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HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. The HACCP system is an internationally recognized system used to manage food safety. It has been endorsed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission1 as a tool that can be used to systematically identify hazards specific to individual products and processes and describe measures for their control to ensure the safety of fish and fish products. 1.1 HA Food Safety Hazard

Any property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption, it been categorized into: Biological - not obvious to the naked eye, and very small numbers can render food unsafe to eat. If a consumer were to eat biologically contaminated food, they would typically suffer from a nasty bought of sickness and diarrhea. In the worst case scenario consumption of biologically contaminated food may lead to permanent disabilities such as blindness or even death. Example of food poisoning bacteria are salmonella, E.coli, Clostridium perfringens and etc. Chemical - often not obvious to the naked eye, but small quantities can render food unsafe to eat. If a consumer were to eat chemically contaminated food, they could typically burn their mouth and throat and/or poison themselves causing vomiting or death. Physical - visible objects both large and small which are in the food. These could have been introduced in some way or they may be already part of that food e.g. bones. They pose a threat to the consumer of the food, who may cut their mouth, break teeth or choke on the object.

Codex Alimentarius Commission created in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) to develop food standards, guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme .


CCP Critical Control Point

A point, step or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduce to acceptable levels.


Principles of HACCP

The HACCP approach is based on seven principles aimed at identifying hazards in food production, controlling hazards at critical control points in the process, and verifying that the system is working properly. The key element of the HACCP system is its preventive nature, meaning that potential food safety hazards are controlled throughout the process. o Conduct a Hazard analysis Potential hazards associated with a food and measures to control those hazards are identified. The hazard could be biological, such as a microbe; chemical, such as a toxin; or physical, such as ground glass or metal fragments. o Identify critical control points These are points in a food's production from its raw state through processing and shipping to consumption by the consumer at which the potential hazard can be controlled or eliminated. Examples are cooking, cooling, packaging, and metal detection. o Establish preventive measures with critical limits for each control point. For a cooked food, for example, this might include setting the minimum cooking temperature and time required to ensure the elimination of any harmful microbes. o Establish monitoring procedures Such procedures might include determining how and by whom cooking time and temperature should be monitored.

o Establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring shows that a critical limit has not been meet. For example, reprocessing or disposing of food if the minimum cooking temperature is not met. o Establish verification procedures to verify that the system is working properly. For example, testing time-and-temperature recording devices to verify that a cooking unit is working properly. o Establish recordkeeping procedure This would include records of hazards and their control methods, the monitoring of safety requirements and action taken to correct potential problems. Each of these principles must be backed by sound scientific knowledge: for example, published microbiological studies on time and temperature factors for controlling foodborne pathogens.


The Advantage Of Implementing HACCP System

The biggest advantage of HACCP system that is a quality guarantee method of putting prevention first, and is provided with strong systematic characteristic, rigorous structure, strong applicability and remarkable benefit. Establishment and effective operation of the HACCP system indicate the organization attaches great importance to food security and sanitation, and has adopted positive and effective control method. It also active control since the correction measure is adopted before the problems come forth. It is controlled according to the characteristic that is easy to be supervised such as time, temperature and appearance. The HACCP system also helps to reduce cost of processing or product waste, reduce risk and increased business protection and market access.


The Food Flow

The food flow is the path that food follows from receiving through service or sale to the consumer. Several activities or stages make up the flow of food and are called operational steps. The 8 step of food flow are Purchasing and receiving Storage Preparation (including defrosting) Cooking Cooling Hot and cold holding Reheating Serving


Kitchen Safety

Consciously or not, kitchens can be most of the time, injury free. The injuries that occur are usually the result of failure to follow instructions, inattention, lack of knowledge, and other similar factors. Injuries can be control by continually observing safe work practices, and calling to the attention of the supervisor or head of the kitchen those conditions when they could contribute to an accident. 2.1 Kitchen Workplace Safety

This safety is more to the kitchen environment. Usually, before we start cooking the first thing that we have to look up are the cooking area environment. It is important to keep our cooking area safe because it can minimise the injuries. Here are some tips that useful for keeping safe in kitchen workplace. Avoid Slips, Trips and fall can occur due to wet floor, uneven floor, loose or damage floor tiles. Warning signs saying wet floor and even cordoning off certain areas are actions which should also be taken after spillages or after mopping the floor during cleaning until it is dry. Safe Manual Handling Beware on Hot and Harmful Substances 2.1.1 Preventing Cut We have to take a great care when using knives in the kitchen and also beware of glass objects. So, we need to follow safe procedures when using knives and other sharp kitchen utensils and when handling items made of glass as both can cause severe damage in the form of cuts. Below are some tips to prevent cut. Keep knives sharp, it will slide easily through what you are cutting. Point Away When you are using a knife, don't cut toward you or your fingers . Don't leave sharp knives loose in a drawer. Do not try and catch dropped knives. Do not put knives in the sink.

Put knives down safely don't lay it down with the blade pointing up an make sure it is away from the surface edge. Put broken glass in a safe container.

2.1.2 Preventing Burn Most kitchen fires start due to the heating of fat or oil. Unattended cooking can also result in a kitchen fire. When oil or fat gets hot, it smokes a little at first. If it gets hotter, it bursts into flame. So, we have to follow a few tips to prevent burn in the kitchen. Remember that steam will rise from a pot of boiling water when the lid is removed. Use a pot holder and lift lids so that the end farthest away from you comes up first. Leave a cloth or oven mitts on a hot lid lying on a counter top to alert others the lid is hot. Turn pot handles in so that they cant be bumped or the pots knocked over. Dont leave spoons or other utensils in pots while cooking. Dont leave pots on stove unattended while cooking. Turn off burners and ovens when they are not in use. 2.1.3 Preventing And Dealing With Fire

The kitchen is potentially the most dangerous area that contains many hazards that can cause burn and unintentionally fires. There are a few steps that can be taken to keep kitchen hazard free which are: Place a fire extinguisher in the kitchen Install and maintain a smoke detector Store cleaning products and chemicals away from the reach of children Never leave a fire or heat source unattended Recommended not to wear long, loose sleeves that can hang over the stove while cooking Make sure that flammable fabrics such as towels, dish rag or curtain are not place near a gas or electric range and never hang towels on or over the stoves Use only appliances that have been tested and approved by a recognized testing facility such as SIRIM

Do not overload uses of electrical outlets Always clean grease from the oven and gas range

If the kitchen already burn, make sure everyone out of the area and call the fire station for help. In case of fire, fire extinguisher can be used to put out the fire, so in every kitchen must have at least a fire extinguisher. Type of fire extinguisher that can be used:a) Class A = Ordinary Combustibles (e.g., wood, paper, rubber) b) Class B = Flammable Liquids/Gases (e.g., gasoline, methane) c) Class C = Energized Electrical (e.g., electrical appliance that is plugged in)

2.1.4 Preventing Injuries From Machines And Equipment

The average kitchen is filled with numerous hazards that may go unnoticed until an accident happen. Whether the stove, small appliances and also kitchen tools, it can pose a safety risk for every member in it.

Stove and Oven Hazards Many people have burned their hands on a hot stove or as result of reaching into an oven without a proper oven mitt. However, the burn is not the only reason the stoves can be dangerous. There are some other reasons such as: Drop in stoves can tip over if not properly secured, particularly if someone leans on the door when it is open. To prevent this type of hazard, verify that stove is properly secured. Leaving stove burners on under empty pots and pan can be a fire hazard. Make sure the stovetop is turned off when food is finished cooking. Pots and pans filled with hot food can be easily knocked off if the handles are not situated properly. So that, always turn handless so they are facing away from the front of edge of the stove

Small Appliances (blenders, mixers, toaster, can opener, etc) Many kitchens have a variety of small appliances including blender, mixer, toaster, can opener, crocks pots. These things can injure us if it is not used properly. So a few steps can be taken to avoid injuries from happen: Keep all small appliances cords away from the edges of the countertop to avoid catching a cord and knocking appliance off the counter Keep all appliances and their power cords away from the sink or water sources while in use to avoid shock hazard Never reach into appliances like mixer, blenders while they are in used

Kitchen Tools Every kitchen has knives, filled with forks and other sharp object that could potentially result in puncture injuries if not stored properly and handled with care. So to prevent injuries from kitchen tools, a few step can be taken: Place all sharp item in the utensil drawer and store them separately Keep the drawer organized and avoid to store so many items in the drawer When storing knives in the blocks, be sure that the handles are positioned so that they can be gripped easily Knifes cases should be firmly sealed so there is no risk of knives accidentally exposed

2.1.5 Preventing Fall

Falling is often resulting in decreased in functional ability and quality of life. One of the places that always occurred falling is in kitchen. So to prevent this from happen, we can: The floor surface should not be slippery and should be non-glare Use a non-skid rug in front of the sink Do not over wax and polish your floor Use a sturdy step stool (not a chair), when need to reach up into those top kitchen cupboards Keep commonly used items within easy reach Clean up spills immediately. If not, they may cuase slipping and falling if forgotten

2.1.6 Preventing Strain And Injuries From Lifting

Usually the impact from strain and injuries from lifting is back injuries. So that to prevent from back injuries, there are some basic thing that can help:

Avoid lifting and bending Place objects up off the floor so that we wont have to reach down to pick it up again Put heavier objects on shelves at waist level and lighter objects lower or higher shelves Use cart or trolley to moves objects

Use proper lifting procedures Take balanced stance with feet about a shoulder width apart. One foot can be behind the object and the other next to it Squat down to lift the object and keep your heels off the floor. Get as close as to object Use palm to get secured grip on the load Lift gradually using leg, abdominal and buttock muscle to keep load close to us. Keep chin tucked in to keep a relatively straight back and neck line Once standing, change directions by pointing feet in the direction needed and turn the whole body. Avoid twisting at waist while carrying load When put down the load, use the same method in reverse

Reduce the amount of weight lifted Use handles and lifting straps Get help if the object too heavy to lift and move


Reference 1. China Quality Certification Centre. (2006, July 7 ) The Common Questions about HACCP. Retrieved from estion/webinfo/2006/07/1260497023735653.htm 2. FAO Corporate Document Repository. (2007, September 16) Food safety through HACCP The FAO approach. Retrieved from 3. Jonathan Meyer. (2010, May 23). Prevent Fire Damage in the Kitchen Retrieved from 4. W. Mary. (2006, October 7 ) Kitchen Hazard. Retrieved from 5. Osteoporosis Canada. (2011, July 27 ) Preventing fall in the Kitchen. Retrieved from 6. EHS Safety Training. (2011, November 27 ) How To Prevent Back Injuries. Retrieved from 7. EHS Safety Training. (2011, November 27 ) How To Prevent Back Injuries. Retrieved from 8. (2011, November 27 ) Kitchen Health & Safety. Retrieved from esource%2FKitchen%2520Health%2520%2526%2520Safety.htm&h=yAQFXEsrd