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Design Design of of Tension Tension Members Members -2 2

Basic Basic Structural Structural Steel Steel Design Design

CE CE 3050 3050

Review Review:: Plates Plates in in Tension Tension

Design Strategy for Tension


Gross Area Design Strength
Tdg fy = Ag m0

Ag:: Gross cross-sectional area m0 = 1.10

fy

Design Strategy for Tension


Net Area Design Strength
Tdn fu = 0.9 An m1

An:: Net cross-sectional area m1 = 1.25

fu

Plastic

Net Area
Plate with Holes
t d g g g p p p b
2/4 A An =[ [b b nd nd + + ( (p p2 /4g g)] )] t t n=

p2/4g for all inclined parts of the section

All possible failure paths to be investigated Minimum net area to be used in design

Block Shear
Plates
More than one bolt line
Bolt shear strength and plate bearing strength are higher

1 4

2 3

Shear Planes Tension Plane

Design Strategy for Block Shear


Block Shear Design Strength
Smaller of

Tdb1 = Avg

fy

3 m0

fu + 0.9Atn m1

Yield Yield of of Gross Gross area area in in shear shear + + Rupture Rupture of of Net Net area area in in tension tension

OR

Tdb1 = 0.9Avn

fu

3 m1

+ Atg

fy m0

Rupture Rupture of of Net Net area area in in shear shear + + Yield Yield of of Gross Gross area area in in tension tension

When one (either) plane reaches ultimate strength, the other plane develops full yield

Design for Shear


Interaction of Normal stress and Shear stress
von Mises yield criterion
1 2 x y

{(

2 2 )2 + ( y z )2 + ( z x )2 + 6(2 + + xy yz zx ) }

1 2

=Y

2 2 2 + 3 = f x xy y

xy =

fy 3

for x = 0
y x

Yield in Shear

Plates in Tension
Design Strategy
Yield of Gross section m0 Rupture of Net section 0.9 factor m1 Block shear Both yielding of gross section and rupture of net section
Both in shear and tension 1
3

multiplier for shear strength

Shear Shear Lag Lag

Non-Uniform Stress
More stress near restraint
Less stress near un-restrained / free ends

T/2

T/2

T T / Ag

Angles Angles in in Tension Tension

Shear Lag
Angles
Single leg connected Eccentrically loaded through gusset plates

Free, Un-stiffened, Un-connected end

Part of cross-section NOT effective Less Stressed

Gusset Plate

Shear Lag
Channels
Both legs connected

Part of cross-section NOT effective


Less Stressed

Gusset Plate

Shear Lag
Effects of Shear Lag
Strength reduction Part of cross-section ineffective (less stressed)
Consider in Design

Shear Lag
Factors affecting / causing Shear Lag
Outstand (unconnected part) More outstand more shear lag Thin / slender outstand more shear lag Connection stiffness Flexible connection more shear lag
Single leg connection versus both leg connection One bolt versus multiple bolt connection

Angles in Tension
Design Strategy
Yielding of gross section Rupture of net section Block shear

Angles in Tension
Gross Area Design Strength
Tdg fy = Ag m0

Ag:: Gross cross-sectional area m0 = 1.10

Gusset Plate

Angles in Tension
Net Area Design Strength
Tdn fy fu = 0.9 Anc + Ago m1 m0

Anc :: Net area of connected leg Ago :: Gross area of unconnected or outstanding leg :: Modification factor based on contribution of unconnected outstand m0 = 1.10 m1 = 1.25

Angles in Tension
Net Area Design Strength
Tdn fy fu = 0.9 Anc + Ago m1 m0
:: Modification factor based on contribution of unconnected outstand
t t

fy bs w = 1.4 0.076 t fu Lc 0.7 fu m0 fy m1


w

w1

bs = w + w1 - t

bs = w

Angles in Tension
Net Area Design Strength
Tdn
fy fu = 0.9 Anc + Ago m1 m0 fy bs w = 1.4 0.076 t fu Lc 0.7 fu m0 fy m1

Upper Limit Full unconnected length rupture Lower Limit 70% of unconnected length yielding

Angles in Tension
Net Area Design Strength
Tdn fu = An m1

Approximate Estimate
Case
One or two bolts Three bolts Four or more bolts Weld

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8

Angles in Tension
Design Strategy
Yielding of gross section Rupture of net section Block shear

Angles in Tension
Block Shear

1 4

2 3

Shear Plane Tension Plane

Angles in Tension
Welded Members
No Net Area No reduction of area due to bolt holes
Design strength based on Gross Area only

Check for Block Shear

Threaded Threaded Rods Rods in in Tension Tension

Threaded Rods
Design Strategy
Yielding of gross section Rupture of net section

Threaded Rods in Tension


Gross Area Design Strength
Tdg fy = Ag m0

Ag:: Gross cross-sectional area m0 = 1.10

d root d gross

Threaded Rods in Tension


Net Area Design Strength
Tdn fu = 0.9 An m1

An:: Net root area at the threaded section m1 = 1.25


f fy fy

fu

d root d gross Elastic Elasto-Plastic Plastic

Member Member Design Design

Stiffness Requirement
Case
Pretensioned Members
(always in tension)

Maximum l/r limit


No Limit 400 350 250

(not always in tension!)

Members under tension only Not designed for compression under stress reversal Designed for compression under stress reversal

(may also be in compression sometimes!!) (will also be in compression)

Stiffness Requirement
Serviceability Limit State
To control Deflection Vibration To facilitate Ease of handling Transportation and erection requirements Minimization of damage during fabrication

Do Not affect Strength of tension members

Design Design of of Tension Tension Members Members

Design Steps
1: Determine Factored Design Force T (Demand) 2: Calculate
Ag req = T / (fy / m0) An req = T / (fu / m1) Choose a trial section Select connection details

3: Determine design strength Td (Capacity)


Ensure Td > T (Capacity > Demand)

4: Check l/r to be within prescribed limits 5: Calculate Efficiency = T / (Ag fy / m0)

Design Steps
Efficiency
100% Efficiency Gross Area Yielding
Welded connection Bolted Connection

T fy m0 Ag

Efficiency may reduce due to Bolt holes


Net area rupture governing

Shear lag Block shear

Summary
Steel Tension Members
Efficient load carrying members

IS 800: 2007
Section 6 (page 32 33)
6.1 Tension Members 6.2 Design Strength due to Yielding of Gross Section 6.3 Design Strength due to Rupture of Critical Section 6.4 Design Strength due to Block Shear