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B)

The type of the airfoil that we used is NACA 4418.


During Cruising at altitude of 27000 ft.

Constant variables:

, and

Manipulating variables:
By substituting all the variables into

, we get

Mach number
Re
0.60
17880708
0.61
18178720
0.62
18476732
0.63
18774744
0.64
19072756
0.65
19370767
By inserting all the above Reynold number values into the XFoil software, we can get the graph of Cl vs
. The value of is restricted from 0 to 3 degree only because our aircraft fixed angle of attack is 3
degree.
After that, the data from Xfoil is exported to Microsoft Excel and the of the gradient of Cl vs Alpha graph
is calculated using 2-known-points.
Mach number

0.6

cl
6.05221

0.61

6.096001

0.62

6.141492

0.63

6.188787

0.64

6.237947

0.65

6.289064

Lift Coefficient

All the unknowns in the formula are fixed variables except for the

. By substituting

cl=4.775939 into , we get CL= 6.063/rad.


Using equation y=mx+c. y-intercept data is obtained xfoil. Finding
(

The same steps are repeated for the other Reynold numbers.
Re
17880708
18178720
18476732
18774744
19072756
19370767
17880708

CL
0.682067
0.6824
0.6827
0.683033
0.6833
0.683567
0.682067

at 2 degree.

The graph of CL vs Reynold number is plotted as shown below.

CL

CL Vs Reynold
0.6838
0.6836
0.6834
0.6832
0.683
0.6828
0.6826
0.6824
0.6822
0.682
0.6818
17500000

18000000

18500000

Reynold Number

19000000

19500000

For drag coefficient.

Re
17880708
18178720
18476732
18774744
19072756
19370767
17880708

CL
0.682067
0.6824
0.6827
0.683033
0.6833
0.683567
0.682067

CD
0.02664
0.028004
0.029872
0.032417
0.035862
0.040504
0.02664

From the previous table, the graph of CD vs Reynold number can be plotted as shown below:

CD Vs Reynold
0.045
0.04
0.035

CD

0.03
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
17500000

18000000

18500000

19000000

19500000

Reynold Number

For both comparsion.

CD & CL Vs Reynold
0.8
0.7

Coefficient

0.6
0.5
0.4

CL

0.3

CD

0.2
0.1
0
17500000

18000000

18500000

Reynold Number

19000000

19500000

C)
Relationship of aircraft lift and drag coefficient during cruise with respect to the change of wing sweep
and aspect ratio.
During cruising, the aircraft travel with Mach number of 6.5 and at altitude of 27000 ft.
Cruising with the range 0.6 to 0.65 Mach number at 27000 ft. The Reynold number produced are around
1800000 to 20000000 Reynold number. For the data of airfoil 4418 at these Reynold number have
almost same
(gradient of graph Cl vs Alpha). The graph generated shown below.

Below is the table of


the aircraft.

available parameter of
cl

N
AR
Sex/Sref
2
F
(1/rad)

0.675
1
5.5
0.65
-1.84
0.18
1.4
73.94
0.75
2
10.8
0.74
0.5775
1.315634
6.4125

i)

0.775474

Effect of variation of swept angle to the CL and CD (At Mach number 0.65)

At flight cruise condition. The swept angle is fixed into -1.894 for swept of quarter chord. The aspect
ratio is varying from 3 to 21.
Calculation of Cruise lift coefficient

0.2923

Calculation of Cruise drag coefficient


[

) ]

) +

) ]

) ]

0.032448

=0.005851

*(

0.065361

0.097809

Swept angle
0
5
10
15
20
25
30

0.2925
0.291387
0.288056
0.282533
0.27486
0.265095
0.253312

0.032448
0.031651
0.029426
0.026211
0.022589
0.01912
0.016212

0.065361
0.065359
0.065352
0.06534
0.065322
0.065297
0.065263

0.097809
0.09701
0.094778
0.091551
0.087911
0.084417
0.081475

Graph

Cl vs Sweep Angle
0.295
0.29
0.285
0.28
0.275
0.27
0.265
0.26
0.255

0.25
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

CL & Cd vs Sweep Angle


0.35
0.3
0.25

Coefficient

0.2
0.15

cd

0.1

Cl

0.05
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Swept Angle

Cd vs Sweep Angle
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

ii)

Variation of Aspect ratio to the CL and CD (At Mach number 0.65)

At flight cruise condition. The swept angle is fixed into -1.894 for swept of quarter chord. The aspect
ratio is varying from 3 to 21.
Calculation of Cruise lift coefficient

(From the xfoil data)

0.3522

Calculation of Cruise drag coefficient


[

) +

) ]

) ]

) ]

0.0283

=0.005851

*(

0.013

0.0413

Cl vs Aspect Ratio
0.7
0.6
0.5
Aspect Ratio

3
6
9
12
15
18
21

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

Graph

3.303042
4.469583
4.984336
5.269213
5.449318
5.573281
5.66375
5

0.352235
0.476635
0.531528
0.561907
0.581113
0.594333
0.60398
10

0.028296
0.028296
0.028296
0.028296
0.028296
0.028296
0.028296
15

0.012973
0.011879
0.009849
0.008255
0.007062
0.006155
0.005448

20

0.041269
0.040175
0.038145
0.03655
0.035358
0.034451
0.033744

25

Cl & Cd vs Aspect Ratio


0.7
0.6

Coefficient

0.5
0.4
0.3

Cd

0.2

Cl

0.1
0
0

10

15

20

25

Aspect Ratio

Cd vs Aspect Ratio
0.045
0.04
0.035
0.03
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0

10

15

20

25