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Internal Plant Cooling Water Reuse

July 2008 WTG-155(08)
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Table of Content
Mission Statement
What is Internal Plant Cooling Water Reuse?
Why Reuse?
The Steps to an Internal Plant Water Reuse Project
Internal Plant Cooling Water Reuse Audit Process
4. Physical Processes, Chemical Processes, and Water Component Measurement 8
Physical and Chemical Processes 9
Membrane Filtration
Other Processes and Procedures
Analytical Instrumentation for Monitoring Reuse Water Quality
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
Impact of Reuse Waters on Cooling System Materials of Construction,
Water Chemistry and Chemical Control
Cooling System
Materials Under Consideration
Cooling System Heat Exchangers
Considerations for Cooling Tower Fill
Cooling System Chemistry and Control
6. Summary
A Water Chemistry Evaluation with Software Tools
B References From Cooling Technology Institute Publications
Figures and Tables
Fig. 1 Internal Plant Cooling Water Reuse Design Process Flow
Tab. I
Tab. 2 Example Ion Pairs Used to Estimate Free Ion Concentrations
Internal Plant Cooling Water Reuse
Mission Statement
The purpose of this document is to provide
general guidelines to plant owners and operators
for water conservation through internal plant
cooling water reuse.
What is Internal Plant Cooling Water Reuse?
Internal plant water reuse is the use of any
previously used water stream existing within the
plant facilities, with or without water treatment,
in water consuming units, such as evaporative
cooling systems, boilers, and/or process
operations. When such a water source is used as
makeup water for the cooling system, it is
Cooling Water Reuse. The main objective of
water reuse is to reduce fresh water intake and
wastewater discharge.
Why Reuse?
Industry has historically given water reuse
projects low priority for a number of reasons.
Most important of these is that new plants have
typically been sited near abundant and
inexpensive sources of fresh water. Also, the
logistics of retrofitting plant piping to take
advantage of reuse opportunities are often
complex and expensive.
In the past few years several changes have taken
place that make water reuse more attractive:
Increased regulatory activity around treatment
of waste water before discharge
Curtailed good quality water supply to
industry to meet higher priority drinking water
Unusual weather patterns which have reduced
water supplies drastically in some areas for
several years
Rapid escalation of costs for developing new
water supplies and expanding existing supplies
Deterioration or contamination of existing
water supplies in heavily industrialized areas
Industry can no longer assume that good quality
water will always be available in unlimited
quantities. It is likely that industry will invest
more capital and spend more operating dollars
for water in the future. As this happens the
economic justification for water reuse will
A flowsheet depicting a typical water reuse
project process is shown in Figure I:
Internal Plant Cooling Water Reuse Design Process Flow
\ W rite an Initial goal
Evaluate the Reuse
Prepare a plant
water balance
Identify and survey
all water streams.
Including water
Identify water users
and characterize
their water
Identify the
availability and
quantity of use for
each selection
~ ~
Identify water
quantity and qUBI.'.'.Y
and reuse potential
Begin to choose the
water reuse plan
by developing reuse
etermine the
potential reuse
Evaluate the
change in
Review goals
Review treatment
and distribution
[-ReView eionomlCS
Can goals be met
within the budget?
Refine all
projections and go
Determine the
effectIveness and
the costs/savings
Continue 1------' Stop
Figure 1
1 Document the 1
L decision J
Like any process modification made within an
operating plant, every water reuse plan must be
tecbnologically feasible and economically
justified. A combined engineering and economic
evaluation of each proposal should proceed as
Develop the concept showing how the reuse
can be achieved
o Estimate the investment required and the costs
involved with the proposed plan
Compare the proposal against alternative
course of action (or inaction)
Choose the best alternative based on a
common measure of profitability, such as net
return on investment or net present value
When in doubt on how to proceed with a project,
refer to your corporate project implementation
General Reuse Project Guidelines
Before proposals can be made to save water, one
must know in as much detail as possible, where
and how water is currently being used on the
site. If the site has critical water issues that may
impact future continuity of operation, it is
essential to conduct a site water balance. This
entails determining all site water uses down to
the 5-10 gpm range. Most water reuse projects
will not require this level of detail, but the more
data that is available the more likely that the
reuse project will be successful.
Along with the quantity of the water being used
on the site, one must also know the quality
(degree of contamination) of all the water
streams. Streams that are highly contaminated
can be eliminated from further consideration.
Some of the common sources of water for reuse
in a typical industrial plant are:
Once-through cooling water (water that is
pumped from its source through one set of heat
exchangers before being discharged).
Wastewater from water treatment equipment
(filter backwash, softener rinse, reverse
osmosis unit reject, etc.)
Biological wastewater treatment plant effluent
o Process condensates
o Captured stonnwater
A few examples of reuse opportunities are:
Replacing once through water use with a
closed loop chilled water system or an open
recirculating cooling tower system
Using reject from a reverse osmosis unit
(where the makeup has been pre-softened) to
supplement boiler feedwater
Using biotreater effluent as makeup to a
cooling tower system
There are, of course, many more options to
consider. Through careful analysis of the water
balance, combined with a feel for process needs
and limitations, a logical network of
interconnecting water use and reuse systems can
be developed. No matter what kind or how much
water reuse is proposed, it is almost certain that
additional treatment of the water will be required
at some point in the system. This could take
place at the wastewater discharge from a specific
user, in the recycle water loop, or, at final waste
treatment. Making sure the proper treatment
options are selected (see Section 4) is the most
important step in providing a working water
reuse system. Some of the more important items
to consider when reviewing treatment options
Can concentrated wastes be isolated and
treated at the source?
Will the effluent be compatible to existing
final waste treatment processes and be able to
meet existing discharge permit limits?
Can dependable, accepted waste treatment unit
operations be used, or, will more sophisticated
or less proven technology be called for?
Will additional chemical treatment be
necessary to reduce corrosion, scaling, or
fouling tendencies in the recycle system?
How will the solid wastes generated in the
recycle/waste treatment process be handled?
Disposed of? Recovered?
A water/wastewater treatment consultant (along
with your current water treatment chemical
supplier) can assist in selecting the best treatment
programs and in developing proposed process
At this point of the study, enough data should be
in hand to proceed with the evaluation of the
proposed water reuse alternatives according to
your corporate project guidelines.
It is important to maintain a water reuse program
through careful monitoring and control.
Although operating areas must continue to be
responsible for their own water consumption and
wastewater discharge, a specific person or plant
group should be given site monitoring and
control authority. Deviations in normal water use
patterns should be investigated as soon as they
appear. New water use requirements should be
analyzed thoroughly using the same criteria set
forth in the original conservation program.
When used water requires treatment before
reuse, physical and chemical treatment processes
can prepare the water for reuse. The following
table lists the processes used and the types of
contaminants each process treats. After the table
each process is discussed and explained.
Discussions of types of analytical
instrumentation for monitoring the reused water
quality follow the discussions of the processes.
Physical Water Component or Contaminant Removed
Debris Suspended Dissolved Macro- Oxidiz-
Chemical Process
Solids Solids molecules able
Mechanical screening X
Filtration: sand, X
multimedia and other
Centrifugal separation X
Clarification: X
conventional, Lamella,
and tube settler
Lime softening X Calcium,
Phosphate, some
silica, others
Granulated activated X Some
carbon Secondary
Manganese Greensand X Iron and
Secondary Manganese and
Binn X Iron and
Secondary Manganese
Ion exchange X X
Microfiltration X X
Ultrafiltration X
Nanofiltration Some X
Reverse osmosis X X
Oxidation X
Biological treatments: X Some Some
activated sludge, Secondary
trickling filters, others
Degasification/ Air
HCO,' with pH
API, Oil/water or
, physical separation
Physical and Chemical Processes
Nfecha1lical Screening
Mechanical Screening is a physical process that
removes debris, such as rocks and other large
objects before they can clog process equipment
or any other water service in the plant.
Gravity Sand Filters
The most basic of sand filters, gravity filters
utilize existing head pressure and distributes the
flow evenly through a porous media bed
consisting usually of anthracite for bulk solids
removal of larger particles and silica sand for
polishing. The inlet total suspended solids (TSS)
loading and required emuent quality dictate the
flow rate per square foot of surface area. The
service is typically 3-5 gallons per minute (gpm)
per square foot of media surface area with 20-
micron efficiency for raw water treatment.
Backwash water is collected in a storage
compartment above the media bed. Backwash
cycles are initiated by head loss. Flow is
reversed, eliminating the need for a pressurized
backwash supply.
There are several design variations, but the basic
concept remains similar.
Conti1l1l0llS Cleaning Sand Filters
This is a type of gravity filter that differs from
conventional gravity filters mentioned above.
These filters capture contaminants continuously
from the sand media.
Both the upflow and downflow versions operate
with the same basic principle. The contaminated
sand media is air lifted tilrough a dedicated
sparger pipe creating a scrubbing action. The
pipe discharges into a wash box where final
separation occurs, Waste goes over an internal
weir to drain and the cleaned sand is returned to
the media.
Pressure Sand Filters
Selected silica sand filters are tile most
economical effective method of efficiently
removing sediment from water. Garnet or gravel,
graded for the intended use of the filter supports
the sand. There is very little particulate
penetration of the media bed since there is
usually one layer of sand media. Thus it is more
of a surface filter rather than a deptil filter and is
more susceptible to solids loading and thus can
backwash frequently.
Typical flow rates are 5-8 gpm per square foot of
media surface area with 20 micron nominal
Backwash cycles are initiated either manually or
by an automated pressure differential sensor with
a back up timer. Backwash flow rates range from
150-200% of service flow rates for 10-15
Pressure Multimedia Sand Filters
Multimedia filters usually contain two or more
types of media structured with coarse media,
such as anthracite, at the top to trap larger
particles, with successively smaller media graded
lower to capture smaller particles. Multi-graded
gravel and garnet support the bed. The result is a
highly efficient depth filter because particulate
removal takes place throughout the entire bed
Efficiency is moderate for 10 micron sized
particles and good for 20 micron sized particles
at flow rates from 8-12 gallons per minute per
square foot of surface area. Variations depend on
the quality of influent and the desired effluent
Backwash is initiated either manually or by an
automatic differential pressure sensor with a
back up timer. Backwash flow rates need to be
100-150% of service flow rate for 15-20
High Efficiency Sand Filters
These filters utilize a variety of flow mechanisms
to create centrifugal and turbulent forces to allow
for the utilization of fine sand, 0.2mm), for
filtration. These flow mechanisms provide
separation of particulate in the water above the
fine sand bed and produce a scrubbing effect on
the sand surface. The result is that the fine sand
surface limits the flow of particulate 0.5 micron
and larger and then the turbulence above the bed
removes the particles from the sand surface. The
particles removed from the filter bed by the
turbulence are stored on the filter tank surfaces
and low turbulence areas by centrifugal force or
natural migration from high to low turbulence.
Service flow rates are in the range of 15-20 gpm
per square foot of filtration surface area. Since
there is minimal deptil penetration of particulate,
backwash flow rates are usually 50% of the filter
service throughput and the backwash time ranges
from 5 to 8 minutes.
Backwash initiation results from exceeding the
capacity of cell wall and low turbulence storage
areas. When these storage capacities are
exceeded the turbulent water above the bed
becomes saturated with particulate that limits the
ability of the turbulence to maintain tile
cleanliness of the sand surface. As a result, the
pressure differential increases rapidly signaling
the need for backwash.
Since backwasb frequency is related to particle
loading in the water above the filter bed, high
TSS levels in waters to be filtered can limit the
capabilities of this type of filtration.
Centrifugal Separation
Centrifugal Separation uses a centrifuge that
spins the water at a high speed. Thls causes
separation of the solids and the water portion.
The solids are recovered and removed and the
clean water is used for plant purposes or further
Clarification, sometimes called sedimentation, is
the removal by gravity of settleable solids in
water. The solids include sand, grit, silt,
chemical precipitants, pollutants, floc, and other
settable solids. Commonly, synthetic
pOlyelectrolytes are added to aid in the settling
Lamella Clarifiers
Lamella sedimentation separates suspended
solids from water by directing flow between a
TSS removal there is the additional partial
reduction of calcium, magnesium, ferrous iron,
alkalinity, total dissolved solids and carbon
dioxide. Some moderate reduction in silica may
also be obtained. The addition of lime reduces
these constituents. The metal ions are removed
by precipitation mainly as hydroxides and
Hot process softening occurs at temperatures at
or above 212"F (IOO"C) in conjunction with
filtration and ion exchange. Its main advantage
over cold process softening is that it can
significantly further reduce silica (particularly
with dolomitic lime or magnesium bydroxide
use) and also metal ion concentration in solution
due to the decreased solubility of precipitated
metal salts. For this reason, it is usually used as
a boiler feed water preparation process.
Granulated Activated Carbon
Granulated activated carbon (GAC) is made
from natural substances such as coconut shells,
coal, wood, p e ~ etc. activated by selective
oxidation with steam at elevated temperatures.
The media has a high absorbency capacity for
removing chlorine, organics, tannins, color and
objectionable taste and odors from drinking
water. There are approximately 150 different
series of inclined plates (lamellae) spaced about
2 inches apart at a 55 incline that is equivalent
to their horizontal projection. The projected
effective settling area (PESA) is equal to the sum
of the projected area of each plate.
The coagulated stream enters the plate chamber
longitudinally near the bottom section of the
plates and flows upward between them. As the
stream flows upward, solids agglomerate, collect
and settle downward to a collection hopper
without impeding the continuous incoming flow
of raw water. A portion of the collected sludge
can be pumped to the attached chemical mixing
chamber for solids seeding when turbidity levels
are low. The effluent guarantee is usually 10
NTU, with 5 NTU typical performance.
There are no moving parts and the compact
design enables an installation footprint of
approximately 1/10"' the area of a conventional
round clarifier
Lime Softening
Lime softening can include both cold process
softening and hot process softening.
Cold process softening occurs at ambient
temperatures and is often considered to be one
step beyond clarification because in addition to
types available. The choice depends on tlle
Although the media will capture sediment, it is
not intended for this use and should be preceded
by a sediment filter if turbidity is a problem.
However, periodic backwashing is recommended
to keep the media clean and to protect its
Factors such as designed purpose, temperature,
pH, and cblorine content, dictate the media type,
depth and surface area requirements. The
media's life expectancy is determined by the
absorbency capacity of the contaminant. GAC
can only be regenerated off site.
Manganese Greensolld
Greensand media, a naturally occurring, mined
product, is manganese dioxide coated for
excellent removal of dissolved iron and
manganese as well as hydrogen sulfide. As the
contaminated water passes through the media
bed, the iron and manganese are oxidized into a
filterable precipitate and retained by the media.
Periodic backwashing and rinsing is required for
media cleaning. Regeneration is required to
restore the oxidizing ability of the media.
Regeneration is achieved by using potassium
permanganate either on a batch basis or
continuously to avoid downtime.
Binn is a manufactured media. It is a very
effective and economical media used in the
removal of dissolved iron and manganese from
raw water. However, in order to be effective
there must be a dissolved oxygen (D.O.) content
equal to or greater than 15% of the iron and
manganese content. As a general rule of thumh
the pH must be 6.8 or higher for iron removal
and between 8.0 and 9.0 for manganese removal.
Binn acts as an insoluble catalyst to enbance the
reaction between the D.O. and iron compounds.
The media is not consumed in the removal
process; therefore, there is no need for external
chemical regeneration. Periodic backwashing is
required similar to sand filters.
[011 Exchange
Ion Exchange is the process of exchanging the
more desirable ions for the less desirable ones.
Ion exchange media is composed of solid and
insoluble high molecular weight
polyelectrolytes, which exchange the mobile ions
for other ions of equal charge from the
surrounding water environment. The ion
exchange process is a batch process with
reversible reactions.
Currently, the most widely used modem ion
exchangers are synthetic organic materials called
ion exchange resins. The ion exchange resins are
defmed as cation exchangers or anionic
exchangers. A cationic exchanger is usually in
the hydrogen (H') or sodium (Na"') fonn in
which the H+ or ti,e Na + is exchanged for the
undesirable cations such as Ca
+ or Mg2+.
Anionic exchangers exchange OH" and HCO;
for the undesirable anions such as SO'" and cr.
When a cation exchanger in the Na + form only is
employed, it is called "water softening". A
mixed bed exchanger uses both types of resins in
one vessel. If the resins are in the Wand the OH
fonn, pure water is produced.
When the resins have been totally exchanged
with the undesirable ions, they are "regenerated"
to restore the original activity of the resin. The
solution used in this process is called a
"regenerant". The ion exchange resins are then
rinsed of the regenerant solution and put back
into service. Another part of the operating cycle
of ion exchange resins is called the backwash. In
this process, water flow is reversed in order to
expand and clean the bed before the regeneration
Membrane Filtration
The type of membrane filtration that a facility
chooses depends on the size of the contaminants
that are to be removed. It is a function of the
pore size rating of the membrane as to whether
micro filtration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration or
hyperfiltration (reverse osmosis) is chosen.
Microfiltration, which comes in two common
forms, full-flow filtration and cross-flow
filtration, will usually remove colloidal particles,
but not dissolved solids. Full-flow filtration
means that you have one flow in and one flow
out, with all the flow passing through the filter
medium. An example of this type of filtration is
a cartridge filter where the feed water enters the
filter, passes through the filtering material and
exits. The particles that are too large to pass
through the pores of the filtering material are
trapped either on the surface or in the filtering
material. These entrapped particles can be
removed by backwashing or by replacing the
cartridge filter.
The other fonn of filtration is cross-flow
filtration. Here you have one flow in (feed
water) and two flows out (permeate or filtrate
and concentrate). In cross-flow filtration the
feed water enters the filter and passes across the
surface of the membrane. Pressure forces a
portion of the feed water through the membrane,
which exits the filter as permeate. The
remainder of the feed water and contaminates
exit the filter as concentrate.
Microfiltration wiII generally reject particles
including colloids down to O. I to 1.0 microns in
size, but will not reject any dissolved particles.
Though it is usually not a factor, micro filtration
will also reject substances with a molecular
weight above 200,000.
UltrafiltrationUltrafiltration is another fonn of
membrane filtration that generally uses cross-
flow filtration to separate different liquids or
contaminants. Ultrafiltration will generally
reject particles including colloids down to 0.0 I
to O. I microns. It essentially rejects all
suspended particles and some dissolved
compounds (mainly organic). The efficiency for
removal of these materials is dependent on the
molecular weight cutoff rating of the membrane.
The molecular weight cutoff is a rating given to
ultrafiltration filters to indicate the minimum
molecular weight that the membrane wiII reject.
Therefore, a filter with a high molecular weight
cutoff wiII reject all suspended particles but wiII
not reject any dissolved substances. A filter with
a low molecular weight cutoff, for example
1,000, will still reject all suspended particles but
will begin to reject dissolved molecules such as
large organic compounds.
Membranes are commonly installed in pressure
vessels and require periodic cleaning,
Backwashable UF membranes are now being
used. The backwashable membranes are
constructed of hollow fibers or spiral wound
cellulose acetate materials. They can be installed
in-line in pressurized vessels or submerged in an
atmospheric container with a vacuum pump
creating flow.
Nanofiltration is the third classification of
membrane filtration that separates liquids,
suspended particles and dissolved solids.
Nanofiltration will not filter particles or
molecules as small as reverse osmosis does, but
it requires only about half the pressure and
energy to perform the separation. Nanofiltration
is a cross-flow filtration that rejects all
suspended particles and dissolved solids down to
around 0.001 microns (1 nanometer) in size.
This includes things such as sugars, bacteria,
proteins and dyes. It also does a good job of
rejecting uncharged compounds with molecular
weights generally greater than 250.
Nanofiltration will generally reject douhle and
triple charged ions, such as scale forming
calcium and magnesium, hence the reason they
are sometimes referred to as softening
Reverse Osmosis or Hyperjiitralioll
Reverse Osmosis is the ultimate membrane
filtration technique used when essentially all
suspended particles and most dissolved solids
need to be removed from a water source. This
system will reject uncharged compounds with
molecular weights greater than 100 to 150 and
generally rejects 95 to 99 per cent of all
dissolved solids. Reverse osmosis is a cross-
flow filtration process that uses a high-pressure
pump to force water through a semi-permeahle
memhrane. The water forced through the
membrane is called the product or permeate
While the water flowing across the membrane
surface and exiting the element is called the
reject or concentrate. The reject water contains
the concentrated dissolved solids while the
permeate has a much lower level of dissolved
The semi-permeable membranes used in RO
systems are either cellulose acetate (CA) or thin
film composites (TFC). Cellulose acetate
membranes are more expensive than thin film
composite membranes, but because they are
chlorine tolerant, they are less likely to
experience microbiological problems. However,
the thin film composite membranes are more
commonly used due to lower pressure
requirements, higher rejection rates and wider
pH operating ranges.
Reverse osmosis membranes require good feed
water, usually including pre-filtration to
minimize fouling problems. Microbiological
growth, s l ~ colloids and other suspended
particles and metals can foul the membrane
elements. They can also be subject to scaling
due to the concentration of dissolved solids in
the feed water.
Other Processes and Procedures
OxidizersOxidizing agents are used to control
microbiological growth in cooling waters. Such
agents can also be utilized to oxidize certain
contaminants in used water for ultimate reuse in
cooling systems. The contaminants can include
soluble iron, ammonia, phenols, and other
organics, etc. The choice of an oxidizing agent
depends upon the particular contaminants present
in the reuse water.
Chlorine and alteroative chlorine donors, such as
sodium hypochlorite (bleach), are relatively
inexpensive and an effective means of oxidizing
many contaminants. Soluble iron, for example,
is readily oxidized to iron oxides through this
process. Ammonia can also be oxidized to
nitrogen with this chemistry. One of the
potential disadvantages of chlorine chemistry is
the formation of environmentally harmful
chlorinated organics, such as trihalornethanes.
Additionally, the effectiveness as a microbiocide
changes with pH, requiring more chlorine to
perform the same microbial control as pH rises.
Bromine or bromide and chlorine are sometimes
used to extend oxidation control into elevated pH
Chlorine dioxide is a relatively selective oxidant
and can be effectively used for microbial control
as well as the destruction of phenols and other
special applications. Chlorine dioxide is applied
through the use of an on-site generator, which
mixes the dissolved gas in the fluid stream
Chlorine dioxide's effectiveness as a
microbiocide is pH independent. Chlorine
dioxide does not react readily with most organic
compounds, and not at all with ammonia.
Ozone is another oxidant that is non-persistent
and has higher demands because of its higher
reactivity. The application of ultraviolet (UV)
light can also be used in certain waters to control
microbiological popnlations.
Biological/rea/mell// Trickle Fil/ra/ioll alld
Anaerobic Digestion
There are various biological systems that are
used by industrial plants to treat water.
Conventional activated sludge systems use
microorganisms to digest the sludge and produce
a usable supernatant. Other variations of the
process involve the removal of the ammonia and
liberation of nitrogen - nitrification and
denitrification. These processes involve zones of
varying degree of aeration called aerobic,
anaerobic or anoxic zones to preferentially select
certain microorganisms to achieve the
appropriate nutrient removal.
Trickling filters are another treatment approach
that has been in use for nearly 100 years. A
trickling filter is an attached growth, biological
process that uses an inert media to attract
microorganisms, which fonn a film on the media
surface. The microorganism population in a
trickling filter consists of aerobic, anaerobic, and
facultative bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoans.
Fungi are important in industrial wastewater
treatment when the pH is low.
Degasijica/ioll/Air S/rippillg
The presence of CO, in water presents possible
effects due to its chemical nature. Carbon
dioxide can be removed by degasification or air
stripping. This process is governed by Henry's
law, which states that the amount of gas
dissolved in water is directly proportional to the
partial pressure of that gas in the vapor space
above the water/gas interface. Also governing
this process is Dalton's law which states that the
total pressure of a mixture of gases is made up of
the individual pressures of the gases in the liquid
and is directly proportional to their molar ratios
in the vapor space. Mechanical devices called
strippers or degasifiers are design to remove
Carbon dioxide by taking advantage of the
characteristics stated above. Often the water pH
is lowered to convert dissolved HCO; or CO;'
to gaseous CO, to remove it by stripping and
thus reduce alkalinity; this is common in
demineralization and boiler feedwater
Oil alld Wo/er Separatioll
Oil can become a contaminant in plant water
systems, and the reuse of this water in cooling
systems necessitates the separation and removal
of the oil. Common gravity separators are
widely used, such as the American Petroleum
Institute (API) separator. This functions by
allowing the less dense oil to naturally float to
the top of the mixed fluid, where it is then
removed by skimming or pumping off. The API
separator is not applicable for emulsified oil. In
such a case, the emulsion must first be
Chemically/physically broken, or other methods
of oil/water separation are required.
Other methods to separate emulsified oil and
water include air flotation, which bubbles air
through tile fluid and can break the emulsion; air
flotation with the addition of treatment
chemicals; and chemical coagulation and
Analytical Instrumentation for Monitoring
Reuse Water Quality
The list below contains the most common water
constituents or contaminants that are of concern
for water being used for reuse purposes. This
section discusses the online teclmiques for real-
time monitoring and potential control of these
constituents. These constituents plus possible
biological constituents can also be analyzed in
the laboratory using methods from the Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater (published by the American Public
Health Association, the American Water Works
Association and the Water Environment
Federation) and other similar procedures.
Water Constituents or Contaminants Tested
Onlille or ill the Laborat01J'
Sensor based analysis: pH, ORP,conductivity,
suspended solids
Organics: total organic carbon (TO C),
biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical
oxygen demand (COD), Oil and Grease
and Ion Specific
(field): Ammonia,
Phosphate, Sulfide,
Colorimetric metilOds: Alkalinity, Sulfate,
Sulfide, Chloride - can be online, but
commonly a laboratory procedure
Iron - laboratory method
a Other site or application specific contaminants.
Others are specific based on the chemistry of the
specific system in question.
pH Measurement Gild Control
When considering reuse water, pH measurement
and control are vital. Process and reuse water
must meet specific pH ranges. The ranges are
commonly between pH values of7.0 to 9.0 but
may be in other ranges based on system specific
ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potentia)
The variability of reuse water may require the
use of ORP either as an incoming water monitor
or to monitor and control the recirculating water.
Alkalinity is a measure of the capacity of water
to neutralize acids. High alkalinity waters are
more prone to precipitate sparily soluble salts.
Conductivityl Total Dissolved Solids
Electrolytic conductivity is the measure of the
ability of a solution to conduct an electric
current. Electrolytic conductivity is defined as
the inverse or reciprocal of electrical resistance
(siemans) and is typically expressed as
microsiemans per centimeter. Conductivity is an
indication of the quantity of ions contained in a
solution and therefore there is a relationship
between conductivity and total dissolved solids
Turbidity and Suspended Solids
The American Public Health Association
(APHA) defines turbidity as an "expression of
the optical property that causes light to be
scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in
straight lines through the sample." Turbidity can
be interpreted as a measure of the relative clarity
of water. Turbidity is not a direct measure of
suspended particles in water but, instead, a
measure of the scattering effect such particles
have on light.
Suspended solids are particles that include silt,
clay, algae and other microorganisms, organic
matter and other minnte particles. Suspended
solids contribute to the turbidity of the water.
Organic Contaminants
The presence of any organic chemical in the
reuse stream makes the water unusable for any
reuse purpose without further treatment.
Acceptable organic concentrations should be
controlled to near zero. Laboratory tests for
organics include oil and grease test, plus tests for
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical
Oxygen Demand (COD), and Total Organic
Carbon (TOC).
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Chemical oxygen demand is "a measure of the
oxygen equivalent of the organic matter content
of a sample that is susceptible to oxidation by a
strong chemical oxidant."* Oxygen demand is
determined by measuring the amount of oxidant
consumed using titrimetric or photometric
*Standard Methods for the Examination of Water alld
Wastewater, 15th Edition
Biochemical Oxygen DelliOlld (BOD)
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the
amount of oxygen, expressed in mg/L or parts
per million (ppm), that bacteria consume when
they oxidize organic matter. It is critical that the
BOD concentrations be known to determine the
potential value of the water for reuse or to
determine if further treatment is necessary.
Total OrganiC Carbon (TOC)
The TOe analysis will measure all natural
biodegradable organic carbon and all synthetic
organic carbon. This analysis can be automated
and can be continuous, offering advantages for
process control versus BOD and COD analyses.
It is critical that the TOe concentration be
known to determine the potential value of the
water for reuse or to determine if further
treatment is necessary.
Other tests: Titrametric alld 1011 Specific
Electrodes Techlliques for Ammonia, Calcium
(Hardlless), Phosphate, Suifide, Chloride
Other tests are routinely performed to measure
the quality of water for reuse in cooling towers
including some listed below:
Phosphate: measurement of the concentration
of phosphates is based on a series of
calorimetric reactions
Sulfide: measured by titration to an oxidation
reduction potential (ORP) endpoint using a
silver electrode.
Ammonia: measured by using an ammonia
ion specific electrode or a calorimetric
Calcium (hardness): calcium is measured by
laboratory titration technique
Chloride: chloride is measured by using an ion
selective electrode for chloride.
The water chemistry in the cooling system
usually changes as a result of water reuse, even
with additional treatment outside the cooling
system. It is important to predict the changes in
the water chemistry and understand the
consequences of the chemistry changes and
accept or mitigate and/or control the impact of
these changes. Water chemistry changes impact
the cooling system in many ways: the materials
of construction, the heat exchangers, the tower
fill and structure all must be considered. The
water treatment program must be evaluated to
insure it will fit the new water chemistry. Often
water reuse results in higher amounts of
impurities such as salts or metals or organics in
the system. These can stress the system: the
capability of the treatment chemistry, chemical
control equipment and the testing methods must
be evaluated.
Cooling System
The cooling system includes all the wetted
surfaces such as cooling towers, heat exchangers,
pumps and piping. Each has specific material of
construction considerations as they relate to the
reuse water.
Materials Under Consideration
The wetted surfaces may include wood, concrete,
stainless steel alloys, ferrous alloys, copper
alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium,
carbon, plastics and galvanized steel.
Additionally, gaskets and fasteners of various
materials may come in contact with the reuse
water. Individual systems may include additional
materials not covered in this list. The system
survey should identify all materials wetted by the
rellse water, including any storage vessels,
pumps and piping.
Cooling System Heat Exchangers
The consideration of use of relIse water may be
affected by heat exchanger design and operating
conditions. These may include various heat
fluxes, residence times, velocities, tube surface
roughness, and bulk water and heat exchanger
metal surface temperatures. Particular attention
should he paid to shell side water heat exchanger
cooling water flow profiles. Some of the cooling
systems will have non-standard heat exchangers
that may require individual evaluation to
determine the effect of reuse water upon their
Considerations for Cooling Tower Fill
Fill selection is normally determined by make-up
water quality, types of circulating water
contamination (process leaks, airborne matter)
and quality of biological control. The goal is to
select the highest thermal performance fill that
provides long term consistent performance.
Therefore, when considering reuse of a cooling
water stream, the type of fill must he considered.
The changes in water chemistry as discussed in
the water chemistry section below must he
evaluated and controlled to protect the fill from
fonling conditions . .various forms of fill are
susceptible in varying degrees to fouling hy
suspended solids, precipitation of dissolved
solids, and by microbiological fouling. This must
by considered in the project evaluation and the
fill must be protected or the systems capability to
produce cooled water may he reduced.
The types of fill used in a cooling tower fall into
broad categories: splash fill and film fills. In
general, if the tower has splash fill, it can accept
very poor quality make-up water.
Splash fills have a lower thermal performance,
but will not normally he effected by changes in
water quality. This statement is true of both
cross-flow and counter-flow splash filled cooling
towers. There are some variations in splash fill
that should be noted. Hollow extruded lath,
small diameter perforated splash har or splash fill
with an area that can accumulate minerals and
debris, may be vulnerable to problems with
make-up water containing higher levels of
contamination. These splash fills must be
reviewed to ensure the higher mineral
concentrations and suspended solids do not
appreciably interfere with the fill's performance
or significantly add to the fill weight, which
could lead to structural problems.
If the tower has film fill, more attention to water
quality is required. Film fills wiII vary greatly in
their fouling potential.. For more specifics
relating to your application, it is recommended
that you contact the cooling tower or fill
Cooling System Chemistry and Control
Changes in the cooling water chemistry due to
use of reuse waters can impact the treatment
chemistry and control.
Water chemistry is a key factor and the method
of operation of the systems is important. The
operating personnel's available time and
attention for the cooling system water treatment
program becomes a factor, as does the treatment
of the reused water stream. An evaluation must
be made to ensure that there will be no loss of
system efficiency or equipment integrity due to
corrosion or fouling of any part of the system
caused by increases in the water minerals,
suspended solids, other contamination, or
microbiological growth. Automation of reuse
water treatment steps should be considered and
often is required.
In order to protect the integrity of the cooling
system, modern practice calls for a water
treatment management program including
automated control of cycles of concentration,
good microbiological control (usually
automated), and a good water treatment program
(control of corrosion, scale, suspended solids and
biological growth). If pH is controlled by
addition of an acid or base, this addition must be
automatically controlled.
Reuse waters are a viable resource for
recirculating cooling water systems. However,
reuse waters may have high concentrations of
contaminants that require further treatment and
additional monitoring. This document provides
an overview of pertinent issues surrounding the
reuse of cooling water.
Water Chemistry Evaluation with Software Tools
Water Chemistry Evaluation
Reuse water provides a challenge that traditional
indices and rules of thumb for predicting scale
and corrosion can not always meet. Methods
such as the Langelier Saturation Index, Ryznar
Stability Index, and Practical (Puckorius) Index
are limited to predicting calcium carbonate in
low TDS waters. Rules of thumb for predicting
calcium sulfate, silica and magnesium silicate
scales are even more restricted to ballpark
estimates of scale potential. Most of these
indices and guidelines for their use were
developed to meet the prediction requirements of
early alkaline treatments and chromates. Their
application to the current high pH operating
ranges and higher TDS systems can lead to
serious errors. Areas of concern include:
unexpected scales
activity coefficient estimation
common ion effects
evaluating at a single condition.
Computer programs provide the calculation
power to overcome the deficiencies of traditional
index calculations. Wen designed programs
incorporate all of the scales expected. They
account for activity coefficients and common ion
effects encountered in high TDS waters. And
they allow evaluation over the total operating
range expected: from the lowest concentration
ratio to the highest, from the lowest temperature
to the highest, and from the lowest pH to the
highest anticipated.
Indices Calculated
Software calculates the Degree of Saturation
which is also called Saturation Level, Saturation
Index, and Saturation Ratio. This index is
derived from the definition of the solubility
product. For calcium sulfate, this would be
defined as:
{Ca}{SO,} Ksp
The index is the ratio of the observed ion activity
product {Ca} {S04} to the solubility product:
S.l. ({Ca}{SO,})/Ksp
The index is less than 1.0 if a water is
undersaturated with the scale being evaluated;
1.0 if at equilibrium; and greater than 1.0 if
{Ca}{SO,l < Ksp Undersaturated - scale not
expected, may dissolve
{Ca}{SO,l Ksp At equilibrium - scale not
{Ca}{SO,l > Ksp Supersaturated - scale may
Saturation indices can be calculated for all
common, and many not so common, cooling
water scales. Table 1 summarizes typical scales
included in generally available software.
Table 1
Calcium carbonate Calcite CaC0
Aragonite CaC0
Calcium suI fate Gypsum CaS04.2H,O
Anhydrite CaS04
Silica Amorphous Silica SiO,
Magnesium Silicate
Calcium phosphate Hydroxylapatite Cas(P04lJ(OH)
Tricalcium Phosphate
Magnesium hydroxide Brucite Mg(OH),
Calcium fluoride Fluorite CaF,
Iron phosphate Strengite Fe(PO
Iron carbonate Siderite FeC0
Iron hydroxide Amorphous Ferric Hydroxide Fe(OH)3
Barium suI fate Barite
Barium carbonate Witherite
Strontium sulfate Celestite
Strontium carhonate Strontianite
Ion Pairing
The Saturation Index discussed can be calculated
based upon total analytical values for the
reactants. Ions in water, however, do not tend to
exist totally as free ions. Calcium, for example,
may be paired with sulfate, bicarbonate,
carbonate, phosphate and other species. Bound
ions are not readily available for scale formation.
Computer programs calculate saturation levels
based upon the free concentrations of ions in a
water rather than the total analytical value which
includes those which are bound.
Indices developed in the past, such as the
Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) for calcium
carbonate scale, are based upon total analytical
values rather than free species primarily due to
the intense calculation requirements for
detennining the distribution of species in a
water. Speciation of a water is time prohibitive
without the use of a computer for the number
crunching required. 11le process is iterative and
1. Checking the water for electroneutrality via a
cation-anion balance, and balancing with an
appropriate ion (e.g. sodium or potassium for
cation deficient waters, sulfate, chloride, or
nitrate for anion deficient waters).
2. Estimating ionic strength, calculating and
correcting activity coefficients and
dissociation constants for temperature,
correcting alkalinity for non-carbonate
3. Iteratively calculating the distribution of
species in the water from dissociation
constants (a partial listing is outlined in Table
1 ).
4. Checking the water for balance and adjusting
ion concentrations to agree with analytical
5. Repeating the process until corrections are
6. Calculating saturation levels based upon tlle
free concentrations of ions estimated using the
ion association model (ion pairing).
The use of ion pairing to estimate tlle free
concentrations of reactants overcomes several of
tlle major shortcomings of traditional indices.
Indices such as the LSI correct activity
coefficients for ionic strength based upon the
total dissolved solids. They do not account for
l1common ionl! effects.
Common ion effects increase the apparent
solubility of a compound by reducing the
concentration of reactants available. A common
example is sulfate reducing the available calcium
in a water and increasing the apparent solubility
of calcium carbonate. The use of indices which
do not account for ion pairing can be misleading
when comparing waters where the TDS is
composed of ions which pair with the reactants
versus ions which have less interaction with
It is common for water chemistry evaluation
software to perform calculation of over one
hundred (lOO) ion pairs in estimating free ion
concentrations. Table 2 outlines typical ion pairs
included in computer evaluations.
Table 2: Example Ion Pairs Used To Estimate Free Ion
[Calcium] = [Ca+
] + [CaSO,] + [CaHCO,+'] + [CaCO,] + [Ca(OHt']
+ [CaHPO,] + [CaPO.'] + [CaH
[Magnesium] = [Mg+lI] + [MgSO,] + [MgHCO,+'] + [MgCO,] + [Mg(OHt']
+ [MgHPO,] + [MgPO.']+[MgH,PO/']+[MgF+']
[Barium] = [Ba+
] + [BaSO,] + [BaHCO,+'] + [BaCO,] + [Ba(OHt']
[Strontium] = [Sr+lI] + [SrSO,] + [SrHCO,+'] + [SrCO,] + [Sr(OHj"]
[Sodium] = [Na+'] + [NaSO.'] + [Na2S0,] + [NaHCO,] + [NaCO;']
+ [Na,CO,] + [NaCI]+[NaHPO.']
[Potassium] = [K+']+[KSO.'] + [KHPO.'] + [KCI]
[Iron] = [Fe+
] + [Fe+
] + [Fe(OHj"] + [Fe(OHt'] + [Fe(OH),"]
+ [FeHP04+1] + [FeHPO,] + [FeCI+
] + [FeCI,'] + [FeC!,]
+ [FeSO,] + [FeSO/'] + [FeH
PO/'] + + [Fe(OH),]
+ [Fe(OH)4'] + [Fe(OHh] + [FeH
[Aluminum] = [Atlll] + [AI(OHj'II] + [AI(OHh+'] + [AI(OH)4'] + [AIF+
] + [AIF,"]
+ [AIF,] + [AlF.'] + [AISO/'] + [AI(SO,h"]
Operating Range Profiles
A major shortcoming of many water treatroent
evaluations is that they are conducted under one
set of operating conditions. Unfortunately,
cooling systems fail to cooperate, as even with
good automation almost all cooling systems have
variation, even if only to natural water supply
and air temperature and humidity variations from
weather changes. Evaluations should be
performed over the entire range expected for
critical parameters such as pH, temperature, and
concentration ratio.
Software Based Water Chemistry Evaluation
A well designed computer program can evaluate
the impact of water reuse on scale potential in a
cooling system. The program should account for
all of the scales anticipated in a cooling system
using reuse water. It should be designed to
handle calculations for high total dissolved solids
water. An ion association model should be
incorporated into the system to account for the
reduced availability of scale forming species in
high TDS systems. And finally, a water
chemistry evaluation should be conducted over
the entire operating range expected for critical
parameters such as concentration ratio, pH and
Appendix B
References From Cooling Technology Institute Publications
Water Reuse
iPaper# Title Author
lP.l3.09 I jwater Reuse Within a Refinery CTP-93-09)
.K.S. Eble & 1. Feathers, Betz
:Abstract: Before optimized within a -all water
'utility water streams must be identified and their contaminants must be characterized. The
!streams can then be mixed and matched to minimize total refinery water use, water discharge,
;and water treatment. The cooling system is typically the largest consumer of water within a
'refinery, and consequently, it is the most likely place to reuse water. This paper identifies many
process water streams found in a refinery, characterizes their contaminants, and compares those
:characteristics with the level of contaminants which can be successfully treated in the cooling
TP.l4.0B 11 ,Reuse of Industrial Waste Stream as Cooling
___ -' Tower Makeup
lEverett C. Phillips & Richard 1
:Strittrnatter, Nalco Chemical Co.,
Abstract: Decreasing water supplies, increasing government regulations, and community
'awareness compel industry to consider water reuse. With their high water demand and
:relatively low water quality requirements, open recirculating cooling water systems are often
:consider ideal candidates for reusing industrial waste streams. However, contaminants in the
'waste streams frequently present new and significant challenges in corrosion control, scale
control, and microbiological control. Overcoming these difficulties requires investigation of the
jvarious pretreatment options and internal treatment programs. The optimum combination can
iresult in significant water and dollars savings while still providing excellent protection of the
'cooling water system. Recent practical applications of reuse of industrial waste streams as
Icooling tower make-up will be presented.
TP.l4-09 I [Innovative Thinking in Water .
IMikel E. Goldblatt, Betz Ind'l 1994
IAbstract: Two non-traditional examples of water reuse are presented, illustrating the value of
iinnovative thinking in addressing specific water conservation challenges. Case I illustrates the
:se of a large cooling system as a repository for demineralizer waste. NorrnalIy this is not done,
:'due to this stream's high salinity. However, the overriding objective of minimizing wastewater,
land tile establishment of protective measures alIowed for successful reuse of this stream at
iminimal risk. Case 2 illustrates the benefits of cascading cooling water from a system
Icontaining barometric condensers as makeup to another cooling system, thus maximizing reuse
of medium quality cooling water.
.. -- --,-'--'----- ---- ---- I --
" TP.l5.05 IIWater Conservation via New Cooling Water ]Nicholas 1. Alfano, Calgon Corp.,
___ . _::::J ITec1u:ology .. _ _ _ _ _ . _ pennis 1. Sherren, Power Corp.
--'--- ..
'Abstract: A substantial portion of the annual cooling water treatment costs at Enron Power
Corporation in Texas City, Texas include the acquisition of makeup water and the disposal of
blowdown. This paper describes how the application of a newly developed high cycle cooling
;water treatment program directly resulted in a substantial savings in water use and overall
:cooling water treatment costs while maintaining scale and corrosion controL The cooling water
treatment program is designed to control CaC03 scaling at Langelier Saturation Index values
'approaching +3.5.
lP95-11 I ',',Re-Use of Reclaimed Municipal Waste Water as Narasirnha M. Rao, Nalco Chemical
___ --'- Cooling Water Make-Up - Challenges and ,Company
Abstract: High levels of total dissolved solids, ammonia, phosphate and organic impurities
characterize municipal wastewaters. This paper presents results of an in depth laboratory and
'on-site study investigating the use of tertiary treated municipal effluent as cooling water make-
iup. The corrosion, fouling and microbiological challenges unique to this water are analyzed and
:solutions presented. An analysis of the various components of the cost for treating this water is
I Water Tower for
, .Refinery/Petrochenncal Plants - Southern
Activities and Time Table
R. Puckorius, &
IAssociates, Inc., Kris Helm, West
iBasin Municipal Water Dist., Chris
iSpurrell, Chevron U.S.A.
,Abstract: The use of Title 22 Reclaimed Sewage Plant Effluent as Cooling Tower Make-up in
,Place of Fresh water is an important milestone. Its use, in place of fresh water, requires critical
,considerations for successful and economical applications. The details of how reuse should be
considered, how it has been evaluated, and the required treatment considerations are provided
in this presentation.
TP01-01 I Water Reuse in refineries, Chemical Plants, and :Paul R. puckorlus, Gary A. Loretitsch, ;2001
___ --'-I ,Utilities: Experiences Throughout the USA and 'Torry Tvedt, Puckorius & Associates, j
:Texas - Guidelines and Case Histories IInc.
Abstract: Water reuse has been successful and cost effective in cooling water and boiler water
[systems when properly planned and matched with system operation and materials of
construction. Specific guidelines are provided for cooling and boiler water systems and
,treatment requirements. Case histories throughout the USA and Texas illustrated specific
:experiences and results in system protection.
'"Cooling Components the
c-----' Impact of Reuse Waters.
IPaul R. Puckorius, Puckorius &
!Associates, Inc.
'2002 '
Abstract: The increase in reuse waters replacing fresh water supplies in cooling tower systems
'requires an understanding of potential impacts on cooling tower and heat exchange equipment.
This paper identifies those reuse water ingredients that impact on scale, fouling, corrosion, and
biological concerns. It identifies those components that are impacted, depending upon their
:materials of construction and location in the cooling system. Guidelines are provided as to what :
:are potential problems and corrective measures. Several case histories are provided. '
TP03-031 iWater Reuse Experiences With Cooling Tower iPaul Puckorius, Puckorius &2003
in San Antonio, Texas iAssociates, Inc. and Ken DieW, San
i IAntonio Water System
'Abstract: Water reuse studies in pilot plant cooling-tower system were conducted that showed
:major benefits over use of aquifer fresh water supplies. Actual case histories are reviewed
which identify the fresh water and chemical savings, as well as other items to consider with
lreclaimed water in cooing tower water systems. Comparison of fresh and reclaimed water use
;in San Antonio provides some guidelines for other potential users to consider.
. . - - - --. ... .._. - -
1Rl4-01 11 Tower Water
___ ---' ,Program
. -
f -- - ."
;Paul R. Puckorius and David A.
ipuckorius - Puckorius and Associates,
'Jim Reed - Denver Water
2004 i
Abstract: The Denver Water Board has initiated a cooling tower water audit program. The
'purpose of this program is to identify if and to what extent water conservation is possible
'through optimizing cooling tower system operation. This paper provides the results of these
audits to date. It includes the water savings that have been identified along with specific data on
water quality that could be maintained. Over 700 cooling towers could be involved to help
reduce Denver's drought condition. There will also be a brief review of the Denver Water
s time schedule for water rate increases and their overall program for water conservation. '
1Rl5-13 ! :Evaluation into th: use of Mine Drainage to pr. A Harriram and D.G.
___ --' !Supplement Coohllg Water Nieuwenhuis, Sasol Technology __ _
Abstract: The Sasol petrochemical complex located in Secunda, South Africa operates the
,world's largest coal to synthesis gas conversion process. Expansion projects have resulted in an
'increase in cooling water requirements which is difficult in this water short catchment.
Conversely, drainage water continuously accumulating in old coal mine workings is a growing
liability. In an effort to balance the supply and demand within the complex, investigations were
initiated into the use ofmin drainage water. The mine drainage contains amongst others,
'elevated concentrations of Calcium (- 250 mg/I), Magnesium (- 150 mg/I), and Sulphate (-
2,955 mg/I) as well as trace quantities ofiron and manganese. The addition of up to 12% of
such mine drainage water to a cooling medium could tender the blend highly conducive to
,fouling, scaling and corrosion. Pilot scale cooling towers were operated over a twelve month
:period and the results including the limitations observed will be discussed.
[Dr. Chris L. Wiatr, Buckman
'Laboratories, Inc.
1Rl5-16! of Resistant Bacteria in Recirculating
,-__ -l,Water Systems
Abstract: Bacteria are everywhere in recirculating cooling water systems. Controlling bacterial
!populations in the bulk water and on cooling system surfaces is necessary to maintain and
'operate the cooling system properly. Control of micro organisms in the field requires successful
:application of biocide agents. However, bacterial resistance to biocides is inevitable and
irreversible, a natural consequence of bacterial adaptation to exposure to anti microbials. This
'paper presents mechanisms of bacterial resistance to anti microbials, strategies for overcoming
'resistant cell populations, and a supportive case history using biocides successfully against
!resistance bacteria.
I [Monitoring Cooling Water for Potential Reuse [Phil Kiser, Hach Company i2005
Abstract: With decreasing water supplies in most industrialized areas of the United States,
cooling water discharges are beiog studied for potential reuse applications. Serious concerns
,exist among potential reuse water recipients due to the perceived content of this water. Health
:concems and aesthetic concerns impact any reuse decision. One key way of alleviating these
concerns and making quick decisions concerning the quality of the water is usiog real time
'analytical instrumentation. Advances in online testiog and online instrumentation allowing
. quick decisions about the quality ofthese waters. This paper will discuss the analysis of these
'waters and instrumentation that allows careful monitoring to be achieved.
PO Box 73383 Houston, TX 77273
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