12 Design of Silo Wall upto Inverted Cone Level

a Design Loads , Moments and Shear
i) DL+ LL+ML+ SL i.e. at Top of Base
Area of shell
A = 53.674 M2
Section Modulus
Z = 269.712 M3
Axial Load
W = 34872 T
(Total Axial Load = Total selt weight of structure + Material weight + Equipment load + Live load on structure)
Bending Moment
M = 47165 TM
(Maximum bending moment due to wind & seismic at top of foundation)
824.6 T
Shear Force
S =
M/W
Eccentricity
e =
= 1.35252492 M
0.850 M
Shell Thickness
t =
10.05 M
Mean Radius
r =
6.50 N/mm2
8.0
Max. Compr. Stress
=
<
OK
8.25 N/mm2
10.64 OK
Max. Compr. Stress
=
<
Including moment for wind/seismic load. So 33.33% allowable stress will increase
Minm. % of Vertical Rebars to be provided as per code
120 on each face of the silo
Provide 16 f @
Minm. % of Circumferential Rebars to be provided as per code
120 on each face of the silo
Provide 25 f @

Tm/m
mm
mm2/m

## Factor for Addl. Hor. Pressure

Normal Pressure coeff (Cn)

450
1897.4
66.0
339.9
340.5
1.35
0.75625

0.14073

0.18609

## Temp. Moment =Ec*h^2*ac*Dt/(1-n)

Eff. Thickness
Temp. Steel Reqd.
Maxm. Mom without comp. Steel & N.A at .6
Tensile Stress

0.20
=

<

0.02
OK

2.494

118.46 cm2

0.01459

As reqd.
0.25

850

As reqd.

mm2

1062.5 mm2

Depth
0.77
2.30
3.83
5.36
6.89
8.43
9.96
11.49
13.02
14.55
Total

Dia

Ph

Pv

Normal

Tangent

0.88
2.65
4.42
6.19
7.96
9.73
11.50
13.27
15.04
16.81

11.86
11.89
11.89
11.85
11.77
11.60
11.33
10.91
10.26
9.24

23.73
23.77
23.78
23.71
23.53
23.21
22.66
21.81
20.51
18.48

17.95
17.98
17.98
17.93
17.80
17.55
17.14
16.50
15.51
13.98

3.34
3.35
3.35
3.34
3.31
3.27
3.19
3.07
2.89
2.60

Cantilever Mom
Diff. In Mom. (Temp. Codn.)
Diff. In Mom. (Cantilever Codn.)
Design Mom
Axial Force (imposed)
Net Axial Force
Net Vertical Force (F)
Eff. Depth
Mom about Tensile Steel
Maxm. Mom without comp. Steel
Comp. Steel Reqd
Tensile Steel Reqd.

41.6
2.0
12.6
38.8
15
111.7
112.9
450.0
61.2
56.3
1000
985.9

## Friction Mom abt Tensile St

Vert. Wl Ten. Steel Reqd.
6.85
20.77
1897.36
6.86
27.20
1897.36
6.86
33.63
1897.36
6.84
40.00
1897.36
6.79
46.19
1897.36
6.70
52.07
1897.36
6.54
57.38
1897.36
6.30
61.79
1897.36
5.92
64.69
1897.36
5.34
65.03
1897.36
99.60

## Comp.St. Comp. Allowable Vertical

Reqd.
Force
Force
Force
1000.00 16.76 375.00
29.16
1000.00 48.92 375.00 175.29
1000.00 81.07 375.00 292.20
1000.00 112.89 375.00 407.94
1000.00 143.88 375.00 520.63
1000.00 173.24 375.00 627.44
1000.00 199.83 375.00 724.13
1000.00 221.85 375.00 804.22
1000.00 236.39 375.00 857.08
1000.00 238.06 375.00 863.17
5301.26

TM
TM
TM
TM
T
T
T
MM
TM
TM
mm2
2
mm

## 3.14 Design of Ring Beam

Size of beam =
577 x
2000 mm
Hoop Tension (T)=F*D/2/Tan(a)
651.867533
2
Tensile Steel=T*10/.23
28342.1 mm
This force will be resisted by hoop steel in ring beam and in part of wall adjacent to ring beam (effective height 2M)
Reinf in Wall :- 25 f @70 c/c + 25 f @ 140 c/c + 20 f @140 c/c =
25014.93 mm2
Reinf in Ring Beaml :- 10-20 f +12-25 f =
12867.96 mm2
Total
37882.9 OK
3.15 Design of Bracket
123.76
505.37
Total material weight =
38012 T
99.60
Frictional Forces =
6258 T
475
Weight of Upper wall =
7776 T

## Total reinforcement area required

Reinforcement provided

85.5
100.75
337943
4.74765
3117.69
6099.19

25.31

T-m/m
T-m/m
N/mm

763
800

=
=
=
=
=

N/mm3
mm2
mm2

=
= 9216.88 mm2
= 21-32 f + 15-25 f
= 24252.3 mm2

517

202

## Moment from the left side

Effective moment in bracket
0.87*fy*d
0.87*fy^2/(fck*b)
Area of Steel required for torsion
Area required for hoop tension

202
850
OK