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American National Standard for

Centrifugal Pumps
for Design and Application

Sponsor

Hydraulic Institute

Approved November 9,1999

American National Standards Institute, Inc.

American National Standard

Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSl that the requirements for due process, consensus and other criteria for approval have been met by the standards developer. Consensus is established when, in the judgement of the ANSl Board of Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests. Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution. The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standards. The American National Standards lnstitute does not develop standards and will in no circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpretations should be addressed to the secretariat or sponsor whose name appears on the title page of this standard. CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken periodically to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Institute.

Published By Hydraulic lnstitute

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Copyright O 2000 Hydraulic lnstitute All rights resewed. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America ISBN 1-880952-28-9

Contents
Page Foreword 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.3.1 1.3.3.2 1.3.3.3 1.3.3.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii .. . Design and application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ..


Preferred units for pump applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Typical applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.

. Booster sewice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Process sewice (chemical, petrochemical, injection) . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Transfer pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Mine dewatering

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 1.3.3.5 Well pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 1.3.3.6 Irrigation sewice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . 1.3.3.7 Pumps for steam power plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . 1.3.3.8 Fire pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . 11 1.3.3.9 Pumps used as hydraulic turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3.1 0 General purpose sewice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.3.1 1 Wastewater service (solids and non-clog) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3.3.12 Pulp and paper applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . 1.3.3.1 3 Slurty sewice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . 19 1.3.3.1 4 Liquids with vapor or gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Performance, selection criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 . 1.3.4.1 System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 42 1.3.4.2 Determination of operating duty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4.3 Efficiency prediction method for centrifugal pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 1.3.4.4 Operation away from the best efficiency point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 57 . 1.3.4.5 Noise levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4.6 Suction conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 1.3.4.7 Mechanical features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 1.3.4.8 Impeller types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 . . 1.3.4.9 Casing type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 1.3.4.1 0 Drivers: type and size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 . 1.3.4.1 1 Pump liquid temperature limits on end suction pumps . . . . . . . . . . . 78 1.3.5 Horizontal pump baseplate design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 1.3.5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 . 79 1.3.5.2 Functional requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5.3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 . 80 1.3.5.4 Tolerancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.5.5 1.3.5.6 Shims and fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Stress levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 .

1.3.5.7 1.3.5.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 .. Miscellaneous criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 .


Rigidity

.Appendix A Torsional Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Appendix B Recommended Equipment Mounting Drilling Dimensions. . . . . . 87 Appendix C AppendixD Figures 1.47 -- Diagram of a simple steam power cycle 1.49 - Diagram of a closed feedwater cycle References Index

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

1.48 -- Diagram of a typical condensing steam power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

..........................7 .

1.50 - Diagram of an open feedwater cycle with one deaerator and three closed heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 .

..................................... 11 1.52-Turbineperformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . 1.53 - Self-priming pump -construction industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 1.54 - Self-priming pump - chemical industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
1.51 - Turbine characteristics 1.55 - Nomograph of the relationship of concentration to specific 18 gravity in aqueous slurries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.56 -Typical 1.57 -Typical performance characteristics

- non-settling slurries . . . . . . . . . 19
slurries

. . . . . . . . . . . .19 1.58 - Effect of gas on pump performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 . 1.59-Inducer 1.60-Venting the eye of the impeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 1.61 -Top suction impeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 . 1.62 - Pump versus system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 1.63-Torquecurve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1.64A - Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (metric) . . . . . . . . . . 24 1.64B - Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (US units) . . . . . . . . 25 1.65A - Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (metric) . . . . . . . . . . 26 1.658 - Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (US units) . . . . . . . . 27 1.66A - Sample performance chart (Metric). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 1.66B - Sample performance chart (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
performance characteristics -settling 1.67A - Recommended typical operating speed limits for single suction pumps (metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 1.678 Recommended typical operating speed limits for single .. suction pumps (US units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1.68A Recommended typical operating speed limits for double suction pumps (metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

1.686 . Recommendedtypical operating speed limits for double suction pumps (US units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 . 1.69A NPSHR reduction for pumps handling hydrocarbon liquids and high-temperature water (metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 1.696 - NPSHR reduction for pumps handling hydrocarbon liquids and high-temperature water (US units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . 1.70 - Pumps operating in series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 .

. 1.71 - Pumps operating in parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 . 1.73A - Temperature rise (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . 1.726 -Pump performance (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 45 1.736 -Temperature rise (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 1.74 - Impeller with angled outside diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.75A - Optimum generally attainable efficiency chart (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1.756 -Specific speed-efficiency correction chart (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1.75C - Optimum generally attainable efficiency chart (US Units). . . . . . . . . . 51 1.75D - Specific speed-efficiency conection chart (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.72A - Pump performance (Metric) 1.76A - Deviation from generally attainable efficiency (Metric) 1.766 -Deviation

. . . . . . . . . . . . 52

from generally attainable efficiency (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . 52

1.77A Estimated efficiency increase due to improved surface finish (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 .. 1.776 - Estimated efficiency increase due to improved surface finish (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . 1.78A Estimated efficiency decrease due to increased wear ring clearance (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 . 1.786 - Estimated efficiency decrease due to increased wear ring clearance (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 . 1.80 - Single volute casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 1.81 - K versus rate of flow for single volute casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 1.82 - Dual (double) volute casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 1.83 - K versus rate of flow for dual (double) volute casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . 1.84 - Circular casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
1.79-Inducer 1.85 - Pressure distribution on enclosed impeller shrouds 1.86Enclosed impeller with plain back shroud

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 . 1.87 - Impeller with back ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 1.88 - Mechanical seal classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 . 1.89 - Stuffing-box without lantern ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 1.90- Stuffing-box with lantern ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 . 1.91 - Overhung impeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 1.92 - Impeller between bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 1.93 - Grouted baseplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 .

1.94 -- Free-standing baseplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 . 1.95 -- Height of mounting surfaces

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 . 1.97- Motor mounting pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 . 1.98 - Mounting block dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 . A.l - Baseplate support and anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 . B.l - Recommended equipment mounting drilling dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . .87
1.96 - Equipment mounting surface flatness

Tables

..............................................3 .. 1.3.3A - Sample calculations (Metric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . 1.3.3B - Sample calculations (US Units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 1.3.4 -The influence of pump type on efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 . 1.3.5 -Rolling element bearing types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
1.3.2 -Subscripts 1.3.6 Product lubricated sleeve bearing material selection guide (commonly used in vertical turbine pumps) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . 1.3.7 -Guidelines for minimum and maximum pump liquid temperature for cast grey iron and ductile iron pumps ("C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 1.3.8 - Guidelines for minimum and maximum pump liquid temperature for cast grey iron and ductile iron pumps ( O F ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 1.3.9

- Metric manufacturing tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

1.3.10 - US units manufacturing tolerances

Foreword (Not part of Standard)


Purpose and aims of the Hydraulic lnstitute
The purpose and aims of the lnstitute are to promote the continued growth and well-being of pump manufacturers and further the interests of the public in such matters as are involved in manufacturing, engineering, distribution, safety, transportation and other problems of the industry, and to this end, among other things: a) To develop and publish standards for pumps; b) To collect and disseminate information of value to its members and to the public; c) To appear for its members before governmental departments and agencies and other bodies in regard to matters affecting the industry; d) To increase the amount and to improve the quality of pump service to the public; e) To support educational and research activities; f) To promote the business interests of its members but not to engage in business of the kind ordinarily carried on for profit or to perform particular services for its members or individual persons as distinguished from activities to improve the business conditions and lawful interests of all of its members.

Purpose of Standards
1) Hydraulic lnstitute Standards are adopted in the public interest and are designed to help eliminate misunderstandings between the manufacturer, the purchaser and/or the user and to assist the purchaser in selecting and obtaining the proper product for a particular need.
2)

Use of Hydraulic lnstitute Standards is completely voluntary. Existence of Hydraulic lnstitute Standards does not in any respect preclude a member from manufacturing or selling products not conforming to the Standards.

Definition of a Standard of the Hydraulic lnstitute


Quoting from Article XV, Standards, of the By-Laws of the lnstitute, Section B: "An lnstitute Standard defines the product, material, process or procedure with reference to one or more of the following: nomenclature, composition, construction, dimensions, tolerances, safety, operating characteristics, performance, quality, rating, testing and service for which designed."

Comments from users


Comments from users of this Standard will be appreciated, to help the Hydraulic lnstitute prepare even more useful future editions. Questions arising from the content of this Standard may be directed to the Hydraulic Institute. It will direct all such questions to the appropriate technical committee for provision of a suitable answer.

If a dispute arises regarding contents of an lnstitute publication or an answer provided by the lnstitute to a question such as indicated above, the point in question shall be referred to the Executive Committee of the Hydraulic Institute, which then shall act as a Board of Appeals.

Revisions
The Standards of the Hydraulic Institute are subject to constant review, and revisions are undertaken whenever it is found necessary because of new developments and progress in the art. If no revisions are made for five years, the standards are reaffirmed using the ANSI canvass procedure.

Units of Measurement
Metric units of measurement are used; and corresponding US units appear in brackets. Charts, graphs and sample calculations are also shown in both metric and US units. Since values given in metric units are not exact equivalents to values given in US units, it is important that the selected units of measure to be applied be stated in reference to this standard. If no such statement is provided, metric units shall govern.

Consensus for this standard was achieved by use of the Canvass Method
The following organizations, recognized as having an interest in the standardization of centrifugal pumps were contacted prior to the approval of this revision of the standard. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily imply that the organization concurred with the submittal of the proposed standard to ANSI. A.R. Wilfley & Sons ANSIMAG lnc. Bechtel Corp. Black & Veatch Brown & Caldwell Camp Dresser 8 McKee, Inc. Carver Pump Company Cheng Fluid Systems, Inc. Crane Company, Chempump Div. Cuma S.A. Dean Pump Div., Metpro Corp. DeWante 8 Stowell Dow Chemical EnviroTech Pumpsystems Essco Pump Division Exeter Energy Ltd. Partnership Fairbanks Morse Pump Corp. Fluid Sealing Association Franklin Electric GKO Engineering Grundfos Pumps Corp. Illinois Dept. of Transportation IMC Agrico Chemical Corp. Ingersoll-Dresser Pump Company IlT Fluid Handling (B & G) IlT Fluid Technology ITT Industrial Pump Group lwaki Walchem Corp. J.P. Messina Pump & Hydr. Cons. John Crane, Inc. Krebs Consulting Service KSB, Inc. M.W. Kellogg Company Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. Marine Machinery Association Marley Pump Company Marshall Engineered Products Company Montana State University MWI, Moving Water Industries Oxy Chem Pacer Pumps Paco Pumps, Inc. Pinellas Cty, Gen. Serv. Dept. The Process Group, LLC Raytheon Engineers & Constructors Reddy-Buffaloes Pump, Inc. Robert Bein, Wm. Frost & Assoc. Scott Process Equipment Corp. Settler Supply Company Skidmore South Florida Water Mgmt. Dist. Sta-Rite Industries, Inc. Sterling Fluid Systems (USA), lnc. Stone 8 Webster Engineering Corp. Sulzer Bingham Pumps, Inc. Summers Engineering, Inc. Systecon, Inc. Val-Matic Valve & Mfg. Corp. Yeomans Chicago Corp. Zoeller Engineered Products

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

1.3

Design a n d application

The purpose of this section is to provide a guide for the application of centrifugal pumps for various services. No attempt has been made to cover all phases of centrifugal pump application, but an endeavor has been made to point out some of the principal features of pumps and the precautions which should be taken in their use. 1.3.1 Scope

net positive suction head (NPSH), prolonged operation at or near shut-off, or any other pertinent characteristics of the liquid or the application. The physical and chemical properties of materials, the available forms, and methods of fabrication must be considered in the design of satisfactory equipment. Dissimilar materials in contact with the liquid pumped should be avoided unless the combination is one which is known to be satisfactory for the particular service. Special seals or deep stuffing-boxes, with provision for lubrication or sealing by clear cold water, are frequently necessary. Large unobstructed liquid passages are desirable. The unit should be designed for easy and quick disassembly for inspection, cleaning or repair. Water jackets, steam jackets, or smothering type glands may be mandatory. The need for these features can be determined only afler careful consideration of application requirements. ANSIIASME B73.1, B73.2 and B73.5 covering specifications for horizontal end suction and vertical in-line pumps for chemical process may be used for more information. The manufacturer's instructions with reference to installation should be strictly followed. In many cases, such instructions may be radically different from those for clear water pumps. Regularly established schedules for periodic examination and maintenance are essential. 1.3.3.2.2 Hot oil pump

This Standard is for centrifugal and regenerative turbine pumps of all industrial/commerciaI types except vertical single and multistage diffuser types. It includes design and application. 1.3.2 Preferred units for pump applications

Preferred terms, units and symbols to be used in the technology of pump applications are shown in Tables 1.3.1 and 1.3.2. 1.3.3 1.3.3.1 Typical applications Booster service

Centrifugal pumps in this service handle liquids piped to them at various levels of pressure, normally above atmospheric, and discharge at a higher pressure into the system. Accurate specifications of the liquid characteristics and the range of suction pressures expected must be provided with rate of flow and total head for the pump manufacturer to make a proper selection. 1.3.3.2 Process service (chemical, petrochemical, injection) 1.3.3.2.1 Chemical pump

Pumps for handling oils within the range of 150C to 450C (300F to 850F) are commonly termed hot oil pumps. It is important that sufficient NPSH be available, as the liquid is almost always near the boiling point. Provision should be made to allow self-venting of vapors from the impeller eye by venting the suction eye of the first stage except where the suction nozzle is in a vertical upward position. The stuffing-boxes and bearing housings should be provided with cooling jackets. The glands should be of the smothering type. If packing conditions require seal oil, lantern rings together with the necessary pipe connections should be provided. During operation, the

Pumps used for handling corrosive liquids or slurries are commonly termed chemical pumps. The materials of construction for the parts in contact with the liquid, including stuffing-boxes or seals, must be selected to offer maximum resistance to corrosion and abrasion at the pumping temperature, with due consideration to the economy of such use. Each application must be carefully scrutinized to determine the severity of corrosion or abrasion, viscosities at the extreme pumping temperatures, the hazard involved in the material to be pumped, changes in the composition of the liquid, true vapor pressure,

Table 1.3.1 -Symbols Conversion Symbol A P (beta) D A (delta) rl (eta) Term Metric unit Area square millimeter Meter or orifice ratio dimensionless Diameter millimeter Difference dimensionless Efficiency percent Gravitational acceleration meterlsecond squared Specific weight Head meter Total head meter dimensionless Radial thrust factor meter Static lift revolutiondminute Speed Net positive suction head available meter Net positive suction head required meter Specific speed NS = ~ Q ' ~ I H ~ ' ~ not usedb Kinematic viscosity millimeter squaredlsec pi = 3.1416 dimensionless kilopascal Pressure kilowatt Power Rate of flow (Capacity) cubic meterlhour cubic meterlhour Rate of flow (Capacity) Linear model ratio dimensionless Radial thrust Newton Density kilogramlcubic meter not usedb Suction specific speed =~Q'~~/NPSHR~~~ dimensionless Specific gravity degrees Celsius Temperature Torque Newton-meter gram-centimeter Residual unbalance Velocity meterlsecond Velocity in vibration millimeterslsecond none Exponent meter Elevation gauge distance above or halow datum Abbreviation mm2 US Customary Unit sauare inches dimensionless inches dimensionless percent feetlsecond squared poundslcubic foot feet feet dimensionless feet revolutionslminute feet feet not usedb feet squaredlsecond dimensionless pounddsquare inch horsepower cubic feetlsecond US gallonslminute dimensionless pounds (force) pound masslcubic foot not used dimensionless degrees Fahrenheit pound-feet ounce-inches feeffsecond incheslsecond none feet Abbreviation in2

Yo

in

mm

Yo
it/sec2 lb/It3 ft ft

m/s2 m m

Y (gamma)
h H K I n NPSHA NPSHR NS v (nu)
Z

m rpm m m

rpm ft ft

mm2/s

ft2lsec psi hp ft3/sec gPm

P P '4 Q RM RT P (rho) S
S
7

kPa kW m3ih m3ih

N kglm3

Ibf lbm/ft3

"C N . m g-cm mls mmls none m

"F Ib-ft oz-in Wsec inlsec none ft

+
a

t (tau) U v (phi)
X

Conversionfactor x English units = metric units. Dimensions are not used. Values will depend on units used in formula.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Table 1.3.2 Term 1 2 a atm b d dvr Test condition or model Specific condition or prototype Absolute Atmospheric Barometric Discharge Driver input

- 2000

- Subscripts
Term Gauge Maximum Minimum Motor

Subscript 9 max min mot ot OA P

Subscript

Term suction Theoretical Velocity Vapor pressure Water

s
t

1
1

v
V P

Operating temperature Overall unit Pump

seal oil pressure in the lantern ring should be held to a minimum of 175 kPa (25 psi) above stuffing-box pressure. Mechanical seals must be chosen specifically for the oil, temperature, pressure and speed. The materials used for the construction of hot oil pumps should have a uniform coefficient of expansion and should be selected with particular reference to the corrosive nature of the oil, as well as the actual pumping temperature. Due to the high pumping temperature, the support of the pump should be arranged in such a manner as to permit expansion of the pump casing without adversely affecting the coupling alignment. API Standard 610 Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service may be used for more information. It is important that the suction and discharge piping be supported to avoid pipe strains being imposed on pump nozzles. The unit must be aligned at the operating temperature.
1.3.3.2.3

function of the individual pump proportions and of the liquid pumped. The NPSH available must exceed the NPSH required by the pump and can be established correctly only when the true vapor pressure is known. For refinery process applications, the true vapor pressure is usually available. For the pumping of finished petroleum products, the Reid vapor pressure is usually the only information available. This is the vapor pressure determined by the use of apparatus and procedure corresponding to the ASTM Standard D-323. Because of certain inadequacies of the test procedure, Reid vapor pressures are generally significantly lower than the true vapor pressures. Precautions must therefore be taken when the NPSH available must be determined on the basis of the Reid vapor pressure. If the commercial grade of the liquid handled is known, the use of one of the standard handbook correction charts for conversion of Reid vapor pressure to true vapor pressure is indicated. Also, see Section 1.3.4.1.16.4 and Figure 1.69. The suction piping should be arranged to avoid any accumulation of vapor and provision should be made to allow self-venting of vapors by venting the first stage impeller suction eye, except where the suction nozzle is in a vertical position and facing upwards. Since the suction pressure may vary over a wide range and the liquid pumped is frequently flammable or toxic, the stuffing-box may require the use of a mechanical seal, or, if packed, the use of one or more of the following elements: water jacketing, bleed-off connection, lantern ring for an oil or grease seal, or smotheringtype gland.

Volatile liquid pump

Pumps for handling volatile petroleum products, or other liquids having similar properties, are commonly termed volatile liquidpumps. The determination of the net positive suction head available (NPSHA) for pumps handling volatile, multicomponent liquids such as gasoline should be based, whenever possible, on the true vapor pressure of the particular liquid at the actual pumping temperature. The NPSH required by a pump at a given flow is a

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 The materials of construction should be selected with due regard to any corrosive action of the liquid pumped.
1.3.3.3

Transfer pumping

This service is normally a part of a process where a fluid is transferred from one location or process to another in a given plant. The type of pumps used will vary with the duty involved as will construction details and materials of construction.
1.3.3.4

of the single suction or double suction type, with the impeller enclosed or semi-open. A suitable suction strainer is normally used to avoid clogging problems in either the pump or the sprinkler system. Single stage pumps normally supply the necessary head. Packing or mechanical seals may be used. Drivers are normally either induction motors or internal combustion engines.
1.3.3.7 1.3.3.7.1

Pumps for steam power plants Steam electric power plants

Mine dewatering Steam power plants convert nuclear energy or organic energy, in the form of coal, oil or gas, into electrical energy through the generation and expansion of steam from a high pressure to a low pressure in a prime mover, typically a steam turbine. When the electrical output of the generating plant is distributed for general sale, the plant is referred to as a central station. If the plant is operated by a manufacturing company that takes the output for its own use, it is referred to as an industrial plant. Figure 1.47 diagrams a simple steam power cycle. A noncondensing plant discharges the steam from the turbine at an exhaust pressure equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure. A condensing plant (as shown in Figure 1.47) exhausts steam from the turbine into a condenser at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure. Central station plants are condensing plants because their sole output is electric energy. A reduction in the exhaust pressure at the turbine decreases the amount of steam required to produce a given quantity of energy. Industrial plants are noncondensing plants because large quantities of low pressure steam are required for manufacturing operations. The power required for operation of a manufacturing plant may be obtained as a by-product by generating steam at high pressure. This steam is expanded in a prime mover to the back pressure at which the steam is needed for manufacturing processes. Figure 1.48 diagrams a coal-fired, condensing-type steam power plant, and identifies major plant components. The steam generating unit consists of a furnace, in which the fuel is burned, a boiler, supefheater, and economizer, in which high-pressure steam is generated, and an air heater in which the loss of energy due to combustion of the fuel is minimized. The boiler consists of a drum and a bank of inclined tubes connected to the drum. A water level is maintained at about the midpoint of the drum to permit separation of the steam from the water. Water circulates from the drum through the tubes and back to the drum. Part of

Pumps used for handling acid or gritty mine water and1 or abrasive mixtures, slush, etc., are commonly termed mine pumps. The pump should be liberally designed, with a heavy casing wall having ample corrosion allowance, and with provisions to keep corrosive liquids from the pump shaft. The design should provide for easy renewal of parts subject to corrosion or wear. The materials of construction for parts in contact with the liquid pumped must be selected for maximum resistance to corrosion and erosion.
1.3.3.5

Well pumping

Installation of centrifugal pumps with the suction supply water in a well below the ground surface on which the pump is located is possible when the pumping water level is close enough to the pump for atmospheric pressure to provide the pump's NPSH required. The "draw down" of the well must be known at the pump's maximum rate of flow. For a pump that is not self-priming, the suction pipe may be equipped with a foot valve, or an ejector may also be used to fill the suction pipe and pump casing. Automatic unattended operation is rarely successful with the installations as described unless automatic priming systems are installed. A self-priming pump's casing must be filled with water before it is started. It is important to ensure that air leaks in the suction pipe are virtually eliminated for satisfactory operation.
1.3.3.6

Irrigation service

Centrifugal pumps in this service provide water either to open ditches for gravity flow to the points of application or to sprinkler systems of various types. The suction supply varies: it can be a well, a pond, a lake, a river or stream, or a distribution main under pressure (sometimes from a vertical pump). The pump may be

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

Turbine

11

Bleed

Condenser Water Circulating pump Condensate pump

-i' 0
-11 11
Boiler Feedwater

Boiler Feed Pump

Figure 1.47

- Diagram of a simple steam power cycle

Flue gas to chimney 4 Dust collector

Figure 1.48

- Diagram of a typical condensing steam power plant

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 the water in the tubes is evaporated by the flow of furnace hot products of combustion across the tubes. The furnace walls are lined with tubes that are also connected to the boiler drum to form very effective steam generating surfaces. The steam separated from the water in the boiler drum flows through a superheater (essentially a coil of tubing surrounded by the hot products of combustion). The temperature of the steam increases in the superheater to as much as 425 to 600C (800 to ll0O0F) before it is piped to the turbine. An economizer may be used to recover part of the energy in the gaseous products of combustion that leave the boiler tube bank at a relatively high temperature and discharge to the chimney. The economizer consists of a bank of tubes through which the boiler feedwater is pumped on its way to the boiler drum. This feedwater will be at a temperature considerably below that of the water in the boiler tubes. The temperature of the products of combustion may be reduced in the economizer to less than the boiler exit-gas temperature. A further reduction in flue gas temperature can be achieved by passing the products of combustion through an air heater (heat exchanger) cooled by the air required for combustion. This air is supplied to the air heater at normal room temperature and may leave the air heater at 200 to 315C (400 to 600F), thus returning energy to the furnace which would otherwise be wasted. The products of combustion are usually cooled in an air heater to an exit temperature of 135 to 200C (275 to 400F), after which they may be passed through a dust collector (to remove objectionable dust) and an induced-draft fan to the chimney. The function of the induced-draft fan is to pull the gases through the heat transfer surfaces of the boiler, superheater, economizer and air heater and to maintain a pressure in the furnace that is slightly less than atmospheric pressure (to eliminate leakage into the boiler mom). A forceddraft fan forces the combustion air to flow through the air heater, duct work and burner into the furnace. If both a forced-draft fan and an induced-draft fan are used in combination, the system is called balanced draft. The diagram of a condensing steam power plant (Figure 1.48) shows the coal being fed into the system by use of an overhead raw-coal bunker, where it flows by gravity through a feeder. In the pulverizer, the coal is ground to a fine dust. Some of the hot air from the air heater is forced through the pulverizer (mill) to dry the coal and pick up the finely pulverized particles and carry them in suspension to the burner. They are then mixed with the air required for their combustion and discharged into the furnace at high velocity to promote good combustion. The high-pressure, high-temperature steam from the boiler is expanded in a steam turbine which is connected to an electric generator. Three to 5 percent of the output of the generator is needed to light the plant and to operate the motors required for pumps, fans, etc. in the plant. In a central station plant, the exhaust steam from the turbine is delivered to a condenser to turn it into water at the lowest possible pressure. The condenser is a large, gas-tight chamber filled with tubes through which cold water is pumped. For normal operation, 725.000 kg (800 tons) of cooling water are required in the condenser for each 900 kg (1 ton) of coal burned in the furnace. This means that large power plants must be located on lakes, rivers or on the seacoast. Turbine exhaust steam is condensed because: it was distilled in the boiler and is, therefore, free of scale-forming material and should be retained in a closed system, the efficiency of the plant is increased substantially by reducing the exhaust pressure at the turbine to as low a pressure as possible. It is estimated that a reduction in the exhaust pressure of just 3.5 kPa ('h psi) will reduce the coal consumption of the average plant by as much as 4 to 5 percent. Condensed steam, which is at a temperature of 22 to 38C (70 to 10O0F),is pumped from the condenser by a condenser hotwell pump and discharged through several feedwater heaters to a boiler feed pump which delivers water through an economizer to the boiler. Figure 1.48 shows a high-pressure heater, an intermediate-pressure heater and a low-pressure heater, all supplied with steam that extracted from the turbine at appropriate pressures after having done some work by expansion to the extraction pressure in the turbine. These are closed heaters. Figure 1.49 diagrams a closed feedwater cycle where the boiler feed water flows through tubes in the heaters and never directly contacts the steam extracted from the turbine. The condensed steam in a closed heater is collected and returned to the boiler water system (see Figure 1.49). Direct contact heaters would have thermodynamic advantages, but a separate pump would be required for each heater. The use of a group of closed heaters (as in Figure 1.49) permits a single boiler feed pump to discharge through all the heaters and into the boiler. Many power plants are based on a compromise system which uses one direct contact heater (which also provides for feedwater deaeration) and several closedtype heaters located both upstream and downstream

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 of the direct contact heater and the boiler feed pump. Such a cycle is termed an open cycleand is diagrammed in Figure 1.50. When no direct contact heaters are used, the closed cycle system uses either the condenser hotwell or a separate vessel for deaeration. All the heaters are of the closed type.

+ W

Steam Water

Generator
\

Condensate

Closed Heater No. 4

-C

Closed Heater No. 3

Closed Heater NO. 2

1.4
Boiler Feed Pump

Closed Heater No. 1

Figure 1.49 -Diagram

of a closed feedwater cycle

tloller

Steam Water

Steam Turbine

Generator
\

I I I I I I I I c o N D

I)

:igure 1.50

V
Closed Heater No. 4
. C

Closed Heater No. 3

Direct Contact Heater No. 2

V
Closed Heater No. 1
4

Condensate Pump

t
Boiler Feed Pump

- Diagram of an open feedwater cycle with one deaerator and three closed heatel

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 1.3.3.7.2 Power plant pumps the pump as a result of temperature changes. Barrel-type pumps (see Figure 1.22 in ANSllHl 1.l-1.2) are often chosen for ease of maintenance and the double case construction feature. The user must determine the pump type that is appropriate for the system. Such decisions as pump construction (axially split, radially split casing, ring-section or barrel casing), rotor construction (back-to-back rotor arrangement or in-line rotor arrangement, with balance drum or balance disk), bearing type and pump support system requirements are usually made in conjunction with the pump manufacturer and take into account the manufacturer's specific installation and service experience. A key factor in pump selection for demanding boiler feed service is rotor hydraulic axial balance. Two types of rotor construction need to be considered: in-line impellers and opposed impellers. With in-line impellers, the hydraulic axial thrust of the impellers is usually countered by a balancing device: either a balance disk or a balance drum, or sometimes a combination of both. The advantages of a balance disk design may include reduced leakage (better volumetric efficiency) and the ability of the disk to compensate for wear and the amount of thrust that requires balancing. The disk is referred to as a "self-compensating" balancing device, and may be utilized to exclude an axial thrust bearing in certain designs, thus reducing initial cost and simplifying rotor construction and assembly. The balance drum does not compensate for changes in thrust imposed on it, and it typically exhibits more leakage loss than a balance disk. The advantage of the balance drum over the balance disk is in the openness of its running clearance. For pumps in systems where severe upsets may occur, or where foreign material is continuously present, balance drums (with their larger running clearances) may prove less sensitive (less susceptible to damage) than balance disks. Bearing types vary from simple rolling element bearings (either ball or roller) to more sophisticated hydrodynamic versions which require support lubrication systems. Ball and roller bearings are usually selected for pumps with power requirements less than 1500 horsepower up to 3600 rpm. Pumps operating at higher speeds or higher horsepower are usually equipped with hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings with force-feed lubrication support systems.

There are dozens of pump applications in conventional (fossil fuel) steam power plants. Most of these applications fall into the "miscellaneous" category, which includes such services as chemical feed, fuel oil, lubricating oil, fire protection, heating/ventilatinglair-conditioning, service water and support systems (such as ash sluicing, acid cleaning and hydrostatic pressure test pumps). The major categories include boiler feed, boiler feed boosting, condensate, condenser circulating, boiler circulating, and heater drain. 1.3.3.7.3 Boiler teed pumps

The type of boiler feed pump required by a generating plant is determined by the maximum boiler flow (capacity), the suction conditions (NPSHA), total pressure (head) required to be generated, and the operating temperature. For low flow, low-pressure boiler feed systems, it may be possible to fulfill flow and head requirements with a single stage pump. In most cases, pressure (head) requirements are such that multistage pumps are necessary. In these cases, the pump can be one of several types and construction: Low- to medium-pressureltemperature systems may require a pump of ring-section const~ction, where the individual stages are made up of impell e n and segmental rings (or casing sections, which include collectors to lead the flow from one stage to another), held together with tie rods. End heads contain the pump suction and discharge nozzles (see Figure 1.21 in ANSIIHI 1.l-1.2). Medium-pressurehemperature systems may require axially split or ring-section pumps. Axially split pumps, unlike the ring-section pumps described above, may be of either back-to-back or in-line impeller construction and use cast casings, the lower half of which contains the pump suction and discharge nozzles. These pumps can be of either diffuser or volute construction. A back-to-back impeller pump design with volute construction is shown in Figure 1.20 in ANSIIHI 1.l-1.2. Higher pressureltemperature systems require the use of pumps with confined, controlled-compression gasketed joints. This can be accomplished by selecting pumps of either barrel or ring-section design to ensure containment of the high-pressure1 high-temperature boiler water, and to resist the considerable nozzle loads that can be imposed on

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 1.3.3.7.4 Boiler feed booster pumps head requirements. Because of the low NPSHA, horizontal pumps operate at relatively low speeds, from 1800 rpm for low flow requirements to 900 rpm or even less for higher flow requirements. Vertical can-type pumps (see Figure 2.6, ANSIIHI 2.1-2.2), which can be installed below ground and attain higher values of submergence of the impeller (higher NPSHA), can operate at higher speeds. Vertical can-type pumps are available with single and double suction first stage impellers and typically operate to 3600 rpm for low flow applications and 1200 rpm for higher flow requirements. Condensate pumps are designed or arranged such that they have discharge pressure (or at least a positive pressure above atmosphere) on the seal chamber (or stuffing box) to prevent air from entering the pump. If desired, pressure can be reduced through a throttle bushing at the bottom of the stuffing box and through an orifice back to suction. To prevent air leakage into an idle pump, the seal cages of multipe pumps can be piped together and connected to a common pump discharge header. It is standard practice to vent the suction chamber back to the condenser above the water level to minimize vapor entrainment. 1.3.3.7.6 Condenser circulating pumps

Boiler feed booster pumps are used to provide pressure to the feed pumps to meet their NPSH requirements and avoid cavitation. As the size and speed of boiler feed pumps has increased, the NPSH requirements have increased as well. It is not practical to install the direct-contact heaters from which feed pumps take their suction at sufficient elevation to provide adequate NPSHA without "boosting" the suction pressure to the feed pumps. The suction pressure is increased by utilizing low speed booster pumps ahead of the feed pumps. Boiler feed booster pumps are generally of the single stage, double suction design (refer to ANSIIHI 1.1-1.2 Figures 1.18 for axially split case and 1.19 for radially split case versions of this design configuration) and operate at lower speeds than the feed pumps, typically at four-pole motor speeds. The NPSH required by the booster pumps is much lower than that required by the feed pump it supplies. It is not unusual for the NPSH requirements of large, high speed boiler feed pumps to be in excess of 60 m (200 ft). Such requirement is much more than could be economically provided by elevation differences from feedwater heater placement to the feedwater pump. 1.3.3.7.5 Condensate pumps

Condensate pumps take suction from a condenser hotwell and discharge either to a deaerating heater in an open feedwater system (see Figure 1.50) or directly to the suction of a boiler feed pump in a closed system (see Figure 1.49). Condensate pumps operate at very low absolute suction pressures. Because it is desirable to locate the condenser hotwell as low as possible to minimize the elevation of the power plant, the NPSH available is usually extremely low. This may require the use of a deep pit for the condensate pump. The NPSHA, with absolute pressures in the condenser near zero, is only the submergence (or elevation) between the water level in the condenser hotwell and the centerline of the pump impeller (first stage impeller for multistage pumps). This value could be as low as 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft), which means that friction losses between the condenser hotwell and the pump suction must be kept to an absolute minimum to avoid reducing NPSHA further. To minimize friction losses, calculated velocities in the suction piping and within the suction can of vertical pumps should be no more than 1.2 mls (4 ftls). Condensate pumps can be either horizontal or vertical, single or multistage, depending on the system

Condenser circulating pumps take cool water fmm a river, lake, stream or a cooling tower basin and circulate it through the condenser to condense exhaust steam from the main turbines. The pumps work against low to moderate heads (typically fmm 25 to 45 m [80 to 150 ft.]) and are installed to operate in parallel. These pumps can be added to or removed from service as heat load and demand for cooling water varies (a function of ambient temperature and plant load). Circulating pumps may be of either horizontal or vertical construction. The horizontal circulating pumps are low speed, axially split, single stage, double suction volute designs (see ANSIIHI 1.1-1.2 Figure 1.18). They are located in a dry pit which allows full access for servicing, dismantling and inspection. The vertical circulating pumps are of wet pit design (see ANSIMI 2.1-2.2 Figures 2.8 and 2.9), which means they are fully submerged in the water pumped. They employ a long pipe column which supports the submerged pumping element and the vertical driver is mounted on the top. Some vertical wet-pit designs allow removal of the pumping element without dismantling the pump casing or piping; these are referred to as "pull-out" designs. An alternative to the wet pit design is a dry pit, where the vertical pump operates surrounded by air. Single stage double suction pumps (as shown in ANSIIHI 1.l-1.2 Figure 1.18) are sometimes mounted

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
High-pressure heater drain pumps are subjected to more severe operating conditions than even the boiler feed pumps. Their suction pressure and temperature are generally higher, and the available NPSH is generally limited. They experience. more severe transients than the feedwater pumps, primarily because of the extremely limited NPSHA. Heater drain pumps are low speed, heavy duty designs. They may be either single or multistage, depending on pressure and flow requirements of the particular system. Single stage end suction pumps of the heavy duty process type (see ANSllHl 1.1-1.2 Figure 1.14) are popular for both low and high pressure services. Where NPSHA is very low, or head requirements exceed that of a single stage pump, vertical can pumps (see Figure 2.6, ANSIIHI 2.1-2.2) are sometimes utilized. Heater drain pumps are vented to an appropriate heater steam space to release any entrained vapors. NOTE: Pump types other than those discussed may be suitable for the various applications highlighted.
1.3.3.8

vertically in a dry pit as well. Actual pump type selection is determined by plant layout and the experience of the plant designers and operators.
1.3.3.7.7

Boiler circulating pumps

Boiler circulating pumps circulate water within the boiler to enhance boiler operation. They take suction from a header connected to several downcomers from the bottom of the boiler drum and discharge through additional tube circuits. This means the water pumped is at boiler temperature and pressure. The pumps must develop only enough head to overcome the friction of the tube circuits. Boiler circulating pumps are designed for high temperature (usually between 150 and 315C [300 and 600F], depending on boiler size and rating), and high pressure (corresponding to boiler temperature and water vapor pressure). This combination of high temperature and pressure results in sealing conditions that require special sealing devices. For small boilers, with relatively low temperatures and pressures, conventional overhung pump designs (see Figure 1.14) may be suitable for boiler circulating service. Because of the relatively low head requirements, the pumps are single stage with single suction impellers and a single seal chamber. This creates a problem of unbalanced axial thrust which may require special pump bearing systems or balancing arrangements. A solution is to utilize pumps of wet motor construction, where the pump and the motor are inside the pressure vessel, eliminating sealing and unbalanced axial thrust issues. These special pumps are welded into the boiler piping. For higher temperatures to 365C (685F) and pressures from 12,400 to 19,300 kPa (1800 to 2800 psi), special pump designs are required.
1.3.3.7.8

Fire pumps

Pumps currently used today for fire protection in buildings are of the centrifugal variety and provide water to a sprinkler andlor standpipe system. NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) issues a document titled "Standard for the Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps," which provides a national guideline for the selection and installation of centrifugal pumps for fire protection. A "Technical Committee on Fire Pumps," consisting of a broad range of interested parties involved with fire protection, reviews and updates this document (referred to as pamplet NFPA-20) on a three-year cycle. NFPA published its first standard for automatic sprinklers in 1896, and through the workings of the 'Technical Committee on Fire Pumps," each edition of NFPA-20 has incorporated appropriate provisions to cover new developments and has omitted obsolete provisions. NFPA-20 1996 has been approved by ANSI and is used not only as a national standard but is accepted internationally as well. Information provided within the NFPA-20 standard regarding the installation requirements for centrifugal fire pumps is based upon sound engineering principles, test data, and field experience. The standard includes single stage and multistage pumps of horizontal or vertical shaft design with guidelines being established for the design and installation of these pumps, pump drivers and associated equipment.

Heater drain pumps

Condensate from closed heaters (see Figure 1.49) is cascaded from the heater drain to the steam space of a lower pressure heater where it is flashed to steam. After the lowest pressure heater, the condensate in the heater drain is pumped back into the feedwater cycle. Because the pump takes suction from the heater hotwell where the pressure is low, this service is referred to as "low-pressure" heater drain service. In an open feedwater cycle, the drains from heaters located beyond the deaerator are cascaded back to the deaerator. The deaerator is located above the closed heaters and "high-pressure" heater drain pumps are used to transfer these drains to the deaerator and overcome static head and system frictional losses.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Fire pumps have rated flow rates ranging in discreet flow increments from 6 m3/h (25 gpm) through 1135 m3/h (5000 gpm), with net pressures starting from 275 kPa (40 psi) and currently progressing through 4410 kPa (640 psi). In order for a centrifugal pump to be used as a fire pump it must meet stringent mechanical and hydraulic requirements witnessed and certified by Underwriters Laboratory (UL) and Factory Mutual (FM), two independent testing agencies. These testing agencies have established (with input from industry experts) certain engineering requirements that a pump must be capable of meeting before it can be listed or approved as satisfactory for fire service. The "Authority Having Jurisdiction" (AHJ) is the organization, office, or individual responsible for approving equipment such as a fire pump when used for the protection of life and property. DouMe suction axial split case pumps, close-coupled vertical in-line pumps, and horizontal end suction pumps can be used for all fire pump ratings 57 m3/h (250 gpm) and higher. If an installation has a static suction lift, then a vertical turbine type pump must be utilized. The primary drivers for fire pumps are electric motors or diesel engines and almost all are started automatically.
1.3.3.9

- 2000

The installation costs for PATS are about the same as for an equivalent pump, and reliability and maintainability are also comparable. Because the efficiency of a pump operating as a turbine is comparable to the pump efficiency, the use of reverse running pumps as primary or secondary drivers becomes quite practical. Pumps operating as turbines are classified by their turbine specific speed (NST), which is a quantity that governs the selection of the type of runner best suited for a given operating condition. pp.=

NST = nx-

H,
Where: NST =
n =
P, =

'

Turbine specific speed Revolutions per minute Developed power in kW (hp) at best efficiency point (BEP)

Ht = Net head in meters (feet) per stage across


the turbine The values of NST will be slightly different between a pump operating as a pump and the same pump operating as a turbine. The rate of flow and total head at BEP will be greater for the turbine operation than for a pump operation. The amount of shift from pump performance depends on the specific speed and other design factors.

Pumps used as hydraulic turbines

Centrifugal pumps of all sizes, types and specific speeds may be operated in reverse rotation as hydraulic turbines. While running in the turbine mode, the performance characteristics of a PAT (pump as turbine) differ significantly from pump operation. See Figure 1.51. The applied head is usually constant, so the other parameters are shown as they vary with speed. Thedischarge nozzle of the pump becomes the inlet of the turbine, the suction nozzle of the pump becomes the outlet of the turbine, and the impeller of the pump, rotating in reverse direction, becomes the runner of the turbine. The impeller orientation to the casing is the same for both pump and turbine. Reverse running pumps are an excellent alternative to conventional turbine designs. A common application is hydraulic power recovery turbines (HPRT). The potential for power recovery from high-pressure liquid streams exists any time a liquid flows from a higher pressure to a lower pressure in such a manner that throttling occurs. Reverse running pumps are used instead of throttling valves to recover the power in the high-pressure liquid.

,I

Speed 90Full Speed RPM

100 % characteristics

Figure 1.51 -Turbine

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

-2000
Special care should be taken in PAT applications to ensure that the mechanical design of the unit will allow safe operation. Frequently these applications subject the PAT to increased mechanical stresses, torque, and speed levels beyond original pump design values. Additionally, the turbine characteristics are such that both hydraulic forces and torsional stresses increase with increasing rate of flow. All pumps applied as turbines should be subject to a careful calculation of combined stresses in shafts. Pumps operated in reverse as turbines tend to have relatively narrow operating bands compared to variable nozzle turbines. At constant speed, the power developed and efficiency drop to zero at approximately 40 percent of the hydraulic turbine best efficiency rate of flow. See Figure 1.52. Energy must be added to the hydraulic turbine in order for it to rotate at the constant speed below this rate of flow. Changing the impeller diameter has little effect on adjusting the performance of a hydraulic recovery turbine. These facts, coupled with the difficulty in predicting hydraulic turbine performance from pump performance, results in some uncertainty when applying a pump to a power recovery turbine application unless test data isavailable on the specific pump running in reverse as a
Lu,"Bm

For preliminary selection, a rough approximation procedure can be used to estimate the turbine performance from known pump performance.

Where:
Qt = Qp = Hp =

Rate of flow as turbine Rate of flow as pump Total head as pump Total head as turbine Efficiency

H, =

11 =

Most centrifugal pumps are suitable and capable of operating as turbines. Because of the reverse rotation, be sure that the bearing lubrication system will operate in reverse, and threaded shaft comDonents, such as impeller locking devices, cannot lookn.

m u ,

he power output is the rotational energy developed by the reverse running pump. Its value is calculated in a similar manner as for a pump except for the Placement of the efficiency term.
Metric
Pt = Q x Hx s x q t 366

Precautions should also be taken to ensure that the PAT will operate without cavitation. The turbine industry typically uses the terminology TREH (total required exhaust head) and TAEH (total available exhaust head) in place of NPSH. Total exhaust head is defined

US units Where:
Pt = Q = H = s = qt =

Pt =

Qx H x s x q t 3960

SPEED CONSTANT

Power output from turbine - kW (hp) Rate of flow - m3/hr (gpm) Total head in meters (feet) Specific gravity Efficiency of the turbine
0 50

I
100 %

Rate of Flow

Figure 1.52 -Turbine

performance

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 as the total fluid energy at the impeller eye less the vapor pressure of the fluid. Some of the other factors which affect the use of pumps as turbines are: Runaway speed Rate of flow at runaway speed Required solids passage Fluid-borne abrasives Torque reversals during start-up or shut-down Overspeed trip and control
1.3.3.1 0 General purpose service 1.3.3.10.1

Self-priming can also be accomplished in diffuser design centrigugal pumps used primarily for clear liquids. Closed impellers with suction side wearing rings can also be used. Self-priming centrifugal pumps are commonly placed up to about 8 meters (25 feet) above the liquid level of the source. All suction connections must be air-tight. During initial start-up, the impeller rotation causes the liquid in the impeller and suction side of the pump reservoir to be forced to the discharge cavity via centrifugal force. Differential pressures cause the priming recirculation to start. The priming action reduces pressure in the impeller eye and allows atmospheric pressure on the liquid source to fill the suction line. During priming, air in the discharge chamber separates up and out from the mixture while the heavier water continues to recirculate. It is important that the air in the discharge chamber have a means to escape either through the discharge pipe or an air release valve. This process continues to draw air from the submerged suction line until it is full of liquid and the pump goes to normal pumping. The different designs of self priming pumps have limited and varied capabilities of priming against discharge heads. When a discharge check valve is used, or the discharge design can form a pressure trap, air release lines or valves may be necessary to get rid of air from the suction side. Self-priming centrifugal pumps are frequently used for unattended service in industrial, construction dewatering, waste water and agricultural applications where manual priming is not practical during operation. Most pumps are designed to accept the major modern drive sources through direct drive, flexible coupling or belt drives. The materials of construction are usually cast iron, steel, stainless steel or bronze, depending on the application. Many manufacturers of self-priming pumps build units to conform to the specifications established by the Contractors Pump Bureau, an arm of the Construction lndustry Manufactures Association (CIMA). See Figure 1.53. In these cases, the pumps may carry a CPB rating decal and are built to conform to CPB specifications. Other manufacturers build pumps that are closer in concept to the Chemical lndustry requirements and appear as shown in Figure 1.54.

Self-priming pump applications

Self-priming pumps are designed to have the following abilities: to prime themselves automatically after being initially filled, when operating under a suction lift; to free themselves of entrained gas without losing their prime and to continue normal pumping without attention. Pumps in this class usually have single inlet impellers. Self-priming centrifugal pumps have these additional features when compared to a centrifugal pump: A reservoir, either integral with or external to the volute and impeller, to retain priming liquid. This reservoir is filled during the initial prime of the pump. The suction line itself is not filled. When the pump completes a pumping cycle and shuts down, the reservoir retains liquid for the next priming cycle. A means of recirculating liquid. The majority of modern self-priming pumps have integral reservoirs with internal recirculation, the most common being the recirculation from the pressure side of the volute back to the periphery of the rotating impeller. A less common method of recirculation directs the priming liquid back into the suction side of the pump. An integral suction check valve to prevent the loss of liquid in the suction leg is common in many designs. Some designs allow for check valve failure due to debris-laden water and will reprime with residual amounts of priming liquid.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.3.10.2

Hydraulic pressure pump

1.3.3.10.3

Sanitary pump

These pumps are used for supplying water under l steel products and for pressure for scale r e m o ~from operation of presses, leveling tables, hydraulic press service, elevators, etc. The suction supply should be adequate to prevent parting of the liquid column during sudden demands for high rate of flow. If this situation occurs, an accumulator may be required. The demand is frequently intermittent and the control valves are usually rapid in action. The sudden demand or cessation of demand causes accelerations and decelerations of water in the piping, resulting in pressure waves of great intensity. These waves are familiarly called "shock" or "water hammer." The waves originate at the point of valving and travel back through the line toward the pump. T o protect the pump against damage from shock, an air-ballasted alleviator is recommended. The alleviator should have a free liquid surface against which the shock waves cannot by-pass the alleviator. Alleviators mounted on side outlets of tees are of little value.

Pumps designed to handle foodstuffs and beverages are commonly called sanitary pumps. The materials of construction for parts in contact with the liquid pumped, including the stuffing box or shaft seal, are selected to prevent bacterial, chemical, color, or taste contamination. Materials such as stainless steel, monel, porcelain, glass, etc., are frequently used. Sanitary pumps are constructed to permit ready access for cleaning, flushing, and draining. If the liquid to be pumped contains solids, the maximum size solid must be specified. The user is cautioned that many states prescribe regulations regarding sanitary pumps. Adherence to such regulations is mandatory. The responsibility for determining these requirements rests with the user.
1.3.3.1 1 Wastewater service (solids and nonclog)

Pumps designed to assure maximum freedom from clogging when handling liquids containing solids or stringy materials are commonly called non-clog pumps. They are also designated as sewage or trash pumps.

Figure 1.53

- Self-priming pump - construction industry

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Non-clog pumps are recommended for handling raw or unsettled sewage, activated sludge, industrial waste waters containing solids, and similar liquids where excessive clogging would othelwise be encountered. The largest solid sizes that the pump will be required to handle in normal operation must be specified. The term "sphere size" denotes the largest diameter ball which can be passed through the pump. Comminution andlor adequate bar screens must be provided to prevent large solids from entering the pump. When used, bar screen openings should be sized to prevent clogging from irregular-shaped solids. Storm water andlor domestic sewage may be handled successfully by mixed flow and axial flow pumps, using the preceding guidelines. For domestic sewage service, pumps built to the individual manufacturer's material specifications are ordinarily used. Corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant shaft sleeves and wearing rings are desirable for maxi-

- 2000

mum life. Inspection openings in the casing or adjacent piping, for access to the impeller, are recommended. Stuffing-boxes may be furnished with mechanical seals or packing, either water or grease lubricated. When water is used for the stuffing-box or wearing ring lubricant or flush, the supply line must be isolated from any potable water system. If the pumpage is corrosive andlor abrasive, the materials of construction for parts in contact with the liquid should be selected for resistance to the effects of the pumpage.
1.3.3.12 1.3.3.12.1

Pulp and paper applications Paper Stock

Consisting of a mixture of water and wood fibers in suspension, paper stock is created by a number of different methods, and from a number of different wood varieties. The pumpability of paper stock depends

Figure 1.54

-Self-priming pump -chemical industry

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
paper stocks, there can be serious difficulty in handling these liquids. A thick-wall casing design is used to allow for ample corrosion, and withstand reasonable piping loads commonly encountered in handling hot stocks. Large shaft diameters and heavy-duty bearings, mounted in a rigid, one-piece bearing frame, improve the unit's reliability in difficult services. The impeller-shaft assembly can be moved via an adjustment feature located on the thrust-bearing housing to maintain close clearances between the impeller and the wear plate, thus ensuring maximum operating efficiency. Some designs provide adjustability in the wear plate for the same purpose. To resist corrosion from the process chemicals, different areas of the paper-making process require different materials of construction for the equipment. Cast iron, Types 316, 317 and 317L stainless steels, and Alloy 20 are commonly used in units handling paper stocks. These materials can also be used in various combinations to provide the corrosion resistance as well as mechanical strength.
1.3.3.12.2

mainly on the characteristics of the raw material and the consistency of the stock. Paper stocks are generally separated into three distinct consistency categories, namely low, medium and high. Low-consistency stock usually refers to a class of products with 1-7% fiber content by weight. These paper stocks are normally handled by end-suction centrifugal pumps equipped with semi-open impellers and contoured wearplates. Medium-consistency stocks are made of 8-15% paper fiber. The rheological properties of fiber-water suspensions in this range are dependent on the properties of the individual fibers and the viscoelastic network that they form. Special designs of centrifugal pumps are required to handle this type of paper stock. For example, some form of "shear generator" is needed at the inlet to create turbulence, and reduce the effective fluid viscosity. Special impeller design and air-extraction devices are also required to prevent airbinding. An end-suction centrifugal pumping unit must be specifically designed to handle medium-consistency stock mixtures without clogging the device, or dewatering the stock. A large suction-eye and unobstructed waterways can be provided by an overhung, semi-open impeller design. This keeps the suction velocity low to promote smooth flow, avoid air binding and prevent separation of stock fibers from water. The contoured front surfaces of the impeller vanes interface with the replaceable wear plate. This arrangement provides a self-cleaning effect whereby the impeller resists clogging to improve its reliability. High-consistency paper stocks contain more than 15% paper fiber, and are found in the bleaching operation. Centrifugal pumps cannot handle such high consistencies, and therefore, positive-displacement rotary units are used. Pmper suction-piping design has to be included to help this high solids mixture to enter the suction cavities of the rotary pump. Normally two-screw or clove-rotor types of rotary pumps are used for handling high-consistency paper stock. Once the stock has been introduced into the suction area, the positive displacement principle is employed to force the product through the pump, and out the discharge opening. Special rotor designs and clearances are often used to obtain the most-efficient pumping action. When extraneous material and air are entrained in high-consistency

Hydraulic performance correction

The many different paper stocks available and their varied characteristics make it difficult to predict the effect of a given type of paper stock on pump performance. Still, many tests have been conducted on different pumps and paper stocks to establish performance correction criteria, to relate water performance of a pump to predicted performance on various types and consistencies of paper stock. However, for accurate prediction this data is limited to the type of paper stock and type of pump from which the data was obtained. Testing continues to this day to derive more-accurate correction data. For many applications of mid-sized to large-sized pumps, no performance correction is required for up to 6% stock consistency. Modern data indicates that in some cases, pumps smaller than those previously chosen can be used for paper stocks. Clearly, this data also suggests an improvement in efficiency of modern units. Refer to the pump manufacturer when precise performance correction data is required. While corrections for consistency for up to 6% are not critical, the user must still make sure that air entrainment is taken into consideration. Also, optimum suction-conditions and adequate net positive suction head (NPSH) must be available to ensure that the desired

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application -2000 performance will be achieved on the given paper stock. The essential requirement is to get the stock to the impeller. To do so, every effort should be made to keep the suction piping as large and straight as possible.
1.3.3.13

The pump manufacturer will make allowances in the pump selection for head and efficiency reduction, provided the slurry characteristics are defined.
1.3.3.13.2

Non-settling slurries

Slurry service

Centrifugal slurry pumps may be used for inplant, process and pipeline applications where heads are not high enough to warrant the use of reciprocating or rotary units. The other factors which affect the selection of centrifugal slurry pumps are:

Slurries with a narrow band distribution of small particles where the average size is usually less than 100 microns will be "non-settling" and behave as a Newtonian liquid. Standard viscosity correction procedures can be used, provided the apparent viscosity of the slurry is known. See Figure 1.56 for typical performance characteristics. Cv = % solids by volume. Non-settling slurries which have higher apparent viscosities such as pastes, filter cakes, etc., should be pumped at lower velocities to minimize friction losses in the system.
1.3.3.13.3

Rate of flow; Pressure;

Settling slurries

Abrasiveness (i.e., particle size, density, concentration, shape, hardness); Pump Performance (i.e., particle size, density, concentration, carrier, viscosity).

Slurries with a distribution of larger particles exhibit "settling" and the particles and the liquid exhibit their own characteristics, since energy is dissipated due to liquid drag. See Figure 1.57 for typical performance characteristics. The critical factor governing a system handling a watery slurry in which the solids have a much higher specific gravity than the carrier liquid is the settling rate and characteristic. Coarse solids with a high settling rate are carried in a centrifugal pump with many precautions to prevent plugging, draining and squeeze out. In applying centrifugal slurry pumps to handle settling slurries, one must be certain that the head requirements of the system above the critical carrying velocity would be met by the pump. If the head produced is insufficient, the rate of flow is reduced and the solids will settle in the line. Since the head versus rate-offlow curve of most slurry pumps has little slope, such an increase can make a large reduction in the volume pumped, further reducing the flow velocity and leading to plugging in the system pipe. This situation can usually be avoided by using conservative values for the slurry critical carrying velocity.
1.3.3.1 3.4 pumps

Pumps are commonly applied for rates of flow from 2 to 4500 m3/h (10 to 20,000 gpm) with 'heads up to 90 meters (300 feet) per stage. Pumps may be installed in series for higher head and severely abrasive applications. There are many different slurry pump designs available to accommodate various industrial applications. Those applications include the pumping of solids encountered in mineral ore treatment, dredging, sewage handling, land reclamation, paper manufacture, solids transportation and chemical processing.
1.3.3.13.1

Performance changes pumping slurry

The characteristic performance curve of a centrifugal pump differs from its clear water performance when solids are included and the flow becomes two phase, i.e., the head and efficiency will decrease. The magnitude of the reduction and the shape of the characteristic curve will depend mainly on solids size, volumetric concentration and density. The pump horsepower will increase directly with the slurry specific gravity. A nomograph relationship between concentration and specific gravity for aqueous slurries is shown on Figure 1.55.

Materials of construction for slurry

Pumps designed to resist abrasion are normally made of hard metals (abrasion-resistant cast irons and steels), elastomers or ceramics. As a general guideline, hard metals are often used in applications characterized by

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 large, sharp-edged solids, and elastomers for smaller round-edged solids. Either high-chrome irons or elastomers are used for their corrosion resistance. In specia1 applications with low head requirements, solid ceramic-lined pumps are used for pumpages containing fine material. Some pump design techniques to minimize wear are: a) Utilize pumping elements which are harder than the hardest slurry particles; b) Utilize pumping elements which combine soft and hard materials in such a fashion as to reduce abrasion and provide resiliency; c) Increase material thicknesses in areas of high wear; d) Utilize hydraulic designs with specific speeds of 1400 or less.

SS
90

h 4 Solldl by volume

80

7'3

1.3

S O

1 "
/ /
5

t,

/
1.1

1.5

1.6

30

1.7

10 2.1 Sm Slurry Speclllc Gravity

cw

% SOlldS by Welght

Figure 1.55 18

- Nomograph of the relationship of concentration to specific gravity in aqueous slurries

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.3.13.5

Rotational speed of slurry pumps

Speed is one of several contributors to wear rate. With abrasive solids, wear rate is generally proportional to relative velocity between the slurry and the pump elements to the power of two or three.

Impeller tip speed as distinct from rotational speed is often used as a guide for wear in the selection of slurry pumps:

for dirty water-type applications, limited to 40 m/s (130 Wsec); for medium slunies up to 25% solids concentration by weight and mean solids size of 200 microns, limited to 35 m/s (1 15 Wsec); for slurries with higher concentrations of solids and much larger solids size, restricted to 30 m/s (100 Wsec); pumps fitted with elastomeric impellers are commonly limited to 26 m/s (85 Wsec). Liquids with vapor or gas

cv= 15%
.0
W

Water

1.3.3.14

30%

g
c -

Input

Rate of flow

Figure 1.56 -Typical performance characteristics non-settling slurries

Two phase flow pumping applications include situations where undissolved vapors or gases are being carried by the pumpage. One example is biologicalfluid processing, such as the fermentation process used in yeast production. In this application, the process liquid is circulated from the bottom to the top of an aerator that injects large amounts of air into the process liquid. The fluid entering the pump may contain as much as 50% air by volume. Oil production from wells often requires the pumping of crude oil that contains large amounts of natural gas mixed with the oil. In many cases, the inlet pressures for the pump range from 10,000 to 20,000 kPa (1500 to 3000 psi). Other applications are those where the inlet pressure is below atmospheric pressure. As a consequence, air can leak into the system, resulting in gas-liquid mixtures that must be handled by the pump. Even small amounts of air can cause problems because the air expands substantially under low pressure to increase its volume, particularly at the inlet of the pump impeller.
1.3.3.14.1

Effect of gas on performance

Rate of flow

Figure 1.57

- Typical performance characteristics - settling slurries

The most dramatic effect of gas or vapor on centrifugal pump performance is the complete blocking of the impeller inlet as the pump becomes "airbound." When this happens, the impeller acts as a centrifuge, and tends to separate the heavier liquid from the gas that builds up at the impeller inlet. At low rates of flow, the liquid flow cannot even carry the air through the impeller, and the gas bubble grows until it completely fills

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
Open impellers may handle gas better than closed impellers, particularly with large clearances between the impeller and the casing. The large clearance generates turbulence which helps prevent the accumulation of large gas pockets. Another helpful action is to provide a gas vent at the pump inlet. The suction pipe should be sized about twice as large as the flange at the pump inlet in order to keep inlet velocities low. A vent connection should be located at the top of the pipe, close to the pump so that gas can escape back to the source. If the pump takes suction from a closed tank, it may be possible to pressurize the inlet, thereby reducing the volume of entrained gas, or turn some vapors back to liquid. Where vapor is the primary problem, subcooling of the inlet pipe may be helpful. This will also tend to turn vapor back to liquid, and thus reduce the volume of free vapor that must be handled by the pump.
1.3.3.14.2

the impeller eye (suction side). The result is complete cessation of liquid flow. Even when small amounts of gas are carried through the impeller, the liquid rate of flow and pump discharge . 5 8 ) .This reduction is pressure are reduced (Figure 1 the result of the blockage of the flow by the gas, and a reduction in developed pressure due to the reduced specific gravity of the pumped mixture. When the specific gravity of liquid alone is used to convert pressure to head, a lower head measurement is indicated. It can be seen from Figure 1.58that even with small percentages of air, the unit stops pumping liquid due to when o~eratina near the accumulated air in the im~eller higher shut-off condition of the pump. High velocitie;at rates of flow can carry with it higher percentages of gas. Therefore, when gas entrainment is a potential problem, pumps should be operated at or beyond the BEP rate of flow specified by the manufacturer. Inducers or inlet boosters (Figure 1.59)are devices designed to benefit the functioning of the impeller in that they increase the fluid pressure before the mixture enters the pump. This increase in pressure reduces the volume of the air, thereby reducing its negative effect on the impeller performance. Since inducers generate low levels of pressure, they will have little benefit on high suction pressure applications. Laboratory tests have shown that pumps with higher are affected less specific speed (above 3500 [3,000]) by the presence of gas than those with low specific 0 0 0 1 ) . In some cases, it may be speed (below 1150 [I , helpful to use a high specific speed booster pump in series with a low specific speed pumping unit in order to minimize the effect of the gas.

Special designs for vapor or gas

Venting the eye of the impeller through the back shroud and eventually back to the atmosphere or liquid source, reduces the tendency of the impeller to be clogged by gas (Figure 1.60). This allows the impeller to accept liquid with a higher percentage of gas. However, this higher gas volume does not actually go through the impeller blades. A top suction impeller (Figure 1.61)is also effective in venting excess gas.

Total Head

B I m
o % ?
5

3 2'
percent gas by volume 1 '

I
Liquid Rateof Flow

Figure 1.58

- Effect of gas on pump


performance

u
Figure 1.59 -Inducer

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Self-priming pumps (Figure 1.53) can handle higher amounts of gas without becoming completely clogged (airbound), especially at low rate of flow. These units will not become airbound because they will revert to the priming mode if necessary and evacuate the air on the suction side. However, they will suffer reductions in rate of flow and head similar to conventional centrifugal pumps when operating at higher rates of flow with entrained gas. Rotary pumps, especially the screw-type units, can also handle large amounts of gas because they use positive displacement and are not subject to the problems caused by the complex fluid dynamics associated with the centrifugal pumping action. The single screw pump is particularly suitable in that it can handle low viscosity liquids. Many other rotary units, such as gear and vane pumps, depend on the viscosity of the liquid being pumped to lubricate the moving parts.
1.3.4 1.3.4.1

Performance, selection criteria System requirements

A pumping system comprises the piping, the valves, the vessels, the flow measuring equipment, and any other conduits through which the liquid is flowing. For a successful pump application, the pump, the system components and the system must be properly matched to each other. The requirements for and the characteristics of the system must be determined before the pump can be selected. Modifications to the system may be needed for compatibility of all components. Some important features of the system are given in the following paragraphs.
1.3.4.1.1

Pumps versus system curve

Vent to tank

A typical simple system and pump curve is shown in Figure 1.62. It will be noted the pump always operates at the intersection point of its head versus rate of flow curve with the system curve. With more complex systems, the static head varies as the suction and discharge liquid levels, or pressure, change. Friction head is affected by changes in the piping, valve opening or pipe condition. Similarly, the pump characteristics change if the pumps are operated at Variable speed, or several pumps are operated simultaneously (see Section
1.3.4.2.1).

Figure 1.60 -Venting

the eye of the impeller All these changes generate new intersection points of the pump and system curves. A complete plot of these curves is a very useful tool for the system designer to determine the complete pump operating range.

Pump head System head

Operaiing point
Friction head

Figure 1.61 -Top

suction impeller
Rate of flow

%em Static head

Figure 1.62

- Pump versus system

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application


1.3.4.1.2

- 2000
of the pipe material, and on the modulus of elasticity of the liquid. The head due to water hammer in excess of normal static head is a function of the destroyed velocity, the time of closure and the velocity of pressure wave along the pipe. The value of water hammer can be calculated with a fair degree of accuracy by an engineer thoroughly experienced in this work, providing all of the factors influencing water hammer are known. Water hammer may be controlled by regulating valve closure time, relief valves, surge chambers and other means. It is recommended that specialized engineering services be engaged for such calculations, since few pump users or pump manufacturers have the knowledge and experience necessary for this work.
1.3.4.1.5

System pressure limitation

The system must be capable of withstanding the pressures at the operating conditions, as well as at any other conditions, which may be reasonably expected. If the system is equipped with a discharge shut-off valve, the piping should be designed for pump shut-off pressure or protected with a pressure relief valve of adequate capacity. The possibility of pressure surges in the system must also be considered, as it is discussed in more detail in Section 1.3.4.1.4 below.
1.3.4.1.3

Reverse runaway speed

Refer to Section 1.4.4.4.4 in HI 1.4-2000.


1.3.4.1.4

Water (hydraulic) hammer

Water hammer is an increase in pressure due to rapid changes in the velocity of a liquid flowing through a pipe line. This dynamic pressure change is the result of the transformation of the kinetic energy of the moving mass of liquid into pressure energy. When the velocity is changed by closing a valve or by some other means, the magnitude of the pressure produced is frequently much greater than the static pressure on the line, and may cause rupture or damage to the pump, piping or fittings. This applies both to horizontal and vertical pump installations. Starting at the closed valve, a wave of increased pressure is transmitted back through the pipe with constant velocity and intensity. When the pressure wave has travelled upstream to the end of the pipe where there is a reservoir or large main, the elasticity of the compressed liquid and of normal pressure travels downstream, the flow being progressively reversed as the liquid expands.
If the liqhd were incompressible and the pipe inelastic, the instantaneous closure of the valve would create infinite pressure. Since it is impossible to close a valve instantaneously, it is apparent that a series of pressure waves is created, thus causing an increased pressure at the valve. If the valve is completely closed before the first pressure wave has time to return to the valve as a wave of low pressure, the pressure increases continuously up to the time of complete closure, and the resulting pressure is the same as if the valve had been closed instantaneously. The velocity of the pressure wave depends upon the ratio of the wall thickness to the inside pipe diameter, on the modulus of elasticity

Start-up and shut-down

During start-up, the pump torque and the driver torque vary as the pump is accelerating. The driver must be capable of supplying more torque at each speed than required by the pump. Following certain procedures reduces pump torque requirements and assists the driver during the starting process.
1.3.4.1.6

Starting with closed discharge valve

A high or medium head centrifugal pump, when primed and operated at full speed with the discharge valve closed, requires much less power input than when it is operated at its rated flow rate and head with the discharge valve open. For this reason, it is advantageous to have the discharge valve closed when the pump is being started. After starting the pump, do not operate with a closed discharge valve.
1.3.4.1.7 Starting with open discharge valve (mixed flow and axial flow type pumps)

Pumps of the mixed flow type frequently require greater input power with the discharge valve closed than with it open. Axial flow type pumps, nearly always require a great deal more power at shut-off than at rated conditions and must be started with the discharge valve open. The manufacturer's instructions should be consulted for the characteristic curve of such pumps.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.4.1.8

Shut down

Avoidance of water hammer is the primary concern during the shut down of a pump, especially in installations with long discharge piping. Gradual closing of the discharge valve is one way to eliminateor reduce the water hammer. For water hammer, see Section 1.3.4.1.4 for further information. Running at shut-off conditions (with the discharge valve closed) for extended periods is not recommended. It induces increased radial thrust in many pumps and overheats the liquid in the pump. Recirculation provisions will help, as recommended by the pump manufacturer.
1.3.4.1.9

torque requirement at any specified speed which should be obtained from the pump manufacturer when necessary.
1.3.4.1.10

Effects of handling viscous liquids

The performance of centrifugal pumps is affected when handling viscous liquids. A marked increase in brake horsepower, a reduction in head, and some reduction in rate of flow occur with moderate and high viscosities. Figures 1.64A and B and 1.65A and B provide a means of determining the performance of a conventional centrifugal pump handling a viscous liquid when its performance on water is known. Figures l.64A and B and 1.65A and B can also be used as an aid in selecting a pump for a given application. The values shown in Figures 1.65A and B are averaged from tests of conventional single stage pumps of 50 to 200 mm (2 to 8 inches), handling petroleum oils. The values shown in Figures 1.64A and B were prepared from other tests on several smaller pumps (25 mm [ I inch] and below). The correction curves are, therefore, not exact for any particular pump. When accurate information is essential, performance tests should be conducted with the particular viscous liquid to be handled.
1.3.4.1.1 1 Viscous liquid performance correction chart limitations

Pump and motor speed torque curves

A plot of torque versus speed requirements during the starting phase of a centrifugal pump is sometimes checked against the torque versus speed curve of the driving motor. The driver must be capable of supplying more torque at each speed than required by the pump in order to bring the pump up to rated speed. This condition is generally attainable with standard induction or synchronous motors but under certain conditions, such as high specific speed pumps or reduced voltage starting, a motor with high pull-in torque may be required. Where centrifugal pumps, in the low to medium specific speed range (under 4000 [3500]), are started with the discharge valve closed, the procedure used to calculate the minimum torque requirements at various speeds under this condition is as follows:

Determine the maximum pump power input required at rated speed under shut-off conditions. Convert this power to torque. Torque of the pump varies as the square of its speed; see curve, Figure 1.63.

Reference is made to Figures 1.64A and B and Figures 1.65A and B. Since these charts are based on empirical rather than theoretical considerations, extrapolation beyond the limits shown would go outside the experience range which these charts cover and is not recommended.

At zero speed, the torque would theoretically be zero, but the driver must overcome stuffing-box friction, rotating element inertia and bearing friction in order to start the shaft turning. This requires a torque at zero speed of from 2 percent to 15 percent of the maximum. Speed torque requirements for starting conditions other than closed discharge will vary depending on the percentage of static head to total head; the cubic content of the discharge line; the condition of the discharge line, whether full, partly full, or empty; and conditions which may change during the starting period, such as the opening or closing of bypass valves. Each of these conditions determines a different

0
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.O

Full speed torque multiplier Figure 1.63 -Torque curve

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Use only for pumps of conventional hydraulic design, in the normal operating range, with open or closed impellers. Do not use for mixed flow or axial flow pumps or for pumps of special hydraulic design for either viscous or non-uniform liquids. Use only where adequate NPSH is available in order to avoid cavitation. Use only on Newtonian (uniform) liquids. Gels, slurries, paper stock and other non-uniform liquids may produce widely varying results, depending on the particular characteristics of the liquids.

10

15

20

Rate of Flow m 3 h (at BEP)

Figure 1.64A

- Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (metric)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

1 . 0 0 .90 .80 .70

5 60 :.so .L

8 8

.40 .30
.20 .I0 . o

aFP

3 @

8 k '$ B

,$a0

,$
0 '

: ,$a = 4 %
6 6

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

60

70 80 90 100

Rate of Flow-gallonsper minute (at BEP)

Figure 1.648

- Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (US units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000

Rate of Flow - m3h (at BEP)

Figure 1.65A

- Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (metric)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

Rate of Flow in 100 GPM at BEP

Figure 1.658

- Performance correction chart for viscous liquids (US units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.4.1.12

Viscous liquid symbols and definitions

These symbols and definitions are: Qvi,


=

Viscous rate of flow in m3/h (gpm): the rate of flow when pumping a viscous liquid; Viscous head in meters (feet): the head when pumping a viscous liquid; Viscous efficiency in percent: the efficiency when pumping a viscous liquid; Viscous power: the power required by the pump for the viscous conditions in kW (hp); Water rate of flow in m3/h (gpm): the rate of flow when pumping water; Water head in meters (feet): the head when pumping water; Water efficiency in percent: the efficiency when pumping water; Specific gravity; Rate of flow correction factor; Head correction factor; Efficiency correction factor; Water rate of flow at which maximum efficiency is obtained.

Co, CH and Cq are determined from Figures 1.64A and B and Figures 1.65A and B, which are based on water performance. Figures 1.64A and B are to be used for small pumps having rate of flow at best efficiency point of less than 25 m3/h (100 gpm) (water performance). The following equations are used for approximating the water performance when the desired viscous rate of flow and head are given and the values of Co and CH must be estimated from Figures 1.64A and B or 1.65A and B using Qvis and H ,, as: Q,(approx.)
=
Qvis -

Hvis = qvis =

Pvi,

Co

Q , H ,

= =
=

H,(approx.)

= CH

Hvis

11,

1.3.4.1.13 Instructions for preliminary selection of a pump for a given head, rate of flow, viscosity condition

s = Co = CH = Cq = QNW =

Given the desired rate of flow and head of the viscous liquid to be pumped, and the viscosity and specific gravity at the pumping temperature, Figures 1.64A and B or 1.65A and B can be used to find approximate equivalent rate of flow and head when pumping water. Enter the desired viscous capacity at the bonom of the appropriate chart, (Qvi,) and proceed upward to the H ,, ) . For multistage pumps. desired viscous head ( use head per stage. Proceed horizontally (either left or right) to the fluid viscosity, and then go upward to the a ) , correction curves. Divide the viscous rate of flow ( by the capacity correction factor (Co) to get the approximate equivalent water capacity (Qw approximately). Divide the viscous head (Hvi,) by the head correction factor (CH) from the curve marked "1.0 x QNW" to get the approximate equivalent water head (Hw approximately). Using this new equivalent water head-rate of flow point, select a pump in the usual manner. The viscous efficiency and the viscous brake horsepower may then be calculated. This procedure is approximate, as the scales for rate of flow and head on the lower half of Figures 1.64A and B or Figures 1.65A and B are based on water performance. However, the procedure has sufficient accuracy for most pump selection purposes. Where the corrections are appreciable, it is desirable to check the selection by the method described below.

The following equations are used for determining the viscous performance when the water performance of the pump is known:

q VIS . = Crl xq, (Metric) Pvis =


Qvis

Hvis s 367 X q vis


Qvis

(US Units)

Pvis =

Hvis

3960 x tl v/s

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Example in Metric Units: Select a pump to deliver 170 m3/h at 30 meters total head of a liquid having a viscosity of 220 mm2/s and a specific gravity of 0.90 at the pumping temperature. Enter the chart (Figure 1.65A) with 170 m3/h, go up to 30 m head, over to 220 mm2/s, and then up to the correction factors: HW = 100 = 109 feet 0.92

Select a pump for a water capacity of 790 gpm at 109 feet head. The selection should be at or close to the maximum efficiency point for water performance. If the pump selected has an efficiency on water of 81 percent at 790 gpm, then the efficiency for the viscous liquid will be as follows: q v , i

= 0.635 x 81% = 51.4 percent

CH =

0.92 (for 1.O QNW)

The input power for pumping the viscous liquid will be:

For the performance curves of the pump selected, correct the water performance as discussed below. Select a pump for a water capacity of 179 m3/h at 32.6 meters head. The selection should be at or close to the maximum efficiency point for water performance. If the pump selected has an efficiency on water of 81 percent at 179 m3/h, then the efficiency for the viscous liquid will be as follows: qvjs = 0.635 x 81% = 51.4 percent The input power for pumping the viscous liquid will be: From this capacity, determine the rates of flow (0.6 x QNW),(0.8 x QNW)and (1.2 x QNW). Enter the chart at the bottom with the capacity at best efficiency (1.0 x QNW),go upward to the head developed (in one stage) (Hw) at this rate of flow, then horizontally (either left or right) to the desired viscosity, and then proceed upward to the various correction curves. Read the values of (Cq) and (CQ) and of (CH) for all four rates of flow. Multiply each head by its corresponding head correction factor to obtain the corrected heads. Multiply each efficiency value by (Cq) to obtain the corrected efficiency values which apply at the corresponding corrected rates of flow. Plot corrected head and corrected efficiency against corrected rate of flow. Draw smooth curves through these points. The head at shut-off can be taken as approximately the same as that for water. 1.3.4.1.14 Instructions for determining pump performance on a viscous liquid when performance on water i s known Given the complete performance characteristics of a pump handling water, determine the performance when pumping a liquid for a specified viscosity. From the efficiency curve, locate the water capacity (1.0 x QNW)at which maximum efficiency is obtained.

For the performance curves of the pump selected, correct the water performance as discussed below. Example in US Units: Select a pump to deliver 750 gpm at 100 feet total head of a liquid having a viscosity of 100 SSU and a specific gravity of 0.90 at the pumping temperature. Enter the chart (Figure 1.656) with 750 gpm, go up to 100 feet head, over to 1000 SSU, and then up to the correction factors:

CH =

0.92 (for 1.O QNW)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
a specific gravity of 0.90 and a viscosity of 220 mm2/s at pumping temperature. On the performance curve (Figure 1.66A), locate the best efficiency point which determines QNW. In this example, it is 170 m2/h. Tabulate rate of flow, head and efficiency for (0.6 x 170), (0.8 x 170), (1.0 x 170) and (1.2 x 170). (See Table 1.3.3A, Sample calculations [Metric]).

Calculate the viscous input power (PVi,) from the formula given in Section 1.3.4.1.12. Plot these points and draw a smooth curve through them, which should be similar to and approximately parallel to the input power curve for water. Example in Metric Units: Given the performance of a pump (Figure 1.66A) obtained by test on water, plot the performance of this pump when handling oil with

Rate oi Flow - m3/h

Figure 1.66A -Sample

performance chart (Metric)

Table 1.3.3A -Sample

calculations (Metric)

Water rate of flow (Qw) - m3/h Water head (Hw) - meters Water efficiency ( q ) ,

-%

Viscosity of liquid mm2/s CQ from chart CH from chart Cq from chart Viscous rate of flow: Qw x CQ - m3/h Viscous head: Hw x CH meters Viscous efficiency: qwx Cq -Oh Specific gravity of liquid Viscous power- kW

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Using 170 m2/h. 30 meters head and 220 mm2/s, enter the chart and determine the correction factors. These are tabulated in Table 1.3.3A, Sample calculations. Multiply each value of head, capacity and efficiency by its correction factor to get the corrected values. Using the corrected values and the specific gravity, calculate input power. These calculations are shown in Section 1.3.4.1.12. Calculated points are plotted in Figure 1.66A, and corrected performance is represented by dashed curves. Example in US Units: Given the performance of a pump (Figure 1.66B) obtained by test on water, plot the performance of this pump when handling oil with a specific gravity of 0.90 and a viscosity of 1000 SSU at pumping temperature. On the performance curve (Figure 1.66B), locate the best efficiency point which determines QNW. In this example, it is 750 gpm. Tabulate rate of flow, head and efficiency for (0.6 x 750), (0.8 x 750), (1.0 x 750) and (1.2 x 750). (See Table 1.3.38, Sample calculations [US Units]). Using 750 gpm, 100 feet head and 1000 SSU, enter the chart and determine the correction factors. These are tabulated in Table 1.3.38, Sample calculations. Multiply each value of head, capacity and efficiency by its correction factor to get the corrected values. Using the corrected values and the specific gravity, calculate input power. These calculations are shown in Section 1.3.4.1.12. Calculated points are plotted in Figure 1.66B, and corrected performance is represented by dashed curves. Figures 1.64A and B are used in the same manner as Figures 1.65A and B except that only the best efficiency point corrected performance is obtained. Through the corrected head versus rate of flow point, draw a curve similar in shape to the curve for water performance and having the same head at shutoff. The corrected efficiency point represents the peak of the corrected efficiency curve, which is similar in shape to that for water. The corrected input power curves are generally parallel to that for water.

200

400

600

800

1,000

Rate of Flow GPM Figure 1.668 -Sample performance chart (US Units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
calculations (US Units)

Table 1.3.36 -Sample

Water rate of flow (Qw) - gpm Water head in feet (Hw) -feet Water efficiency q () ,

-%

Viscosity of liquid SSU CQ from chart CH from chart Cq from chart Viscous rate of flow:
x CQ - gpm

Viscous head: Hw x CH -feet , x Cq - % Viscous efficiency: q Specific gravity of liquid Viscous power hp
1.3.4.1.1 5 speed)

23.1 The formula for "S" may be rearranged to solve for "n" with 10,000 (8500) being used as a typical pump suction specific speed and the available NPSH (NPSHA) and capacity Q. (Metric)

Speed limitations (suction specific

Increased pump speeds without proper suction conditions can result in abnormal wear and possible failure from excessive vibration, noise and cavitation damage. Suction specific speed has been found to be a valuable criterion in determining the maximum permissible speed for a pump. The curves presented in this standard are based on a suction specific speed value of 10,000 (8500). This represents a practical value; actual pump values may be lower or higher. Suction specific speed is an index number for a centrifugal pump similar to discharge specific speed and is used to define its suction characteristic. It is defined as follows:

(NPSHA).?5 n = 10000
0.5

(US Units)

n = 8500

(NPSHA).?'
Q5

The curves in Figures 1.67 and 1.68 are graphical representations of this formula. The curves show speeds for normal operating conditions and are based on the premise that the pump is operating at, or near, its point of best efficiency. The curve in Figure 1.67 A and B covers single suction centrifugal pumps.

Where:

The curve in Figure 1.68 A and B covers double suction pumps. suction specific speed; rotative speed in revolutions per minute; Normallv, the highest value of "S" is at, or near, the rate of fiow corresponding to the best efficiency. However, special designs may cause the highest value of "S" to shift away from the point of best efficiency. Higher numerical values of "S" are associated with better suction capabilities. The numerical value of "S" is mainly a function of the impeller inlet and suction inlet design. For pumps of normal design, values of "S"

S =
n =

0 = flow in m3/h (gpm) per minute (use half of


the total flow for double suction pumps);

NPSHR = net positive suction head required in meters (feet).

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000

0 N

" 9 ' 4

NPSHA Meters

Figure 1.67A

- Recommended typical operating speed limits for single suction pumps (metric)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

NPSHA Feet
Figure 1.67B

- Recommended typical operating speed limits for single suction pumps (US units)

Rate of Flow - m3/h


4
6

810'

8103

810"

8105

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

NPSHA Feet Figure 1.68B

- Recommended typical operating speed limits for double suction pumps (US units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 vary from 7000 to 14,000 (6000 to 12,000). In special designs, including inducers, higher values can be obtained; however, special materials may be required for continuous operation. These standards are not intended to cover such special designs. Example (Metric): single suction pumps: Given a rate of flow of 20,000 m3/h and NPSHA of 15 meters, what is the rprn limit for 10,000 suction specific speed? Example (US Units): single suction pumps: Given a rate of flow of 90,000 gpm and NPSHA of 50 feet, what is the rprn limit for 8500 suction specific speed?

n = (S)(NPSHA).75
0.5

Therefore:

n = 6500(50).75 or: n = 8500(18.8)


(90, 000).5 300

Therefore:

and n = 533 Therefore, the recommended maximum operating speed is 533 rpm.

and n = 540 Therefore, the recommended maximum operating speed is 540 rpm. From Figure 1.67A, note that the intersection of the vertical line for 20,000 m3/h and the horizontal line for 15 m of NPSHA corresponds to 540 rpm. Example (Metric): double suction pumps: Given a rate of flow of 20,000 m3/h and NPSHA of 15 meters, what is the rprn limit for 10,000 suction specific speed?

From Figure 1.678, note that the intersection of the vertical line for 90,000 gpm and the horizontal line for 50 ft of NPSHA corresponds to 533 rpm. Example (US Units): double suction pumps: Given a rate of flow of 90,000 gpm and NPSHA of 50 ft, what is the rprn limit for 8500 suction specific speed?

Therefore:

Therefore:

n = 753 rprn
Referring to the curve, Figure 1.68B, the intersection of the vertical line for 90,000 gpm and the horizontal line for 50 ft of NPSHA corresponds to 753 rpm.

n = 762 rprn
Referring to the curve, Figure 1.68A, the intersection of the vertical line for 20,000 m3/h and the horizontal line for 15 m of NPSHA corresponds to 762 rpm.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.4.1.16

Net positive suction head

To find the NPSHA for 82C water at 1525 meters elevation (pvp = 84.5 kPa), proceed as follows:
NPSHA = ( P a rP v p )+ -7,- hf

Net positive suction head available (NPSHA) is the total suction head of liquid absolute, determined at the first stage impeller datum, less the absolute vapor pressure of the liquid:
NPSHA = h,

- hvp

Where:
h,
=

Total suction head in absolute = hafm + hs

The correction for elevation is approximately one meter per 1000 meters of elevation. Example (US Units): Applications with water in an open system at sea level with a pumping temperature of 85F are common. Given y = 62.4 lbs per cu fl.
pa = 14.7 psi, pvp = 0.6 psi, Z, = 10.0 ft and hf = 0

Net positive suction head required (NPSHR) is the amount of suction head, over vapor pressure, required to prevent more than 3% loss in total head from the first stage of the pump at a specific rate of flow.
1.3.4.1.16.1 NPSHA corrections for temperature and elevation

NPSHA (available) is a function of the absolute pressure and the vapor pressure. In an open system, the absolute pressure is in turn a function of the atmospheric pressure, and the vapor pressure varies with the temperature. The following are some examples of NPSHA calculations for open systems: .
'

We find:
144 NPSHA = -(pa-pvp)

+ Z S - hf

144 = -(14.7 62.4

- 0 . 6 ) + 10.0 -0.0

Example (Metric): Applications with water in an open system at sea level with a pumping temperature of 20C are common. Given y = 9.8 k ~ l m ~ .
pa = loo kPa, pvp = 4.1 kpa, Z, = 3 m and hf = 0

= 42.5 fl
To find the NPSHA for water of 180F temperature (pvp= 7.51 psia and y = 60.53 lbs per cu ft), proceed as follows:
144 NPSHA = -(pa-pvp)+ZS-hf

We find:

To find the NPSHA for 180F water at 5000 feet elevation (p? = 12.25 psi), proceed as follows: To find the NPSHA for water of 82C temperature (pvp = 51.8 kPa and y = 9.51 k ~ l m ~ proceed ), as follows:
NPSHA = (P 144 NPSHA = - ( p a - p v p ) + Z s - h f

- Pvp) + Z s - hf

The correction for elevation is approximately one foot per 1000 feet of elevation.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application 1.3.4.1.16.2 NPSH margin considerations

- 2000

Any system must be designed such that the net positive suction head available (NPSHA) is equal to, or exceeds, the net positive suction head required (NPSHR) by the pump throughout the range of operation. Margin is the amount by which NPSHA exceeds NPSHR. The amount of margin required varies depending on the pump design, the application and the materials of construction. See ANSIIHI 9.6-1998, Centrifugal and Vertical Pumps for NPSH Margin, for an in-depth discussion of this subject. 1.3.4.1.16.3 NPSH requirements for pumps handling hydrocarbon liquids and water at elevated temperatures The NPSH requirements of centrifugal pumps are normally determined on the basis of handling water at or near normal room temperatures. Operating experience in the field has indicated, and a limited number of carefully controlled laboratory tests have confirmed, that pumps handling certain hydrocarbon fluids, or water at significantly higher than room temperatures, will operate satisfactorily with less NPSH available than would be required for cold water. Figure 1.69 is a composite chart of NPSH reductions which may be expected for hydrocarbon liquids and high-temperature water, based on available laboratory data from tests conducted on the fluids shown, plotted as a function of fluid temperature and true vapor pressure at that temperature. 1.3.4.1.16.4 Limitations tor use of chart for net positive suction head reduction (Figures 1.69A and B) Until specific experience has been gained with operation of pumps under conditions where Figures 1.69A and B apply, NPSH reduction should be limited to 50% of the NPSH required by the pump for cold water. Figures 1.69A and B are based on pumps handling pure liquids. Where entrained air or other noncondensable gases are present in a liquid, pump performance may be adversely affected even with normal NPSH available and would suffer further with reduction in NPSH available. Where dissolved air or other noncondensables are present, and where the absolute pressure at the pump inlet would be low enough to release such noncondensables from solution, the NPSH available may have to be increased above that required for cold water to avoid deterioration of pump pelformance due to such release.

For hydrocarbon mixtures, vapor pressure may vary significantly with temperature, and specific vapor pressure determinations should be made for actual pumping temperatures. In the use of Figures 1.69A and B for high-temperature liquids, and particularly with water, due consideration must be given to the susceptibility of the suction system to transient changes in temperature and absolute pressure, which might necessitate provision of a margin of safety of NPSH far exceeding the reduction otherwise available for steady state operation. Because of the absence of available data demonstrating NPSH reduction greater than 3 meters (10 feet), the chart has been limited to that extent and extrapolation beyond that limit is not recommended. 1.3.4.1.16.5 Instruction tor using chart tor net positive suction head reduction (Figures 1.69A and B) Enter Figures 1.69A and B at the bottom of the chart with the pumping temperature and proceed vertically upward to the true vapor pressure. From this point, follow along or parallel to the sloping lines to the right side of the chart, where the NPSH reduction may be read on the scale provided. If this value is greater than one half of the NPSH required on cold water, deduct one half of the cold water NPSH to obtain the corrected NPSH required. If the value read on the chart is less than one half of the cold water NPSH, deduct this chart value from the cold water NPSH to obtain the corrected NPSH required.

Example (Metric): A pump that has been selected for a given rate of flow and head requires a minimum of 5 meters NPSH to pump that rate of flow when handling cold water. In this case, the pump is to handle propane at 128"C, which has a vapor pressure of 690 kPa. Following the procedure indicated above, the chart yields an NPSH reduction of 2.9 meters, which is greater than one half of the cold water NPSH required. The corrected value of NPSH required is therefore one half the cold water NPSH required, or 7.5 meters. Example (Metric): The pump in the example above has also been selected for another application: to handle propane at -1O0C, where it has a vapor pressure of 345 kPa. In this case, the chart shows an NPSH reduction of 1.83 meters, which is less than one half the cold water NPSH. The corrected value of NPSH is therefore 5 meters less 1.83 meters. or 3.17 meters.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000

Temperature O C
Figure 1.69A

- NPSHR reduction for pumps handling hydrocarbon liquids


and high-temperature water (metric)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000

Temperature O F
Figure 1.698

- NPSHR reduction for pumps handling hydrocarbon liquids


and high-temperature water (US units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

Example (US Units): A pump that has been selected for a given rate of flow and head requires a minimum of 16 feet NPSH to pump that rate of flow when handling cold water. In this case, the pump is to handle propane at 55F which has a vapor pressure of 100 psia. Following the procedure indicated above, the chart yields an NPSH reduction of 9.5 feet, which is greater than one half of the cold water NPSH required. The corrected value of NPSH required is therefore one half the cold water NPSH required, or 8 feet. Example (US Units): The pump in the example above has also been selected for another application: to handle propane at 14K where it has a vapor pressure of 50 psia. In this case, the chart shows an NPSH reduction of 6 feet, which is less than one half the cold water NPSH. The corrected value of NPSH is therefore 16 feet less 6 feet, or 10 feet.

35 meters, when connected in parallel could deliver 1200 m3/h at 35 meters of head (see Figure 1.71).
1.3.4.2.2 service

Continuous, intermittent and cyclic

Continuous service is often defined as operation for at least an eight-hour shift without stopping. In many cases, the pump operates 24 hours per day for prolonged periods. Intermittent or cyclic service is often controlled by automatic controls; liquid level or pressure switches are the most common. The pump is started by some controller and, when a liquid level or pressure condition is satisfied, the pump is stopped. Precautions may be needed to avoid too many starts of an electric motor and prevent its overheating.

Use of chart for net positive suction head reduction (Figures 1.69A and B) for liquids other than hydrocarbons or water
1.3.4.1.16.6

Two pumps

in series

Operating

The consistency of results which have been obtained on tests which have been conducted with both water and hydrocarbon fluids suggests that NPSH required by a centrifugal pump may be reduced when handling any liquid having relatively high true vapor pressure at pumping temperature. However, since available data are limited to the liquids for which temperature and vapor pressure relationships are shown on Figures 1.69A and B, application of this chart to liquids other than hydrocarbons and water is not recommended except where it is understood that such usage can be accepted on an experimental basis.
1.3.4.2 1.3.4.2.1

Rate of Flow Figure 1.70

1000

- Pumps operating i n series

Determination of operating duty Series and parallel operation Two pumps

/ in parallel
Pumps operating in series produce head which is additive at the rate of flow at which they would run individually. Two pumps, each capable of 1000 m3/h at 50 meters of head, when connected in series, could deliver 1000 m3/h at 100 meters of head. Series operation is therefore used where higher pressures are required than the pressures which an individual pump can supply. See Figure 1.70. Pumps operating in parallel produce a rate of flow which is additive at the head at which they would run individually. Two pumps, each capable of 600 m3/h at Figure 1.71

Operating

600 Rate of Flow

1200

- Pumps operating in parallel

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Pump construction is relatively insensitive to any of the services described above. As the pump increases in size for horsepower required, so does the need for full disclosure of operating conditions to the pump manufacturer. See ANSIIHI 1.4-2000 for operating recommendations. 1.3.4.2.3 Minimum flow

- 2000

pumps with heads greater than 200 meters (650 feet) per stage andlor more than 225 kW (300 hp) per stage are considered high energy. See Section 1.2.6.6 in ANSIIHI 1.l-1.2-2000 for a definition of high energy. For low-head, low-specific speed impellers, the required minimum flow may be only 20% of the best efficiency point (BEP) flow. Limitations as high as 70% of the BEP may be required for the high-energy types. Consult the pump manufacturer for specific minimum flow recommendations. 1.3.4.2.4 Pump 1.3.4.2.4.1 Liquid temperature rise i n a centrifugal

All centrifugal pumps have limitations on the minimum and maximum flow at which they should be operated continuously or for an extended period of time. After starting a pump, do not operate with a closed discharge valve. Operation of pumps at reduced rates of flow may lead to the following problems:

Temperature rise calculation

Temperature buildup: Absorption of the input power into the pumped liquid raises the liquid temperature. Generally, temperature rise across the pump should be limited to manufacturets recommendations (see Section 1.3.4.2.4); Excessive radial thrust: Single volute pumps may have limitations in this regard. See Section 1.3.4.7.2. Twin volute and diffuser pumps are generally not limited because of radial thrust; Suction recirculation: Circulatory flow in the impeller eye can cause localized pitting and mechanical damage. Such flow depends on the impeller inlet design. Continuous operation with suction recirculation should be avoided in highenergy pumps (see Section 1.2.6.6 in ANSIMI 1.1-1.2-2000); Discharge recirculation: Circulatory flow in the discharge area of impellers can cause large forces on impeller shrouds, resulting in random axial unbalance of forces and high thrust. Mechanical vibration and bearing failures can occur. The problem is most severe in high-energy pumps (see Section 1.2.6.6 in ANSIIHI 1.l-1.2-2000); Insufficient net positive suction head: In some designs, the NPSH required by the impeller can increase at low flows and noise, impeller pitting and other symptoms can occur. The pump manufacturer's performance curve should be checked for NPSH or minimum flow recommendations.

Pump efficiency is the ratio of the energy imparted to the liquid by the pump ( P ) , and the energy delivered to the pump shaft (Pp) expressed in percent.The difference between the P , and the Pp represents the power losses within the pump itself, due to internal recirculation, friction, bearings, mechanical seal, etc. Except for small losses in the bearings, the power losses are converted into thermal energy (heat) and transferred to the liquid passing through the pump. A convenient equation relates temperature rise to the total head and pump efficiency: (Metric) AT =

(US Units) AT = 778 Where: AT =

"

Cp

11 ('

11

temperature rise through the pump, "C ("F); total developed head at flow being considered, m (ft.); constant; constant; specific heat of the liquid at pumpage temperature, kNm1kg "C (BTUIlb -OF); efficiency of the pump at flow being considered, expressed as a decimal.

H =
778 = 10.4 = Cp =

q =
The pump energy level is an important consideration for the minimum flow limitation, since the destructive forces are greater at higher energy levels. Generally

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
The calculated temperature rise is plotted in Figure 1.73A.

Example (Metric): A pump has performance as shown in Figure 1.72A. Create a curve depicting temperature rise as a function of rate of flow if the liquid to be pumped is water at 15C.

Rate of llow - rn3h


80

BO
40

Figure 1.73A

- Temperature rise (Metric)

20
0
5

10

15

20

25

Rate ofllow m3m

Figure 1.72A

- Pump performance (Metric)

Example (US Units): A pump has performance as shown in Figure 1.728. Create a curve depicting temperature rise as a function of rate of flow if the liquid to be pumped is water at 60F.

1 are obtained from the perforSolution: H and 1 mance curve for various rates of flow. Water at 15% has Cp equal to 41.5. AT may then be calculated using the above equation, and tabulated as shown in the table below. Rate of flow meters

Rate of flow gprn

Figure 1.72s

- Pump performance (US Units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Solution: H and q are obtained from the performance curve for various rates of flow. Water at 60F has Cp equal to 1.0. AT may then be calculated using the above equation, and tabulated as shown in the table below. Rate of flow Q P ~ Head feet
1 1 %

Vaporization can cause a rapid and excessive pressure increase in the pump, possibly resulting in an explosion of the casing. An equation expressing the rate of temperature rise at shutoff is: (Metric) Trso= 60X ppso v x Cpx p

AT "F

Where:
T,,
=

rate of temperature rise evaluated at shutoff, "Clmin ("Flmin); constant for unit conversion constant for unit conversion; input power at shutoff for the liquid pumped, in kW (hp); casing internal volume m3, (gal.); specific heat Ulkg "C, (BTUIlb-OF).Cp varies with temperature. For these calculations, a constant value is used; density kg/m3 specific gravity.

60 = 5.09 =
Ppso =

The calculated temperature rise is plotted in Figure 1.738.

V = Cp =

p =
s =

Rate of flow gpm

This equation neglects, as does the first equation, the small effects of pump bearings, heat dissipation and compressibility of the liquid but is applicable to situations normally encountered. rise (US Units) Example (Metric): The pump used in the previous example has a casin (volute and discharge nozzle) . pumping water at capacity of 0.0255 m! and.1 s agaln 15C. Determine: a) The rate of temperature rise; b) The time required to boil the water in the casing.

Figure 1.738 -Temperature

As evidenced by the previous example, temperature rise through a pump increases as flow is decreased. When a pump is run at or near shutoff, the majority of the power input is converted to thermal energy, causing a rapid temperature rise.
If the temperature rise continues, the parts will expand. Vaporization doesn't allow thermal expansion of the parts. Temperature rise does. This could result in seizure of the rotating parts, complete pump failure or destruction of the pump and associated equipment.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Solution: From the performance curve, power input at shut-off is 19.0 kW. Cp for water at 15C is 4.19 and p is 1000.

Pp =
2.95 = 433 =

input power at the minimum flow, kW (hp); constant; constant; specific heat kJ/kg "C, (BTUAb-OF); density - kg/m3; specific gravity.

b) Time required to boil the water = (100 15)/10.7 = 7.95 min

Cp = p =

Example (US Units): The pump used in the previous example has a casing (volute and discharge nozzle) capacity of 6.75 gallons and is again pumping water at 60F. Determine: a) The rate of temperature rise; b) The time required to boil the water in the casing. Solution: Fmm the performance curve, power input at shut-off is 26 hp. Cp and s for water at 60F are both 1.o.

s =

At the minimum flows calculated using the above equation, the power input is approximately the same as at shut-off. Example (Metric): Determine the minimum flow required to prevent the temperature of the pump used in the previous examples from rising more than 8C when pumping 15C water. Solution: Shut-off power is 19 kW. Cp is 4.19 and p is 1000.

b) Time required to boil the water = (212 -60)/19.6 = 7 min, 45 sec NOTE: The liquid will first boil at the eye of the impeller where the pressure is approximately atmospheric.
1.3.4.2.4.2 Minimum flow in a pump due to temperature rise

Example (US Units): Determine the minimum flow required to prevent the temperature of the pump used in the previous examples from rising more than 15F when pumping 60F water. Solution: Shut-off power is 26 hp. Cp and s are both 1.o.

This discussion focuses on minimum flow required through a pump to prevent excess temperature rise. A commonly accepted practice limits temperature rise through a pump to 8C (15F). For most installations, this is adequate and minimum flow may be calculated with equations. For 8C (15F) temperature rise through a pump, (Metric) Q =

Q=

26 = 8.8 gpm 2.95 x 1.Ox 1.O

Temperature rise in excess of 8C (15F) may be permissible in certain circumstances. The . Dump . manufacturer should be contacted if a temperature rise in excess of 8C (15F) is desired. As previously discussed, catastrophic failure of the pump and associated equipment may result if the liquid within the pump casing is allowed to vaporize. To prevent flashing, a flow must be maintained through the pump which will keep the liquid below its saturation temperature. Special situations occur when a relatively small margin exists between NPSH available and NPSH required by the pump, as in boiler feed services. A boiler feed pump normally takes suction from a deaerator or deaerating heater. A deaerator is a closed vessel in

CPXP

433 Pp

(US Units) Q = Where:


Q =

2.95~ Cpx s

p~

minimum flow rate, m3/h (gpm);

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application which the feed water is heated by direct contact with steam to remove air which could cause corrosion in the boiler. In a properly operated deaerator, the water is heated to boiling (i.e., vapor pressure is equal to the deaerator pressure). To establish the maximum allowable temperature rise, first determine the: a) absolute pressure in the deaerator or other suction source; b) additional absolute pressure available at the pump suction nozzle above that required by the pump, using: (Metric) (NPSHA- NPSHR)x p x g 102 (NPSHA- NPSHR) x s . 2.31
,

- 2000

Maximum temperature rise is then 117.4 110 = 7.4"C, which is less than the normally accepted maximum of 8C. Example (US Units): A pump is to handle 230F water. The suction source is a heater under pressure, corresponding to this temperature, with 25 feet of NPSHA. Pump NPSHR is 11 feet. Determine the maximum temperature rise permitted. Solution: from thermodynamic tables, for water at 230F, s = 0.952. and: a) The absolute pressure in the heater is 20.78 psia; b) The additional absolute pressure available at the suction nozzle is:

(US Units) P =

c) sum of the values determined in a) and b). The maximum allowable temperature rise is the difference between the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure determined in .c) and the temperature of the suction source. Example (Metric): A pump is to handle 110C water. The suction source is a heater under pressure, corresponding to this temperature, with 7.6 meters of NPSHA. Pump NPSHR is 3.4 meters. Determine the maximum temperature rise permitted. Solution: from thermodynamic tables, for water at 11O0C,s = ,952, and p = 952 kg/m3: a) The absolute pressure in the heater is 143 kPa; b) The additional absolute pressure available at the suction nozzle is:

c) The sum of the values determined in a) and b) is 20.78 + 5.77 = 26.55 psia. Saturation temperature corresponding to this pressure is 243.3"F. Maximum temperature rise is then 243.3 230 = 13.3"F, which is less than the normally accepted maximum of 15F. If the maximum allowable temperature rise is known, the second equation may be rearranged to calculate minimum flow: 3600 x Pp (Metric) Q = ATx C p x p 5.09 x Pp (US Units) Q = A T x Cp Where:

Q =
c) The sum of the values determined in a) and b) is 143+39 = 182 kPa. Saturation temperature corresponding to this pressure is 117.4"C. 3600 = 5.09 = Pp = AT =

minimum flow rate, gpm; constant; constant; power input at the minimum flow, kW (hp); maximum allowable temperature through the pump, "C ("F); rise

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


Cp =
p =

specific heat, kJ/kg "C (BTUIlb-OF); density in kg/m3; specific gravity.

s =

Example (Metric): Determine the minimum flow required through the pump in the previous example if the shut-off power input is 75 kW. Solution: using the above equation: Where;
Ql
= =

original impeller rate of flow original impeller total head original impeller power original impeller diameter reduced impeller rate of flow reduced impeller total head reduced impeller power reduced impeller diameter

Example (US Units): Determine the minimum flow required through the pump in the previous example if the shut-off power input is 100 hp. Solution: using the above equation:

Hi

P1 =
Dl
=

4
In multistage pumps, the allowable temperature rise corresponding to the difference between the NPSHA and NPSHR should be considered to occur in the first stage. Temperature rise through the entire pump generally should still be limited to 8C (15F). Minimum flow is guaranteed by installing a bypass from the discharge line to some low-pressure point in the system. The bypass should not lead directly back to the pump suction. An orifice installed in the bypass line breaks down the differential pressure between the pump discharge and the low-pressure point in the system. The bypass may be manually or automatically operated but must be open during periods of light load or when starting or stopping the pump.
1.3.4.2.5 Predicting pump performance atter impeller diameter change

H2 = P2 =
D2 =

Normally the "D" diameter is the largest outside diameter (front shroud) of the impeller vanes, but if the impeller exit is machined at an angle then the "D" shall be the average value between the diameters, or (DF + DB)/2. See Figure 1.74. If the thickness of the impeller vanes at the outside diameter has been reduced by filing or grinding, the reduced diameter impeller shall be similarly treated. Example (Metric)

D, = 300mm

= 290mm

A characteristic of both horizontal and vertical centrifugal pumps is that it is possible to determine the change in rate of flow, head and power at any point on the characteristic curves by calculation when there is a change in impeller diameter. The performance will vary based on the following equations known as the affinity laws:

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 The efficiency prediction charts (see Figures 1.75A through D and 1.76A and B) relate to industrial class pumps designed, manufactured and tested in accordance with recognized industry standards. Shown on Figures 1.76A and B are the deviation limits on efficiency as influenced by the following:

Example (US Units)

Dl = 12 in.
HI = 103ft

= 11.4in.

Ql = 2000 gmp

PI = 63 hp

desired curve shape (rise to shutoff, etc.); dimensional conformance and quality (i.e., shaft runout); surface roughness; internal clearances; design compromise for manufacturability; mechanical losses; solids handling capability; test tolerances.

When changing impeller diameters more than 5% the above equations are not recommended without consulting the pump manufacturer. NOTE: The system requirements may limit pump performance so that the rate of flow change in the system will not follow the above calculation. Efficiency prediction method tor centrifugal pumps
1.3.4.3

Not included in the efficiency prediction process are the detrimental effects when handling viscous mixtures, entrained air and slurries. A method is presented for predicting generally attainable efficiency levels at the best efficiency point of selected types of centrifugal pumps when the rate of flow (Q), total head per stage (H), net positive suction head available (NPSHA) and the service conditions are known. The optimum efficiency occurs when the specific speed (NS) is in the vicinity of 2900 (2,500) and a suction specific speed (S) is in the vicinity of 10.000 (8,500) (see Figures 1.75A and C). Pumps selected for services with NS values that are not in the vicinity of 2900 (2,500) will have lower efficiencies. The relationship between the arithmetic efficiency correction and NS is shown on Figures 1.758 and D. The recommended maximum operating speeds for single and double suction pumps are shown on Figures 1.67A and B and Figures 1.68A and B. These charts provide a guide for the selection of the pump speed when the value of S is 10,000 (8500). Note for double suction pumps S relates to half the rate of flow. Using the above figures, the generally attainable efficiency of various types of centrifugal pumps at best efficiency point with maximum diameter impeller when pumping clear water at 30C (85OF) can be predicted.

The major influences on centrifugal pump efficiency are specific speed (NS), pump size, NPSHA or (NPSHR) and the type of pump selected to meet the service conditions.

DB Back Shroud

Front Shroud

DF

Figure 1.74

- Impeller with angled outside


diameter

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

10

100

1000

I qooo

RATE OF FLOW CUBIC METERS PER HOUR


NOTES:

1 The above charts depict the generally attainable efficiency levels of centrifugal pumps at best efficiency point with maximum diameter impeller when pumping clear water at 30C (85F). 2 The above charts relate to industrial class pumps designed, manufactured and tested in accordance with recognized industry standards. Figure 1.75A -Optimum generally attainable efficiency chart (Metric)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

NOTES:

1 The above charts depict the generally attainable efficiency levels of centrifugal pumps at best efficiency point with maximum diameter impeller when pumping clear water at 30C (85F). 2 The above charts relate to industrial class pumps designed, manufactured and tested in accordance with recognized industry standards.

Figure 1.75C

- Optimum generally attainable efficiency chart (US Units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000

Figure 1.76A -Deviation from generally attainable efficiency (Metric)

8 8

8 8

8 8

, ,, ,, ,, ,,
8

8 8

<

8
8 ,

$ 8 8 , 8 8 8

10

100

1,000

10,000

100,000

Rate of flow - US gallons per minute Figure 1.768

- Deviation from generally attainable efficiency (US Units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Example (Metric): Determine the generally attainable efficiency of an API-type single stage end suction process pump driven by a 50 hertz motor when pumping clear water at 30% given Q = 700 m3/h, H = 130 m, NPSHA = 7.5 m. Enter the chart (Figure 1.67A) with 700 m3/h and NPSHA with 7.5 m and select pump speed. In this case, the nearest synchronous speed would be 1500 rpm. Calculate NS:

- 2000

Enter the chart (Figure 1.75C) with 3000 gpm and read off efficiency corresponding to the optimum specific speed for API end suction process type pumps = 85%. Enter the chart (Figure 1.75D) with the calculated NS 1051 and read off efficiency correction = 3.5 points. Predicted efficiency = optimum efficiency correction. Predicted efficiency = 85

- efficiency

- 3.5 = 81.5%

From chart (Figure 1.768) at 3000 gpm, the normal deviation is ?: 3%; therefore, the predicted efficiency lies between 79% and 83.9%. Factors which can affect efficiency are:

Enter the chart (Figure 1.75A) with 700 m3/h and read off efficiency corresponding to the optimum specific speed for API end suction process type pumps = 85.5%. Enter the chart (Figure 1.756) with the calculated NS 1032 and read off efficiency correction = 5 points. Predicted efficiency = optimum efficiency correction. Predicted efficiency = 85.5 - 5 = 80.5% From chart (Figure 1.76A) at 700 m3/h, the normal deviation is f 3%; therefore, the predicted efficiency lies between 78% and 82.9%. Example (US Units): Determine the generally attainable efficiency of an API-type single stage end suction process pump driven by a 60 hertz motor when pumping clear water at 85F given Q = 3000 gpm, H = 420 ft, NPSHA = 24 ft. Enter the chart (Figure 1.676) with 3,000 gpm and NPSHA with 24 ft and select pump speed. In this case. the nearest synchronous speed would be 1780 rpm. Calculate NS:

- efficiency

Surface roughness: Efficiency increases due to improvements in waterway surface finish are very dependent on pump specific speed and size. Generally, surface finish improvements are economically justifiable for small and low specific speed pumps. Shown in Figures 1.77A and B is the efficiency improvement that can be expected when the water passages are smooth; this would be added to the general predicted efficiency. Internal clearances: Pump wear ring clearances can have a major influence on efficiency, particularly for low specific speed pumps (less than Ns = 1750 [ I 5001). See Figures 1.78A and 6. Mechanicallosses: Bearings, lip seals, mechanical seals, packing, etc., all consume power and reduce the pump efficiency. Small pumps (less than 11 kW [15 HP]) are particularly sensitive.

High suction specific speed: Special impeller designs with S values above 13,000 (11,000) could reduce the attainable efficiency by upwards of 3 points. Very low NS pumps are less affected.
Impeller diameter trim: Reduction in efficiency due to impeller diameter trim must be expected. Efficiency reductions can range from 1 to 6 points for impeller diameter trim to 80% of the maximum diameter. High specific speed pumps generally have greater reductions in efficiency due to trim than low specific speed pumps. Viscosity: Viscous liquids have a detrimental effect on efficiency. Refer to viscosity correction curves in Section 1.3.4.1.1 1.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

Specific speed - Metric

Figure 1.77A

- Estimated efficiency increase due to improved surface finish (Metric)

Figure 1.778

(US Units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application -

..

500

1WO

20M1

40M1

WOO

Specllic speed Metric

Figure 1.78A

- Estimated efficiency decrease due to increased wear ring clearance (Metric)

Specific speed US "nib

Figure 1.788

- Estimated efficiency decrease due to increased wear ring clearance (US Units)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
than optimum attainable efficiency. Table 1.3.4 provides some details on how pump features influence efficiency.
1.3.4.4

Slurries: Larger volumetric concentrations of solids in liquids cause reductions in pump efficiency. The pump supplier should be consulted when making efficiency corrections for slurries. Solids size: Low concentrations (below 10% by weight) of random-sized solids and tramp material in the liquid will not have a detrimental effect on efficiency; however, the pump configuration has to be compromised so that the impeller and casing passageways will be large enough to prevent clogging; e.g., sewage pumps which handle solids and rags often have only two or three vanes of unique shape, causing the efficiency to be lower. Types of pumps: There are many different types of centrifugal pumps with unique configurations and features to meet specific service conditions, i.e., stock, sewage, slurries, etc., all of which by virtue of their specific speed and design have less Table 1.3.4 -The

Operation away from the best efficiency

point A centrifugal pump is designed for optimum performance at one specific head and rate of flow for a given speed. This operating point is normally called the best efficiency point (BEP). It is most cost- and energy-efficientto operate the pump at the BEP. Pumps often do not run continuously at their BEP due to changing system requirements and the difficulty of matching the selected operating conditions with the BEP of the pump. Operation at flow rates below the BEP imposes additional strain on some parts and can be damaging to the pump (see Section 1.3.4.2.3).

influence of pump type on efficiency

Pump type Severe duty, end suction, metal slurry pumps Medium duty, end suction, metal and rubber slurry pumps End suction, 2 vaned sewage pumps End suction, 3 or 4 vaned sewage pumps End suction stock pumps Horizontal multistage pumps: axially split, segmented ring diffuser barrel End suction ANSI and API pumps

NS range
500 - 1600 (400 1400)

I Figurea I
1.13

Factors which influence efficiency Manufacturing considerations Manufacturing considerations The efficiency is compromised in order to pass large solids The efficiency is compromised in order to pass large solids Open impeller designed for pumping fibrous air-entrained mixtures compromise efficiency Clearances, interstage bushings, shaft stiffness and surface finish Low horsepower pumps with special mechanical seals which cause high mechanical losses will have efficiencies lower than stated in the figures Large shaft diameter through impeller eye, large impeller ring clearance and suction inlets reduce efficiency Large diameter shafting

900 - 2300 (800 - 2000) B O O - 3500 (700 3000)

1.23

1250 - 6400 (1500 5500) (700 - 4000) B O O - 2300 (700 2000)

B O O - 4600 -

1.23

1.23

1.20 1.21 1.22 1.15 1.14

350 - 3500 (300 3000)

API double suction between bearings pumps Double suction pumps


a

B O O (700

- 2300 - 2000)

1.19

Figures appear in ANSIIHI 1.1 - 1.2-2000.

56

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Operation of the pump at flow rates greater than the BEP may lead to problems as follows: a) Combined torsional and bending stresses or shaft deflection in single volute pumps may be in excess of permissible limits (see Section 1.3.4.7.2); b) NPSH required may be in excess of the NPSH available; c) Erosion damage, noise and vibration may occur due to high liquid velocities. The anticipated range of flow rates over which the pump is expected to operate should always be discussed with the manufacturer. See ANSllHl 9.6.31997, Centrifugal and Vertical Pumps - Allowable Operation Region for more information.
1.3.4.5

which are shaped to impart enough energy to provide sufficient NPSH for the main impellers to avoid detrimental cavitation. Whereas centrifugal pump impellers often have a suction specific speed, S, of about 9000 to 14,000 (8000 to 12,000), use of inducers can increase S to a range of 17,000 to 40,000 (15,000 to 35,000). This typically allows lower flow pumps to operate at 11,000 rpm with the same NPSH, which would be required at 3600 rpm without inducer, or reduce NPSHR of all pumps to less than half at the same speed. Cavitation damage of inducer blades may occur above certain experience-established inducer tip speeds. At lower tip speeds, cavitation will not produce damage regardless of S value. Allowable tip speed is also a function of inducer materials; e.g., titanium alloy is 20% higher than for stainless steel. Tip speeds may also be increased for lower specific gravity liquids. lnducer flow range must be designed and selected to provide sufficient S over the intended operating range to avoid cavitation in the main impeller. Suction specific speed typically is reduced at low and high ends of inducer performance range.

Noise levels

Most centrifugal pumps can be classified as quiet machines. Typically the electric motor-driven pump will have a greater contribution from the motor to the overall noise level than that contributed by the pump. For those applications where minimum noise levels are required, the primary application rule is to select the pump at both a conservative rpm and liquid velocity level. This will often rule out the use of the smallest, most economical pump that will operate at the highest possible speed and with high liquid velocities. A quiet installation also demands complete freedom from possible cavitation, and this means a conservative NPSH margin. Hydraulic noise can be the result of pump operation at flow rates well below or well above the design flow rate for the pump. Higher specific speed pumps are more sensitive than lower specific speed pumps in this regard. Refer to the ANSIIHI 1.4-2000 for more details.
1.3.4.6 1.3.4.6.1

Suction conditions Intake design

See ANSIIHI 9.8-1998, Pump lntake Design for an indepth discussion of this subject.
1.3.4.6.2

Special impeller o r inducer

Inducers are single stage axial flow helixes installed in the suction eye of centrifugal pump impellers to lower the NPSHR of the pump (see Figure 1.79). This allows use of increased rotating speed for a given NPSHA or a lower NPSHR for a given speed. Shallow blade inlet angles are used to draw liquid into the inducer channels,

Figure 1.79

- lnducer

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 1.3.4.7 1.3.4.7.1 Mechanical features Types of bearing arrangements For single volute pumps, the highest value of radial thrust is at zero flow in a direction fmm the shaft centerline toward the cutwater. As the flow increases, the direction of the load swings around the volute toward the diminishing area and loses magnitude until it is nearly zero at BEE The magnitude of the force then increases at rates of flow over BEP and the direction also continues to change. See Figure 1.80. Sample calculation (Metric): What is the highest value of radial thrust for the pump with the following conditions? Given: Speed

The pump bearing arrangement is normally one of two types: a) impeller overhung from bearings; b) impeller mounted between bearings. Close coupled and frame mounted single suction pumps are common examples of an overhung bearing load. Single stage double suction and multistage horizontal shaft pumps are common examples of the "between bearing impeller" load. Both arrangements can provide equivalent bearing life. 1.3.4.7.2 pumps Calculation of radial thrust for volute

- 3000 rpm;

Rate of flow - 125 m3/h; Head - 100 meters;

Single and dual volute pumps should be designed for uniform velocity around the volute of the casing at the design rate of flow (BEP). For pumps in operation near or at BEP, the radial thrust may appmach zem. For operation at flow rates higher or lower than BEP, the pressure distribution is not uniform, resulting in a radial thrust on the impeller. The magnitude and direction of the radial thrust changes with change in flow rate. The following expression is used to calculate radial thrust: (Metric) RT = K x H x p x g x D2x b2 (US Units) RT = K X Where:
RT = K =

If the casing is a single volute, K = 0.170 at zero rate of flow (Figure 1.81):

02

b2

If the casing is a dual volute, K = ,020 (Figure 1.83):

radial thrust in Newtons (pounds); thrust factor, which varies with rate of flow and specific speed. See Figures 1.81 and 1.83 for values; developed head per stage in meters (feet); density of the pumped liquid in kglm3; specific gravity of the pumped liquid; impeller diameter in meters (inches); impeller width at discharge including shroud@)in meters (inches). Dual (double) volute is when two volutes enclose the impeller. Dual volute casing reduces the radial load to

H = p =

s =
D2 =

Figure 1.80 -Single

volute casing

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 .1 to .27 times the load of a single volute (see Figures 1.82 and 1.83). Sample calculation (US Units): What is the highest value of radial thrust for the pump with the following conditions? Given:

, : , , , , , > , , Soecific soeed Metric (US Units)

Speed

- 3550 rpm;

Rate of flow - 500 gpm;

- 332 feet; Specific gravity - 1.O;


Head D2 - 9.44 inches;
"
0 20 40 80 00 100 120 140 180

Percent rate of flow

b2 - 0.85 inches.

Figure 1.81

- K versus rate of flow for single


volute casing

If the casing is a single volute, K = 0.1 75 at zero gpm (Figure 1.81):

If the casing is a dual volute, K = ,020 (Figure 1.83):

Figure 1.82

- Dual (double) volute casing

is when two volutes enclose the Dual (double)~volute impeller. Dual volute casing reduces the radial load to .1 to .27 times the load of a single volute (see Figures 1.82 and 1.83). Radial thrust changes with impeller diameter ratio to the third power because head changes as the diameter squared and the diameter is being reduced. This is approximate because b2 and Ns change as impeller diameter is reduced:

0
0

20

40

M I

80

103

120

Radial thrust changes with change of speed of the pump to the second power of the speed ratio because head changes as the square of the speed:

Percent rate of flow

Figure 1.83 K versus rate of flow for dual (double) volute casing

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 As a general guide, circular casings have a K of .05 at BEP up to NS equal to 875 (750) (see Figure 1.84). The radial force is dependent on the geometry of the casing cross section.
K is similar to values for volute casings based on Agostinelli et al, An Experimental Investigation of Radial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps, ASME Journal of Engineering, April 1960.
1.3.4.7.3

Where:

FT =
Ap =

Net axial thrust in Newtons (pounds); Developed pressure of the impeller - kPa (Psi);

HxP (Metric) Ap = 102

Calculation of axial thrust for enclosed impellers for volute pump

(US Units) ~p =

H x s 2.31

Following is a standard method for the calculation of axial thrust load developed within a single stage casing acting on the impeller in a direction parallel to the shafl. This specification is for single stage pumps only (specific speed range of 600 to 4000 [500 to 35001) with enclosed impellers having no back vanes with a plain horizontal ring@)and with a diametral clearance of .25 to .5 mm (.010 to ,020 inches). The complexity of the interaction of interstage pressures, casting tolerances and machining tolerances does not make it practical to have an overall method of axial thrust calculation for multistage pumps. For pumps in a vertical position, the weight of impeller and shaft should be added to the axial thrust. Also, depending on the construction, the coupling weight, the driver motor, or balancing device weight may also be added to the total axial thrust. The values of axial thrust are for 0 to 25% of BEP rate of flow. Within this range, maximum axial thrust will be developed and can be determined by the following equation:

KA =
=

Percent of developed head at some location on the impeller shroud (Figure l.85); Average percent of developed head on the back shroud; Average percent of developed head on the front shroud; Area exposed to pressure on the back shroud m2 (sq. in.);

K~vB

KAvF =
As =

AF =

Area exposed to pressure on the front shroud m2 (sq. in.);

p,

Suction pressure kPa (psi); Area of shaft, shaft sleeve or mid-point of mechanical seal rotating face exposed to atmosphere m2 (sq. in.).

Ah =

The basic chart is based on a free vortex between the casing wall and impeller shroud. The liquid velocity is to be one-half the peripheral velocity of the impeller. The values have been adjusted using empirical data. The typical ratio of the distance from the casing wall to

RBferenCB dlameter Full impeller diameter

( 6)

Figure 1.84 -Circular

casing

Figure 1.85 Pressure distribution on enclosed impeller shrouds

H I Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 20C


the impeller shroud to maximum impellers diameter is the following for various specific speeds.

NS
450 1400 (400 1200)

Casing wall to shroud. maximum impeller diameter

.02to .04
.03 to -05

1750
(1 500)

From Figure 1.85, KAp= .75


.04 to .06

2300 4000 (2000- 3500)

The values of KA wilt increase or d e c r e a s e as these ratios change.


KA i s based on .25 to .50mrn (.O1 0t o .020 inches) diametrical ring clearance and is highly influenced by ring ctearance. For further discussion of the subject, refer to Centrifugal and Axial Pumps by A. J. Stepanoff,

DRF = 0.1 2 1 = .5 From Figure 1.85, KA 0 , 0.24

= -65

R~

Dh = 0.038 = .I6 From Figure t.85, KAH = -61 D 0.24

Sample calculation (Metric): Enctosed impeller with plain back shroud (see Figure 1.86).

Where:

n = 3550 rpm;
F ~ s D

= 1 117[(.68 x ,044) (0.7 x 0.034)] 0.001 x 0 = 6.84 kN

F ~ , O

Sample catculatian irnpelter with back ring (see Figure 1.87):


Where:
Q = 145 m3/h;

Hmp
H,

= =

100 m;
f14m;

Figure 7.86

- Enclosed impelfer with plain


back shroud

PS = 345 kPa;

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.4.7.4 Guidelines for bearings and lubrication methods 1.3.4.7.4.1 1.3.4.7.4.2 1.3.4.7.4.2.1

Bearing types Rolling element bearings

Introduction Various rolling element bearing designs are shown in Table 1.3.5. This table is not meant to be all-inclusive, but to represent the most common designs used in pumps. Generally, the ball bearing designs will tolerate misalignment better than the cylindrical or tapered roller bearing designs. The ball bearing designs tend to run cooler than roller bearings due to lower friction but demonstrate lower load capacities. These designs are found on many chemical, petroleum, food and other process applications. Cylindrical roller bearings are typically used for slower speed, high radial load applications such as slurry transfer service. The use of spherical roller bearings provides higher load capacity than with the cylindrical roller bearing while also allowing greater misalignment tolerances and some thrust loading. The tapered roller bearing exhibits the highest thrust and radial load ratings but is more sensitive to misalignment and poor lubrication.
1.3.4.7.4.2.2

The type of bearings and lubrication system selected for a given pump application depend on the magnitude and direction of radial and axial loads imposed by the impeller and the rotational speed. Factors affecting loading are pump volute design, tolerance, misalignment, rotor unbalance, service conditions, pump operating point, and the type of pump supplied. Rolling element bearings will typically have associated with them an L-10 lifetime based on speed, operating loads and manufacturer's rated capacity. Nominally, this means that 90 percent of all pump bearings should still be serviceable after this lifetime has elapsed. The lifetime (fatigue failure point) is rarely realized because premature failure occurs as a result of static overload, corrosion, lubricant failure, contamination or overheating. Selection and maintenance of the lubrication system is a critical factor in improving actual bearing life. Selection of bearing type and lubrication method is usually a part of. the pump design process. The bearing type and lube system design become an integral part of the overall pump design. The end user may not have a choice, or options may be limited, as to alternative bearing types and lubrication methods.

Sleeve bearings

Sleeve bearings operate on a sliding principle, the proper operation of which depends on the maintenance of a lubricating film between wear surfaces. This film is dependent upon lubricant viscosity, shaft speed, bearing running clearance and length and radial pressure on the bearing. Heat build-up and wear can be appreciable if there is insufficient lubrication. Subsynchronous shaft whirling (orbiting) in the bearing

Table 1.3.5 -Rolling Bearing Type


1) Single row deep groove ball bearing

element bearing types Description Accept low thrust in either direction and radial loads. Accept high thrust in either direction and radial loads. Designed for improved higher thrust capacity than double row with good radial loads. Greater thrust rating, but cooling and lubrication more critical due to higher bearing friction. Designed specifically for very high radial loads. Alignment tolerances critical. Excellent for high radial loads, some thrust capacity. Spherical outer race design increases alignment tolerances. Excellent thrust and radial load capacity. Alignment, cooling and lubrication very critical.
1

2) Double row angular contact ball bearing (Conrad style) 3) Duplex (2) angular contact ball bearings
4) Triplex (3) angular contact ball bearings

5) Cylindrical roller bearings


6) Spherical roller bearings

7) Duplex (2) tapered roller bearings

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application the impeller shroud to maximum impellers diameter is the following for various specific speeds.

- 2000

NS

Casing wall to shroud, diameter maximum im~eller

From Figure 1.85, KA2= .75 DRF - 0.121 -= The values of KA will increase or decrease as these ratios change. D2 0.24

.5 From Figure 1.85, KA = .65


R~

KA is based on .25 to .50 mm (.010 to ,020 inches) diametrical ring clearance and is highly influenced by ring clearance. For further discussion of the subject, refer to Centrifugaland Axial Pumps by A.J. Stepanoff.
Sample calculation (Metric): Enclosed impeller with plain back shroud (see Figure 1.86). Where:

Dh -0'038 D2 0.24

.16 From Figure 1.85. KAH = .61

A~ =
A,

,785 (0.24~ 0.03g) = 0.044 (m2) ,785 (0.24'

- 0.121')

= 0.034 (m2)

Ah = Ap =

,785 x 0.038~= 0.001 (m2)

114x1000x9.81 = 1117kPa 1000

= 1117[(.68 x ,044) - (0.7 x 0.034)] F~,o

- 0.001 x 0

,
Front
Back shroud (0) Impeller hub
.

= 6.84 kN F~80

Discharge flange

Sample calculation - impeller with back ring (see Figure 1.87): Where:

D2

Q =

145 m3/h; 100 m; 114m; 345 kPa; 3550 rpm;

Hbep = Hso = ps = n =

t
Dh

Figure 1.86 -Enclosed impeller with plain back shroud

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


D2 = D,
0.240 m; 0.121 m; 0.095 m; 0.038 m; 600 kg/m3.

DRB = Dh =
p =

From Figure 1.85, KA2 = .75

Tm

= 1699 N towards suction

a ) ~ haverage e pressure behind the back ring is 70 kPa greater than suction pressure, when the area of the balance holes equals three times the areaof the clearance of the back ring. From Figure 1.85, KA
RF

= .65

Sample calculation (US Units): Enclosed impeller with plain back shroud (see Figure 1.86). Where:

0 =
- - - =- 0'OQ5

640gpm; 325ft; 375 n; 0 psi;


3550.rpm;

D2

0.240

.40 From Figure 1.85, KA

= .62

Hbep = HS, = Ps =
n =

D2 = DRF = Dh =

9.44 in; 4.75 in; 1.5 in; 1.0.

s =
Discharge flange
Casing

, \W I , Volute
From Figure 1.85, KA2 = .75

DRF - 4.75 -= D2
9.44

.5 From Figure 1.85, KA


RF

= .65

. . . Figure 1.87

Dh

- Impeller with back ring

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application results when the lubrication film viscosity and thickness are not adequate to dampen the dynamic action of the shaft. It is for this reason that shaft and bearing materials are carefully chosen to minimize the coefficient of friction and optimize wear properties. Sleeve bearings can be cylindrical, grooved, elliptical, lobed or tilting pad designs. Cylindrical offers the advantage of simple design. The groove design facilitates the expulsion of solids and contaminants from the bearing. Elliptical, lobed and tilting pad designs have lower load capacities but demonstrate greater shaft stability especially for vertical journal bearings. They are particularly useful for high speed, low load applications. An exception to this is the Kingsbury-type tilting pad bearing, which exhibits very high thrust load capacity. Vertical turbine pumps and sump pumps use product lubricated sleeve bearings of the cylindrical and grooved design. Typical materials are metal alloys, rubber, and other nonmetallics. Table 1.3.6 lists some vertical turbine pump bearing materials for various applications. Sealless magnetic drive and canned motor type pumps also use cylindrical or grooved type product lubricated bearings. Common materials for these applications are silicon carbide and graphite.
1.3.4.7.4.3 1.3.4.7.4.3.1

-2000

Shieldedlsealed rolling element bearings provide economical maintenance-free service on some limited applications. The bearing is pre-greased and permanently shielded or sealed. Shielding is accomplished by using rigid covers attached to the stationary race with a close clearance to the rotating race. Sealing is accomplished by a flexible element attached to the stationary race and rubbing against the rotating race. Care must be taken in applying shieldedlsealed bearings because there may be no provision to renew the lubricant. However, provisions can be made on shielded bearings to regrease through the running clearance between the shield and inner bearing race.
1.3.4.7.4.3.2

Oil lubrication

Various forms of oil lubrication exist. Flood oil uses an oil reservoirfor which the level extends to the middle of the lower-most bearing ball. In some cases the oil level may be set higher, although care must be taken to ensure that excessive heat and foaming of the oil will not be created. Bearing rotation disperses the oil throughout the bearing. Typically, a device is installed for visual inspection of the oil level. Constant level oilers may also be used to maintain the required level. Oil rings or flingers are used either to augment flood oil circulation or as a separate lubrication design entirely. For the latter case, the oil level remains below the lower-most bearing ball and the rings are the sole source of lubricant dispersion. Heat build-up due to the oil being churned by the bearing balls is eliminated while the ring action substantially improves circulation cooling. Oil rings also deliver a finite supply of oil to the bearings. Oil rings and flingers are superior to flood lubrication particularly at high speeds; Dmn z 300,000 where Dm = 0.5 (I.D. + O.D.) in mm, and n = operating speed, rpm; and at loads where oil churning can significantly increase heat build-up. However, speed limits exist with oil rings to ensure proper ring rotation on the shaft without slippage. An evaluation must be made for high temperature services as oil cooling may be required to keep bearing temperature to an acceptable level. Oil mist lubrication is a centralized system providing a continuous pressurized feed of atomized oil throughout the bearing housing. Purge oil mist uses a conventional oil sump, with the mist being used to purge the housing and replenish nominal oil loss. This action facilitates dissemination of oil over the bearings, improves cooling and prevents the intrusion of ambient air and moisture. Oil in the mist will condense in the bearing housing and increase the level in the sump. Provision must be made to drain off this excess oil.

Bearing lubrication Grease

Grease lubrication is often used with roiling element bearings because this design facilitates the thorough dissemination of lubricant over the wear surfaces. Internal grease is heated to semi-liquid while cooler grease at the bearing-housing interface remains solid and acts as a barrier to external contaminants as well as providing a reservoir of lubricant between re-grease intervals. Overheating due to inadequate circulation can occur if too much grease is injected into the bearing. A rule of thumb is to fill the bearing two-thirds full of grease. This allows room for circulation and expansion of grease. Grease is used on tapered roller bearings except at low speeds. It has proven to be an effective lubricant on vertical sleeve bearings where a grease line runs from the mounting plate to each bearing in series. Most designs result in some grease entering the pumped liquid.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Purge oil mist does not eliminate the potential for bearing oxidation and wear from oil additive breakdown and wear particle contamination. The oil in the sump must still be changed periodically. With pure oil mist, no lubricating oil sump is necessary. The bearing is lubricated by a continuous supply of fresh oil. Turbulence generated by bearing rotation causes oil particles suspended in the oil mist stream to condense on the rolling elements.

Table 1.3.6

- Product lubricated sleeve bearing material selection guide (commonly used in vertical turbine pumps)
Temperature & S.G. Limits Remarks General purpose material for nonabrasive, neutral pH service. 7% Tin, 7% Lead, 3% Zinc, 83% Cu. Similar to standard bronze. Used for saltwater service. 10% Tin, 10% Lead, 80% Cu. Corrosion resistant material not suitable for abrasive services. Special materials available for severe acid services and for temperatures as high as 340C (650F). Good for low specific gravity fluids because the carbon is self-lubricatina. Corrosion resistant material not suitable for abrasive services. Special materials available for severe acid services and for temperatures as high as 340C (650F). Good for low specific gravity fluids. Corrosion resistant except for highly oxidizing solutions. Not suitable for abrasive services. Glass-filled PTFE also available.
I Used on nonabrasive caustic services and

Material Description
I

1) Bronze SAE 660 (Standard) ASTM-B584-C93200 2) Bronze SAE 64 (Zincless) ASTM-B584-C93700


1

- 45 to 120 "C
(- 50 to 250F) Min. S.G. of 0.6

- 45 to 80C
(- 50 to 180F) Min. S.G. of 0.6

3) Carbon-Graphite Impregnated with Babbitt

- 270 to 150C
(- 450 to 300F) All S.G.

4) Metal lmpregnated Catbon Bearings (other than Babbitt)

- 270 to 150C
(- 450 to 300F) All S.G.

5) PTFE with 25% Graphite

- 45 to 120C
(- 50 to 250F) All S.G.
0 to 80C (32 to 180F) Min. S.G. of 0.6 0 to 150C (32 to 300F)

6) Cast Iron ASTM-A-48 CL30 Flash Chrome Coated


I

some oil products. Avoid water services because bearings can rust to shaft when idle.

1
,

7) Lead Babbitt

1 Excellent corrosion resistance to a pH of


2. Good in mildly abrasive services. 80% Lead. 3% Tin. 17% Antimony. Use in abrasive water services. Bearings must be wet prior to start-up for total pump length of 15 m (50 feet) or more. Do not use for oily services, for stuffing-box bushings or with hydraulically balanced impellers. For services that are corrosive, backing material other than Phenolic must be specified.

8) Rubber with Phenolic Backing (Nitrile Butadiene or Neoprene)

9) Hardened Metals, Sprayed on Stainless Steel Shell (such as Tungsten Carbide)

All Temperatures All S.G.

Alternate for abrasive services. Hardfaced surfaces typically in the range of Rc72. Other coatings are chromium oxide, tungsten carbide, colmonoy, etc.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Pure oil mist prevents oil sump contamination from wear particles and the breakdown of oxidation preventive additives. As a result, higher permissible bearing temperatures are possible. Additionally, wear particles are continuously washed away. No periodic oil changes are necessary, although proper handling of the condensateldraining must be considered. Oil mist systems will be greater in capital cost but lower in maintenance costs. A fail-safe system is desirable to shut the pump down in the event of lubrication system failure. Force feed lubrication is used to augment circulation of oil throughout the bearing. Horizontal sleeve and tilting pad (Kingsbury-type) bearings may require this feature to ensure that oil is properly dispersed over the bearing pad or load area. Oil may be pressurized by a shaft-driven pump or independently driven pump. Various filters, pressure and temperature gages and heat exchangers can be installed to monitor the oil. The determining parameters for using a force feed system with sleeve bearings are loading, oil temperature and bearing wear surface speed. It is critical that a fail-safe system be employed to shut the pump down upon a feed system failure.
1.3.4.7.4.3.3

- 2000

Where abrasive solid cannot be avoided or for extremely abrasive services, two commonly used solutions are: 1) extremely h a d materials, such as ceramics; and 2) an enclosed oil-filled line shaft that isolates the bearings from the pumpage, extending their life but at a greater initial cost. Caution is necessary to ensure that product lubricated bearings are not allowed to run dry. Table 1.13 provides applications guidelines for a variety of sleeve bearing materials. This table is based on use of the materials in vertical turbine pumps under product lubrication. Some of the materials may be suitable for other pump types.
1.3.4.7.5 1.3.4.7.5.1

Type of couplings Offset (flexible or drive shaft)

Product lubrication

Product lubricated bearings are usually of the sleeve design. They are typically found in vertical turbine type, sealless magnetic drive and canned motor pumps. Spring loaded, grooved and conical cahon graphite versus h a d alloys have also proven successful. Product lubrication is introduced to the bearing either as a result of product flow through the pump and thus directly through the bearing or through a bypass from the main flow. Vertical turbine pumps introduce flow directly, while vertical sump pumps, magnetic drive and canned motortype use a bypass. Various types of external coolers, strainers, orifices, booster pumps, etc., may be used to treat the product before injection into the bearings. The sleeve bearing design is very sensitive to solids content. Various options such as external flushing, grease lubrication, etc., may be employed in lieu of direct or treated product flush. Vertical turbine pumps often use a hardened shaft and grooved rubber bearing arrangement to alleviate this problem. When rubber bearings are used, they must be flushed with clean cool water to prevent abrasion.

This type of coupling is more often called a drive shaft and has a universal joint at each end plus a slip joint at one end to permit free axial movement. A large diameter tube connects the two universal joints. The assembly has flanged yokes at each end to connect to the flanged hubs mounted on the driving shaft and the driven shaft. These "couplings" are best used to advantage when the driver and driven units are installed on separate foundations. The maximum parallel shaft offset amount depends upon the speed and is obtained from the coupling manufacturer.
1.3.4.7.5.2

Limited end float

The most common use of limited end float couplings is with drivers having no axial thrust bearing, such as sleeve bearing motors. Such motors will have rotor end play limits provided on both their outline drawing and on the motor shaft itself. The coupling must be selected to permit the free axial movement of the driver rotor during operation while restricting axial movement within limits established by the driver manufacturer. Coupling manufacturers can supply buttons or discs to restrict driver shaft end float within the necessaly limits. This type coupling is normally applied with a centrifugal pump that has a rotor fixed in the axial position by a thrust bearing. Should both the pump and the driver rotors be free to move axially, the type of coupling must be investigated thoroughly with both the pump and driver manufacturer.
1.3.4.7.5.3

Gear

The gear coupling consists of two hubs with external gear teeth and a floating sleeve assembly wlth internal

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 teeth. The hubs are fitted to the ends of the driver and driven shafts and, as the driving shaft rotates, the driving hub teeth engage the internal teeth so that the entire assembly rotates as a unit. Sliding motion occurs between the teeth, so a supply of lubricant is necessary. This type of coupling is often chosen for long life, where minimum coupling size is important or where elastomer materials are incompatible with ambient conditions. This type coupling is also applicable for higher than usual operating speeds. It is often also applied when a pump has a balance disk and where the pump shaft must move axially without excessive restraint.
1.3.4.7.5.4 1.3.4.7.6.1

Typical schematics

The illustrations in the Types and Nomenclature section show some of the mechanical seal types. A diagrammatic description of the various types of mechanical seals available is shown in Figure 1.88. The pump manufacturer will supply mechanical seal details for the specified service conditions.
1.3.4.7.6.2

Application of mechanical seals

Disk

Mechanical seals may be applied to virtually any service and can be used in many applications where packed stuffing-boxes are not suitable. Some of their primary characteristics follow: 1) Very low leakage; 2) No periodic adjustment as with packing;
3) Capable of sealing at higher pressures and shaft speeds than packing;
4) For all but the simplest low-pressure cool

This is an all-metal coupling with replaceable flexing element. No lubrication is required, and inspection may be made without disassembly. The coupling normally tolerates a wide temperature range but limits angular misalignment. Some couplings of this type will provide limited end float without modification or float restricting devices. This type of coupling has many of the characteristics of a gear coupling without the requirement for lubrication.
1.3.4.7.5.5

Elastomer

In this type of coupling, torque is transmitted by compression or shear of a flexible elastomer element between the driving and driven hubs. No lubrication is required. The ambient conditions and range of temperatures are typically restricted by the characteristics of the elastomer. The physical size of couplings in this category may be larger than for all-metal designs. Speed limitations for this type of coupling are typically more stringent than those for metal couplings.
1.3.4.7.5.6

water pumps, the mechanical seal will be more costly and will require a much more complete disclosure of the liquid handled. Always give the pump manufacturer complete information on the liquid being handled, including the liquid description, suction and discharge pressure, temperature and condition of the liquids (such as the type of solids contained, if any);
5) The piping to seal chambers equipped with mechanical seals is arranged in many ways depending on the type of pump and the application conditions. The application rules for the choice of the flush or circulation piping required are complex, and a user is urged to discuss this point thoroughly with both the pump manufacturer and possibly the mechanical seal manufacturer.

Speed limitations

The maximum speed for a given coupling varies with the type of coupling and the materials from which it is constructed. The limiting speed is always provided by the coupling manufacturer and will be checked by a pump manufacturer who supplies the coupling.
1.3.4.7.6

Shaft seals

The userlspecifier must work closely with the pump manufacturer as new pump specifications are developed. Some important points follow: a) The manufacturer can best advise if the mechanical seal specified is the best selection based on his broad knowledge of pump and mechanical seal application history; b) The manufacturer can best tell you if the specified seal will fit his stuffing-box;

The fluid pumped and the bearing lubricant require shaft seals in most centrifugal pumps. The stuffing-box is equipped with either a mechanical seal or packing. Bearings are equipped with closures or labyrinths.

B\r arrangement Figure 1.88 1.3.4.7.6.3 Packed stuffing-box

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application -2000

I *
10) Dnllhle seals

(S) Rotating seat

(np) Non-pushertype (0) "0" ring (w) Wedge (V) 'V " ring (p) Packing
(b) ~eliows

(e) Elastomer (0 Teflon

(ms) M ultipie spring

- Mechanical seal classifications


The type of stuffing-box in Figure 1.90 is used where suction pressure is below atmospheric or at a low positive pressure with the possibility that pressure may be below atmospheric. Often a clear pumped liquid is piped from the first stage discharge volute to provide the liquid for sealing and lubrication. When the pumped liquid is dirty or over 93'C (200F), an external clear, cool liquid is connected to the tapped opening over the lantern ring of sufficient pressure to provide slight flow into the pump.

c) The manufacturer can best advise you that the metallurgy of the seal specified will be compatible with the pump. With the many mechanical seal types available, it is recommended that full disclosure of operating conditions be given to the pump manufacturer rather than writing specific seal construction specifications.

The two most common stuffing-boxes are those without lantern rings and with lantern rings. The two figures below show these two constructions. The construction in Figure 1.89 is used where suction pressure is above atmospheric and where pumped fluid is clear and its leakage to atmosphere is acceptable. This type of stuffing-box is often used on multistage pumps at the inlet of the second (or higher) stage impeller.

.-.---.-.-.-.-.-.Figure 1.89 - Stuffing-box without lantern ring

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Other special purpose stuffing-boxes provide for cooling, throat bushings, quench glands and other special features for unusual service. Packed stuffing-boxes normally are limited to moderate pressures and temperatures and require a slight leakage for packing lubrication and cooling. Care in adjusting the packing gland is required to avoid shaft sleeve and packing damage. The number of packing rings in the stuffingbox, the size of packing, together with the type of packing vary by manufacturer. In most cases, it is recommended that specifications omit exact details about the number of rings or the size or type of packing and let the pump manufacturer make his recommendation based on historical experience. 1.3.4.7.6.4 Other sealing means A magnetic oil seal is sometimes used in place of a lip type oil seal. The magnetic oil seal is similar to a lip type mechanical seal but has a magnetized stationary ring mated to the rotating ring. This type of seal is also very compact. A labyrinth is a device that relies on the close clearance path for the lubricant as it tries to leak out of the bearing housing. A return passage drains lubricant back to the housing. This device is insensitive to speed, since there is no contact with the shaft. Life is indefinite. 1.3.4.7.7 1.3.4.7.7.1 Shaft deflection Description

Alternatives to mechanical seals or packed stuffingboxes are available. Limited-leakage labyrinths are used for some large high-speed boiler feed pumps. Dynamic seals use an auxiliary impeller in the stuffingbox area to prevent leakage in severe corrosive or abrasive sealing applications in the process industries. In most applications these dynamic seals eliminate the need for seal water and therefore eliminate dilution of the product being pumped. Dynamic seals should be considered whenever a seal water supply is unavailable or normal stuffing-box leakage of the pumpage is unacceptable. Stuffing-box maintenance is also greatly reduced with this type of seal. 1.3.4.7.6.5 Bearing housing closures, labyrinths

Shaft deflection is a design criterion that greatly influences pump performance due to its effect on the mechanical seal, internal clearances and bearings. For a mechanical seal to reach its design life, a number of requirements have to be met. From a static or dimensional point of view, the relative locations of the primary, stationary and rotating faces must be held within close tolerances. These tolerances can be met by using sound manufacturing procedures and processes. Dynamic deflection of the pump shaft changes the relative location of the mechanical seal faces and thus has a large impact on the overall seal life. In addition to influencing seal performance, limiting the deflection of the shaft will also improve satisfactory packing life. Internal clearances are also a function of shaft deflection and can be verified with the shaft deflection equations at critical locations. Shaft deflection can also have an effect on pump bearing life. Shaft deflection directly affects the angular misalignment between the inner and outer rings of the bearing. 1.3.4.7.7.2 Overhung impeller pumps, ANSI1 ASME B 73.1M "Dynamic shaft deflection at the impeller centerline shall not exceed 0.125 mm (.005 inches) at Maximum Load for pumps up to 75 x 100-250 (3 x 4-10) or Design Load for pump sizes 100 x 150-250 (4 x 6-10) and larger."

Closures are typically lip type oil seals near a pump bearing to retain oil or grease and to exclude moisture and foreign material from the bearing space. An accurate and smooth shaft surface and concentric bore for the closure are requirements for optimum sealing. Since an oil seal has a lip that rubs on the shaft, there may be speed limitations that necessitate consideration of a labyrinth.

Figure 1.90 -Stuffing-box

with lantern ring

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 Maximum Load: Maximum hydraulic load on the largest impeller operating at any point on its maximum speed curve with a liquid specific gravity of 1.0. Design Load: The Maximum hydraulic load on the largest impeller operating within the manufacturers allowable operating range on its maximum speed curve with a specific gravity of 1.0.
1.3.4.7.7.3 Overhung impeller pumps, API Standard 610 1.3.4.7.7.4

Overhung impeller pumps, I S 0 5199

Maximum shaft deflection is 0.05 mm (.002 inches) at the face of the stuffing box within the allowable operating range of the pump at operating speed. Pump shafts should be designed to meet or exceed the appropriate specification to ensure satisfactory performance of the pump and sealing mechanisms. If hydraulic radial load test data is not available, hydraulic radial loads can be calculated in accordance with Section 1.3.4.7.2, Calculations of Radial Thrust for Volute Pumps.
1.3.4.7.7.5

Maximum shaft deflection is 0.05 mm (.002 inches) at the face of the stuffing-box or seal chamber and less than one-half the minimum diametral clearance (as specified in API 610) at all bushings and wear rings at the most severe dynamic conditions over the complete head versus rate of flow curve, with a maximum diameter impeller operating at specified speed.

Shaft deflection calculation methods

Overhung Impeller Method (Neglecting Coupling Weight)

For: O S X S C

=-d

3P Z A ( Z - X ) + c
/A

Figure 1.91 -Overhung

impeller

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

Impeller Between Bearings Method (Neglecting Coupling Weight)

For: X = 0; 0 = Impeller Centerline

For: 0 < X

<A

For: A < X < (A + B)

For: ( A + B ) < X s ( A + B + C )

Figure 1.92

- Impeller between bearings

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000

Where:

d =
deflection of shaft in mm (inches)

Deflection in mm (inches)

6 =

IA, I , IC = Inertia moment of each section in mm4 (inches4)

A, B, C = Lengths of shaft sections in mm (inches) DA, DB, DC = Corresponding shaft diameters in mm (inches)

E =
P =

Modulus of elasticity in kPa (PSI) Load at impeller centerline in kN (Ibf) = ( R + W)

Where: R = Hydraulic radial load in kN (Ibf) Static weight of rotor = (W, (Ibf) NOTES:
W,) in kN
1) These calculations do not consider contribu-

W =

Where: W , = Weight of shaft in kN (Ibf) W , = Weight of impeller in kN (Ibf) NOTE: For the purpose of calculating lateral critical speed, ignore hydraulic radial load; R = 0

tions of the shaft sleeve to the stiffness of the shaft, and the additional mass has negligible effect on deflection.
2) Equations do not account for any support the pump shaft might receive from hydrostatic stiffness at the impeller wear rings and stuffingbox throttle bushing.
3) Equations do not account for internal looseness in the bearings, bending caused by impeller imbalance, or shaft runout.

X =

Distance from where deflection is calculated in mm (inches)

Figure 1.92

- Impeller between bearings (continued)

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.4.7.8 Bearing life (horizontal pumps) 1.3.4.7.8.1 Description

Radial Load, F, newtons (pounds)

The purely radial external load imposed on a bearing.

This specification covers all rolling element bearings used to support centrifugal pump rotating elements. It does not cover plain bearings or bearings of any type used in accessory equipment, such as speed reducers or drivers.
1.3.4.7.8.2

Reliability

Definitions millions of revolutions

For a group of apparently identical rolling element bearings, operating under the same conditions, the percentage of the group expected to attain or exceed a specified life. Method of calculation

L ,, Adjusted Rating Life, ,

1.3.4.7.8.3

- A rating life obtained by adjustment of the basic


rating life for different reliability levels, special bearing materials, and specific operating conditions. Axial Load, Fa, newtons (pounds)
- The purely axial load imposed on a bearing.

1.3.4.7.8.3.1 Basic rating life

Loads on all bearings are calculated. Sources of loads that must be accounted for are:

1) Radial thrust due to hydraulic force on the impeller. 2) Axial thrust due to hydraulic force on the impeller and the shaft sealing element.
3) Static weight of the shaft, impeller and coupling.
4 ) Loads due to belt drives attached directly to the pump shaft.

Included is any assembly preload and the external axial loads carried by the bearing. Basic Dynamic Radial Load Rating, C , (pounds) newtons

The constant stationary radial load a rolling element bearing could theoretically endure for a basic rating life of one million revolutions.

Basic Rating Life, L,o, million of revolutions

Loads due to coupling misalignment, rotor unbalance or driver thrust are normally not significant and are not included. The dynamic equivalent radial load is calculated as:

The life of a bearing associated with 90% reliability, with contemporary, commonly used material and manufacturing quality, and under proper operating conditions. P , newtons

Dynamic Equivalent Radial Load, (pounds)

where values for X and Y can be found in ANSllABMA Standard 9 for ball bearing, and Standard 11 for roller bearings. The basic rating life in operating hours is calculated from:

- An equivalent stationary radial load, calculated

by combining the actual radial and axial loads, under the influence of which a rolling element bearing would have the same life as it will attain under the actual load condition. Life

'10 =

(6)

C 3

(Ball Bearings) ~ x 6

The number of revolutions a bearing makes before the first evidence of fatigue develops in the material of one of the races or rolling elements.

L,.

= (@10'3x

Io6 (Roller Bearings) R P M x 60

Stacking bearings together to improve load canying capacity and life does not increase the capacity proportional to the number of bearings stacked. The

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application reader is referred to ANSIIAFBMA Standard 9 or 11 for further details of calculating the load carrying capacity and life. 1.3.4.7.8.3.2 Adjusted rating life 1.3.4.7.8.3.3 Bearing temperature

- 2000

The basic rating life is associated with a 90% reliability for commonly used bearing materials and manufacturing quality, and under conventionally clean, welllubricated operating conditions. Some manufacturers offer materials with a higher fatigue life that will result in a greater bearing life. Also, many applications involve lubricating conditions that may differ from standard cleanliness. Under other than standard conditions the basic rating life is adjusted by means of three factors:

The operating temperature of a bearing housing will vary greatly with the design and application. In many cases, the greatest contributor to bearing heating is churning of the lubricant. Exceeding the design oil level, or overgreasing a bearing, can raise the bearing operating temperature by 22C (40F) or more above normal. Achieving the design bearing life is contingent on maintaining an adequate quality and viscosity of the lubricant. The minimum lubricant viscosity at the actual lubricant temperature should be 13 cs (70 SSU). For greases this should be the viscosity of the base oil. Mineral oils degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. A rule of thumb is that the degradation rate of the oil characteristics doubles for every 10C (18F) temperature rise above 60C (140F). For this reason, it is often recommended that a maximum lubricant temperature of 82C (180F) be observed when using mineral oils. Lubricant temperature should be directly measured in the sump as the oil drains off the bearings. If that is not practical, the lubricant temperature can be estimated at 11C (20F) above the outside temperature of the bearing housing at the bearing. 1.3.4.8 1.3.4.8.1 Impeller types Single suction

The life adjustment factor for reliability, al, is used to calculate an adjusted life for a reliability greater than 90% according to the following table: Reliability %

The life adjustment factor for special bearing properties, ap, accounts for special material and/or manufacturing or design characteristics. Values of this factor should be obtained from bearing manufacturers. The life adjustment factor for operating conditions, as, accounts for adequacy of lubrication and cleanliness in the bearing cavity. The basic rating life is based on a minimum lubricant viscosity of 13 cs (70 SSU) at the operating temperature. A value of a3 less than 1 should be considered if the lubricant viscosity is less. Similarly, the basic rating life assumes no foreign particles are present in the lubricant. For pumps installed in dusty environments, or ones in which large temperature swings occur which could cause condensation in the bearing cavity, a value of a3 less than 1 should be considered. For extremely clean environments, such as may be obtained with an oil mist lubrication, it may be justifiable to select a value of a3 greater than 1.

Impellers of this type have a single inlet for liquid entry, from where it is discharged either radially or semiaxially. Various means to control axial imbalance are used. 1.3.4.8.2 Double suction

Impellers of this type have dual, opposed inlets for liquid entry, from where it is discharged radially into a common stream. The discharge specific speed is typically below 5200 (4500). This impeller type can be used where the available NPSH is restricted for the desired pump operating speed and is inherently balanced in the axial direction. 1.3.4.8.3 General

Impellers described in the three following paragraphs are generally used in a wide variety of services. For certain specialty services, one type may be preferred

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 over the others. In all cases, however, the users and manufacturers experience is the best guide for their selection. Other special impeller types (such as vortex) may be offered for special applications.
1.3.4.8.3.1

smaller shaft and bearing sizes. The casing complexity is greater than that for the single volute type.
1.3.4.9.3

Multi-volute (diffuser)

Enclosed

This impeller type is used for all pump types and for most applications, both single and double suction. The impeller has vanes fully enclosed. Efficiency can normally be restored to original levels by renewal of the original clearances at the impeller inlet or inlets to the adjacent casing or casing wear ring.
1.3.4.8.3.2

An impeller discharges into multiple divergent passages (normally two or more) with the casing as a simple collector chamber directing fluid into the pump discharge or the next pump stage. This design is most often supplied in multistage pumps and for any head amount. With the diffuser design, radial thrust is minimized.
1.3.4.9.4

Semi-open

Corrosion allowance for metallic centrifugal pumps

This impeller type is applicable only to single suction pumps and has the vanes enclosed by a full or partial shroud on one side only. The exposed vanes run in close proximity to a matching casing wall or liner. The rotating element should be axially adjustable in the pump.
1.3.4.8.3.3

Open

The internal walls of pressure-containing pump components subjected to corrosive attack shall be provided with additional metal thickness over and above that required to meet the design conditions of deflection, pressure, stress, nozzle loading, casting tolerance and temperature. The end user should be cognizant of the manufacturer's corrosion allowance in the selection of pumping equipment. Material added for this purpose need not be the same thickness throughout if different rates or types of corrosion attack are expected. Typical corrosion allowances often specified for cast components in contact with the pumped liquid are: Water Pumps ... Chemical Pumps ... Boiler Feed Pumps ... 1.5 mm
3 mm 3 mm (.06 inches)

This type of impeller has no front or back shroud with vanes running in close proximity to matching casing walls or liners. As with the semi-enclosed impeller, axial adjustment should be possible. This design produces low axial thrust.
1.3.4.9 1.3.4.9.1

Casing type Single volute

An impeller discharges into a single spiral passage with one cutwater (tongue), and liquid discharges from the pump or into the next stage of a multistage pump. Radial thrust varies with pump rate of flow, with this type volute being lowest near BEP, and higher at reduced or increased flow rates. Radial thrust also varies with impeller diameter, impeller width and total head. Shaft deflection, combined maximum stress and bearing loads must be kept within acceptable limits by various means for best operation.
1.3.4.9.2

(. 12 inches)
(.I2 inches)

The above criteria relates to centrifugal pumps located in a dry pit environment. Pumps submerged in a sump whose external sulfaces are also subjected to corrosion may require additional corrosion allowance.
1.3.4.10

Drivers: type and size

Double volute

An impeller discharges into two spiral passages with two cutwaters (tongues) and fluid discharges from the pump or into the next stage of a multistage pump. With properly designed passages, radial thrust is minimized. Double volute is typically used to reduce shaft deflections or bearing loads or to permit use of a

In addition to being able to start the pump, the driver shall be sized to meet the load requirements of the driven equipment throughout the normal operating range of the pump. These load requirements must consider torque, thrust, and inertia and must also reflect any additional requirements of accessory equipment such as gears and fluid couplings. The type of driver will be specified by the purchaser.

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000


1.3.4.10.1

Electric motors

result is less likelihood of damaging backflow through the pump or water hammer effects on the system. Additional rotating inertia is usually provided by adding a flywheel to the drive train. The flywheel may be mounted on its own bearings, it may be part of the pump, or it may be mounted on either end of the motor shaft. Typically, the moment of inertia of the flywheel might be equal to the moment of inertia of the pumplmotor combination. While larger flywheels would increase the coast-down time of the pump, they are also more costly and may exceed the starting capabilities of the driver. Flywheel applications should be carefully analyzed to match need and performance before they are installed.
1.3.4.10.6

For sizing, electric motors are specified by rated power and service factor. Usual practice is to select the motor such that its rated power is at least equal to the expected maximum continuous power required. The service factor is intended to cover incidental overload; thus, its magnitude depends upon the expected extent of overload. Refer to standards of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), latest edition, for further information. For smaller pumps with over 700 kPa (gauge) (100 psig) suction pressure, the motor size may need to be chosen based on the starting torque required for the stuffing-box(es) or sealing device(s).
1.3.4.10.2

Engines

Engine ratings are qualified by the severity of service, the extent of accessories, combustion air conditions and performance variations due to manufacturing tolerances. Engine sizing is dependent on many factors, including brake horsepower required at various pump operating conditions, the duration of such operation and ambient conditions (altitude and temperature).
1.3.4.10.3

Variable speed drives and gears

Steam turbine

Steam turbine ratings are specified for particular inlet and exhaust steam conditions. Sizing is usually based on maximum continuous power required. Overloads, if applicable, are accommodated by allowing the turbine to slow down or by opening additional steam admission valves. The expected load range and the desired load response should be given to the turbine manufacturer.
1.3.4.10.4

Magnetic drives

In centrifugal pump drive trains, magnetic drives are used to vary pump speed. Losses to be taken into account in determining drive rating are slip, windage, etc. Magnetic drive selection is based on the torque to be transmitted and slip loss dissipation capacity.
1.3.4.10.5

Centrifugal pumps can be accurately matched to system requirements that vary with time either by throttling the pump discharge or by changing drive speed. Control of the direct connected pump and driver speed can be manual or automatic. Variable speed drivers may be AC or DC electric motors, steam or gas turbines, internal combustion engines, variable frequency drives, or other devices. Intermediate variable speed hydraulic and mechanical drives are also used between the pump and a constant speed driver. For the pump manufacturer to make a proper selection, the operating conditions over the full range of rates of flow and heads must be provided. Suction conditions over the full range are most important. Possible vibration problems must be checked over the full speed range by the manufacturer for all components in the set. The user must consider mounting arrangements more carefully than for a constant speed unit. The driver and its automatic control when used must also be matched carefully to each other and the system requirements. Centrifugal pumps may be operated at speeds other than the driver speed by using intermediate gears. The maximum permissible pump speed must not be exceeded. The lubrication system for gears requires careful maintenance. Cooling is otten required using air or water. Noise levels may be a consideration when gears are employed. A user choosing a gear must check pump operating speeds with the pump's manufacturer to avoid operating at or near critical speeds.

Deceleration devices

In some applications, it is desirable to provide additional rotating inertia in a pump in order to slow its rate of deceleration when power from the driver is cut off. This slower deceleration may be necessary in order to maintain some limited flow and pressure for a longer than normal interval. This allows more time for check valves and other flow-control devices to work. The

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 1.3.4.11 Pump liquid temperature limits on end suction pumps Limits are placed on pumped liquid temperatures because of heat that travels from the pump casing through the shaft, motor adaptor or bearing frame. This heat raises the bearing lubricant temperature and can adversely affect internal bearing clearances due to differential expansion. For pumps using close coupled motors, the motor winding temperature will increase. Bearing lubricant temperatures above 80C (180F) can cause the lubricants to oxidize and lose their lubricating ability. The degradation of the lubricant will shorten bearing life. It is possible with special bearings and synthetic lubricants to operate above the 80C (180F) limit. It is also possible to control pump lubricant and bearing temperatures by external cooling. This can be accomplished with either a cool liquid passed through a finned tube immersed in the bearing lubricant or through passageways designed into the bearing frame or stuffing-box cover. Fins on the bearing frame exterior with air blown over the bearing frame by a fan is also an effective cooling method. Temperature limits are also imposed by the materials of construction of the pump. For example, cast gray iron is limited to 175C (350F) due to its mechanical strength, whereas ductile iron has a higher limit of 340C (650F). Many factors including pump liquid temperature, ambient conditions, speed, bearing type, lubrication method, pump design and cooling methods influence the final bearing lubricant temperature. The guidelines in Table 1.3.7 and 1.3.8 are based on general experience and are commonly adopted in the pump industry. For temperatures beyond these limits, consult the pump manufacturer. Deviations can be justified based on special design, testing and field experience. 1.3.5 1.3.5.1 Horizontal pump baseplate design Introduction

This standard establishes the minimum technical design criteria to be used in designing horizontal centrifugal pump baseplates. The criteria herein are applicable for all baseplates, although additional or more stringent criteria may apply to certain classes of equipment, such as high-energy pumps, and should be specified accordingly. Included within this standard are criteria for dimensioning, tolerancing, working stresses and stiffness. Design features such as style of base, drip collection features, continuous versus intermittent weld, etc., are not cowred.

Table 1.3.7

- Guidelines for minimum and maximum pump liquid temperature for cast grey imn and
ductile iron pumps ("C) Frame Mounted Pumps Close Coupled Pumps Without Cooling O C 120 120 With Cooling O C 175a
175-340a

Material Cast Gray Iron Ductile Iron


a

Minimum Temp. "C -30 -30

Without Cooling O C 175 175

With Cooling "C 175 340

Temperature limit is dependent on cooling system design.

Table 1.3.8

- Guidelines for minimum and maximum pump liquid temperature for cast grey iron and
ductile iron pumps ("F) Frame Mounted Pumps Close Coupled Pumps Without Cooling "F 250 250 With Cooling "F 350a 350-650a Minimum Temp. "F -20 -20 Without Cooling "F 350 350 With Cooling "F 350 650

Material Cast Gray Iron Ductile Iron


a

Temperature limit is dependent on cooling system design.

78

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application This standard is not intended to cover baseplates for pump designs in which the driver and pump are integral. Such machines do not have separate shafts which require alignment. Examples of pumps with integral drives are close coupled pumps and canned motor pumps.
1.3.5.2

- 2000

Functional requirements

The purpose of a baseplate is to provide a foundation under a pump and its driver that maintains shaft alignment between the two. This baseplate must allow for initial mounting and alignment of equipment, survive handling during transportation to the installation site, be capable of being installed properly with minimum difficulty, allow final alignment of the mounted equipment, and allow removal and reinstallation of equipment. It must be recognized that it is not necessary that an absolutely rigid baseplate be designed to meet these requirements. At the same time, the baseplate must not be permanently deformed after the equipment is mounted at the manufacturing facility. Compliance with these design criteria, in conjunction with proper installation procedure, will contribute significantly to meeting the functional requirements.
1.3.5.3

1.3.5.3.4 Mounting blocks A means of elevating a pump, driver, or gearbox so that the centerlines of the mating shafts are collinear. Mounting blocks are not fastened permanently to the baseplate, but are usually held in place with bolting. Individual blocks may be used under each foot of the elevated component, or the block may be large enough to encompass all feet. When the elevating surface is integral with the base, i.e., welded or cast, it is referred to as a mounting pad. See Figure 1.93. 1.3.5.3.5 Mounting pads The contact surfaces upon which the pump and driver rest. Often the contact surface is the surface of the sub base or superstructure. In some cases a raised integral surface is used for mounting and is usually machined. See Figure 1.93. 1.3.5.3.6 Shim A thin plate (usually metal) placed under a driver or gearbox foot to elevate it. Shims are less than 6 mm (.25inches) thick. Thicker plates are referred to as mounting blocks. See Figure 1.93. 1.3.5.3.7 Free standing baseplate A baseplate design which is intended to be elevated off the floor and supported by stilts or shims. This type of baseplate must be designed to provide its own rigidity as there is no grout for support. See Figure 1.94. 1.3.5.3.8 Sub base The basic structural element in a baseplate. A sub base extends under both pump and driver. See Figure 1.93. 1.3.5.3.9 Superstructure A fabricated structure, fastened permanently to the sub base, which is used to elevate either pump or driver. See Figure 1.93.

Definitions

1.3.5.3.1 Baseplate A structure to which a pump and driver are mounted. The structure usually consists of sub base to which the pump is mounted, and a superstructurels or riser blockls mounted on the sub base, upon which the driver or gearbox is mounted.

Grouted baseplate A baseplate design which relies upon a poured in-place grout for most of the baseplate's installed rigidity. The baseplate is designed to allow grout to be placed underneath and fully support it. See Figure 1.93.
1.3.5.3.2

High-energy pump See ANSIIHI 1 .l1.2-2000,Centrifugal Pumps for Nomenclature and Definitions, Section 1.2.6.6.
1.3.5.3.3

\_
Figure 1.93 -Grouted baseplate Figure 1.94

Optional Stilts

Free-standing baseplate

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000 And the moment diagram is: Thus the horizontal shear stress is:

S = 19.3 psi There is negligible shear on the weld and therefore the above analysis is valid. The design is acceptable from a stress analysis standpoint. A maximum bending moment of 25,914 in-lb occurs 27.4 inches in from the left end. Since the superstructure is not to be considered as a strengthening member, then the maximum bending stress occurs at this point. If the superstructure was designed to strengthen the base, then due to the increased baseplate moment of inertia in the superstructure section the stress would have to be checked at the end of the superstructure (36 inches from the left-hand end) where the moment of inertia is considerably less. In this analysis the strengthening effect of the superstructure is ignored. Thus the moment of inertia of the sub base is found to be: I = 19.3 in4 and the neutral axis is 3.24 inches above the bottom of the sub base. The maximum bending stress in the sub base then is: S = MCII = 25,914 x 3.24 19.3 1.3.5.7 Rigidity

Baseplates may be designed to be installed free standing, or to be grouted. A free-standing baseplate must be rigid enough to maintain coupling alignment when subjected to loads from piping or motor torque. The rigidity shall prevent no more than ,010-inch (0.25-mm) parallel coupling misalignment and ,005 incheslinches (.005 mmlmm) angular misalignment when subjected to maximum motor and piping loads simultaneously. A grouted baseplate relies on the grout for the majority of its stiffness but must be sufficiently rigid to permit handling and allow installation. It is recommended that this type of baseplate have torsional stiffness of 1.13 x lo4 N-Mlrad. (lo5 inslblrad). See Appendix A for further discussion of torsional stiffness. 1.3.5.8 Miscellaneous criteria

S = 4350 psi (less than 15% of the yield strength) The stress where the axial reinforcing ribs are welded to the sub base must be checked to ensure that the weld is not over stressed. Since the throat of the two welds on either side of the rib is greater than the rib thickness, it is assumed that the stress in the weld will be no greater than in the parent material. Thus the shear stress at the weld joint is found from:

1) Fasteners used to hold equipment feet to the baseplate shall either be threaded into material whose thickness is at least equal to the thread diameter, or use nuts on the underside of the base. If material thickness equal to one thread diameter cannot be achieved, an analysis of the joint must be made to determine if the necessary clamping force can be achieved with the thinner material, and to what toque the fastener shall be tightened. 2) Grout holes, at least 100 mm (4 inches) in diameter or 90 mm (3.5 inches) square must be provided and located to allow complete grouting of the base. The holes shall be spaced such that grout is not required to be forced more than 760 mm (30 inches). Vent holes, a minimum of 12 mm (.5 inches) diameter, shall be provided at the end of all grout runs. Provision shall be made for a minimum grout thickness of 25 mm (1 inch).

Where: V =
Q =

vertical shear = 1308 lbs area mounted above the shear plane about the neutral axis = 8.55 in3 moment of inertia of the base = 19.3 in4 width of the base = 30 in

I=
b =

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application 3) Pumps shall be mounted directly on the sub base when possible. If it is necessary to raise the pump in order to clear flanges, casing volutes, hand hole covers, etc., a fabricated superstructure or loose mounting blocks 6 mm (.25 inches) or thicker may be used. Shims less than 6 mm (.25 inches) thick are not to be used under the pump feet.
4) Mounting blocks shall be made of cold-rolled

- 2000

If the lifting point is designed around "S" hooks, care shall be taken to ensure that the attachment point is designed so that the load is applied to the throat of the hook, and not to the point. Welded on lifting devices shall not be used unless no alternative exists.

6) Exterior edges designed to be surrounded by grout shall be radiused to reduce grout stress.
7) Baseplates intended for grouting shall be clearly marked that grouting is required.

steel plate (or other suitable of equal flatness), and only one layer of blocks may be used on an individual pump or driver. Refer to Tables 1.3.9 and 1.3.10, Column 8, for required flatness. The blocks must be large enough to fully support the feet, but not as large as the entire foot. Figure 1.98 below indicates the minimum block dimensions. 5) Provision should be made for lifting the base assembly with pump and driver mounted. Lifting should be done from a minimum of four points. The four lifting points shall be as far apart from each other as possible to ensure stability, and in no event shall they be located axially inside the center of gravity of the pump or the driver. Preferred methods of lifting are: i) Holes through the side of the base allowing the insertion and looping through of slings. Holes in the side of the base for insertion of "S" hooks. Holes in or at the end plates of the base for insertion of "S" hooks or shackles.

ii) iii)

Figure 1.98

- Mounting block dimensions

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

Appendix A Torsional Stiffness


This appendix is not part of this standard, but is presented to help the user in considering factors beyond the standard pump design and application. Torsional stiffness is the resistance a baseplate offers to twisting about its longitudinal axis. A slight amount of twist induced during the installation can produce a large amount of horizontal misalignment between the pumps and driver shafts. This misalignment can easily be greater than can be compensated for by clearance between the fasteners and the holes in the pump or driver feet. A baseplate designed for a minimum level of torsional stiffness will help prevent inadvertent twisting during installation. Calculation of torsional stiffness is very difficult for most baseplate designs. Finite element methods have been used with success for this calculation. A very direct and simple test can be conducted to measure torsional stiffness. For this test the baseplate should be supported and anchored at three corners as shown in Fiaure A.1. (Care should be taken to avoid supporting along the edges of the baseplate). A known weight is then placed on the unsupported corner and vertical deflection is measured. The torsional stiffness is calculated from:

Where:
KTo,
=

Torsional stiffness N-mlrad (in-lblrad) Weight placed over unsupported corner N (Ib) Width of baseplate - mm (inches) Deflection of unsupported corner (inches)

F = W =

6 =

mm

Figure A.l

- Baseplate support and anchoring

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application - 2000

Appendix B Recommended Equipment Mounting Drilling Dimensions


This appendix is not part of this standard, but is presented to help the user in considering factors beyond the standard pump design and application.

Y X "H''
-0-

THREAD
(

~16,01@1d#cl

~~lrn.015631d~~ Figure 6.1

2X 1/2-19 UNC-20 2 > PLACES

- Recommended equipment mounting drilling dimensions

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application

- 2000
Appendix C References

This appendix is not part of this standard, but is presented to help the user in considering factors beyond the standard pump design and application. American Bearing Manufacturers Association 1200 19th Street N.W., Suite 300 Washington, DC 20036-2422 API-American Petroleum Institute API Standard 610, Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service American Petroleum lnstitute 1220 L Street, Northwest Washington, D.C. 20005 ASME-American Society of Mechanical Engineers An Experimental Investigation of Radial Thrust in Cenrifugal Pumps by A. Agostinelli, et al ASME Journal of Engineering for Power, April 1960 ASME B73.1M-1991, Specifictions for Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process ASME B73.2M-1991, Specifications for Vertical-lnLine Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process American Society of Mechanical Engineers United Engineering Center 345 East 47th Street New York, NY 10017 ASTM-American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D-323, Test Methods for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method) ASTM 1916 Race Street Philadelphia, P A 19103-1187 CPB-Contractors Pumps Bureau Contractors Pump Manual Contractors Pump Bureau 13975 Connecticut Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20906 FM-Factory Mutual Research Corp. Factory Mutual Research Corp. 1151 Boston-Providence Turnpike Norwood, MA 02062 ISO-International Organization for Standards 1S0-1940-1973, Balance Quality of Rotating Rigid Bodies American National Standards Institute 11 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036 NEMA-National Electrical Manufacturers Associations NEMA-MG1-1993, Motors and Generators National Electrical Manufacurers Association 2101 L Street, NW, Suite 300 Washington, D.C. 20037 NFPA-National Fire Protection Association NFPA 20, Installation of Centrifugal Fire Pumps National Fire Protection Association 1 Batterymarch Park Quincy, MA 02269-9101 UL-Underwriters Laboratory Undewriters Laboratory 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook, IL 60062 Stepanoff Centrifugal and Axial Pumps, Second Edition by A.J. Stepanofi John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1 Wiley Drive Somerset, NJ 08875

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application lndex - 2000

Appendix D Index
This appendix is not part of this standard, but is presented to help the user in considering factors beyond this standard. Note: an f. indicates a figure, and a t. indicates a table Axial thrust (for enclosed impellers for volute pump), 6043 Baseplates (horizontal centrifugal pumps), 78 defined, 79 exterior edges, 85 fasteners, 81, 84 free standing baseplate, 79, 79f. functional requirements, 79 grout holes, 84 grouted baseplate, 79, 79f., 85 high-energy pump, 7 9 lifting base assembly, 85 motor mounting pads, 80t., 81, Elf. mounting blocks, 79, 85, 85f. mounting pads, 79, Elf. mounting surface flatness, 80t., 81, 81f. mounting surface height, got., 81, 81f. rigidity, 84 shims, 79f., 79, 81 stress levels, 81-84 sub base, 79f., 79, 85 superstructure, 79f., 7 9 support and anchoring, 86,86f. tolerancing, 80, 80t. torsional stiffness, 86, 86f. Bearings adjusted rating life, 74, 75 axial load. 74 basic dynamic radial load rating, 74 basic rating life, 74 dynamic equivalent radial load, 74 grease, 65 housing closures, 70 impeller mounted between, 58, 72f. impeller overhung from, 58,70, 71f. labyrinths, 70 life, 74 lubrication, 6 5 4 7 oil lubrication, 65 operating temperature, 75 product lubrication, 66t., 67 radial load, 74 rating life, 74 reliability, 74 rolling element, 64, 64t. sleeve, 64 types, 64 BEP See Best efficiency point Best efficiency point, 56 Boiler circulating pumps, 10 Boiler feed booster pumps, 9 Boiler feed pumps, 8 Booster service, 1 Casing types, 76 Chemical pump, 1 ClMA See Construction Industry Manufactures Association Circular casings, 60, 60f. Closed feedwater cycle, 6, 7f. Condensate pumps, 9 Condenser circulating water pumps, 9 Construction lndustry Manufactures Association, 13 Continuous service, 42 Contractors Pump Bureau, 13 Corrosion allowance for metallic centrifugal pumps, 76 in pulp and paper applications, 16 Couplings disk, 68 elastomer, 68 flexible, 67 gear, 67 limited end float, 67 offset, 67 speed limitations. 68 Cyclic service, 42 Deceleration devices, 77 Diffusers, 76 Discharge recirculation. 43 Disk couplings, 68 Double suction pump specific speed, 32,35f., 36f. Double volute casing See Dual volute casing Drive shaft, 67

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Index - 2000 Drivers, 76 deceleration devices, 77 electric motors, 77 engines, 77 magnetic, 77 steam turbine, 77 variable speed. 77 Dual volute casing, 58, 59f., 76 K versus rate of flow. 58, 59f. Efficiency, 43 best efficiency point (BEP), 56 and high suction specific speed, 53 and impeller diameter trim, 53 and mechanical losses, 53 optimum, 49 prediction charts, 49,50f., 51f., 52f. prediction method for centrifugal pumps, 49-57 and pump type, 56,56t. and slurries, 56 and solids size, 56 and surface finish, 53, 54f. and viscosity, 53 and wear ring clearances, 53, 55f. Elastomer couplings, 68 Electric motors, 77 Engines, 77 Equipment mounting drilling dimensions, 87. 87f. Excessive radial thrust, 43 Fire pumps, 10 Flexible couplings, 67 Gas See Liquids with vapor or gas Gear couplings, 67 General purpose service, 13-1 5 Heater drain pumps. 10 Hot oil pump, 1 Hydraulic hammer, 22 Hydraulic pressure pump, 14 Hydraulic turbines, pumps used as See Pumps usedas hydraulic turbines Impellers, 57, 75 See also Overhung impeller pumps axial thrust for volute pump, 6 0 4 3 with back ring, 62f. and bearing arrangements, 58 double suction, 75 enclosed, 76 enclosed with plain back shroud. 61f. mounted between bearings, 58, 72f. open, 76 overhung, 58, 70, 71f. predicting pump performanceafler diameter change, 48.49f. pressure distribution on enclosed impeller shrouds, 60f semi-open, 76 single suction, 75 top suction, 20, 21f. types, 75 venting the eye of, 20, 21f. Inducers, 20, 57, 57f Inlet boosters. 20 Intake designs, 57 Intermittent service, 42 Irrigation sewice, 4 Limited end float couplings, 67 Liquids with vapor or gas, 19-21 effect of gas on performance. 19,20f. inducers (inlet boosters), 20 special designs for, 20, 21f. top suction impeller, 20, 21f. venting the eye of the impeller, 20, 21f. Magnetic drives, 77 Mechanical seals, 68 applications. 68 classifications, 68, 69f typical schematics, 68 Mine dewatering, 4 Minimum flow. 43 Multi-volute casings, 76 Net positive suction head, 3 8 4 2 insufficient, 43 margin considerations, 39 NPSHA corrections for temperature and elevation, 38 reduction, 39, 40f., 41f. reduction for liquids other than hydrocarbons or water. 40f.. 41f.. 42 requirements for pumps handling hydrocarbon liquids and water at elevated temperatures, 39, 40f., 41f. Noise levels, 57 Non-clog pumps, 14 NST See Turbine specific speed Offset couplings, 67 Open feedwater cycle, 7, 7f. Overhung impeller pumps, 70 Packed stuffing-box, 69,69f., 70f. Paper stock. 15 See also Pulp and paper applications PATSSee Pumps as turbines

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Index - 2000 Performance and selection criteria, 21 Process service, 1 Pulp and paper applications, 15 corrosion, 16 hydraulic performance correction, 16 paper stock and consistency categories, 16 Pump versus system curve, 21,21f Pumps operating in parallel, 42.42f. Pumps operating in series, 42,42f Pumps used as hydraulic turbines, 11 total available exhaust head (TAEH), 12 total required exhaust head (TREH), 12 turbine performance characteristics, 11, 11f., 12f. turbine specific speed, 11 Radial thrust calculation for volute pumps, 58 excessive, 43 Recirculation, 43 Reverse runaway speed, 22 Rolling element bearings, 64, 64t. Sanitary pump, 14 Self-priming pumps, 13, 14f.. 15f. Sewage pumps, 14 Shafl deflection, 70 Shafl seals alternative, 70 mechanical seals. 68. 69f. packed stufing-box. 69,69f. Shutdown, 22 Single suction pump specific speed, 32, 33f., 34f Single volute casing, 58, 58f.. 76 K versus rate of flow, 58, 59f. Sleeve bearings, 64 Slurry service, 17-19 materials of construction for slurry pumps, 17 non-settling slurries, 17, 19f. relationship between concentration and specific gravity for aqueous slurries, 17, 18f. rotational speed of slurry pumps, 19 settling slurries, 17, 19f. Start-up with closed discharge valve, 22 with open discharge valve. 22 Steam electric power plants, 4, 5f. boiler circulating pumps, 10 boiler feed booster pumps, 9 boiler feed pumps, 8 closed feedwater cycle, 6, 7f. condensate pumps, 9 condenser circulating pumps, 9 heater drain pumps, 10 open feedwater cycle, 7 , 7f. pumps, 8 steam power cycle, 4, 5f. Steam power cycle, 4, 5f Steam turbine drivers, 77 Subscripts, 3t. Suction conditions, 57 Suction recirculation. 43 Suctton specific speed, 31, 3 3 f , 34f. 35f. 36f. Symbols, 1 , 2t. System pressure limitation, 22 System requirements, 21 double suction pump specific speed, 32,35f., 36f effects of handling viscous liquids, 23,24f., 2 5 f , 26f., 27f. net positive suction head, 3 8 4 2 NPSH margin considerations, 39 NPSH reduction, 39,40f., 41f. NPSH reduction for liquids other than hydrocarbons or water, 40f., 41f., 42 NPSH requirements for pumps handling hydrocarbon liquids and water at elevated temperatures, 39,401., 41f NPSHA corrections for temperature and elevation, 38 pump selection for a given head, rate of flow, and viscosity. 28 pump versus system curve, 21, 21f. reverse runaway speed, 22 shut-down. 22 single suction pump specific speed, 32, 33f, 34f. starting with closed discharge valve, 22 starting with open discharge valve, 22 start-up, 22 suction specific speed, 31, 33f., 34f., 35f., 36f. system pressure limitation, 22 torque curves, 23,23f viscous liquid calculations. 30t., 31, 32t. viscous liquid performance correction chart limitations, 23 viscous liquid performance cuwes, 30f.. 30.31f. viscous liquid performance when water performance is known, 29, 30f., 31f. viscous liquid symbols and definitions. 28 water hammer, 22 TAEH See Total available exhaust head Temperature bearing, 75 limits on end suction pumps, 78, 78t. Temperature buildup. 43 Temperature rise, 43 calculation, 43,44f., 45f. and minimum flow, 46 and pump performance, 44,44f. Terminology, 1, 2t. Top suction impellers, 20, 21f

HI Centrifugal Pump Design and Application Index - 2000 Torque curves, 23,23f Total available exhaust head, 12 Total required exhaust head, 12 Transfer pumping. 4 Trash pumps, 14 TREH See Total required exhaust head Turbine specific speed, 11 Units of measure, 1 , 2t Vapor See Liquids with vapor or gas Variable speed drives, 77 Viscous input power, 29 Viscous liquids calculations, 30t., 31, 32t. effects of handling, 23, 2 4 f , 2 5 f , 2 6 f , 27f performance col~ection chart limitations, 23 performance curves, 3 0 f , 30, 31f. performance when water performance is known, 29, 30f., 31f pump selection for given head, rate of flow, and viscosity, 28 symbols and definitions, 28 Volatile liquid pump, 3 Volute pumps calculation for radial thrust, 58 calculation of axial thrust for enclosed impellers, 6063 circular casings, 60, 60f dual volute casing, 58, 59f. K versus rate of flow (double volute casing). 58, 59f K versus rate of flow (single volute casing), 58, 59f. single volute casing, 58, 58f. Wastewater service pumps, 14 Water hammer, 22 Well pumping, 4