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Chapter 8: Training and Developing Employees

Chapter 8: Training and Developing Employees Multiple Choice 1. _____ provides new employees with the basic background information required to perform their jobs satisfactorily. a. Employee recruitment b. Employee selection c. Employee orientation d. Employee development e. Training (c easy! #rientation typically includes information on _____. a. employee benefits b. personnel policies c. daily routine d. safety measures e. all of the above (e easy! The methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs are called _____. a. orientation b. training c. development d. appraisal e. management (b easy! Employers use a(n! _____ to ensure that employees are working toward organi&ational goals. a. performance management process b. employee orientation program c. management by objectives program d. rewards program e. just'in'time system (a moderate! )hich of the following has the highest influence on organi&ational effectiveness* a. appraisal b. feedback c. training d. goal'setting e. technology (d moderate!

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The first step in a training program is to _____. a. assess the program,s successes or failures b. present the program to a small test audience c. design the program content d. conduct a needs analysis e. train the targeted group of employees (d moderate! )hat is the second step in the training process* a. assess the program,s successes or failures b. present the program to a small test audience c. design the program content d. conduct a needs analysis e. train the targeted group of employees (c moderate! The third step in the training process is to _____. a. assess the program,s successes or failures b. present the program to a small test audience c. design the program content d. conduct a needs analysis e. train the targeted group of employees (b moderate! The fourth step in the training process is to _____. a. assess the program,s successes or failures b. present the program to a small test audience c. design the program content d. conduct a needs analysis e. train the targeted group of employees (e moderate! )hat is the final step in the training process* a. assess the program,s successes or failures b. present the program to a small test audience c. design the program content d. conduct a needs analysis e. train the targeted group of employees (a moderate! 1oh is currently identifying the specific job performance skills needed2 analy&ing the skills of prospective trainees2 and developing knowledge and performance objectives based on the deficiencies he finds. 1ames is working on the _____ step in the training and development process. a. first b. second c. third d. fourth e. fifth (a moderate!

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)hich of the following is not a consideration when designing a training program that motivates the trainees* a. provide the opportunity to apply the material b. provide prompt feedback c. utili&e a half or three'fourths day schedule d. pay the trainees for the time spent in training e. allow trainees to set their own pace (d moderate! )hich of the following is recommended for training sessions to ma3imi&e learning* a. a full day b. a half'day c. one hour d. three hours e. two hours (b moderate! 4f an employer fails to train an employee adequately and an employee subsequently does harm to a third party2 the court could find the employer liable for ____. a. negligent hiring b. discrimination c. negligent training d. occupational fraud e. adverse action (c moderate! )hich of the following steps will not help employers protect themselves against charges of negligent training* a. confirm employee claims of skill and e3perience b. provide e3tensive training c. evaluate the degree to which training lowers risks associated with job d. pay employees for time spent in training e. all of the above will help employers protect themselves (d difficult! 5nder which situation below2 should an employer pay an employee for time spent in training* a. the training program is voluntary b. the training program is directly related to the trainee,s job c. the trainee does not perform any productive work during the program d. the training program is conducted outside working hours e. the training provides no immediate benefit to the employer (b difficult!

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_____ is a detailed study of the job to determine what specific skills the job requires. a. 6eeds analysis b. Task analysis c. 7erformance analysis d. Training strategy e. 8evelopment planning (b easy! Employers can supplement the job description and specification with a _____ that consolidates information regarding required tasks and skills in a format that is helpful for determining training requirements. a. performance record form b. training assessment form c. task analysis record form d. skill sheet e. work function analysis (c moderate! 9 task analysis record form contains all of the following information e3cept a. task list b. required skill set c. quality of performance d. employee name e. performance conditions (d moderate! Employers can identify training needs for new employees by _____. a. reviewing job descriptions b. reviewing performance standards c. performing the job d. questioning current job holders e. all of the above (e easy! The process of verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining if such deficiency should be corrected through training or through some other means is called _____. a. needs analysis b. task analysis c. performance analysis d. training strategy e. development planning (c moderate!

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The first step in a performance analysis is to _____. a. compare the person,s performance to ideal performance b. evaluate productivity per employee c. assess number of employee'related customer complaints d. evaluate supervisor performance reviews e. conduct tests of job knowledge (a moderate! :ources of performance deficiencies in an employee may develop from a lack of _____. a. training b. supplies c. support systems d. rewards e. all of the above (e moderate! _____ means having a person learn a job by actually doing it. a. 7ractice b. #n'the'job training c. :ociali&ation d. :ocial learning e. ;odeling (b easy! )hich of the following training methods is the most popular* a. on'the'job training b. apprenticeship training c. informal learning d. job instruction training e. lectures (a moderate! #n'the'job training can be accomplished through the use of all of the following techniques e3cept a. coaching b. programmed learning c. understudy d. job rotation e. special assignments (b moderate! <os was hired soon after graduation and assigned to complete a management trainee program. :he will move to various jobs each month for a nine'month period of time. =er employer is using the _____ form of training. a. job rotation b. understudy c. coaching d. special assignments e. informal learning (a moderate! 11/

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1ak hopes to be promoted to head of his department ne3t year. 4n the meantime2 he has been assigned to spend a year as assistant to the current department head. This is an e3ample of the _____ form of training. a. job rotation b. job instruction c. coaching d. special assignments e. informal learning (c moderate! )hich of the following guidelines is intended to >7repare the ?earner@ for success using on'the'job training* a. e3plain performance quality requirements b. go through the job at the normal work pace c. designate to whom the learner should go for help d. familiari&e the worker with equipment2 materials2 and tools e. compliment good work (d moderate! )hich of the following guidelines is intended to >7resent the #peration@ when taking the steps for success using on'the'job training* a. put the learner at ease b. have the learner e3plain the steps as the trainer goes through the job at a slow pace c. e3plain the whole job d. create interest in the job e. compliment good work (b moderate! The >8o a Tryout@ step for success when using on'the'job training entails all of the following e3cept _____. a. finding out what the learner already knows about this job b. having the learner go through the job several times while e3plaining each step c. running the job at the normal pace d. having the learner do the job while gradually building up skill and speed e. correcting mistakes as the learner goes through the job (a moderate! )hich of the following is not part of the >Aollow 5p@ step in ensuring success from on'the'job training* a. decrease supervision b. correct faulty work patterns c. e3plain quantity and quality requirements d. designate to whom the learner should go for help e. compliment good work (c moderate!

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The first step to ensuring success for on'the'job training programs is to _____. a. present the operation b. follow up c. do a tryout d. prepare the learner e. evaluate the program (d easy! )hen low e3pectations on the trainer,s part translate into poor trainee performance2 this is called the _____. a. golem effect b. e3pectations fallacy c. what you ask for is what you get effect d. e3pectancy risk e. trainer bias (a moderate! 9 structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on'the'job training is called _____. a. job instruction training b. understudy training c. programmed learning d. apprenticeship training e. coaching (d easy! )hich form of on'the'job training usually involves having a learner study under the tutelage of a master craftsperson* a. job instruction training b. understudy training c. programmed learning d. apprenticeship training e. coaching (d easy! 9ll of the following occupations e3cept _____ use apprenticeship training to prepare trainees. a. cook b. electrician c. millwright d. operating engineer e. teacher (e moderate!

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)hen jobs consist of a logical sequence of steps and are best taught step'by' step2 the appropriate training method to use is _____. a. job instruction training b. informal learning c. job rotation d. programmed learning e. apprenticeship training (a moderate! The first step in using a job instruction training program is to _____. a. prepare the worker b. list all necessary steps in the job c. order the steps in the job d. list key points or guidelines for each step e. present the operation (b moderate! 9 disadvantage of lecturing as a method of training is that it is _____. a. fast b. appropriate for large groups c. allow questions from the audience d. boring e. less e3pensive than written materials (d easy! _____ is a step'by'step self'learning method. a. 1ob instruction training b. 7rogrammed learning c. 9pprenticeship training d. ?ecturing e. 1ob rotation (b easy! )hich of the following is not an advantage of programmed learning* a. reduction in training time b. facilitation of learning c. reduced feeling of risk on the part of the learner d. learning similar to that with te3tbook e. immediate feedback provided (d moderate! Aunctional illiteracy is defined as _____. a. reading below high school level b. the inability to handle basic reading2 writing2 and arithmetic c. the inability to understand standard industry terminology d. proficiency in math and reading skills at the high school level and above e. all of the above (b moderate!

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Chapter 8: Training and Developing Employees

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Employers are responding to the problem of functional illiteracy by _____. a. testing the basic skills of job candidates b. instituting literacy programs at work c. conducting literacy audits d. holding formal classes on math and reading e. all of the above (e easy p. "-/! Because illiterate employees will usually try to hide their problem2 supervisors can try to identify illiteracy problems by looking for employees who _____. a. do not follow written instructions b. take forms home to complete c. are multilingual d. both a and b e. all of the above (d moderate! )hich of the following goals is the focus of diversity training* a. to create cross'cultural sensitivity b. to foster harmonious working relationships c. to improve interpersonal skills d. to sociali&e employees into the corporate culture e. all of the above (e moderate! 9n advantage of conventional lecturing over the use of audiovisual'based training is that _____. a. audiovisuals are more boring b. audiovisuals are more e3pensive c. audiovisuals allow for instant replay and stop'action d. audiovisuals can show events that are not easily demonstrated in live lectures e. audiovisuals can be easily sent to all locations (b moderate! 9nother term for vestibule training is _____. a. apprenticeship training b. computer'based training c. cubicle training d. simulated training e. job instruction training (d moderate! _____ is a method in which trainees learn on actual or simulated equipment but are trained away from the job. a. Cestibule training b. 9pprenticeship training c. <etreat training d. Dubicle training e. 1ob instruction training (a moderate! 1"$

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7ilots train on flight simulators for safety2 learning efficiency2 and cost savings. This is an e3ample of _____. a. apprenticeship training b. on'the'job training c. simulated training d. coaching e. programmed learning (c easy! _____ are computer'based training systems that learn what the trainee did right and wrong and then adjusts the instructional sequence to the trainee,s unique needs. a. 7rogrammed learning b. ;ulti'media training c. 8C8 training programs d. 4ntelligent tutoring systems e. 7rogrammed instruction (d moderate! 9ll of the following are advanced types of computer'based training e3cept _____. a. interactive gaming systems b. intelligent tutoring systems c. interactive multimedia training d. virtual reality training e. all of the above are advanced types of computer'based training systems (a moderate! 9(n! _____ is a set of instruction2 diagrams2 or similar methods available at the job site to guide the worker. a. instruction sheet b. job aid c. task analysis record form d. skill sheet e. work function analysis (b easy! 9pac 9irlines uses a checklist of things that pilots should do before take'off and landing. This checklist is an e3ample of a(n! _____. a. job aid b. instruction sheet c. task analysis form d. work function analysis e. skill sheet (a moderate!

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Chapter 8: Training and Developing Employees

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Travel agents at 9pac Travel :ervices follow a computer program that displays question prompts and dialogue bo3es with travel policies as the agent enters information about the consumer,s travel plans. This is an e3ample of a(n! _____. a. job aid b. electronic performance support system c. intelligent tutoring system d. computer'managed instruction e. computer'based training (b moderate! )ith _____2 a trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via television hookups. a. lecturing b. audiovisual'based instruction c. teletraining d. teleteaching e. distance learning (c easy! 9ny attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge2 changing attitudes2 or increasing skills is called _____. a. diversity training b. on'the'job training c. performance improvement programs d. management development e. coaching (d easy! The _____ process consists of 1! assessing the company,s strategic needs2 "! appraising the current performance of managers2 and $! developing the managers. a. management development b. management skills inventory c. succession planning d. action planning e. performance support (a moderate! The _____ process consists of 1! anticipating management needs2 "! reviewing the firm,s management skills inventory2 and $! creating replacement charts. a. management development b. management skills inventory c. succession planning d. action planning e. performance support (c moderate!

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)hich on'the'job training method is used for managerial positions* a. job rotation b. coaching c. action learning d. outside seminars e. all of the above (e easy! 4n a(n! _____2 carefully selected teams tackle real world business programs that e3tend beyond their usual areas of e3pertise and receive coaching and feedback on their work. a. management development program b. action learning program c. role playing program d. job instruction program e. understudy program (b moderate! The transparent barrier that women face when trying to move to top management is called the _____. a. glass ceiling b. glass wall c. invisible corner office d. iron wall e. ;ount Everest (a easy! _____ is a special approach to organi&ational change in which the employees formulate the change that,s required and implement it. a. ;anagerial development b. 9ction research c. :uccession planning d. #rgani&ational development e. 7articipative management (d moderate! )hich of the following is not an application of organi&ational development* a. human process b. techno'structural c. human resource management d. strategic e. interventions (e moderate!

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The basic aim of _____ is to increase the participants, insight into their own behavior and the behavior of others by encouraging an open e3pression of feelings in a trainer'guided group. a. sensitivity training b. action research c. group therapy d. diversity training e. coaching (a moderate! )hich of the following organi&ational development techniques focuses on techno'structural applications* a. t'groups b. process consultation c. quality circles d. team building e. goal setting (c moderate! )hich organi&ational development application involves e3amples like goal setting2 performance appraisal2 and employee wellness* a. human process b. strategic c. techno'structural d. human resource management e. process consultation (d easy! )hich of the following is not measured to evaluate a training program* a. organi&ational productivity b. participants, reactions to the program c. what trainees learned from the program d. changes in on'the'job behavior e. training objectives achieved (a moderate! 4n a _____2 measures are taken before and after the training program so they can be compared to assess the effectiveness of the program. a. :oloman four'factor design b. time series design c. controlled e3periment d. post'test only design e. factorial design (b moderate!

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)hen _____ are measured to assess the effectiveness of a training program2 variables such as liking of the program2 satisfaction with the program2 and attitude toward the program are assessed. a. learning outcomes b. behavioral outcomes c. results d. reactions e. productivity levels (d moderate!

True/ False -1. -". -$. -%. -(. Employee orientation programs range from brief2 informal introductions to lengthy2 formal courses. (T easy! #rientation refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. (A easy! ;ost employers do not develop their own training materials. (T easy! Training sessions should be half'day or three'fourths day in length rather than a full day2 because the learning curve goes down late in the day. (T easy! Employers face the same consequences for discriminating against protected individuals when selecting candidates for training programs as they would in selecting candidates for jobs. (T moderate! Employers must always pay employees for attending training programs. (A moderate! The main task in analy&ing current employees, training needs is to determine what the job entails2 break the job down into subtasks2 and then teach each subtask to the employee. (A moderate! 7erformance analysis is a detailed study of a job to determine what specific skills the job requires. (A easy! 9 disadvantage of on'the'job training is its e3pense. (A easy p. "-(! 1ob instruction training is a step'by'step self'learning method which uses a te3tbook2 computer2 or the 4nternet. (A moderate! ?iteracy training is sometimes a part of a diversity training program. (T moderate! :uccession planning is a type of management development program. (T easy! ?ewin,s change process consists of unfree&ing2 moving2 and refree&ing. (T easy!

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Chapter 8: Training and Developing Employees

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;anagement development is a special approach to organi&ational change in which the employees themselves formulate the change that is required and implement it. (A moderate! #rgani&ational development usually involves action research. (T moderate! :ensitivity training seeks to increase participants, insight into their own behavior and the behavior of others by encouraging an open e3pression of feelings in a trainer guided t'group. (T moderate! :urvey research is a convenient way to unfree&e a company,s management and employees by providing comparative2 graphic illustration of the fact that the organi&ation does have problems to solve. (T easy! #8 applications in human resource management involve changing firm structure2 methods2 and job design to improve efficiency and productivity. (A moderate! :urvey research is a technostructural #8 technique. (A moderate! =uman resource management #8 applications use action research to enable employees to analy&e and change their firm,s personnel practices such as performance appraisal and reward systems. (T easy! 4ntegrated strategic management is an #8 method of developing and implementing a strategic change plan. (T easy! 9 survey of employee attitudes towards the training program is the most frequently used assessment method. (A moderate! )hen designing a training evaluation study2 one can use a time series design or a controlled e3periment. (T moderate! )hen a training program is evaluated by measuring the outcomes of a group who receives the training and another group that receives no training2 it is called a time series design. (A moderate! The four categories of training outcomes are reactions2 learning2 behavior2 and results. (T easy!

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Essay/ Short Answer /+. )hat four things should a successful orientation program accomplish* (moderate! 9nswerE 6ew employees should feel welcome and at ease. 6ew employees should understand the organi&ation in a broad sense including its past2 present2 culture2 and vision for the future. They should be clear about what is e3pected in terms of work and behavior. They should have begun the sociali&ation process into the firm,s way of doing things.

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Training is not useful if the trainee lacks the motivation to benefit from it. The more meaningful the material2 the more motivated an employee should be to learn. =ow can a manager make training material more meaningful for employees* (easy! 9nswerE There are five suggestions for making training material more meaningful for employees. Airst2 an overall picture of the training material that will be presented should be provided at the start of training. :econd2 familiar e3amples should be used. Third2 the information should be logically organi&ed and presented. Aourth2 the vocabulary used during training should be familiar to the trainees. Aifth2 many visual aids should be used.

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There are several sources of information an employer can use to identify a current employee,s training needs. ?ist five of these sources of information. (moderate! 9nswerE The possible sources of information include performance reviews (supervisor2 peer2 self2 and $+0 degree! job'related performance data such as productivity2 absenteeism and tardiness2 accidents2 short'term sickness2 grievances2 waste2 late deliveries2 product quality2 downtime2 repairs equipment utili&ation2 and customer complaints observation by supervisors or other specialists interviews with the employee or the supervisor skill tests attitude surveys employee task diaries and assessment center results.

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Trainers often try to solve employee performance deficiencies with training2 but some deficiencies can,t be overcome with training. )hat other causes might e3ist for performance deficiency from an employee* (easy! 9nswerE Training is appropriate if the problem is caused by the employee failing to understand how to do2 what to do2 or what the standards for performance are. =owever2 if employees are not provided with the proper resources for doing a job well then training cannot solve this problem. ?ikewise2 if employees have the necessary knowledge and resources2 then the may not be motivated to improve performance.

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There are several types of on'the'job training. 4dentify and describe three types. )hich one is used most often* )hy* (moderate! 9nswerE The types of on'the'job training include the coaching or understudy method2 the job rotation method2 and the special assignments method. 5sing the understudy method2 an e3perienced worker or the trainee,s supervisor trains the employee. 9t lower levels2 the trainee might observe the supervisor2 but it is also used at higher levels. 1ob rotation means that an employee moves from job to job at planned intervals. This is common in management training programs. :pecial assignments give employees firsthand e3perience in working on actual problems. The coaching or understudy method is used most often. 4t is the simplest to e3ecute and still offers the advantages of #T1 training.

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)hat advantages are associated with on'the'job training* (moderate 9nswerE #1T is relatively ine3pensive. Trainees learn while producing and there is no need for e3pensive training facilities like classrooms or programmed learning devices. #1T also facilitates learning because trainees learn by doing and get prompt feedback on their performance.

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#n'the'job training can be enhanced if trainers know the four'step job instruction technique. )hat are the four steps in job instruction* E3plain what happens in each step. (moderate! 9nswerE The four steps in job instruction are to 1! prepare the learner2 "! present the operation2 $! do a tryout2 %! follow up. 4n the first step2 the trainer should try to put the learner at ease and relieve tension. The trainer should e3plain why the trainee is being taught. The trainer should create interest in the training by encouraging questions and finding out what the learner already knows. The job should be e3plained to the trainee along with making sure the trainee is familiar with the equipment2 materials2 tools2 and terminology of the trade. 4n the second step2 the trainer should e3plain the quantity and quality requirements of the job. The job should be gone through at a normal pace and then at a slower pace several times while e3plaining each step. 9fter the steps have been covered2 the learner should e3plain the steps to the trainer while the trainer goes through the job at a slow pace. 4n the third step2 the learner should go through the job several times slowly while e3plaining each step. ;istakes should be corrected. Then the learner should do the job at a normal pace. This should continue while the learner builds up skill and speed. #nce the learner has demonstrated ability to do the job2 the work should begin2 but the trainer should stay close by. 4n the final step2 the trainer should designate a contact person the learner can reach for help. :upervision should be gradually decreased but work should still be checked periodically for quality and quantity standards. 9ny faulty work patterns should be corrected. Ainally good work should be complimented and the worker encouraged until able to performance standards.

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8escribe the programmed learning training method and e3plain the three parts of this form of instruction. (moderate! 9nswerE 7rogrammed learning is a step'by'step self'learning method using a medium such as a te3tbook2 computer2 or the 4nternet. The three parts of the method include presenting questions2 facts2 and problems to the learner2 allowing the person to respond2 and then providing feedback on the accuracy of answers.

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)hat is the goal of succession planning* )hat steps are involved in the process* (moderate! 9nswerE :uccession planning refers to the process through which a company plans for and fills senior'level openings. The typical succession planning process involves several steps. Airst2 anticipate management needs based on factors like planned e3pansion. 6e3t2 review the firm,s management skills inventory to assess current talent. Then2 create replacement charts that summari&e potential candidates and each person,s development needs.

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Dhanging employee attitudes2 skills2 and behaviors can be difficult. E3plain how ?ewin,s Dhange 7rocess proposes how change should be implemented. (moderate! 9nswerE To ?ewin2 all behavior in organi&ations is a product of two kinds of forces F those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change. 4mplementing change means either weakening the status quo forces or building up the forces for change. ?ewin,s change process consists of three stepsE 1! unfree&ing the forces that seek to maintain the status quo2 "! moving to develop new behaviors and attitudes2 $! refree&ing the organi&ation into its new system to prevent it from reverting to its old ways.

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