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2 4 12 16 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 64 Editors comment Surveillance round-table 2011 Hybrid eases migration woes Fast growing market for thermals A hot new trend in video surveillance Mining for data gems Cost-saving developments in security lighting Illumination quality (IQ) test Good training is everything H.264 adapted for CCTV Its all in the iris Future-proong CCTV security Storage makes the leap to IP Product Showcase



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and threats facing each business. The time and money spent setting up surveillance in a casino is vastly different to that of a manufacturing plant. The selection of technology is also different for each situation. Some installations may call for the latest in IP video solutions with intelligent analytics and all the bells and whistles. Others may deliver the required goods with old-fashioned analogue products. And on the topic of analogue, the HDcctv Alliance will probably ensure that good-ol analogue remains on the scene for much longer than anyone likes to admit. Analogue products are supposedly going to be cheaper and faster than their IP counterparts; that has to hurt. In this years edition of the CCTV Handbook, we take a look at a range of issues in the surveillance market. We start with a look at what some of the major players in South Africa expect to see happening, move on to discussions on analytics, hybrid technology and even the fast growing thermal market. Then we have opinions from a number of players before we get into the juicy stuff and start looking at case studies of where and how surveillance solutions have made an impact in the real world. As always, your comments and suggestions on how to improve the handbook, including what topics we should include or exclude in the next publications are always welcome. The e-mail address is andrew@ Enjoy the CCTV Handbook 2011. Andrew Seldon, Editor

A bit of this and that W

elcome to the CCTV Handbook 2011, brought to you by Hi-Tech Security Solutions. When it comes to surveillance, humans have a bad reputation. Statistics often quoted, or perhaps the appropriate term is misquoted, say that after 20 minutes of staring at a video wall (or is it 30 minutes, how about 40?), people miss most of the action. And when it comes to action, it could be anywhere between 40% to 80% that goes missing after the particular time limit has passed. Im sure there is a real bit of statistical evidence that supports some of the gures quoted, but the numbers are just too juicy for intelligent analytics sales people to ignore. The common sales pitch is, you know your operators miss much of the action, so rely on technology instead. Our Q&A on analytics will show that while analytics is a growing eld and getting better all the time, it is still not at a place where it can be 100% relied upon. Perhaps the answer is to take more care in selecting and training your operators. Getting the cheapest body you can nd and slapping it behind a video wall is not going to do your company or your customer any long-term favours, nor is skimping on the training budget. Thats not to say there isnt a balance in offering the optimal use of technology and people to achieve an effective surveillance solution. There denitely is, but there is no set formula dening how to achieve this. And this is the hard part for customers; the formula for your company is unique to the requirements

Andrew Seldon. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters to the Editor should be addressed to Andrew Seldon at andrew@technews. Sending material to this publication will be considered automatic permission to use in full or in part in our Letters column. Be sure to include your name, e-mail address, city and postal code. We reserve the right to edit all letters.

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CCTV Handbook 2011


By Andrew Seldon.

Standing left to right: Roy Alves, Bertus van Jaarsveld, Johann Schoeman and Mervyn Low. Seated left to right: Mark Chertkow, Gregory Collier.

Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked the surveillance industry what they expect from the market in 2011.

here always seems to be something new in the surveillance market, whether its new analytical capabilities, high denition functionality coming to analogue technology or cheaper thermal cameras being made available to the non-government market. This year, Hi-Tech Security Solutions once again asked some of the leaders in the South African surveillance market to tell us what they expect to see happening over the next year or two. As publishers we hear that sales are down and the remarkable historic growth of IP (Internet Protocol) based systems is down for the rst time ever. The rst point of discussion must therefore be: what is happening at the coalface? Fortunately, although sales over the past year have been down, the IP side of the industry is still growing. Country manager of Axis Communications, Roy Alves says there is no doubt that the recession has affected sales gures, but he says the conversion to IP is still ongoing. IP camera sales are slower this year, but not to the extent that some predicted. Pelcos Johann Schoeman agrees, noting that Pelco has seen its analogue sales holding

steady while IP system sales far outgrew them. He adds that analogue sales are generally slowing globally, although in South Africa the slowdown is more pronounced. Almost all the big projects that are going to tender or being awarded now are for IP systems, adds Mervyn Low, product manager at SentronicsSD.

Wireless options
There is also good news from a relative newcomer to the surveillance market. Miro Distributions Bertus van Jaarsveld says the company has seen almost 70% growth on the IP side in the last year. This has been boosted by the demand for wireless IP networks (Miros history is in the distribution of ICT and wireless systems). Dimension Datas Gregory Collier sees wireless networking as more of a temporary option. He says companies are more likely to use wireless until they can run cables because of the power issue. Battery operated cameras are a hassle. Power over Ethernet (PoE), however, is becoming more popular as a way to cut down on the electrical CCTV Handbook 2011


cabling work that needs to be done before installing cameras. Its simpler to lay network cables with PoE than it is to install new electrical outlets. Van Jaarsveld is a wireless fan, but admits that wireless is not always the right answer. It can be an effective option when the network and its usage is planned correctly. In remote areas, using solar or wind energy to power cameras is an option some users are installing, negating the power problem. Schoeman has also found that, in certain areas, the high incidence of cable theft has resulted in more people opting for wireless transmission.

Niche is good
Mark Chertkow from Graphic Image Technologies (GIT) also has a good tale to tell for those focusing on niche surveillance markets. GIT deals with narrowband CCTV, which means using minimal bandwidth, running video streams at eight kilobits per second. The demand for bandwidth sensitive solutions is growing as more companies realise the benets of streaming video over wireless, for example, using cellular networks that are renowned for unreliable throughput speeds. Remote surveillance offerings, which are also in a growth phase, are one of the key areas for GIT. The company can record a full video stream on a DVR, and then broadcast at very low rates to any devices the user chooses.

Alves comments that not only does HD offer wider and improved images; it also delivers far better colour delity which is very important when considering the overall quality of an image. News that the analogue world is also about to release their own HD cameras bodes well for companies that have large analogue installed bases. The HDcctv Alliance (http:// has dened a standard for analogue HD and is expecting to make an impact on the growing HD market. From the website the alliance promises: HDcctv is the worlds only electrical interface standard for HD surveillance video, providing 100% digital transmission of uncompressed HDTV signals over existing coax. Alves believes this technology will have an impact in the market and give analogue systems a longer lifespan, but he says its somewhat cumbersome and does not expect to see a long lifespan. might sustain them for a little bit of time but I dont see it as the future, he says.

Mark Chertkow, Graphic Image Technologies.

Intelligent analytics
There has been a lot of hype around the intelligent analytics question in the past year and we can expect substantially more to come. But dont expect reworks just yet. Schoeman says analytics look great in controlled environments, but often fail to deliver in the real world. Thats why so many companies offer their analytics for free. You cant complain about something you got for nothing. He admits the quality of the applications available today is far ahead of where they were a year or two ago, with some of the simpler functionality delivering great service. The more complex analytical solutions out there, however, have some way to go. Alves is in agreement, stating that well see more advanced analytics coming down the line, with a drive to do more on the edge (in the camera). More of the decisions will be made at the camera, which will only feed the results down to the control rooms or storage systems. I think in the foreseeable future, ve to ten years, if any camera manufacturer doesnt have some superior intelligence or analytics in their camera, they are going to struggle to be competitive. Continued on page 8

Of pixels and clarity

High denition (HD) seems to be all the rage today, both in the consumer and commercial space. Low says there is a denite move to HD, although there still seems to be some confusion as to what the term means. There is also some confusion when it comes to the bandwidth required for HD. The H.264 standard has reduced the bandwidth required for HD images substantially, but in multicamera installations there are still issues that need to be resolved. Low says more customers are opting for multiple streams of video at different bandwidths. They may, for example, store video at full resolution to ensure any later interrogations can make use of all the benets of HD, while only streaming lower-resolution images to control centres.

Johann Schoeman, Pelco.

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Continued from page 6

Thermals make a scene

One of the biggest newsmakers in the past few months, with more reworks expected in the coming year, is the thermal camera. These devices have recently been offered at lower price points than they were traditionally available at and are making quick inroads into the market. Alves notes that thermals are still more expensive than your traditional network camera, but are selling well. He says South Africa is one of the biggest consumers of thermal cameras per surveillance installation. The reason for that is that thermals are not identication devices, but perform an almost unbeatable detection service. When you need to determine if people are intruding over a large area, thermals are probably the best option. If you need proof to take to court, on the other hand, things get a bit more difcult as thermal images cant identify people. From a green perspective, Low adds that thermal cameras use substantially less power and can cover more ground than standard devices which makes them an environmental asset. He also notes that more manufacturers have seen the thermal growth trend and are bringing cameras to market at a rapid rate. Low says Sentronics has also seen an upturn in demand for thermals, primarily for perimeter or border protection; or specialist elds, such as catching rhino poachers. He says when identication is needed, customers often purchase twin thermal/ optical cameras. The thermal detects movement and its optical counterpart zooms in for the identication.

Gregory Collier, Dimension Data.

Alliance (PSIA) and the Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF) are two standards being commonly adopted that theoretically avoids this problem if your software is compliant with one of the standards, all manufacturers that develop accordingly to it should be able to plug their cameras into your platform without a problem. Thats the theory anyway. Software developers will generally adopt these standards and will incorporate as many cameras as possible into their systems to be able to serve as broad a customer base as possible. They also provide a list of hardware their platforms are compatible with as part of their marketing drive. Schoeman believes that as competition heats up, with hundreds of companies developing camera management software either for their own hardware or for multiple brands, we are going to see an industry that is very benecial to clients. On the one hand, he expects to see hardware companies giving away their software free, at least for the entrylevel market, and charging clients for licences to run other cameras on the software. The software is given away as a value-add to the particular brands hardware, but youll pay to run other cameras on the same system. For the professional software developers, we have already seen entry-level systems available free, with smooth upgrade paths to corporate or enterprise level systems. Alves says increasing competition see more basic applications available free, with users paying for additional, more complex functionality.

The gorilla in the mist

As in many security conversations these days, the topic of the IT gorilla ready to steal business away from traditional security operators must be dealt with. With IP growing as fast as it is, traditional IT networking companies are in prime position to extend their existing relationships and infrastructure in companies to include surveillance projects. Cisco is one company that is already making inroads into the traditional security market with a multitude of products that slot into its infrastructure products, according to Collier. The company is even in the process of developing selfContinued on page 10

Software wars
Camera management software is another topic that generates interest today. On the one hand, there are camera specic applications that allow users to do almost anything as long as they buy one manufacturers camera, while other companies avoid hardware altogether and only provide the software to manage multiple cameras. In the old days, mature analogue systems were pretty much a plug and play affair. With the advent of IP systems, however, this changed as proprietary lock-in was the norm. The Physical Security Interoperability

Mervyn Low, Sentronics.

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Continued from page 8 provisioning cameras which will allow users to simply position and plug a camera into a Cisco switch to have it automatically congured. The reduction in technical skills necessary to install network cameras would be signicant, making this a popular choice among potential customers. The result of this threat from IT will have to be seen, many have heard it all before and think nothing will really happen, while others are contemplating their response to it. It could result in a price war, value being added to surveillance hardware to keep smaller companies in the loop. We may also see smaller companies merging or being acquired to ensure they have the critical mass to survive increased competition. For example, we should see further integration of audio and video in the near future, as well as integrating these with present technologies to broaden the reach of surveillance beyond security.

Looking ahead at what the various players expect from the surveillance market in the year ahead is always interesting. We therefore end this report on the 2011 Surveillance Round-Table with a take from each of the participants as to what they think is in store for the coming year. Low says megapixel IP is denitely on the increase with some organisations predicting as much as a 45% growth rate on IP cameras in 2011. He says this means a further erosion of the analogue market. However, he notes that one of the drawbacks for the local market is the bandwidth situation which is poor. This means smaller players using ADSL cant afford the bandwidth required for decent video coverage of branch ofces because the upload speeds are so abysmal. Van Jaarsveld is more positive, noting that Telkom is launching synchronous DSL services (SDSL) soon which will go a long way to solving this problem, although the cost issues might still be a problem. He also sees a continued bright future for IP surveillance, although the question about how many megapixels a camera supports will not be a purchase factor. Issues such as durability, weather and vandal resistance, ease of installation and onboard features such as analytics and even storage will inuence future buying decisions.

Roy Alves, Axis Communications.

Bertus van Jaarsveld, Miro Distribution.

Alves expects to see hosted surveillance services taking off in the coming year or two and he expects that ISPs will offer surveillance monitoring as a value-added service to its clients. We can also expect one of the larger analogue companies in Europe or perhaps Asia making a sizable acquisition to bring it into the mainstream perhaps in the access control or network video market. Schoeman expects to see cameras becoming cheaper until there is little differentiation on price. We will, however, see differentiation in the application and of the images obtained from the cameras. He expects to see a boom in systems that interrogate and analyse the enormous amounts of metadata cameras collect. Over the next few years, we will see more effort being put into how we can take that data and use it proactively. Collier agrees seeing a market trend towards more converged intelligent CCTV systems where we can actually do something with the metadata to use it as a proactive tool, not a reactive tool. As far as acquisitions go, he says, Keep an eye on the IT market. Chertkow believes the days of centralised CCTV footage that overloads the network is over and we will be seeing a move towards a distributed CCTV platform. This means content will be where it can be used or is needed, such as on the edge where cameras can interrogate it and only send relevant footage to control rooms. Not only does centralisation overload the network, the costs of maintaining and managing huge storage systems is also extremely high. The surveillance market is set to continue its growth in the coming year. However, while the rest of the world gets excited about recovering from the recession (we hope), South Africa may not enjoy as much of a positive upswing. Nonetheless, thanks to an acceptance of crime of all sorts as normal in this country, the IP market is set to continue climbing and niche markets will offer lucrative opportunities. We can also expect pressure from IT companies looking to supplement their traditional income with new areas of value-add. And as in other industries, the time to sell products or technology is ending. Companies today want solutions that solve business problems and incorporate surveillance and other aspects of security. Pricing will be important as will service, but taking away problems and adding value is where the money will increasingly be spent.


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By Andrew Seldon.

IP is coming. You will be assimilated, slowly.

Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What is hybrid technology and how does it t into todays security infrastructure?
Jaco Liebetrau, Bosch Security Systems, subSaharan Africa: A hybrid CCTV system can record and display IP and analogue cameras into the same security recorder. This makes it possible to take full advantage of advanced features like video analytics, event controlled functionality, megapixel resolution and expansion via the existing LAN Network, while also connecting standard analogue (aging technology) CCTV cameras. Ernest Mallett, Tyco Security Products: The HDVR from American Dynamics provides seamless integration and recording of both analogue and IP video surveillance cameras on an enterprise-class chassis. This is a great way to protect your analogue camera investment while you consider either transitioning to IP cameras, or enjoy the benets of a mixed environment. Catherine Maurel, UTC (GE): IP is the future. We will all change to IP eventually, but currently it is still a growing concept. Hybrid is a future-proof solution. Once-off changeover from analogue to IP can have huge cost implications, if you have already invested in analogue and wish to add on to the existing installation, hybrid is the solution to start moving over to IP. Johan Crause, Elvey Security Technologies: Hybrid technology combines the benets of IP and analogue technology. Hybrid technology has been

in the security industry for quite some time and has appealed to companies that are looking to upgrade their infrastructure to an IP-based backbone, but not at the expense of having to replace all the cameras that have been purchased and are still functioning properly. Brendon Hall, Pentagon Distribution: Hybrid technology is simply providing a solution to bridge the gap between existing analogue CCTV systems and new IP technology. It allows for older and existing systems/ infrastructure to be utilised while adding on to and slowly replacing the outdated/redundant equipment. John Loftus, Norbain SA: For many years, analogue CCTV systems have been the only video surveillance option in the market. It is only in recent years that video surveillance has become digitised and equipped with many benets that analogue could not provide. Hybrid technology means the ability to use existing analogue video and IP in one solution. In simple terms, it means that customers do not have to rip out and replace older analogue technologies in favour of newer IP solutions, but can rather use hybrid technology to bring these two worlds together.

HSS: When is hybrid technology the solution of choice?

Jaco Liebetrau: When is a hybrid CCTV system feasible? Do you currently have an existing analogue (all cameras that are still wired back to DVR or VCR via


CCTV Handbook 2011

coaxial cable) CCTV system installed at your premises? Do you need to upgrade or expand your current system? Would you like to invest into something future proof and not into an aging, soon out of date technology, avoiding repetitive investments in the near future? Would you like to invest into a stateof-the-art system, but not abandon the current system completely, not rendering it a bad investment? Then hybrid solutions are for you. Ernest Mallett: If the budget allows for it then you can switch to IP, this is rarely the case as a complete re-installation is required. This includes cameras, cable infrastructure, network switches and recorders. Hybrid is therefore perfect because only the recorder needs replacing. Catherine Maurel: Again, there is a cost implication. A full changeover might be simpler, but the cost implications, specically on large projects can be huge. Hybrid is the answer to gradually transition from analogue to IP if you dont want to replace existing equipment immediately. Johan Crause: Hybrid technology is most advantageous in existing installations with analogue congurations. The most important factor besides the technology feature is that hybrid is relatively inexpensive in comparison to a full-blown IP system. Thus it enables a business to functionally change to an IP backbone, but still retain the cameras that are not damaged and that can be used. The cost of an IP camera also plays a big role. In some cases, these cameras can be up to 500% more costly. Brendon Hall: Hybrid systems generally are a choice when faced with feature rich products and options of IP, but a lack of budget or sizeable existing infrastructure and a migration away from analogue and legacy equipment/systems. John Loftus: If a customer has an existing analogue system installed and expansion of this system is planned, then using hybrid technology makes sense. Furthermore, customers who do not want to replace an existing CCTV system can achieve the same results by using a hybrid solution. Today, with the availability of IP-based video security systems, users can now enjoy many advantages when compared to the traditional analogue systems: higher resolution, greater intelligence and easier, more exible installation.

HSS: Does hybrid technology not mean more complexity and more things that can go wrong, and more technical skills required?
Jaco Liebetrau: With its embedded operating system the Bosch 700 Series works right out of the box. There are no patches to install and/or anti-virus software to upgrade. It is easy to setup, automatically detecting and conguring connected IP cameras. Ernest Mallett: Not in our case, our HDVR is built on an enterprise platform. It is easy to use with a simple intuitive interface. Catherine Maurel: Of course there are different skill sets required for analogue and IP solutions. However, manufacturers focus on developing products that are user-friendly and also simplify conguration and troubleshooting. More complex technology automatically translates into more skills required to trouble-shoot, however, the functionalities you gain justify the extra effort. Johan Crause: With most new technology, it does require an updated skill set. That does not mean that the functional tools are not the same, they are and in some cases enhance the product and benet the customer. Also, with most of these integration platforms the IP background already exists and thus it means a natural progression to this technology. Brendon Hall: No, generally hybrid systems would be seen to be just as stable as any IP system. Hybrid systems are necessary and have their place in the market as the bridge between the two technologies. John Loftus: Not necessarily, as long as a business knows where it wants to take the system and what features should be retained from the current system, a well-designed migrated upgrade path should work out well when designed correctly. This offers a great result, rich in performance, features, and effortless to operate.

HSS: What are the important aspects to note when considering hybrid?
Jaco Liebetrau: If you are looking for a high quality and highly scalable video management solution that can be easily expanded to support multiple locations and large numbers of cameras, while returning a low total cost of ownership. Ernest Mallett: Flexibility, make sure that it is rstly an effective recording device for your analogue replacement; secondly, dont be tied into using a hybrid unit that does not support CCTV Handbook 2011



Ernest Mallet.

Jaco Liebetrau.

Brendon Hall.

cameras from many different vendors. This is important as not all brands offer a complete solution. HDVR currently also support all the popular compression technologies. Catherine Maurel: Identify the clients real needs. Are the IP functionalities, such as network streaming, sharing of information something that you really need? If that is the case, you can start your migration towards the IP world. In a case such as a standalone warehouse that has to be supervised, one could ask if IP is really necessary, especially because of the cost implications. Also, traditional analogue installers will have to up-skill on routers, switchers, IP addressing, etc. Johan Crause: The current age of product. If a camera is older than ve years, it is recommended that you replace the camera. In that case, it would be benecial for you to consider going directly into IP or to choose a hybrid system.

John Loftus: Hybrid technology is about bringing the outdated use of analogue closer to the digitised world of IP. It allows companies to make better use of their analogue CCTV systems without having to completely replace them when considering adding on IP cameras. For example, if a customer needs the exibility of an IP-based video surveillance system but already has the analogue CCTV system in place, what is the best solution? The perfect situation is to start your migration to IP without throwing away your analogue systems. How? The answer is to adopt a hybrid platform such as those offered by Sony. By integrating the old and new cameras in a hybrid platform, you can protect your existing investments whilst ensuring fewer false alarms, more efcient monitoring and clearer imagery.

companies will make the switch to IP in the short term?

Jaco Liebetrau: The world of CCTV is changing; IP is replacing the analogue standard in many areas. The secret is to have a exible solution that can adapt to the changing environment, hence the hybrid offering. Ernest Mallett: No, the HDVR is built on an enterprise platform, it therefore lives up to the requirements of most companies. Many companies depreciate assets over four to ve years; the HDVR will therefore be a product of choice as replacement to traditional DVRs. Catherine Maurel: The lifespan of hybrid technology will be mainly region dependent. Contributing factors are network infrastructure expansion and installed base. In regions where bandwidth and network throughput increase, IP solutions will take preference. On the other hand, in regions where analogue cameras are already widely used, it

Surely hybrid is a technology with a limited lifespan, as


CCTV Handbook 2011

Catherine Maurel.

Johan Crause.

John Loftus.

might take longer to switch over all analogue cameras to IP. Johan Crause: In most cases this is correct, but a limited lifespan is approximately 10 years, which by no means indicates that it is a short-term product. This product is specically there to facilitate upgrades more cost effectively and introduce IP in a very disciplined manner. The eventuality is that it will be replaced, but in the medium term, not in the

short term. With this option, it provides businesses with the ability to learn and not throw a company in the proverbial deep end. Brendon Hall: Hybrid is a term and as long as any two or more technologies need to be integrated into one system, it will be necessary. John Loftus: Hybrid technology offers a bridge for clients who do not wish to

lose out on an existing investment. There is no indication as to how long analogue technology will continue to dominate the market, and systems offering clients best of both worlds, will certainly have a strong position in the market for the foreseeable future. For any company wanting to make use of the most recent technology available, without spending CAPEX to ensure this, a hybrid solution is without doubt the best one. CCTV Handbook 2011




By Andrew Seldon.

Hi-Tech Security Solutions looks at whats cooking in the thermal camera market.

hermals are becoming cheaper and are receiving rave reviews from a multitude of users in a variety of industries. Hi-Tech Security Solutions delves deeper into the technology with the help of some local experts. And, if you want to know more, the archive of our Thermal Webinar is available on

Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What is a thermal camera? What is the difference between thermals and traditional IR devices?
Tanli Lundgren, C3: A thermal camera or Forward Looking Infrared, is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is emitted from all objects in the form of heat or energy. The heat emitted is not in the visible spectrum but in the infrared spectrum, which is invisible to the human eye. In general, the hotter an object is, the more radiation it emits. A thermal imager is a product that collects this infrared radiation from objects in the scene and creates an electronic image. The real difference between thermal cameras and IR devices has everything to do with the spectrum of infrared energy. The spectrum is divided into 3 categories: 1. Near infrared (closest to visible light), 2. Mid infrared and (remote controls and a variety of electronic devices work in this spectrum), and

3. Thermal infrared. (occupies the largest part of the IR spectrum). IR devices work in the near and mid level infrared and still require some sort of ambient lighting in order to see. IR devices try to generate their own reected light by projecting a beam of near-infrared energy that their imager can see when it bounces off an object. This works to a point, but the cameras still rely on reected light to make an image, so they have the same limitations as any other night vision camera that depends on reected light energy. The key difference between thermal IR and traditional IR is that thermal IR is emitted by an object instead of reected off it. Infrared light is emitted by an object because of what is happening at the atomic level. Thermal cameras also use a completely different type of image sensor than IR cameras. IR cameras have CCD or CMOS image sensors. The CCD and CMOS image sensors are inherently IR sensitive. Thermal cameras have a microbolometer image sensor, which consists of thousands of tiny sensor elements. Each element has a micro-resistor which changes its resistance as it heats up. The thermal camera focuses heat onto the elements, which in turn heat up. The camera reads the changes in resistance to calculate the thermal image. Only thermal imagers can see in absolute darkness and perform well in adverse weather conditions due to the fact they do not rely on light but rather emitted energy. The infrared wavelength can penetrate smoke, rain, snow, blowing sand and foggy conditions. Thermal imagers also allow us to see heat signatures left by hand or footprints and many other scenarios that we would not be able to see normally in the visual world. Roy Alves, Axis Communications: A thermal network camera is a camera that creates images based on heat that radiates from any object, vehicle or person. Thermal images are not dependent on visible light; instead, images are created by operating in the infrared spectrum. It works perfectly well even in total darkness since the ambient light level does not matter. A traditional IR device and illuminators provide additional light in applications where Continued on page 18


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Roy Alves, Axis Communications.

Tanli Lundgren, C3.

Continued from page 16 the surrounding lighting conditions may be insufcient for effective video surveillance. As the camera can see some infrared light that is invisible to the human eye, there are various alternatives as to how this can be displayed on a computer screen. Usually the image is shown in black and white, with the scene appearing as it would if the human eye could see infrared light. Other false colours can also be used to show the content of infrared light compared to visible light. Philip Smerkovitz, TeleEye SA: A thermal imaging camera captures infrared energy emitted by an object. All objects above zero degrees Kelvin emit infrared energy. This infrared energy is then focused by the optics onto an infrared detector. The detector sends the information to sensor electronics for image processing. The electronics translate the data coming from the detector into an image that can be viewed over both analogue and IP video equipment or computers. Because everything generates heat, thermal security cameras can see as well at night as they can during the day. Traditional cameras dependent on visible light are useless at night or in poor visibility without supplementary illumination from lights or lasers. This is where the traditional IR cameras have been applied. Traditional IR cameras feature banks of LEDs which emit infrared illumination into the area in front of the camera. The LEDs are often placed around the lens of the camera. LED illumination is compromised by limited range performance. Also for the longer range or higher power LED illuminators, moisture such as mist and fog or rain on objects causes reection of the infrared illumination back into the camera which causes the shutter to close resulting in loss of important details in darker scenes. The more infrared illumination you throw on the scene, the worse the problem becomes. Thermal imaging cameras on the other hand produce crisp images in the darkest of nights. Contrary to other technologies, thermal imaging cameras need no light whatsoever to produce a crisp image. They can see through smoke and most types of fog/haze, in practically all weather conditions.

objects. Without a doubt, thermal cameras are the best 24-hour imaging option. Roy Alves, Axis Communications: Thermal network cameras are best suited to secure an area or a perimeter in complete darkness or challenging weather conditions such as heavy fog, rain or snow. Philip Smerkovitz, TeleEye SA: Thermal imaging cameras perform equally well in the day and night, making them ideal for many applications including government and military, commercial security, automotive, marine and thermography applications to name a few.

HSS: What are the decision points when considering a thermal or optical HD camera?
Nick Grange, C3: The statement horses for courses rings true, thermal cameras would be used in situations with no or low light as well as applications where long ranges need to be covered. It allows the user to interrogate the footage with great detail due to the high resolution or pixel count of the recorded footage. Roy Alves, Axis Communications: It is important to remember that a thermal network camera is best suited to complement a professional IP surveillance system. Thermal cameras do not, however, deliver images that allow reliable identication that is why thermal cameras and conventional cameras complement and support each other in a surveillance installation. Depending on the users requirements, a thermal network camera would best be suited for detecting an object while an HD offering would then be used in conjunction with the thermal camera for reliable identication.

HSS: Do you have any examples of thermals in use today?

Tanli Lundgren, C3: C3 has numerous sites where we have successfully implemented thermal cameras combined with intelligent video analytics as part of the perimeter security solution. These sites range from the tunnels of the Gautrain, perimeters of large residential and golng estates, power stations, numerous gold and copper mines, precious metal reneries and classied national keypoints. C3s thermal cameras were chosen for the Gautrain project after an extensive testing period between similar technologies. The results were sent over to France for the nal decision to be made. C3s Opgal thermal cameras combined with ioimage intelligent video analytics were the chosen technology. Roy Alves, Axis Communications: TVMS used our thermal network cameras at the Sasol Ammonia plant in Sasolburg. These cameras are used for general monitoring of the facility as well as temperature monitoring. The uctuation in temperature affects the

HSS: What scenarios are thermal cameras suited to? Day/night/ low-light?
Tanli Lundgren, C3: Everything you see in normal life has a heat signature. Many of the objects you could be looking for, like people, generate their own contrast because they generate their own heat. Thermal imagers can see them well because they dont just make pictures from heat; they make pictures from the minute differences in heat between

Philip Smerkovitz, TeleEye SA.


CCTV Handbook 2011

stability of the product and also affects the quality of the end product. TVMS was able to recommend Axis thermal network cameras to Sasol to monitor these temperature uctuations. The second advantage with using thermal cameras is to monitor the ames emitted outside the processing area. These ames can, if too large, cause damage to the facility and staff, in both cases it is impossible to monitor with the naked eye as it is an invisible gas. However, with thermal imaging the camera is able to alert the operator if the temperature and ame size grows too large. The operator can then alert the processing plant accordingly and avoid unnecessary damage to property and loss of life. Philip Smerkovitz, TeleEye SA: FLIR has been used worldwide in a wealth of high security applications from ports and harbours to nuclear facilities, power stations and even residential installations.

HSS: Are there any other facts about thermal technology you think our readers should know?
Tanli Lundgren, C3: A couple of important interesting facts are: 1. Thermal cameras are more energy efcient and cheaper to run than the CCD / IR illuminator option. We did a costing exercise last year comparing the energy costs between thermal cameras on a 4 km perimeter and CCD IR illumination. The annual electricity costs to secure a 4 km perimeter using the CCD and IR illuminator combination was an estimated R18 266.69 compared to the thermal camera option of only R1178.50. 2. You need less thermal cameras to secure a perimeter than you do CCDs. Thermal cameras, with a clear line of sight can cover 400 metres in total darkness (using various lenses you can of course increase this gure) with an overlap of 50 metres between cameras. In order to secure a 4 km perimeter you would need 10 thermal cameras. CCD cameras cover about 60 metres, which is the acceptable standard when combined with intelligent video analytics. Of course, CCD cameras need help in order to see intruders at night and for this reason they are often combined with infrared illuminators. So, over a 4 km perimeter you would need approximately 60 CCD cameras plus 60 infrared illuminators. 3. When purchasing thermal cameras, it is imperative to check support in SA, most suppliers have to send faulty stock back to their overseas manufacturers and have no strategic spare or repair capabilities in SA. Philip Smerkovitz, TeleEye SA: The one area that needs to be highlighted is the perception people have of the cost of thermal. We can show that the TCO for a thermal installation is lower than conventional CCTV equipment due to the superior range performance under all lighting and weather conditions. If we look at both entry-level and high-end products, a FLIR F-112 19 mm camera which retails for around R45 000, can detect a human up to 300 metres, while the same coverage using static CCTV cameras would require at least six cameras spaced every 40 to 50 metres. The cost of cameras, poles and reticulation far outweigh the cost of a single thermal installation. At the higher end the FLIR F-304 100 mm camera, which retails around R200 000, offers human detection up to 2 km. Anyone who has been quoted on CCTV perimeter detection for this distance using conventional cameras understands that FLIR thermal cameras are a far lower cost alternative that produces superior verication images. CCTV Handbook 2011




ll network cameras have a basic physical limitation: they need light to work. At least up to now. Sure, some network cameras have night and day functionality that allows them to operate in very poor lighting conditions, down to fractions of a lux. And of course, if natural light is not available it can be substituted by electrical light, either visible to the human eye or infrared. But in some instances these solutions have serious drawbacks they can be expensive and inefcient, and illumination creates shadows where an intruder can hide, to mention a few. The thermal network camera is a perfect complement to any professional IP surveillance system; it can be seamlessly combined with existing equipment, and it is possible to secure an area or a perimeter that lies in complete darkness.

By Roy Alves, Country Manager, Axis Communications South Africa.

started to change as new sensors, new materials and other improvements are driving the volumes and making prices more reasonable. Thermal cameras can now be found in various lines of business such as the aircraft industry, shipping industry, and security and surveillance. The technology is also used in public services like re ghting and law enforcement. Lately it has even appeared in consumer products, albeit often expensive ones like luxury cars.

Challenges posed by difcult conditions

Thermal cameras do not only perform well in total darkness, they also perform well under difcult climatic circumstances such as haze, dust, rain, snow and smoke. All the same, there are physical limitations to the performance of thermal cameras. Water droplets or small dust particles in the air will naturally hinder the transmittance of thermal radiation from a single object, making it harder to detect from a great distance. Consequently, haze, snow and rain will hamper camera performance. Water limits thermal radiation and the moisture in the air evens out temperature differences between different objects in the picture. Therefore, a thermal camera will produce better and clearer images during winter with clear skies and good weather conditions than under comparable atmospheric conditions during summer when humidity is usually higher. But even with these limitations considered, when it comes to detection, thermal cameras are superior to conventional cameras under a wide range of difcult weather conditions.

Thermal cameras advance surveillance capabilities in all light conditions.

Thermal technology enters the mainstream

Images, as they are perceived by the human eye, can be described as light reected by different objects. No light means no reection and thus the eye is blind under such circumstances. Thermal images on the other hand, are not dependent on visible light. Instead, images are created by operating in the infrared spectrum. It works perfectly well even in total darkness since the ambient light level does not matter. What makes this possible is the fact that all objects organic or inorganic emit a certain amount of infrared radiation as a function of their temperature. Humans cannot see this, but we can sense it, for example, when we approach a campre or enter a sauna. The greater the temperature difference in a scene, the clearer the thermal images will be. Thermal imaging is nothing new. But until recently, costs have usually been prohibitive, making practical applications outside the military rare. This has

And legal issues

A number of products and technologies that can be used both for military purposes and in commercial applications are called dual-use goods. Exports of such items are regulated in the international


CCTV Handbook 2011

Wassenaar Arrangement from 1996, which aims to promote transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms as well as dual-use goods and technologies. Not surprisingly, thermal imaging technologies, which often have been originally developed for military use, fall under this category. Thermal sensors may therefore only be freely exported if the maximum frame rate is 9 fps or below. Most cameras for surveillance purposes fall under this category. Cameras with a maximum of 111 000 pixels and a frame rate of up to 60 fps can be sold in the US, the EU, and a handful of other friendly nations, on the condition that the buyer is registered and can be traced. Regardless of these restrictions, resolutions are generally much lower for thermal cameras than for conventional network cameras. This is primarily due to the more expensive sensor technology involved in thermal imaging. Lower frame rate is less of a problem in most surveillance applications since thermal cameras are rst and foremost used for detection and not for identication.

Real world benets

With thermal imaging becoming relatively cheaper and an integral part of IP

surveillance systems, a whole range of uses becomes both possible and economically viable. Thermal cameras can be an excellent complement in many situations where conventional cameras are inadequate or insufcient. They are, of course, unparalleled in a situation of total darkness. They can also be an option in areas that are very difcult to illuminate effectively, for example a sea front, a harbour, or any other vast expanse of open water. Similarly, articial light not only runs the risk of revealing where the cameras are placed, enabling parties to avoid or vandalise them, but can also create projected shadows in which an intruder can avoid detection. Furthermore, spotlights can blind as well as illuminate. Therefore, cameras that do not rely on light can be the preferred solution in many different trafc situations, whether it is in railway tunnels, on airstrips or on regular streets. Thermal cameras, on the other hand, cannot be blinded by bright lights or laser beams. Overall, thermal network cameras perfectly complement and complete a network video system, making sure that objects, people, and incidents are detected 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Axiss new AXIS Q1921 and AXIS Q1921-E thermal network cameras are aimed at cost efcient 24/7 area or perimeter surveillance of all security applications such as roads, tunnels and airports. The enhanced resolution and the large variety of lens alternatives ensure improved image quality and detection range. The new cameras integrate perfectly with any network video system, delivering all the benets that customers have learned to expect from network cameras. AXIS Q1921 is designed for indoor surveillance, while AXIS Q1921-E is an IP66-rated, outdoor-ready camera, with four available lens alternatives. In addition, they support key IP-Surveillance features such as H.264 and Motion JPEG, audio, local storage and Power over Ethernet. Intelligent video is a key component of any thermal camera, and AXIS Q1921/-E provide tampering alarm, motion detection, and support for AXIS Camera Application Platform. Both cameras support the ONVIF specication for interoperability of network video products. For more information contact Axis Communications, +27 (0)11 548 6780,, CCTV Handbook 2011




By Andrew Seldon.

practical capabilities of the software coupled with the correct installation. It is imperative to understand the application required and to have correct integration and positioning. Of course, you also need a very reliable video analytics product, as some of the analytics products on the market have shortcomings which installers are not always aware of. Video analytics is successful and will work if installed correctly. Rob Anderson, Consultant: Video Analytics is a technology that is used to analyse video for specic information. That would imply that it should always start with a good picture. It is often a bigger challenge, particularly in the outdoor scenario, than getting the analytics to work. Analytics is divided into 3 options: Available, deployable and working. Theoretically possible, will be available some time soon. Not soon, Star Wars stuff. It seems that the following is working well: Motion detection. Camera tampering. Number plate recognition. We have seen fairly good results in areas such as: Tripwire (virtual line). Direction analysis. Leaving/entering. Loitering. Object speed. Stationary object. A good analytics system requires: A realistic understanding of what can be achieved. Well planned camera positions. Properly calibrated system. Sufcient processing power to do the job. High quality analytics. The rule is that if it sounds unbelievable, then it probably is. Christian Bohn, Milestone Systems: Milestone has seen a denite increase in interest about analytics and also in deployment during 2010. However, we still project that theres a long way to go before analytics solutions take off in broader market implementation.

Hi-Tech Security Solutions discusses video analytics with people who know.

ideo analytics was a bit of a downer last year. It was supposed to change the world and ended up doing a few interesting things, but nothing mind blowing. So where are we in the analytics world? What can we expect in the coming year?

Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Has video analytics met expectations? If not, why not?
Bernard Senekal, Sentronics: Video analytics has not met the expectations set. This is partly due to overhyping of the technology and the fact that every man and his mouse has jumped the bandwagon claiming they are able to run analytics. Companies developing analytics as part of their core offering have also been learning about the technology as they develop it. Generally, they ran into unforeseen challenges and in most instances have had to go back to the drawing board. As with any new technology, analytics is constantly evolving. Challenges such as low-resolution cameras, a lack of understanding of camera positioning and lighting considerations have posed additional problems. With the world of HD/megapixel cameras becoming a standard and an increased understanding of the prerequisites to successfully deploy analytics, we can expect to see more success in future analytics applications. Brendon Cowley, C3: Firstly, installers need to understand users expectations before implementing video analytics. Many companies over promise and under deliver. This type of technology takes specialised training and many years of experience in order for it to be deployed successfully. Many y by night companies install video analytics and do not get the desired results, not necessarily because of the software, but because of the lack of expertise from the installers. You cannot rely on the software to do all the work for you, it takes extensive training to understand the

HSS: What can we expect in the analytics market this year?

Bernard Senekal, Sentronics: The core focus seems to be delivering video content analysis with data mining abilities. Simply stated, analytics will be a reporting tool that can be used real-time or post mortem to strengthen security protocols and procedures for increased risk mitigation and situation management. Another area is the focus on analytics particular to specic vertical markets, such as retail environments, perimeter security (specically used with thermal technologies). The success of this will be determined by market demand and how strategically the providers of


CCTV Handbook 2011

analytical platforms will position themselves with key system providers that own market share in order to give them the ability to fast track analytics to the broader market. Brendon Cowley, C3: I think we can expect enhanced detection and improved recognition capabilities. Like any software, it is constantly evolving and progressing. However, I need to reiterate that correct installation is imperative to the success of the product. You will no doubt get soggy promises if the analytics are not deployed correctly. Rob Anderson, consultant: Improved algorithms and a better-educated client base. We also expect edge storage and processing will grow in popularity. Christian Bohn, Milestone Systems: We dont expect reworks this year. The focus of the analytics providers is to deliver on promises. Milestone expects to see a continued growing interest in customers looking at analytics, but not a parallel interest in deployments. We expect the analytics vendors to set more realistic expectations after over-promising for years. The hype is past, now we will begin to see video analytics deployed in those areas where it will be most helpful.

security fences, motion sensors, burglar alarms, CCTV systems and recorders. Intelligent video performs indoor and outdoor detection for various security and safety scenarios, such as intrusion detection, unattended baggage detection, stopped vehicle detection, and object removal detection, as well as provides the security automation feature of autonomous person/vehicle tracking with a pan/tilt/ zoom (PTZ) camera. Rob Anderson, Consultant: The prime objective must be to add value to the CCTV investment and improve security.

HSS: Which companies are leading the analytics market?

Bernard Senekal, Sentronics: Many companies exist, but to separate the marketing uff from companies that provide working analytics, one has to look at: 1. It has to be the core focus of the company, not just a feature of their video management system, and 2. The level of integration and adoption of the technology by third party video management systems that own key market share. Brendon Cowley, C3: What does a customer need to look for? The simple answer to that is previously successful projects involving analytics. Ask your installer about their experience with analytics. Where have they installed systems before and to what scale. Ask them if you can visit sites where they have done an installation and talk to the various end users to nd out if they are happy with the installation and service they received. Is the analytics performing to their expectations? Stay away from y by night companies that have little experience and use inferior products. Rob Anderson, Consultant: A very difcult one. I have just seen tests on cheap cameras with analytics that looked better than what I have seen on a market-leading product. I think it is the same as buying a car. Read the specications and then ask for a live demonstration to prove the specications under your conditions. The rule is always to try to break the system. You then understand its limits.
Rob Anderson, Consultant. Bernard Senekal, Sentronics.

HSS: How do you sell analytics? What are the business benets and value adds of adding analytics to your surveillance infrastructure?
Bernard Senekal, Sentronics: Analytics has to be considered from the very start when designing a system. We have seen designs where clients dont consider the option of using analytics initially and then try to slap it on later. This is almost always a disaster. Analytics is sold as a value added technology that presents the ability to reduce total cost of ownership of a system and increases the rate for return on investment. It allows for pro-active security management and post mortem reporting that strengthens security and risk mitigation strategies. When one focuses on specic vertical market requirements, such as retail, then analytics becomes so much more than just an extension of security, it becomes a tool that can be used to analyse consumer behaviour and demographic proling. The key to selling analytics is not to sell it as a silver bullet that will make or break the system, but rather a technology that increases efciency and the ability to act on the data it provides. Tanli Lundgren, C3: Security operators cannot effectively monitor multiple surveillance cameras and sensors and its a well-known statistic that after just 22 minutes an operator misses 95% of scene activity. Video analytics enhances the effectiveness of surveillance by automating the day-to-day and time critical task of monitoring video and detecting events. Video analytics helps to lower costs with advantages over traditional

Brendon Cowley, C3.

Christian Bohn, Milestone Systems: There is no one leader in the analytics market from a technology standpoint. The architecture of the analytics can vary widely, designed for operation on a camera or other device (edge-based), server, database, etc. Different companies target various customer needs in multiple ways, and the solutions differ from simple to highly advanced. Some companies focus on retail sector needs like people counting; others on transportation industry demands such as left objects or crowd management issues; still others on LPR/ANPR for trafc control or general solutions for perimeter controls. Military installations can have even more sophisticated requirements.

Christian Bohn. CCTV Handbook 2011




By Ian Crosby, Product Marketing Manager, Bosch Security Systems.

describing the colour response of the human eye and of colour camera more closely than incandescent light sources and hence is better able to produce accurate renditions of the colours in a CCTV scene. By contrast, the spectrum of high-power sodium lamps peaks in the yellow and metal halide lamps peak in the blue, neither of which are benecial to colour CCTV, as they cause major shifting of the colours within scene.

Safety lighting goes solid state

Security systems manufacturers like Bosch are also developing white-LED based safety lighting systems, used to illuminate perimeter fencing and critical infrastructures such as power stations, rail networks and airports. To put the potential savings achievable by whiteLED based systems in perspective, consider a perimeter fence of typically 50 km illuminated along its length by 1 kW metal-halide safety lights, every 40 m. This makes a total of 1250 lamps and a total power consumption of 1.25 MW. Replacing these metal-halide lamps with white-LED illuminators, which produce the same illumination level but with a power consumption of only around 35 W, reduces the consumption to around 44 kW. In real terms this is a saving of nearly 97% in electrical running costs. In addition to savings on power are the savings possible in maintenance costs. Metal-halide lamps burning approximately 12 hours a day will need replacing every 6 months. In contrast, Boschs AEGIS white LED illuminators will operate for a minimum of 5 years without degradation. These are potential cost-savings no administrator of a large site can possibly ignore. Moreover, the light distribution of an LED-based illuminator can be more precisely controlled than with traditional light sources. This helps to eliminate light pollution as the light can be directed precisely on the scene instead of being thrown skyward and to surrounding areas where it will add to light pollution (as well as wasting more than 30% of the energy consumed). The safety of an area is enhanced when directional light is used as areas are more evenly illuminated with fewer shadows.

New solidstate lighting technology delivers added benets and opportunities to the security industry.

he lighting industry is not alone in beneting from the development of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The security industry has fast come to recognise the benets of switching to LED-based illumination. These LED platforms deliver operational lifetimes of up to 50 000 hours 50 times that of traditional lamps and consume less than 20% of the power for the same illumination levels. This translates into dramatically reduced running costs and lower CO2 emissions. For the lighting industry, the development of white LEDs (phosphor-coated blue LED dies) was the big driver for the changeover. Before the development of blue LEDs in the mid 1990s made the generation of white light possible, the only LEDs available were infrared and through red to green, from which it is impossible to generate white light. Even before the breakthroughs in white-LED technology, security system manufacturers had begun to make use of high-power infra-red LED illuminators for covert CCTV surveillance. Infra-red, which is invisible to the human eye when used with low light cameras, enables true night-time surveillance. This security lighting, specically designed for CCTV, initially used tungsten-halogen based illuminators and later illuminators based on infrared powered LEDs. You could say in fact that security systems manufacturers were already a step ahead of the lighting industry in the use of LED illumination. Following the development of the white LED, security systems manufacturers were able to extend the application of security lighting to cover night-time colour imaging. This became possible thanks to the fact that the spectral output of white LEDs follows the photopic curve

Double the cost-savings

Advances in high-power white LED technology has led to another interesting development. In the past, separate installations were needed for security and safety lighting. This was unavoidable, of course, since the spectral output of high-power sodium and metalhalide lamps (traditionally used for safety lighting) are not suitable for colour CCTV. With white LED illuminators, however, it is now possible to combine security and safety lighting in a single installation, thanks to the


CCTV Handbook 2011

white LEDs spectral output which is ideal for colour CCTV imaging. The benets are obvious and include signicantly lower hardware and installation costs, since one installation can now perform both tasks and lead to further reductions in energy consumption. End users have been quick to recognise these benets and all predictions point to a thriving new market developing for security systems manufacturers.

Extreme performance
LED lighting technology not only provides better economy and longer operational lifetimes than traditional lighting technologies, the products are intrinsically more robust with better shock resistance. They are therefore better suited for use in areas prone to vibration such as road bridges, poles, pylons, wind turbines, ships and rail networks. A disadvantage, however, is that like all semiconductor devices their performance is temperature sensitive and the output will degrade over time. The ageing effect is rather dramatic as LEDs output can degrade by around 10% in the rst 6 months of operation and then continue to degrade over the rest of the units lifetime. This disadvantage is overcome by Boschs AEGIS infra-red and white-light which have been specically designed to combat LED degradation

and temperature uctuation. AEGIS features a feedback circuit that compensates for any degradation in light output caused by increasing temperatures and ageing. This patent-pending technology is known as Constant Light. The system continuously measures the light output from the LEDs and automatically adjusts the drive current to maintain light output at a constant level. With Boschs Constant Light technology, the light output of the AEGIS illuminator is guaranteed to remain constant at temperatures of +50-degrees Celsius. AEGIS also features 3D diffuser (Black Diamond) technology which delivers uniform illumination to a scene. This ensures that all radiant energy emitted by the LEDs is directed at the scene with no leakage skywards as happens with circular emitting illuminators. Whats more, the illumination is evenly distributed between the foreground and background, eliminating hotspots and foreground overexposure and allowing the camera to operate correctly within its dynamic range. The net effect of this technology is increased dynamic range and better CCTV imaging. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems - South Africa & Sub-Sahara Africa, +27 (0)11 651 9818, CCTV Handbook 2011




Information from: Geutebrck

Run through this quick 10-point check every time you specify or install a CCTV system.

1. Is white-light g or infrared illumination required? q

Visible deterrent Full colour rendition Easy set-up Covert Longer distances No light pollution

Light pollution Reduced distances Limited deterrent More dif difcult cult to set-up set up

Camera type suitable

Colour Day/Night Monochrome Day/night Monochrome

White light


2. Ensure the horizontal angle of illumination covers the full eld of view
To provide high quality images is essential. Simply match the illumination to the eld of view of the lens using a lens calculator.

7. Consider the positioning of the lighting.

It should be tted so that no camera is looking directly at a light source. The best solution is mounting the illumination at the camera position. Also, consider any line of sight obstacles. As light travels in straight lines, any obstacles such as overgrown foliage will create shadows.

Lighting is a critical aspect of surveillance.

3. What is the maximum distance to illuminate?

Specify the illuminator model based on the illumination angle and distance required.

8. Consider the camera and lens.

A high performance camera and lens will provide higher quality images with CCTV lighting. Lower performance camera and lens combinations will require additional lighting to provide similar results.

4. If white-light is needed, ensure that colour corrected white-light is used.

Check that red, green and blue colours can all be seen accurately during night-time operation.

5. If Infrared is needed specify the wavelength carefully.

Lower wavelengths such as 850 nm provide greater distances. Longer wavelengths such as 950 nm provide covert illumination but achievable distances are reduced and there is an increased risk of focus shift between day and night.

9. If the illumination is being used with a fully functional dome camera then a choice must be made between wide angle illumination, local area illumination or target area illumination.
Wide-angle illumination is preferential as it can provide 360 lighting for the dome.

10. Is light pollution a critical factor?

Using white-light ensure that the illuminators are pointing down to minimise light pollution. If no light pollution is permissible then infrared lighting must be used.

6. Consider the maintenance and running costs of the illumination system.

Ensure that long life, low consumption lighting is used.

TECHNICAL TIP If the exact eld of view is unknown, Adaptive Illumination products can be used to provide vari-focal lighting.

TECHNICAL TIP Even illumination every CCTV lighting system should provide even illumination.
For more information contact Geutebrck, +27(0)11 867 6585,,


CCTV Handbook 2011 CCTV Handbook 2011




A lack of effective training can hamper surveillance effectiveness.

hether on the rugby eld or in the work place, teams that lack adequate training are likely to be soundly beaten by the competition. Yet, in so many cases, these defeats can be averted by addressing performance issues with correct training, believes Larry Sloley, Tavcom training ofcer for Elvey Security Technologies. Its a mathematical equation: a lack of training equates to a loss of prot, he says. Field workers without sufcient technical knowledge often end up costing their companies more money than would have been spent on training courses. The security industry, he adds, is a case in point. Challenged by a glut of underskilled installers in the elds of intruder alarms, access control and CCTV, mistakes are commonplace and impact heavily on bottom lines. Training is the best way of preparing a team to perform intelligently and logically under all circumstances, Sloley maintains. A job done properly the rst time is the only way to create a professional image in the eyes of the customer, to limit callbacks and to ensure positive word-of-mouth advertising. In the CCTV Systems Planning course, Tavcom focuses on ensuring that students are au fait with the full range of operational requirements. From site surveying to equipment assessments and job costings, Tavcom trains sales staff and technicians to be able to deliver a complete service to their clients. When designing a t-for-purpose system, its important to know more than just the basics. A knowledgeable technician will not only be able to install a system properly but will also be able to congure it to deliver at its capacity. A lack of proper training often results in a hit and miss approach, says Sloley. Being able to understand product limitations, benets and applications is critical to professional installers who want to determine the exact requirements of a job. In large installations, the choice of lens can mean the success or failure of the project. The effectiveness of a system, or the lack thereof, can also depend on factors such as selecting the appropriate transmission method and understanding the spectral responses of cameras under different lighting conditions. If these are not done professionally, the system will under-deliver and the client will be disappointed. Accordingly in their courses, Tavcom uses devices such as Rotakin target boards, to measure and improve CCTV camera effectiveness. One of just a handful of trainers in South Africa to use such teaching aides, Sloley said he strives to stay abreast of best international practices and apply them locally even though the local market has not yet implemented a code of practice. For more information contact Elvey Security Technologies, +27 (0)11 401 6700,,


CCTV Handbook 2011 CCTV Handbook 2011




Submitted by Geutebrck.

or the security industry, the major attraction of the H.264 standard is the prospect of high levels of compression and low storage costs. However, as a result of its multimedia heritage, the vast majority of H.264 implementations come with annoying drawbacks: inability to crawl backwards frame by frame, jerky images in fast forward and fast rewind, latencies and unnecessary costs. Although it is quite possible to produce an H.264 product without these negative side effects, very few have done it. One reason for this is that developing a video surveillance-friendly implementation involves a basic design rethink and some in-depth consideration of where and when, and what kind of data compression is necessary or desirable. Like MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 before it, H.264 also uses differential compression. Whereas the earlier M-JPEG standard compresses each individual image in a video sequence independently from all other images, differential processes only consider the changes between one image and the previous and/or the following images. This approach does drastically reduce the amount of data that has to be stored, but it means that for successful decoding, all the frames used for compression are also needed for decompression, i.e. the whole P-chain or group of pictures (GoP) beginning with the independent I-frame. If this GoP is not available in its entirety then compression errors or artifacts are produced, and if the chains are long, gaps of several seconds can result.

The drawbacks of P-chains

In video surveillance, it is useful to be able to discard individual pictures from a sequence. Time lapse recording for instance uses selective discarding to save much more storage space than any compression process can. Yet with most H.264 implementations, time-lapse recording is simply not possible. In addition, there are many monitoring situations where smooth live video is required for display, but one frame per second may be adequate for documentation purposes. With M-JPEG you can control live video and recording frame rates separately, but not with most H.264 products. Typical compromises get round this by either recording with a higher picture rate than necessary, or suffering a jerky live display with the same reduced picture rate as the recording. The paradoxical result of the rst compromise is that despite using H.264, storage costs can be even greater than with M-JPEG. Without the ability to discard frames video analysis may cost more. This is because the system load is minimised by matching the number of analysed frames per second with the speed of the observed event. Hence, for a wide-angle camera where only relatively slow movement occurs in the scene, a handful of pictures per second may sufce to capture

Compression is not always compression. Geutebrck discusses H.264.


CCTV Handbook 2011

all relevant information. But with P-chain restrictions in force, the analysis channel still has to process 25 pictures per second and processing ve times the data inevitably means higher costs.

Security-optimised H.264 structures

Yet, within the H.264 framework there are other ways of structuring the compression process which do not involve chains. For example, each P frame may be generated by only referring to the I frame. This structure allows individual P frames to be discarded without affecting the decompression of other images in the GoP, but it is seldom used because it reduces compression efciency. Closer examination though shows that any disadvantage is more than offset by gains in exibility and the ability to employ other video surveillance costreduction processes such as time-lapse recording, fading long term memory as well as independent control of display and recording rates. And, free from the constriction of P-chains, this kind of encoder can generate new I-frames at will, thus enabling video characteristics to be changed instantly and surveillance process latencies to be eliminated. Although still a minority, products using this kind of structure do now exist. For more information contact Geutebrck, +27(0)11 867 6585,,

Ease of use
In surveillance applications, ease of use is a major issue as it inuences the effectiveness of the whole operation. Operators want to crawl forwards and backwards frame by frame, to run video forwards and backwards without losing track of the action, to view fully synchronised recordings from several cameras at once to analyse the same event from different angles. And most importantly, to experience no delay in camera reaction when sending its commands via the operator keyboard a feature that most standardised H264 structure IP systems cannot achieve. Yet P-chains here represent an annoying irritant at best and a security risk at worst, causing jumps during picture navigation and making video replay uncomfortable for users. Ironically, the overall effect of P-chains and the limitations they impose is to lead systems to be bigger than necessary in order to ensure that appropriately high picture rates, qualities and resolutions are available if there is an alarm. This is surely a wasteful approach. CCTV Handbook 2011




exposure situations, e.g. with backlighting, darker areas become even darker and faces cannot be recognised any more. These drawbacks prompted an iris-free lens design.

Vladimir Milovanovic, Industrial Automation and Control

Iris-free lens design

Mobotix has taken a completely different approach to solving the problem: Mobotix uses digital CMOS sensors that do not exhibit bleeding as CCD sensors do. In addition, the digital CMOS sensors used in Mobotix cameras do not need to be exposed at a constant level of light to provide a good image. Instead, exposure is controlled digitally from 1/8000th of a second to 1 second. Since Mobotix cameras are using an irisfree lens design, they do not suffer from the drawbacks and limitations imposed by an auto iris, ie, Mobotix cameras have no moving parts that can fail or lock in uctuating temperatures. Without any moving parts, they are therefore so robust that maintenance is reduced to a minimum. The temperature range from -30 degrees Celsius to +60 degrees Celsius is achieved without heating or fan at only 3 watts. Since no PC hard disk is required for recording, there are no parts that wear out in the entire video system. Mobotix cameras implement the iris-free lens design by applying a sophisticated software-based exposure control algorithm. This algorithm relies on exposure windows that are drawn on specic areas of the image. The exposure control algorithm uses these exposure windows to maintain good exposure. Without the auto iris, the camera can electronically choose what to see. Mobotix cameras are not affected adversely by sunlight such as direct sunlight. They deliver meaningful, detailed images all the time, because the camera software supports easy programming of exposure windows to cope with specic situations. Auto-iris lens design is a relic from analogue technology. Its use involves drawbacks and even impairs high-resolution megapixel digital video cameras. By using a digital CMOS sensor combined with software-based exposure control, iris-free lens design guarantees optimal image exposure and outperforms conventional lens designs that are relying on auto-iris exposure control. For more information contact Industrial Automation and Control, +27 (0)12 657 3600,,

The lens can make a dramatic difference when it comes to HD video surveillance.

ideo surveillance systems have to cope with scenes with often-changing light conditions. The illumination of outdoor scenes in particular can vary from bright sunlight to complete darkness. CCD sensors used in analogue as well as in digital video cameras cannot handle bright sunlight. When overexposed, they tend to exhibit vertical white stripes due to bleeding. The CCD sensors can even physically deteriorate when exposed to bright sunlight for longer periods of time without protection.

Conventional solution
Analogue video cameras solve this problem by a lens design that uses an auto iris. An auto iris is a diaphragm with electrically adjustable aperture. The aperture is formed by several motor-driven blades controlled by a signal, which in turn is derived from the analogue video signal. The use of an auto iris imposes several drawbacks: Moving parts are prone to fail. By using a motor-driven device, reliability and robustness are adversely affected. Varying the aperture changes depth of eld. An image might look focused at high illumination since the camera uses a low aperture and thus has a high depth of eld. However, as illumination decreases, the aperture opens and depth of eld decreases, leading to a larger image area that is out of focus. When applying the auto-iris lens design to digital video cameras, this creates even more counter-productive effects as the shape of the diaphragm inuences the appearance of blurred image areas. Low-quality diaphragms with fewer blades result in unnatural out-of-focus image areas. This effect becomes more dominant as the resolution of the image sensor increases, e.g. for megapixel digital video cameras. Most cameras with auto iris implement a basic exposure control, averaging brightness over the total image area in order to maintain a constant level of light on the image sensor. In critical


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containment (trays, conduit and truncking). Finally, the system would have to be completely replaced in the event that an upgrade to IP is required.

Analogue on UTP
Herein lies the best of both worlds, says Greeff. It allows for IP connectivity (RJ45) with power as well as all the real-time advantages of analogue camera. The buyer also has choices with regard to budget, low lighting requirements, vendor device options and even signal transmission. Through the use of one multi-pair cable, various signals including LV power, data (telemetry) and contact (alarms, access control) can be instantly transmitted. Whats more, UTPs infrastructure is suitable for migration to IP. Immune to interference, it boasts built-in noise rejection circuitry to prevent picture distortion and poor recordings. Additionally, all units come standard with ground lifting (ground loop isolation), which normally has to be purchased separately.

Examining the advantages of UTP cabling.

ll too often, business owners contemplating the installation of CCTV on their premises, tend to focus primarily on image resolution and digital video recorder capacity. However, cautions Zane Greeff, technical director at Elvey Security Technologies, it is also critical for them to consider choice of transmission between cameras and digital video recorders (DVRs) in their decisionmaking process, since this can impact heavily on the efcacy of a system. Data transmission methods are often not given much thought, yet its this technology that connects all the surveillance devices together, he says. Prospective end users need to be aware that cabling accounts for a signicant portion of the overall cost of the system, in terms of both money and labour. They also need to consider that, depending on the application, the choice of transmission will determine how far each device can be positioned without compromising image quality. For the uninitiated, the choice of transmission technology can be a daunting one to make considering that there are ve major options available. These include Coax, UTP (unshielded twisted pair) analogue, IP (Internet Protocol), wireless and bre. Each has advantages and disadvantages so its worth the buyer examining them in some detail in order to be able to make the best choice for his needs.

IP-based camera systems are here to stay, maintains Greeff. On paper, the technology has a number of inherent advantages over some competing technologies. For instance, there are no cable distance issues (90-100 m rule) and real-time transmission over UTP with power and data supply can be achieved at distances of up to 800 m, depending upon camera loading. What the public needs to realise is that analogue and IP over UTP is also an option, though one often overlooked. Another key benet of UTP is that it costs less per metre than any other type of LAN (local area network) cable. In real terms, this translates to companies spending less on cabling and more on actual end-user security devices. UTP also opens up possibilities in terms of extension. Spare pairs are easy to accommodate at little, if any, additional cost because, much like telephone extensions, the spare pairs are already there. All active units also contain built-in ground lifting features, which in other systems, have to be bought separately. By combining the benets of UTP and high-performance video transmission equipment, Greeff maintains that end users can enjoy superior technology. UTP is convenient, simple to use, and offers highquality UTP video transmission, all of which combine to bring the user a viable, competitive and future-proof security solution. For more information contact Elvey Security Technologies, +27 (0)11 401 6700,,

This, says Greeff, is a dated transmission platform with little to recommend it. Not only does it deteriorate over a relatively short period of time, but it is subject to interference from various sources. Coax is also expensive to purchase (due to copper price uctuations), difcult to install and expensive in terms of cable


CCTV Handbook 2011 CCTV Handbook 2011




ith the growth of video surveillance and the coexistence of analogue and digital as a measured step to the transition to digital video surveillance continuing, there is another leap to take involving storage, retrieval and image management. Storage, it turns out has both a price and a growing role to play in evolving systems. There are different uses and purposes of stored video, various locations where images can be stored, a myriad of storage types and business and operations issues to consider. Well share the thoughts and experiences of CSO Terry Jones and Helena Smith, his second-in-command, who work for a midsized enterprise. They now face the options of storage for their current security video solutions, as well as anticipation of future technological changes and management needs. Terry and Helena both know storage and video solutions have come a long way. They also know that their current storage needs and especially future IP video developments, using megapixel cameras, have purchase, maintenance and operations costs, too. In many ways, it is a matter of capacity, when it comes to storage. Thats what it is all about. In the world of computers, where digital security video resides, there are three types of memory: video, storage and RAM. Storage memory is on your hard drive and is used to store everything thats software or virtual on your computer, such as programs, les, settings, etc. There are bits, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes and petabytes. A petabyte is 1 024 terabytes. Google, for example, processes about 24 petabytes of data per day, much of it video through YouTube. Within security applications, it is apparent that with more cameras, more megapixel and high denition cameras, coupled with the need to look at more details for investigations and liability reasons, there are more security video bytes to place in storage.

By Mark S. Wilson, VP, Marketing, Innova.

The implications of digital video on storage needs and image management.

Security video storage

Intrusion detection, re alarm and electronic access control systems have vastly less storage needs when compared to what a video and audio content security system produces. Few things can create

data bits more rapidly than a digital video or analogue signals converted to digital information. Compression can allow storage devices to hold more data as well as let transmission infrastructure handle more information within the limits of bandwidth. During a planning meeting on security video storage, Helena points out to Terry that storing and recalling even highly compressed video involves data rates of millions of bits per second. And the video, with the addition of metadata labels for light or heavy intelligent retrieval and analytics is often compressed for practical storage. Each purpose spawns its own set of technical and economic requirements, costs and approaches. Archived security video, for instance, can involve video at several quality levels. Retrieval of video from storage is a key function and one that has grown more important thanks to the use of megapixel and high denition cameras which has spurred forensics applications in which more details allow security or law enforcement to see more of what happened. There are many different measures for evaluating the performance of video and image retrieval systems but all require a collection of data in storage and a query, often through a video management system or physical security information management system (PSIM). Every piece of an image is known to be either relevant or non-relevant to a particular query, but there are shades of relevancy. Total cost of ownership of storage involves a diversity of elements. There is the cost of the devices themselves as well as their functionalities. Different types of storage are differently priced. There are tools to determine storage. For instance, in a typical surveillance project, there are several factors that affect the amount of storage required, including: Type of camera, analogue or IP. Resolution, 1.3 megapixel, 3 megapixel, or others. CODEC, MJPEG, H.264, or others. Frame rate, 5 fps, 30 fps, or others. Dual streaming, separate streams for viewing and recording. Motion in the scene. Recording periods during the day. Levels of activity through the week. Storing bits is like operating any complex Continued on page 38


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Continued from page 36 ling system. The size of the container must t the application. But, as Helena points out, no practical universal storage medium exists, and all forms of storage have some drawbacks. She says that, when evaluating storage options, core characteristics are volatility, mutability, accessibility, and addressability. And high density, low cost, high reliability, and fast read and write times are all needed for many video applications.

Future proong the storage

Scalability is another storage issue. Security video systems tend to grow and change, especially in regard to coexistence of analogue and IP video, when migrating to all digital video and with megapixel and high denition cameras. Data storage at the edge can be useful when facing bandwidth challenges or in building in redundancy. Digital video recorders (DVRs) are among the most used security video storage devices. Still, when it comes to scaling, DVRs can add to cost since they handle a set number of cameras within a set geography. DVRs are generally available with 4, 8, 16 or 32 inputs while network video recorders may have limits based upon licences. In both cases, the amount of storage space needed may affect selection. For example, Terry has some 16-camera DVRs with only eight cameras so that he can take advantage of the larger hard drive size. Some DVRs are limited in the number or capacities of hard drives they can handle. Some require two to three minutes of rebooting when installing new hard drives. Others have hot-swappable hard drives, which mean no rebooting is necessary. The drives can be installed while another hard drive in the DVR is being used. The ability to add external hard drives also is an important factor.

than other technical approaches and is the dominant technology wherever a signicant amount of non-volatile, solid state storage is needed in digital cameras, for instance. Since ash memory is non-volatile, no power is needed to maintain the information stored in the chip. In addition, ash memory offers fast read access times and better shock resistance than, say, hard disks. It is useful for embedded applications. Yet, ash has storage size limitations (though there are 256 gigabyte units) and has a nite number of erase-write cycles .

Embedded and network DVRs

A digital video recorder (DVR) is a device that records video in a digital format. It has software and personal computer hardware, which enables video capture and playback to and from disk. DVRs can be stand-alone but more often these days, points out Helena, are part of an overall security video network or hang from the overall corporate network infrastructure. Thanks to such consumer applications as TiVo and satellite/ cable set-top boxes, when it comes to security applications, many DVRs have a myriad of advanced functions such as searches by event, time, date and camera. There is also much more control over quality and frame rate allowing disk space use to be optimised and the DVR can also be set to overwrite the oldest security footage should the disk become full. Some include compression capabilities and/or video analytics rmware. Security DVRs are either PC-based or embedded. A PC-based DVRs architecture is a classical personal computer with video capture cards. An embedded device is specically designed to have its own operating system and application software contained in rmware or read only memory. Embedded operating systems may be less susceptible to an outside attack. If the recorder uses a non-embedded operating system, protection software, such as anti-virus, may be installed. A network video recorder or NVR is an Internet protocol-based device that sits on a security or enterprise network. NVRs can be managed remotely via a local area network or over the Internet. NVRs are used in IT-based systems to expand capacity beyond DVRs. Most DVRs and NVRs have the ability to be remotely accessed either over a LAN, WAN, the Internet either by using proprietary licensed software or through a Web browser.

SD cards in the camera

A type of ash memory, secure digital (SD) is a card format originally developed by Panasonic, SanDisk, and Toshiba for use in portable devices. Standard SD cards have a maximum of 4-gigabyte capacity. SDHC high capacity cards can often hold 32 gigabytes while even newer SDXC extended

Specic types of storage

Videotape and time-lapse recorders are an historic means of image storage for consumers and security operations. Videotape is certainly not yet dead. It is cheap, ubiquitously available, portable and highly reliable, not to mention quite familiar. But, when compared to other techniques, it suffers from limited shelf life and long seek times that make nonlinear read/write impractical. Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage that can be electronically erased and reprogrammed for memory cards and USB ash drives for storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital devices. Flash memory stores information in an array of memory cells made from oatinggate transistors. Flash memory costs far less

capacity cards handle two terabytes of storage. SD is there to trigger recording when there is an alarm, among other techniques. Video cameras equipped with an SDHC card can often store a couple of days worth of video recorded at 30 frames per second. In the event that greater recording time is needed, some video cameras have a connection for a hard drive or other external storage unit. A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile storage device that stores data on rapidly rotating rigid (hence the hard part) platters with magnetic surfaces. HHDs are in personal and desktop computers and some now can hold up to two terabytes of storage. Laptop units hold much less. A typical hard drive has two electric motors, one to spin the disks and one to position the read/write head assembly; and because of that, there is a lifespan for all HDDs. When it comes to optical devices, there are CDs and DVDs and their read/writers, often used to capture security video of incidents for forensics and law enforcement use. The best DVDs hold about nine or so gigabytes. Newer blu-ray technology handles high denition.

From DAS to NAS to SAN

At this point, Helena provided a quick technology brieng on direct and networked storage. Direct-attached storage (DAS) is traditional mass storage, Helena reports, that does not use any network. Network-attached storage (NAS) is mass storage attached to a computer which another computer can access at le level over a local area network, a private wide area network, or, in the case of online le storage, over the Internet. Storage area network (SAN) is specialised network storage that provides other computers with storage capacity. The crucial Continued on page 40


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Continued from page 38 difference between NAS and SAN is, NAS presents and manages le systems to client computers, while SAN provides access at block-addressing (raw) level, leaving it to attaching systems to manage data or ty. le systems within the provided capacity. e SAN is commonly associated with bre ns networks. In other words, NAS solutions ge. are computers dedicated to data storage. SANs are networks of storage devices ape that could include servers and digital tape libraries that may be remotely located ally but can be accessed as if they are locally attached. Serial Attached Small Computer System Interface (SCSI or SAS) is a d computer bus, which moves data to and from computer storage devices such as hard drives. SAS depends on a point-to-point serial protocol that replaces the parallel SCSI bus technology from the 1980s. Serial ATA or SATA is also a computer bus interface for connecting host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives. SAS is full duplex, SATA is half-duplex. SATA follows the ATA command set and thus supports hard drives and CD/DVD drives. In addition, Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) is an IP-based storage networking standard for linking data storage facilities. By carrying SCSI commands over IP networks, iSCSI facilitates data transfers over intranets and manages storage over long distances. Its used to transmit data over local area networks, wide area networks, or the Internet and can enable location-independent data storage and retrieval. Unlike traditional bre channel, with its special-purpose cabling, iSCSI runs over long distances using existing network infrastructure.

drive to make a backup copy instead of several. When several hard drives are used for backup, they can all be writing portions of the data at the same time. The risk of

Storage units
Unit 1 kilobyte (KB) 1 megabyte (MB) 1 gigabyte (GB) 1 terabyte (TB) 1 petabyte (PB)

Equivalent 1 024 bytes 1 048 576 bytes 1 073 741 824 bytes 1 099 511 627 776 bytes 1 125 899 906 842 624 bytes

can make a storage difference. Picking higher quality cameras and digital noise control can also impact storage requirements. And good cabling also helps. In such cases, there are fewer pixels of distorc tion to store. Preferences, corporate t rules, liability concerns and government r regulations all may impact how long, r how easy to retrieve and in what condih tion images are stored. t

W What about resolution and frame rate? f

Source: University Information Technology Services, Indiana University

loss of the recorded security video data also is spread over several or more drives. Because mirroring uses a single hard drive for backup it can be slower in comparison. Near the end of the tech brieng, Terry asks about the cloud for storing and retrieving security video. A cloud example he is familiar with is Gmail from Google. Gmail for business, for example, offers 25 gigabytes of storage per user. Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, in which shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like a public utility. Among those things that both Terry and Helena agree is to forget about how many terabytes to buy. Instead they will use proposal terminology such as system to record 210 cameras at 4 CIF RAID 5 for no less than 20 days.

Practical needs on top of technological ones

There are practical approaches to security video storage beyond the various technological ones. When you can store seemingly unlimited quantities of video, Terry gures, the question becomes how much do you really need and at what frame speed and resolution. It may be that larger hard drives are not the one answer. Often in smaller installations or in remote locations, a smaller DVR will do the job, especially if the frames per second recorded is small. Sometimes an integrator will use a consumer grade PC to build a recorder to handle cameras but there are obvious dangers in this approach. In the case of IP and high denition cameras, storage needs change to external options. Here DVRs can feature multiple, reasonably inexpensive SATA hard drive bays. And with MPEG4 and H.264, a lot of video data can be stored at real-time image rates. Simplicity of set up and operation for the end user means a one-box embedded solution can be a winner for some. Motion detection and lower frame rate

RAID or mirroring?
Another buzzy word, according to Helena, is RAID and aims at storage reliability and input/output performance. Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) permits high levels of storage reliability from low-cost and less reliable PC-class disk drives. Various RAID data storage schemes divide and replicate data among multiple hard disk drives. Data can be distributed across multiple disks, while the array is seen by the user and operating system as one single disk. Some systems create backups automatically, called mirroring. Different types of RAID recording are specied by numbers. A popular RAID recording method practiced in the security industry for video surveillance is RAID 5. Terry and Helenas integrator has recommended RAID 5 instead of mirroring. Mirroring is using one additional hard

Q Quality of images also affects storage needs and pricing, although less so n as storage capacity increases while a prices drop. Helena again points out p that with analogue cameras co-existing with a digital recording system, if we dont do it right, there will be noise which will generate additional storage requirements. Measures of video resolution, such as 480 horizontal lines, 640 x 480 pixels, or 4 CIF, may not provide a complete picture. Helena suggests they measure the visual details that remain in the picture during playback after recording, which is totally different. Image or frame rates also affect storage. No doubt, full-motion video at 30 fps is not used in many applications because less may be sufcient. It may also depend on how many cameras get recorded by a DVR, with the ability to adjust frames per second for each camera based on its location and scenes. In that gaming example, a casino camera would be 30 fps, as opposed to a backroom operations camera, which would record at 15 fps or lower. Terry wants it both ways: low frame rate when nothing is happening, but when motion detection or an alarmed event occurs, recording is at high resolution and maximum frame rate. Video storage needs are in part determined by the security video compression method. Newer compression tech such as MPEG-4 and its variant H.264 refresh only the parts of the screen that change from one frame to the next, helpful for maximum recording speed and longer storage capacity. Another element in the security video storage equation is the organisations IT department, which may have standards and hardware testing before a storage device can hang from the network. Some security executives welcome the involvement and ownership by IT of various parts of a video surveillance system while others see value in owning most of their gear.
This article has been shortened.

For more information contact Innova,,


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CCTV Handbook 2011



Axis thermal network cameras deployed to monitor Sasol production facility.

asol Limited is one of the largest international integrated energy and chemical companies in the world. As just one of their many focussed activities, their plants at Sasolburg and Secunda are the only ammonia manufacturing and marketing plants in South Africa. Sasol Ammonia and Nitro, Sasolburg, required an alternative method of monitoring heat intensity emitted from its production plant during the gas-to-chemical process. As the ame produced by the production process is invisible to the naked eye, meticulous monitoring and safety regimes are imperative. TVMS was tasked with demonstrating a variety of thermal cameras for Sasol Nitro. The competitive shoot out was dominated by the AXIS Q1910 Thermal Network Camera from both a cost and functionality perspective and the decision was taken to roll out this solution at the Sasolburg plant. The effectiveness of the AXIS Q1910 was instantly apparent and the customer needed no further convincing, says Belinda Gouws, director of TVMS. Sasol engineers and safety ofcers are now far better equipped to provide meaningful feedback to frontline staff regarding dangerous or inefcient conditions that may occur during the production phase. Temperature uctuations affecting both raw and processed ammonia stockpiled in storage bays awaiting packaging for shipment, can immediately be investigated and rectied, thereby preserving the quality of the product.

accessories. Their production plants are responsible for the transformation of ammonia into ammonium nitrate which is the building block for the Sasol Nitro mining explosives and fertiliser businesses. Sasol Nitro produces ammonia from synthesis gas and converts some of this ammonia into nitric acid. These processes require extreme heat and create a challenging environment for monitoring, regardless of whether the surveillance is for reasons as critical as safety or simply to ensure costeffectiveness. Axis thermal network cameras create images based on the heat that radiates from any object; this allows safety ofcers to monitor the size of the ame emanating from the production plant albeit invisible to the human eye. The extent of the ame signies the quantity of raw material being processed, too high a ame would indicate that too much raw material is being processed which could, in turn, affect productivity.

Protecting valuable stock

The AXIS Q1910 thermal network camera is able to offer optimum performance even under difcult climatic circumstances such as haze, dust or smoke. This makes it the ideal choice for surveillance of the Sasol ammonia storage area. This area contains ammonia, stored in bays, in both raw and processed form. A digital thermometer attached to the input/output of the camera is displayed on the operators control room screen and a custom-made colour palette denotes any temperature uctuations. Shrinkage or loss of product due to contamination has been drastically reduced as the monitoring solution is designed to send e-mail and audio alarm alerts to the control room when instability occurs. Safety ofcers and engineers are able to react timeously to these warnings averting potentially costly losses. For more information contact Axis Communications, +27 (0)11 548 6780,,

A reliable option for a tough setting

Sasol Nitro, a division of Sasol Chemical Industries, produces and markets ammonia, ammonium nitrate based fertilisers, commercial explosives, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and a range of specialised blasting

Evacuation procedures are no longer triggered by assumptions or inclement weather conditions, we have been able to boost productivity by reacting to scientic data instead of conjecture. Gerrit Fourie, Sasol Ammonia. CCTV Handbook 2011




we have always had good experiences with the systems, says MD, Trevor Smangaliso Mathenjwa. In the past, we had to deal with the problem that many end customers chose cheaper products. However, due to the lower quality there were frequently problems. Every court building has its own control room. On the next higher level those, control rooms are administered in an overriding security control room, one for every province. Eventually data from all 127 courthouses will converge at one national control centre. This sophisticated security concept guarantees an objective evaluation of the data. The Dallmeier recording devices offer the possibility to set up different password protected access levels. This accommodates the complex control tasks of the Department of Justice and it is ensured that every security operator is given the access authorisations they need. There was, however, another challenge that had to be solved: If all control rooms are to be monitored from one national security control centre, high bandwidth would be required to transmit the images. Using PRemote, a transmission method developed by Dallmeier, a smooth and judder-free display is possible even at a low bandwidth. While it produces the same image quality, it requires less bandwidth than the dual streaming method. That is because Dallmeier optimised the specic codec for low bandwidth. PRemote offers another benet: whereas dual streaming only allows for the quality of live images to be adjusted, PRemote can also transmit recorded images without taking up too much bandwidth. Thus, it is not only possible to display live images but also to evaluate them over long distances.

Optimal solutions
Several Dallmeier cameras now monitor entrances and exits, corridors, cash register areas, courtrooms and access ways to the judges ofces. Additionally, the waiting areas for the defendants, rooms where important documents are stored as well as the outside areas of the court buildings are monitored. Compact box cameras as well as controllable PTZ cameras and vandal-resistant dome cameras are used. The images are recorded on DMS 240 In Memory of Leonardo devices, H.264 recorders that are able to record up to 24 cameras in real-time. Retief van der Merwe, national operations coordinator for Sondolo IT explains: The integration of the Dallmeier devices into the management system was easy using ActiveX. That means the video systems can now be controlled via the same system as is used for the access control, alarm systems, metal detectors or X-ray devices. For securing the outside areas, especially fences, the DVS 1600 is used. This is an intelligent video analysis system based on SEDOR technology. SEDOR is as the name Self-Learning Event Detector implies a self-learning system that automatically recognises and detects different situations. Therefore, the user does not have to make any elaborate settings.

Dallmeier secures 120 court buildings in South Africa.

ore than 120 court buildings across South Africa will each be equipped with a comprehensive security system. Reliability, easy maintenance and, most importantly, longevity were important to the responsible authorities. Thus, it was decided to use products from German IP expert Dallmeier, which installed the system together with local partner rm Engineered Systems Solutions (ESS) and service provider Sondolo IT. The South African Department of Justice (DoJ) has initiated a large-scale National Security Infrastructure Programme which is meant to increase security at more than 120 courthouses. This is necessary as court buildings are frequently scenes of violent acts. Prisoners who attempt to escape, spectators who take the law into their own hands or criminals who seek to extract revenge on a judge for a verdict. Additionally, it is necessary that important court documents stored in the court buildings are secured against theft. Also, the areas around cash registers where, for instance, nes or penalty charges are paid are often scenes of theft or robbery. Such incidents can be prevented using a video system or at least clearly reconstructed. In the course of the tender, one specication stood out: reliable and high-quality products. With the solution it offered, Sondolo IT won out over the competition. We have offered Dallmeier products, because

Analogue, hybrid or IP
The courts have so far decided to use analogue cameras. It is however no problem to install network cameras in the future, Retief van der Merwe explains. The Dallmeier system can also be operated as a hybrid system. Therefore, the DoJ has the option to switch to IP technology at any time. For more information contact Dallmeier electronic Southern Africa Ofce, +27 (0)11 979 4540,,

Ten locations successfully implemented

Across ten courthouses, the concept has already been implemented successfully, including the magistrates courts of Pretoria, Pretoria North, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, Kempton Park, Bloemfontein, Kimberley, Polokwane, Nzikazi and Nelspruit.


CCTV Handbook 2011 CCTV Handbook 2011




switching gear receiving video feeds, decoders for viewing and 140 terabytes of RAID 5 storage. Paired control room operators view feeds in short shifts, remote-controlling cameras via head-end equipment. The centre runs on a 24-hour basis. As incidents are noted by an operator, a supervisor is notied. With Metro Police and SAPS on hand, evidence is gathered where actionable, and stored for 31 days. The client requested doubling the specications for 2010, to around 300 TB.

Description of the system

The Teleste VMX video management platform provides Cape Town with a stable, resilient and exible CCTV platform which is in use by both the police and city control rooms. Around 400 cameras are controlled from two CCTV control rooms, each control room can view and control any camera on the system providing Cape Town with a redundant system. Main and multiple back-up servers allow the system to continue functioning even in the case of a multiple server failure. Redundant NVRs (Networked Video recorders) are also in use, which provide backup recording for all cameras. The Teleste eld-hardened MPX video encoders are used to encode the analogue camera inputs to IP, the MPEG4 video streams are then recorded on the Teleste VMX NVRs in the control rooms. Teleste also provide the video wall software to display the incoming video streams on to large LCD monitors.

Cape Town uses the Teleste to secure the future.

ape Town is the second-most populous city in South Africa (3.5 million), and the largest in land area (larger than other South African cities), forming part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The Citys primary objective with surveillance was to aid law enforcement agencies in the execution of their duties, with up to 2000 incidents reported every month. Further uses as wide-ranging as monitoring res, protest marches and streets for maintenance purposes. Clients include transport, trafc and emergency services or external entities.

CCTV project history

The City of Cape Town announced the countrys rst city centre surveillance installation in 1998. The original installation was installed used Teleste Analogue CFO Transmission equipment, which provided a reliable point-to-point installation. This was upgraded in about 2001 to a STM1 ATM network which allowed the City to expand to a redundant ring type installation with the capacity for up to about 200 cameras. In 2009, The City of Cape Town upgraded to a 10 Gigabit Ethernet network, allowing additional capacity for many more cameras to be added to the system. There is no specic project timeline or scope in this open-ended contract. The long-term nature of the project has resulted in a mix of sub-contractors and principal contractors used over the years. Wehan Wessels, principal consulting engineer on the Citys ongoing CCTV project: In fact, the Municipal Finance Management Act requires us to use new contractors all the time. This conspires against achieving continuity. Its a problem, but it has been resolved very well with Telestes use of open standards technology. Notwithstanding the challenges, the grand vision was to give the city access to next-generation IP video applications and exibility, topped off with TV-quality audio, video and data. Two video control centres were set up, with access to each others feeds, pulled in from multiple nodes. If the link between the two goes down, they operate as stand-alone centres. Each has

Project scope
By 2020, the Cape Town Metropole wants CCTV surveillance of all its CBDs (totalling 40) and public transport interchanges (over 200 taxi, bus and train hubs). The city is currently still the SA leader in city CCTV. At the time of writing, the number of cameras under Fibre Based Integrations management numbered 250 for Cape Town. By 2015, 400 to 500 more could come on-stream. Details of delivered solution Two main control rooms with over 30 operator stations. Multiple servers and 30 days 2CIF 25fps recording. The network is 10GE with Teleste MPC-E1 encoders at the cameras and VMX system in the control rooms. The users are the City of Cape Town, Metro Police and transport, both sites can view and control each others cameras. Over 250 cameras between the two sites. Project partners Fibre Based Integrations (FBI) For more information contact Fibre Based Integrations, +27 (0)11 552 8200,,


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Big brother is watching you snack.
hen Truda Snacks moved to its new building, top of mind was the installation of an adequate security system. The company had experienced a number of unpleasant incidents at its previous premises where it needed to identify individuals and was not able to, said Kris Venketas of Security Unlimited. The owner of the Truda Snacks undertook his own research on CCTV cameras available on the market. This included determining what specic features were most suited to the Truda Snacks environment then adjudging demonstrations of each brand in a live situation. One of the factors that he cited as of primary concern was superb clarity on all footage and number plate recognition as these had been stumbling blocks in the past. After testing the Sony brand he was instantly sold on the quality of image production and promptly signed the contract to purchase 32 high-denition cameras, said Venketas. Security Unlimited assumed the project management role from conceptualisation through to design to installation. The cameras were supplied by Norbain and installation was carried out over a three-month period. Security Unlimited and PMB Digital offer Truda Snacks a 24-hour call-out service with an ongoing maintenance contract. Venketas explained that the 32 HD cameras run on 8-core multimode bre, with ve SFP bre

By Allyson Koekhoven.

switches. The furthest switch is 1 km away and the system uses Real Shot Manager Professional software. Venketas said that, with hindsight, they would have run more bre. We now need to link a new building to the server so we have had to run a separate bre link, which serves its purpose, but we would have preferred both buildings to be on the same link. Venketas added that it is important to undertake a proper site evaluation and do on-site demonstrations with customers to ensure that all critical monitoring areas are adequately covered and all security requirements are met. He also pointed out that companies should ensure that they always have built-in system redundancy. We actually ran 8 core bre cables when the installation only called for 2 core bre cable. In addition, we ran 2 CAT6 cables at the main hub to counter against the possibility of cable loss or tampering. Truda Snacks owner is extremely pleased with the success of his system and said that it has far exceeded his expectations. Sony is by far the best camera we have used and has revolutionised the way people look at systems in high denition, Venketas concluded. For more information contact Norbain SA, +27 (0)11 887 1546,,


CCTV Handbook 2011


Installing analytics with a remote monitoring service.

VTel has announced that Acker-Stone Industries, manufacturer of interlocking pavers sold throughout the United States, has begun monitoring its corporate ofce and manufacturing facility using DVTels intelligent video analytics from ioimage to detect security breaches and quickly identify safety issues for employees. The intelligent video solution is remotely viewed by a local remote monitoring company, Virtual Guard. By pairing intelligent video with the companys remote monitoring capabilities, they are able to prevent theft, identify security breaches and provide enhanced security for employees. From its manufacturing facility and headquarters in California, Acker-Stone makes standard and permeable-concrete pavers for patios, walkways and other architectural landscape features. Its products are then shipped to distributors and installers throughout the United States. By deploying video analytics, Acker-Stone Industries has signicantly improved security operations company-wide, said Isaac Schwarzman, president of Acker-Stone Industries. Weve paired video analytics with remote video monitoring which enabled us to replace security guards with a solution that never sleeps, is ever vigilant and always alert. In addition to outside threats, one of the companys biggest operational concerns, said Schwarzman, is monitoring employees for safety violations and to protect the company against fraudulent accident and worker compensation claims. The main reason for deploying a remote video monitoring solution using analytics or smart sensors is saving money and realising a fast return on investment, said Steve Devir, COO at Virtual Guard. Also, the actionable intelligence provided is more reliable than what traditional sensors used in outdoor environments have been able to deliver. Additionally, if there is a guard, they can only see one area at a time. We can watch all four sides of the premises simultaneously or only upon a predened alarm event so its more efcient than increasing the manpower on site. For more information contact C3 Shared Services, +27 (0)11 312 2041,, CCTV Handbook 2011




By Allyson Koekhoven.

Judicial cooperation
The third element in the process was the co-operation of the judicial system. We had lengthy discussions with the Public Prosecutors ofce who expressed frustration at the backlog of CCTV footage cases in the system, said Holtzhausen. Unfortunately, the courts were unable to accommodate these cases as there was no specic courtroom equipped to handle the viewing of such evidence. The solution came in the form of a dedicated CCTV evidence-viewing courtroom, equipped with a DVD player, a laptop and a large screen TV which was supplied by BFC. Situated at the re station in Pietermaritzburg, Safe City is a Msunduzi Municipal entity and is tasked to manage and operate 68 xed cameras and one mobile CCTV camera in the Pietermaritzburg area, in partnership with the Msunduzi Municipality, SAPS, National Prosecuting Authority, BFC and Community Policing Forums (CPF). Our mission is to prevent and detect crime in camera surveillance areas under the jurisdiction of the Msunduzi Municipality in order to encourage a crime free environment for the benet of the Municipalitys communities and to attract investors and promote development, tourism and job creation, said Holtzhausen. The project was approached in a systematic, business-like manner. With business principle leadership input from BFC we decided to appoint a consultant to investigate and source the security equipment we would require to make the project successful, said Holtzhausen.

Identifying and apprehending criminals requires concerted effort from multiple parties.
CTV is playing an increasingly important role in the detection of criminal activity and the apprehension of the participants in the recorded crimes. What is apparent is that the chain of evidence, from the recording stage up to the incarceration of the arrested perpetrator of the crime, requires buy in from a number of interdependent parties. Hi-Tech Security Solutions investigated the current status quo of this symbiotic relationship. Lucas Holtzhausen, who has been the driving force behind the Safe City initiative in Pietermaritzburg, said that criminal activity increased rapidly after the amalgamation of the SAP and homeland police in 1994. There was a moratorium placed on the recruitment of new police force members and with the natural attrition of the existing police force, there was a lot more scope for opportunists to commit criminal acts without the risk of apprehension. Holtzhausen, who is the general manager of Safe City, explained that Des Winship, the previous chairperson of Business Fighting Crime (BFC), realised that something needed to be done to urgently address this untenable situation. In 1999 BFC undertook research on the viability of tackling the crime epidemic on a more targeted basis through the use of CCTV. BFC approached the Msunduzi Municipality and the SAPS to get buy-in from both parties on a concerted crime-ghting initiative. The result was nancial support from the municipality and a commitment from the SAPS to provide manpower on a round-the-clock basis for a control room. This was the start of the precedent-setting Safe City project, said Holtzhausen.

Making it work
Dihlase Consulting Engineers Pieter van Rensburg took the bull by the horns and instituted a feasibility study, followed by a full report detailing what was needed to launch the project and what was expected of the equipment to be used at Safe City, Holtzhausen explained. By appointing an independent person to handle the execution of the equipment acquisition, we were able to approach the project in an objective manner and to nitely match the equipment to the exacting needs of each application. After a comprehensive tender process, Dihlase appointed Provicom Electronics as the surveillance and monitoring equipment supplier. Provicom has been responsible for the sourcing and installation of the high-quality Panasonic and JVC CCTV equipment which links to Synectics software, said Holtzhausen. The control room, which houses banks of screens, was designed by Dihlase to provide maximised Continued on page 52


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Crime statistics in Safe City January to August 2010

Murder down by 47% Robbery (aggravated) down by 37% Robbery (common) down by 28% Housebreaking business down by 57% Theft out of and from motor vehicles down by 31% Hijacking unchanged. It could be that hijacking has not decreased (or increased) because it is difcult to anticipate where these crimes will take place. One assumption is that when crimes are detected on camera it could be due to the fact that they are committed by people coming from other areas who are unaware of the presence of the cameras. Continued from page 50 viewing quality and real-time reaction time. We currently run three shifts with seven operational staff manning the monitors in the control room. They are supervised by a control room manager, while service backup for the monitors and cameras is provided by a team of three technicians who are available on a 24/7 basis. Evidence of their dedication to their jobs is the fact that downtime on the cameras is less than 1%, Holtzhausen added. The uptime of the cameras is an obvious necessity in ensuring that documented evidence is not compromised. Safe City undertakes ongoing proactive maintenance of all equipment and maintains a stockholding of all essential equipment parts, Holtzhausen said. Safe City operates on two levels to identify and apprehend criminals. We have a programme whereby members of the public and local businesses can text details of suspected or known criminal activity into the control room for action by one of the control room staff. If we have a camera in that vicinity we can manipulate its positioning to gather footage. Alternatively, we can request a patrol unit to go immediately to the reported scene, Holtzhausen said.

Safe City is a perfect example of how communities can work together with law enforcement and judicial authorities to combat and reduce crime in targeted areas. We have built up a very good relationship with the authorities, to the extent that the authenticity of our footage has never been questioned. This is in part due to the fact that all our staff undergoes stringent security clearance screening prior to their employment and all training and certication is undertaken by SAMAE and PSIRA respectively, Holtzhausen said. In 2009 and 2010 Safe City has seen 3 067 incidents and 87 cases have appeared in court. Safe City has also effectively stopped crimes by spotting them as they are about to happen, and sending immediate help to counteract them, Holtzhausen said.

Public prosecutor
Second Public Prosecutor for Pietermaritzburg, Sharleen Haggard, said that the Safe City project in Pietermaritzburg is a possible benchmark for the rest of the country and as far as she is aware is the only project of its kind in the country. As Lucas said, a number of factors played a role in the launch of Safe City. From the Public Prosecutors perspective, we were faced with a high volume of congestion in the court rolls so a dedicated courtroom was required to cater for the processing of videographic evidence from CTTV footage. The hearing and prosecution process was prolonged because there was no single courtroom with the necessary infrastructure. Cases therefore had to be constantly remanded until they could be heard. The courtroom which is now dedicated to processing CCTV footage has very effectively speeded up the evidentiary and testimony process to a nalisation stage, Haggard said. There has been a dramatic decrease in the number of crimes occurring in front of CCTV cameras and therefore a decrease in the number of cases appearing in court. This is assumed to be because criminals are now aware that such evidence is processed faster and more effectively to secure an arrest and sentencing due to the streamlining of the process. Before we secured the dedicated courtroom we were dealing with approximately 20 to 30 rst appearances every day with up to 10 matters a month being nalised by each prosecutor. The number of rst appearances has been drastically reduced and the number of matters being nalised is now down to less than two per month. This is no doubt due to an awareness of the system and the deterrent effect of the cameras all over Pietermaritzburg. Haggard is adamant that similar systems could be implemented throughout South Africa. If you put more cameras into different areas, crime will decrease as a result. Obviously you will need to employ more people to man and monitor these cameras but the cost to the consumer will decrease because of reduced theft levels and therefore the ultimate payoff is greater.

Securing the chain of evidence

Holtzhausen, who is an ex SAPS employee, pointed out that the chain of evidence is crucial when presenting CCTV footage as evidentiary material. We make three copies of the requested footage and place each copy into a separate sealed evidence bag which is then recorded in the SAPS evidence register. We retain the master copy, one copy is given to an investigating ofcer for further action and the third copy is placed in the possession of the Public Prosecutor. The chain of custody is very strict as one would expect in such a sensitive area where we have to account for every step in the process. Since instituting the Safe City initiative, crime has been drastically reduced but some criminals do not learn from their mistakes. We have found that criminals become familiarised with the positioning of the cameras and generally avoid these areas after they have been apprehended once. However, the pickpocket thieves are extremely territorial and will continue to return to the location of a previous arrest because it falls within their area of operation, said Holtzhausen.


CCTV Handbook 2011



required a robust, intelligent and scalable video surveillance solution. SecureID turned to UTCFS in order to nd a suitable system. UTCFS and Interface Technologies, one of UTCFSs local installers in Lagos, provided SecureID with a full video surveillance solution. Throughout the manufacturing plant high quality video surveillance cameras are now placed at strategic points. In order to optimise the quality of this solution, a combination of day/night cameras has been used; ensuring video quality will not be affected by changes in the environment. All cameras are connected to UTCFSs digital video recorders, which report back to the central control room where security personnel are able to fully congure, monitor and control each camera. For more information contact UTC Fire & Security, +27 (0)11 579 7300,,

Nigerian smart card manufacturer opts for UTCFS surveillance.

ecureID is Nigerias leading smart card manufacturing and personalisation company. As the rst plant in Nigeria and West Africa to be certied by both Visa International and MasterCard International, SecureID stands as one of the only EMV certied plants on the African continent.

Due to the sensitivity of SecureIDs products, its production site in Lagos is run according to the stringent requirements of VISA, MasterCard and Interswitch, amongst others. In order to monitor diverse processes, and to ensure the surveillance of critical infrastructure in the plant, SecureID CCTV Handbook 2011



Video surveillance system transforms a mid-sized city into a model of progress.
required reliable cameras that could withstand various weather conditions and vandalism while delivering excellent image quality. Now, Bosch AutoDome and EnviroDome pan-tilt-zoom cameras are spread throughout the city, streaming video over more than 100 miles of bre optic strands to the Coalitions monitoring centre. Coalition employees civilians hired for their knowledge of the city and their commitment to its safety and growth monitor live video from the cameras 16 hours a day. Using a Bosch Allegiant Control System and an IntuiKey keyboard that controls the PTZ cameras, employees can switch between video streams from each of the cameras and hone in on suspicious activities or crimes in progress up to three or four blocks away. The Coalitions monitoring facility has a direct line to the citys centre for 911 calls for times when police need to be immediately dispatched to an area. Coalition employees can even send live video to atscreen monitors in the emergency centre to help the dispatchers communicate more effectively with ofcers patrolling the streets or arriving on a scene. Video is recorded on Bosch digital video recorders which aids police during investigations. In a recent incident, ofcers used surveillance camera video to nd and arrest a suspect soon after a shooting occurred. This same feat took 1 600 hours in a previous case that was similar in nature. The system and the overall work of the Coalition have also helped to revitalise the city of Lancaster. Lancaster is on the cutting edge with more cameras than any city in Pennsylvania. There is a link between crime reduction and growth, said Joseph Morales, COO of the Coalition. Our citizens no longer perceive downtown as a high crime area, which has helped bring more people into the city from suburban areas. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems, +27 (0)11 651 9604,

he Lancaster Community Safety Coalition is a non-prot organisation formed to prevent crime in the nations oldest inland city Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The organisations mission is to enhance public safety and the quality of life in Lancaster by engaging the community and advancing current crime prevention strategies. The Coalition uses a threepronged approach environmental design, community mobilisation and technology to aid police in protecting the city. When the city planned to upgrade its trafc signal communications from copper to bre optics, the Coalition worked with city engineers to ensure the bre optic network could also support a video system. In addition to the infrastructure, the Coalition


CCTV Handbook 2011



with an access control system. Fortunately, the main complex had a good Internet infrastructure setup, so together with the Power over Ethernet (PoE) IP cameras there was a huge reduction in the overall infrastructure cost. A total of 50 ACD-2100 video encoder units were used in the upgrade and the tracks existing analogue cameras were converted to IP cameras with an extra 380 ACM-3511 megapixel dome cameras installed in the main building. These cameras provide good low-light performance and video quality and are able to monitor all locations and in corners. The main reason for choosing ACTi is because the megapixel picture quality is superior. In addition, the ACTi open platform design base helps third-party software easily integrate with the ACTi camera solution. For more information contact G2 Security, +27 (0)87 940 9322,, www.

Racing to effective surveillance.

he Yas Marina Circuit in Abu Dhabi, UAE is owned by the Executive Affairs Authority of the government of Abu Dhabi and operated by Abu Dhabi Motorsports Management. Approximately 50 000 spectators can view the action on the circuit from the comfort of permanent, covered

grandstands and VIP facilities. The racetrack needed to improve security levels for an upcoming Formula One race, with the new security system able to prevent any critical events occurring. The main complex at Yas Marina Circuit had an existing security system that needed upgrading to IP surveillance and integration CCTV Handbook 2011




the infrastructure of the Pudong district of Shanghai. Thousands of HD xed and PTZ cameras from Hikvision were used on the project.

HD video in real-time
The project is the worlds largest provision of highdenition video, with footage being provided to police at a central monitoring facility. A specication of the client was that cameras should give users the ability to track and zoom in on individuals or vehicles so that facial details and licence plates could be observed, requirements that made major demands on product performance and system design. The IP cameras from Hikvision adopted for the Expo feature a 1/1,8 inch Sony progressive scan CCD. Hikvisions H.264 video compression codec was used and redundancy was provided by SD/SDHC local card storage.

Thousands of Hikvision cameras were installed at the World Expo 2010.

Pushing the boundaries

In the past, it had not been possible to view specic details of people or vehicles clearly from footage provided by the legacy analogue cameras being used in the Pudong area. People or objects involved in emergencies or signicant incidents have proved difcult to identify, handicapping police ofcers who need to conduct criminal investigations and logistical analysis. Hikvision supplied HD cameras that met the project requirements, delivering HD video with resolution of up to 1600x1200 pixels in real-time. With the addition of Hikvisions image signal processing technology, the video quality has exceeded all expectations.

housands of HD xed and PTZ cameras from Hikvision were installed in Shanghai Pudong District, China, the setting for World Expo 2010. The six-month-long event revived the tradition of world fairs and expositions of the kind staged in Chicago (1893) and St Louis (1904), a year in which the extravaganza also played host to the Olympic Games. Hikvisions equipment was charged with securing this world showcase by the Huangpu River in which exhibiting countries promoted national identity in their pavilions. The theme of the US pavilion was Rising to the Challenge, with American innovation and community-building being represented in a multi-dimensional presentation. The UK pavilion, named the Seed Cathedral, was constructed from 60 000 seven-metrelong aluminium rods. An exhibit that attracted particular interest was the Saudi Arabian pavilion which featured a hanging boat shaped like a half moon, complete with live date palms on the top deck. Expo 2010 Shanghai China was a $4bn festival set to receive 100 million visitors by October. Visitors came from 190 countries to an exhibition site of 3,2 square miles, this being twice the size of the country of Monaco (equivalent to 1000 soccer pitches) and featuring buildings shaped like rabbits alongside violin-playing robots. The exhibition even featured Copenhagens Little Mermaid who travelled from Denmark for the event. The Expo prompted a city-wide infrastructure makeover of $45bn, and in keeping with the scale of the enterprise, the exhibition site beneted from the worlds largest scale high-denition city surveillance project with 12 000 monitoring points covering

System design
To achieve wide area monitoring, the original system often employed many analogue cameras across a single zone. For instance, at a crossroads there may have been a requirement for three or four cameras to monitor trafc ow across multiple lanes. By contrast, a single HD camera covered a whole intersection with better image detail. Economies in installation and simplication of management processes were signicant. The project offered authorities a exible monitoring solution by combining PTZ cameras with xed units. In critical environments with complex optical demands such as entrances, public squares and crossroads where there is signicant scope for accidents, the PTZ cameras have been preferred and have allowed management to track and zoom in on targets to acquire facial and licence plate data. By contrast, the xed cameras provided video of simple trafc ow and the everyday movement of pedestrians for retrospective playback and retrieval.


CCTV Handbook 2011

HD video transmission
Confronted on the ground with the clients demands for image clarity, Hikvision used an HD-SDI interface in preference to the regular CVBS approach, combined with optic bre for minimal delay. Police at the central monitoring station received HD video in real-time and could exercise PTZ control from the back end with nominal time lag, the delay being less than 250 milliseconds. Other user benets included remote camera conguration and upgrades to image signal processing algorithms from within the central monitoring station such that there was no need for onsite adjustment. This was of value to the client since there was little disruption to the core operation of the trade fair, which had immense commercial and political importance. Time synchronisation in all the network devices has been another highlight of the Expo project, allowing police to retrieve appropriate video clips. The control centre featured a time server to which devices can be connected directly for synchronisation, while front-end products can be integrated via Network Time Protocol (NTP).

System integration
With the aim of simplifying management tasks, a centralised surveillance framework was implemented at the Shanghai project to manage all the sub systems. Using open architecture, this integrated all the analogue, xed HD and PTZ HD surveillance products into one software platform which linked the control centre and local police stations throughout the Pudong area of Shanghai. The CCTV project proved demonstrably successful in meeting the clients high surveillance requirements, optimising security for core infrastructure components such as main roads, bus stations, rail transit and public spaces throughout the exhibition area.

Centralised and distributed storage

Another challenge was data storage. Since multiple HD cameras create enormous quantities of video data, using powerful storage technology was paramount. IP and FC storage area networks (SAN) were used to achieve centralised network data archiving. The application also used an NVR server in police stations for temporary caching in the event of connectivity faults between police bases and the control centre. Once the communication link is restored, video footage retained in the NVR can be uploaded retrospectively to the IP SAN automatically. Yangzhong Hu, president of Hikvision, said: The theme of Expo 2010 Shanghai China is Better city, better life. It is therefore tting that the organisers have opted for a security product manufacturer that strives constantly for improvement. The experience we drew on during this project, combined with R & D capability and an innovative approach, allowed us to respond to a demanding brief. The installation demonstrated the lengths Hikvision will go to in order to consolidate its leading position in the surveillance market, providing sophisticated products that address customers real needs at massive infrastructure sites of this kind. For more information contact Hikvision, +86 571 8700 6060,, CCTV Handbook 2011




coastal management ofcials. CoastalCOMS analytics software and multi-national network of hosted coastal cameras are also used for the collection of real-time beach and surf-zone data, such as wave height and wave period analysis, vessel monitoring and counting, people counting on beaches, as well as tracking changes in the shoreline and general beach state. With access to over a hundred Coastalwatch-owned cameras on the ground in Australia and many more private or municipally owned cameras in the US and abroad, CoastalCOMS uses XProtect to centrally view and control cameras globally, layering in the ability to extract data for environmental monitoring, public education, tourism and recreational usage. XProtect software allows us to create networks of coastal cameras on the y, patterning and sourcing video from both new and existing beach cameras according to each customers needs. We then process the video in real-time for different groups based on their reporting needs and workows, says Tim Chandler, president/ CEO of CoastalCOMS. Integrated into our solution using the Milestone SDK, XProtect makes it possible for us to efciently source video, then provision access to the video and cameras so only the right people can view the video and information at the right times. With the XProtect API, CoastalCOMS-enabled cameras can automatically re-position themselves based on alerts from external sensors or data feeds, such as a status change in an emergency management system, a weather service warning or alert, or a measured change that happens in front of the camera. By integrating external sensors and data feeds into our core platform, we dont even have to press a button to drive cameras based on environmental change, Chandler adds. This provides our customers with unprecedented abilities to gather information and images to better understand conditions and coordinate responses in changing beach environments around the world.

Coastalwatch technology safeguards shorelines and popular beaches with hosted Milestone Video.

hen you picture some of the worlds most beautiful beaches, youre no doubt envisioning long, curving expanses of white sand, clear blue waters and the sound of rolling waves and warm gentle breezes rustling through the palm trees overhead. What may be missing from your mental scenario are the hidden dangers powerful currents capable of sweeping an unassuming swimmer or surfer out to sea, or massive waves that can wreak havoc on everything in their path, not to mention dangers caused by the slower erosion of coastlines and other environmental hazards affecting humans and animals. Born from its founders love of nature and seeking to provide fellow surfers with real-time wave and water conditions, Coastalwatch is an innovative Australian company that has the worlds coastlines under its hightech eyes with networks of private and publicly owned surveillance cameras. Employing a set of sophisticated analytics they have developed themselves, Coastalwatch services international surf life saving and coastal management needs by delivering live and recorded video and information on beaches around the globe via its CoastalCOMS division. CoastalCOMS monitors several beaches along Australias Gold Coast, as well as coastal areas in western and southern US, Hawaii, and Denmark.

People counting, wave measurements and shoreline changes

Different combinations of the imagery and information are used by such customers as the City and County of Honolulu Hawaiis Ocean Safety Division, where CoastalCOMS assists surf lifeguards with hosted surveillance platforms capable of wave height analysis and people counting. The City of Galveston, Texas, also chose CoastalCOMS for surveillance of remote beaches because it increased the ability to measure the amount of shoreline change as a result of hurricanes. Video streams from a CoastalCOMS camera network being used by Surf Life Saving Queensland are also available to the public on, which provides live video images, wave height and swell information, daily surf reports and other news to the international surng community. When authorities need to take manual control of the cameras during a lifesaving incident, integration with CoastalCOMS XProtect solution allows the

Integrated solutions using the Milestone SDK

As a main component of the CoastalCOMS monitoring platform, the company is using Milestone XProtect video management software to provide live video surveillance and critical real-time data to marine safety and


CCTV Handbook 2011

live images and HD video on the media site to be cut off and replaced with other media content so as not to broadcast the command and control activities of lifesavers and marine safety to the public. Coastalwatch uses mostly Sony cameras in their own network and the networks they install for clients. Their current solutions include a blend of Sony RZ25s with SNTEX101s in place, a huge install base of Sony RZ50s, and a growing number of the newer HD lines including the SNCRH164 HD domes and the bullet style SNCCH180 HD cams. Coastalwatch has been a Sony partner for years in Asia/Pacic/Australia working with Sony engineering out of Japan. We can attest to how great the Sony optics and imaging are, as well as to the importance of their PTZ cameras return-to-preset accuracies and overall encoding abilities for what we do, Chandler reports.

Watching earth via the cloud

The company is now scheduling cameras and reading video for processing directly from the Milestone database through integration with the CoastalCOMS cloud platform.

We rely 100% on the economies and extensibility of cloud computing, and I believe our experience operating Milestone in the Amazon cloud is a key differentiating factor for us in the surveillance marketplace. Using our hosted platform, weve deployed 3G/4G mobile surveillance units with Hawaiian guards, using a Sony SNC RZ50N camera that automatically reports to the cloud when turned on, notifying lifeguards and IT support when the cameras are deployed on the beach. Notably, this unit also has a VoIP loud hailer for communication of warnings to the beach-going public. The fact that these units are movable means cameras can be deployed when and where they are needed, automatically giving remote eyes to lifeguards in areas of concern via our hosted Milestone XProtect platforms, explains Chandler. Surf Life Saving Denmark last year installed a high denition CoastalCOMS camera at Hvide Sande Beach in West Denmark as a pilot project. The HD camera is in use to support lifesaving efforts by providing decision support at this busy German tourist destination. The video from this system is managed via the CoastalCOMS hosted Milestone cloud presence in the UK, and can be serviced jointly by

both US and Australian ofces. Since most of the infrastructure normally deployed on location is instead deployed in the cloud, the only resource they need in Denmark for this solution is a local person for simple break xes on the eld hardware. The added abilities of CoastalCOMS wave and environmental data processing for the lifesavers will be useful for both public safety and tourism. Specically designed to capture information about the powerful and unpredictable ocean environment, CoastalCOMS analytics dynamically measure individual waves as well as periods of wave movement, examining the shore and waterlines to determine the areas of change and identify hazards. Rips based on the dynamic changes in coastal environments, and rips are a major cause of death by drowning. Monitoring beaches and proactively identifying dangerous conditions helps rst responders identify hazards and manage risk on remote, public beaches, concludes Chandler. For more information contact Milestone Systems, +45 88 300 300,, CCTV Handbook 2011




The victor clients exibility lets Oulton Park create customisable layouts that exactly match the tasks performed each day. Without victor, Oulton Park control room would have endless plasmas for each monitored camera, which would create space problems and operational inefciencies. The American Dynamics Illustra range of IP cameras has one of the most powerful sensor-processor combinations available on the market. With outdoor vandal resistant cameras installed throughout the track, operational enhancements include: Control tower has enhanced visibility of the race so that in the event of accidents response times can be improved. Extra visibility in control tower will aid race marshals in raising alert FLAGS during the competition. Improved visibility will therefore increase track safety and reduce racing delays. American Dynamics ControlCenter 1100 keyboard has been installed which offers advanced control and programming of cameras in the control tower. Featuring a three-axis joystick, system operators are provided with a precise one-handed control of camera pan/tilt/zoom functions. Cameras installed will protect against theft of motor vehicles that are parked at the Oulton Park race track at night. Video clips can be reported on and exported for future analysis after races. Simon Bonser, Oulton Park circuit manager, added: We are delighted to have a brand new, state-of-theart CCTV system now operational at Oulton Park. It is a great asset that allows both MSV and the race clubs that hire our venue the ability to manage the circuit with even more efciency, and with optimum safety. We have been really impressed by Tyco Security Products solutions and they have delivered an outstanding service, successfully completing the work on schedule and in time for our rst race meeting of the year. For more information contact Tyco Security Products, +27 (0)82 566 5274,,

IP video solution installed at Oulton Park racetrack to enhance site operations.

yco Security Products has announced that American Dynamics video products, including the new victor unied video solution have been installed at Oulton Park racetrack, UK. Tyco Security Products partners, Total Security Protection and WOT Security Group installed the video solution. Oulton Park is one of the UKs leading motorsport circuits and is owned and operated by MotorSport Vision (MSV). To enhance operations at the venue, Oulton Park required a exible, highly resilient video solution that could enhance operations in the racetrack control room. Tyco is delighted to have been awarded the contract to supply Oulton Park with a leading video solution, said Phil Dashey, VP & GM EMEA, Tyco Security Products. American Dynamics video products have been installed throughout Oulton Park to increase the visibility of the race in the control tower, as well as to monitor the safety of racers. The project marks the rst installation in the UK of the new American Dynamics victor unied video solution. victor is a unied interface that will enable Oulton Park to view, manage and control American Dynamics NVRs and associated xed and PTZ (Pan Tilt Zoom) IP cameras. Footage and alarms from both xed Illustra 400 IP cameras and IP SpeedDome PTZ cameras, will be centrally managed all from one intuitive software client.


CCTV Handbook 2011 CCTV Handbook 2011



osting 60 million and measuring 85 metres (265 ft) in height, Obel dominates the Belfast skyline. It has overtaken the previous tallest skyscraper in Ireland, Windsor House (80 m), also in Belfast. Obel was developed by the Karl Group and is located on Donegal Quay on the river Lagan beside the Lagan Weir. The development consists of 282 luxury apartments and this ultra modern construction has two underground car parks and commercial and retail space in development. Blackbourne Integrated M&E is the electrical and mechanical contractor responsible for all aspects of management of the buildings and facilities at Obel. Building Protection Systems (BPS) based in Belfast is the security installer for the project and specialises in the specication, installation and maintenance of security, video, access, re and intrusion systems. We choose BPS due to our very successful working relationship on many other projects and their professional approach to completing installations on programme, said Conor Cannon at Blackbourne. Karl Group, the company that owns Obel, has an obligation to provide safe and secure parking for residents. As an exclusive address in the heart of Belfast, residents expect their cars to be monitored and for thieves or vandals to be deterred from any illegal activity. Equally, residents expect the entrance and central lobby area of the tower to be monitored closely to prevent intruders and unwanted guests from entering the building. For the Obel project, Blackbourne required a cost effective CCTV solution with the capacity to record and store surveillance footage to provide 24/7 video monitoring of the underground car parks and lobby area of the building. Part of the requirement was for the cameras to be vandal resistant and able to withstand the damp environment of the underground car park as it is very close to the river Lagan. BPS turned to Honeywell to deliver the right product mix for this project.

Video monitoring for Irelands tallest building.

Honeywell solution
With the requirements clearly dened, Honeywell was able to provide the cost effective solution specied by BPS and Blackbourne. The two underground car parks have been tted with 21 Honeywell HD4CHX vandal resistant colour mini domes for the following reasons: Resistant to attack whilst having an environmentally suitable housing. Delivers high quality pictures and resolution. Cameras are able to withstand the rigors of the car park environment damp, cold, moist and low light conditions. The HD4CHX provides a camera and lens as a single, vandal resistant, compact unit that is easy to install. The rugged scratch-resistant 3.5 mm thick polycarbonate construction can withstand heavy external impacts. In addition, the housing incorporates a new vent that prevents any condensation from forming inside the housing. This innovative camera, with waterproof properties, meets IP66 standards for critical outdoor installations. Three Honeywell HD3 Series colour mini domes are

deployed in the lobby area of the building to monitor people entering the building and lift usage. The HD3 Series was used for the following reasons: Captures clear video and improves recorded video quality when used with a digital recorder. Tamper resistant housing protects the camera and cabling. Discreet housing. The HD3 is a camera and lens unit integrated as a one-piece, tamper proof and compact unit that can be surface or ush mounted for fast and easy installation. It is attractive and unobtrusive yet provides a crimedeterring presence around-the-clock with its excellent low light imaging protection. Two Honeywell 16 Channel 1TB HRDPX Performance digital video recorders (DVRs) have been installed to record and store the video footage from the domes in the car park and the lobby. They are monitored onsite by a dedicated operator. Two Honeywell HMLCD 19x LX monitors have been installed to view the stream of footage collected from the DVRs. The cost effective HRDPX16 Performance Series DVR offers a high image per second (IPS) recording rate combined with a feature set comparable to many high-end embedded DVRs. The HRDPX16 supports continuous, event and combined continuous/event recording and is congurable per channel. Upon detection of motion, the HRDPX can automatically boost the images per second recording rate to capture additional details of the scene. This is a vital feature of the DVR in aiding the production of video evidence. Once video evidence is located on the HRDPX16, the user can save video clips to the PC and/or to portable media such as a USB stick using remote software. For example, if an incident occurs that requires police intervention video evidence is quickly and easily extracted from the DVR. In addition to recording at a rate of up to 400 IPS PAL, the HRDPX16 supports high-end capabilities such as a user-friendly front panel control, mouse operation, infrared remote control, express search to quickly nd video evidence, an internal DVD-RW and two USB ports for copying evidence to portable media. Honeywells HMLCD19LX LCD monitor is designed specically for the security industry to provide highresolution display of computer signals and/or composite video. Because they consume less power, generate less heat and last longer than conventional CRT monitors, LCD monitors are more cost-effective over long-term use. This was a trouble-free installation for BPS. Importantly, it met the clients exact requirements and specications and was delivered within the agreed timescales. A successful video monitoring system should provide the following: Peace of mind for the tenants. 24 hour surveillance of the building and car park. Secure environment to live in. Products which are t for purpose. For more information contact Nick Honess, Honeywell Systems Group, +44 1928 754023,


CCTV Handbook 2011



Industry-leading retail security team reduces auto theft by 60% and achieves 90% prosecution rate.
vigilon has announced that Arden Fair Mall in Sacramento, California, has deployed the Avigilon HD Surveillance System as a key component of its security initiative aimed at reducing crime and increasing patron safety. Committed to excellence in customer service, the goal is to ensure an enjoyable shopping experience for its 10 million annual visitors. According to Steve Reed, a former Sacramento Police Department ofcer and the manager of Security and Guest Services at Arden Fair Mall, Avigilons top selling feature is the systems superior image quality. Even when we zoom into the smallest detail from hundreds of feet out, the clarity is amazing its like watching HD TV, said Reed. Using Avigilon Control Centre Enterprise software, we can retrieve clear, readable, and indisputable evidence, which has led to a 60% reduction in auto theft and a 90% prosecution rate. Arden Fair Mall manages the Avigilon HD Surveillance System using Avigilon Control Centre Enterprise Network Video Management Software (NVMS) with HD Stream Management, which was built from the ground up to manage HD surveillance video. The mall installed Avigilon HD 2 MP cameras to monitor entrances, several Avigilon HD 16 MP cameras to monitor parking lots and all access points, an Avigilon 180 Panoramic HD Dome Camera to monitor the play area, and an Avigilon HD 5 MP camera to monitor the security and guest services area the malls hub. Avigilon

analogy video encoders were installed to improve the performance of the malls existing analogy cameras, though Reed has plans to transition the entire system over to Avigilon as budget allows. Three Avigilon Network Video Recorders store 40 days of continuous surveillance footage a big improvement over the previous solution, which could only store one to three weeks of footage. Avigilons reliable performance in low-light conditions also improves the malls ability to capture usable footage at all times of the day and night. Avigilon Control Centre time synchronising and mapping features enable security to quickly and effectively locate the information required to prevent or resolve incidents. By leveraging the system to capture irrefutable evidence, Arden Fair has implemented an observe and report security model, reducing the need for security staff to be too hands on in potentially risky situations. Arden Fair Mall has developed an advanced, cutting-edge security program that is anchored by the Avigilon HD Surveillance System to ensure an enjoyable retail and entertainment experience, said Alexander Fernandes, president and CEO of Avigilon. By embracing innovative security solutions, Arden Fair has become a strong role model for other mall operators across the country. For more information contact Avigilon, +34 667 887 503,, CCTV Handbook 2011



NUUO supports pp brickcom megapixel g p IP cameras

EtherWAN serial server

Inhep Electronics Holdings is SAs exclusive distributor of Brickcom products. NUUO and Brickcom recently announced they have integrated NUUOs PC Based NVR IP+ software and NVRmini recording solution with Brickcoms megapixel IP cameras. The supported Brickcom models include the Fixed Box, Cube and Fixed Dome. Brickcom IP cameras use embedded megapixel progressive image sensors and CPU to deliver extremely detailed 1280x800-pixel images at 30 fps. By offering H.264, MJPEG, and MPEG-4 triple codec compression, Brickcom cameras reduce bandwidth and storage requirements without compromising video quality. The wireless Fixed Box and Cube cameras can be installed at any location with wireless coverage. The video surveillance from all Brickcom network cameras can be accessed from any Internet access point through a Web browser or 3G mobile phone. This new relationship with NUUO is part of our effort to offer users the most complete value-added, easy to use surveillance solutions, said Ebony Huang, President and CEO of Brickcom Corporation. NUUOs open platform recording solutions offer a vast opportunity for users to integrate our cameras into existing surveillance systems or to capitalise on the benets of the clear video quality offered by our cameras. For more information contact Inhep Electronics Holdings, +27 (0)31 705 1373,,

NW176 is a two or four serial ports to two Ethernet ports Industrial serial device server, which is an easy and reliable solution for bridging your serial based equipments to the Fast Ethernet networks. The two Ethernet ports can backup each other to provide redundant network connections for the serial devices connected to NW176. The serial ports support RS-232/422/485 or isolated RS-422/485, and the LAN ports support 10/100Base-TX or 100Base bre optics.

Flexible Serial Ports. Support 2 or 4 ports of RS-232/422/485 or RS-422/485. Isolation 2 kV isolated RS-422/485. Dual LAN ports. Fibre option. Support single-mode and multi-mode bre optics for both LAN ports. Flexible power input. Flexible installation method. Port buffering- 64KB port buffer prevents data loss when connection fails. For more information contact IP Security Solutions, +27 (0)11 553 3300,,

Pilot your CCTV system

The next generation of operator units from Geutebrck - the Pilot/Centre, Pilot/Joy and Pilot/Jog are the result of ergonomic design combined with well thought out modular functionality. All have a polycarbonate surface to resist scratching and can be used sepaarately or combined with each other to maximise exibility and user convenience. The innovative design of the USB connection on and ndancy power supply provides additional redundancy and system security when operating and managing digital video matrix components like the GeViScope, re_porter or GeViStore systems. The Windows 7 operating system combined with a 7-inch TFT touch screen display and a resolution of 800 x 480 pixels provide optimum control and ease of use. All keys can be backlit in colour to indicate different operational scenarios and you can control the system intuitively with the benet of an ideal overview. You can extract relevant video images using the Pilot/

Jog and back it up onto your desired storage medium via the Pilot/Centres USB port. Linked by the network and alarm interface, the Pilot/Centre is seamlessly integrated into existing Geutebrck video security management systems, and together with the Pilot/Joy joystick unit it constitutes the ideal interactive control unit for easy and effective video monitoring of complex operations. For more information contact Geutebrck, +27 (0)11 867 6585,,


CCTV Handbook 2011

5-megapixel network camera

Using the latest H.264 video codec based on TIs high performance DaVinci platform, the Hikvision DS-2CD883F-E 5-megapixel network camera delivers compressed video stream with resolution of up to QSXGA (2560x1920) at 8 fps and HD 1080P (1920x1080) at full frame rate, while supporting HDMI for high-denition video display up to 1080P resolution. With 1/2,5-inch progressive scan CMOS image sensor, the DS-2CD883F-E is able to capture minute image detail and can offer a high-denition panoramic view of moving objects in the shortest time. Local card storage (SD/SDHC) is also supported for non-stop recording even when the network connection is interrupted. In addition, the camera has advanced auto iris, allowing it to perform in various lighting conditions by selecting the optimal iris position automatically. With the ICR lter auto switch and electronic shutter control, the product offers crystal clear images in low-light scenarios. The camera also supports Power over Ethernet, two-way audio and e-PTZ, making the product an ideal solution for securing areas where clear images and great image detail are required, such as airports, passport controls, casinos and nancial institutions, etc. For more information contact Hikvision, +86 571 8700 6060,,

16-channel embedded NVR

The Hikvi Hikvision kvi isio sion i nD DS DS-9616NI-SH S-9616NI-SH NVR is a new generation of network video surveilS-961 lance product designed for high quality megapixel recording, mass storage and high-denition, real-time monitoring. Built on an embedded platform and combining the latest H.264/MPEG4 video encoding and decoding technology, this NVR can support network cameras of up to 2 megapixels, and features HDMI for high-denition video display up to 1080P resolution. It supports eight megapixel network cameras of up to 1600x1200 resolution simultaneously, or four 2-megapixel network cameras at full frame rate, or sixteen network cameras of D1 resolution. Hikvisions digital video servers and network speed domes are supported by the NVR as well. The CD76-1 NVR facilitates 16-channels synchronous playback, and digital zoom for more exible monitoring and playback. The product allows video storage on as many as eight SATA hard drives up to 2 TB each. The pre-allocated hard disk management technology allows users to maximise storage space. Remote PTZ control enables users to adjust the PTZ cameras directly via a Web user interface. The user-friendly GUI comes with a Windows-style interface and an attractive, efcient operating panel. Other class-leading features include scheduled recording, motion-detection event-triggered recording, dual video streaming, local archive, easy USB backup and more. TCP/IP, PPPoE, DHCP, DNS, DDNS, NTP, SADP, SMTP, NFS and SNMP are all supported for powerful video data transmission and network management. For more information contact IP Security Solutions, +27 (0)11 553 3300,, CCTV Handbook 2011



Dallmeier r HD camera
Dallmeier presents an entry into the world of HD: the DDF4900HDV DV x dome, a 3 megapixel highdenition, vandal-resistant andal-resistan ant t dome dome camera. dom camer ra. It It is equipped with the Cam_inPIX image processing technology and provides clear, high-contrast and colour-true pictures. The Dallmeier network camera has a 1/2.5-inch 5 megapixel CMOS image sensor and supports both standard and high denition (720p, 1080p, 2 MP, 3 MP) resolutions. Enhanced image quality can be achieved by means of numerous control functions such as AWB, AGC and slow shutter. Power supply can be via PoE or 12 V DC.

TruVision DVR 60 Tru

1/2,5 5 megapixel CMOS image sensor with Cam_inPIX technology. Pure digital signal processing. High sensitivity at F1.0, 50IRE: 1.6 lux. Frame rate up to 30 fps. Video compression: H.264, MJPEG. Simultaneous dual- or tri-streaming. Megapixel vari-focal lens: F1.8/ f=4-10 mm. Noise suppression. Hybrid IP camera with an analogue preview output. Alarm notication via FTP image upload. Local video memory SDHC card slot integrated. Tri-axial adjustment. Two available camera variants: in-ceiling mount and surface mount. Compact, vandal-resistant housing with IP67 (surface mount variant). DIN EN 50130-4 compliant. For more information contact Dallmeier electronic Southern Africa Ofce, +27 (0)11 979 4540,,

UTC Fire & Securitys TruVision DVR 60 (TVR60) sets a new standard for performance, ease-of-use and bridges the gap between DVRs and NVRs. The TVR60 is a full featured and scalable 24-channel hybrid digital recorder using H.264 compression technology. This DVR can record each analogue camera at 4CIF and each connected IP camera at 720p. TVR60 supports a broad range of IP devices, allowing the surveillance system to seamlessly grow to meet evolving security requirements. The UltraView Encoder10 allows customers to reuse installed analogue cameras.

Main features
Real-time recording of 24 channels at 4CIF/720p resolution. Dual streaming functionality allows different settings for recording and streaming video in live mode. Video authentication. Supports audio. Features up to 12 TB internal storage. PTZ and Dome cameras control via the IR remote control, the new multifunctional front panel joystick, or by using the mouse. E-mail notication upon alarm with attached images. Easy and intuitive Web browser and OSD menu enables remote conguration and secure viewing, searching, and playing back of video from computers connected via the Internet. Ability to fully integrate with UTCFSs licence-free GE Nav, TVRmobile and iTVRmobile software. For more information contact UTC Fire & Security, +27 (0)11 579 7300,,

New video / power supply hubs

Expanding its UTP power, video and data transmission product range, Network Video Technologies (NVT), has released a new line of PS42 Power Supply StubEQTM technology UTP Receiver Hubs. Now available from stock, the 8, 16 and 32 channel PS42 hubs are designed to provide the ultimate 2-in-1 solution, providing both camera power and exceptional noise-free 2-band digital equalisation video all at a lower cost than a separate power supply and StubEQ unit. Additionally, UTP based camera power can be supplied at distances of up to 450 metres far beyond Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) and without the additional expense of repeater units. Installation of the PS42 range is quick and easy too, as NVT StubEQ technology means automatic and continuous digital 2-band equalisation and adjustment-free video, right from the moment the unit is connected. The new range of PS42 Power Supply StubEQ technology Receiver Hubs brings the advantages of NVT high-performance UTP video transmission combined with long distance UTP power transmission, says Steve Proctor, NVTs sales director. This is a very advanced, highperformance yet cost-effective product, which is suitable for a wide variety of CCTV system applications. As with all NVT products, the new PS42 hubs are covered by a limited lifetime warranty, are UL and cUL listed, compliant with CE, RoHS and WEEE. For more information contact Network Video Technologies, +44 20 8977 6614,,


CCTV Handbook 2011

H.264 megapixel IP camera era

UTC Fire & Security has released the TruVision H.264 Megapixel IP camera series offering state-of-the-art ultrahigh denition images. Using progressive scan for an even sharper image, its a exible video surveillance device equipped with advanced technology and signal processing en capability to effectively capture video even under challenging conditions. Designed to hese accommodate numerous applications, these ious cameras deliver optimum security in various portation environments including education, transportation and commercial. fers the traditional box camera, camera a plastic The TruVision Megapixel IP series offers indoor dome camera, and an aluminium vandal-resistant IP66-rated environmental housing dome camera suitable for both indoor and outdoor use.

V Victor Unied Video Management Solution

Victor is a unied interface that lets users manage and control Intellex DVRs, VideoEdge NVRs and associated IP and analogue cameras. End users are able to maximise their existing investments in analogue technology while adding NVRs and IP cameras over time. Its unmatched exibility lets you create customisable layouts that exactly match the tasks an operator performs each day. It is a platform for the future unifying other security and business applications. The latest Intellex which features up to 400 ips on all models, has improved image quality and support for widescreen monitor display. These will be on display at IFSEC. Also demonstrated will be the Hybrid Digital Video recorder (HDVR) which provides seamless integration with recording of analogue and IP (Megapixel) cameras along with C-CURE integration. At IFSEC visitors can see the ADTVR embedded digital video system utilises H.264 video compression to ensure superior recording and compression. For more information contact Tyco Security Products, +27 (0)82 566 5274,,

Main features
Real-time video streaming at 1280X 720p HD resolution. Maximum resolution: UXGA (1600 x 1200) at 12,5 fps for 2 MPX; SXGA (1280 x 960) at 12,5 fps for 1.3 MPX. Supports up to 16 GB SDHC cards for local storage. PoE (Power over Ethernet) enables power via a network switch, simplifying installation and lowering costs. Dual streaming functionality allows using different settings for recording and streaming video, thus managing the cameras bandwidth usage. Networkable via Ethernet (TCP/IP) for remote monitoring, searching, playback, archiving, conguration, alarm notications and rmware. Alarm inputs/outputs as well as integrated motion detection provides a comprehensive event logging system. Privacy masking helps keep condential data safe. Supports audio. , For more information contact UTC Fire & Security, +27 (0)11 579 7300, m.,

Synergy enterprise class NVR

The Synergy Enterprise models of network video recorders (NVR) are the agship models in the Synergy range which scale up to hundreds of cameras, yet are available in desktop models for a handful of cameras. The Synergy Enterprise range is rack mounted and designed for reliability ility and high availability and has built-in features such as redundant ant power supplies, RAID data protection and hot swap of hard drives. es. The Operating System (OS) and Video Management System are loaded on ash ash memory on a Disk on Module, which further improves reliability as there is no risk of down time due to failure of the OS/VMS hard drive.

Further features
Many IP camera brands are supported at resolutions of up to 8 megapixel resolution per camera. Triplex operation: watch live, record and view recordings simultaneously. Dual codec recording and streaming to save bandwidth and recording space. Sub channel recording allows recording of the same camera steam at varying resolutions and speeds to save storage space. eMaps, alarm event handling, virtual PTZ, remote workstations, integration gateways to other systems such as access control. One unique feature of the Synergy NVR is the Time Sector Engine (TSE) technology where camera images are retrieved directly from the hard drive and not via a database index, thus avoiding this database bottle neck resulting in exceptionally fast video retrieval and review. For more information contact Sentronics, +27 (0)11 312 4147,, CCTV Handbook 2011



Intelligent LED illumination

HD outdoor surveillance

Geu Geutebrck eu uteb te eb brck k now no offers intelligent high performance white and infrared LED illuminators in its Helios range. The power supply of these lights can be managed through the GeViSoft video security management system and is therefore directly integrated into the whole surveillance concept. Completely new possibilities arise for video monitoring when the management system is linked to the illumination. The local lighting can be controlled as necessary and according to on-site requirements. For example, Geutebrck white lights can be used when needed as a deterrent or for general illumination. And Geutebrck IR illumination can be run at reduced power until such time as an alarm is triggered by the Geutebrck system. This saves energy and reduces the running costs for the video security system. For more information contact Geutebrck, +27 (0)11 867 6585,,

American Dynamics Illustra IP cameras

The Illustra range of IP cameras has one of the most powerful sensor-processor combinations available on the market. The 896 x 720 resolution sets them apart as a versatile camera series bridging standard resolution with 650k pixels for very high resolution. This powerful resolution and H.264 compression creates a blend of image quality and bandwidth-friendly performance. For more information contact Tyco Security Products, +27 (0)82 566 5274,,

The outdoor-ready AXIS P5534-E PTZ dome network camera offers HDTVquality video and 18x zoom, enabling surveillance of a large area and greater detail when zooming in. With quick and reliable installation features, it is ideal for city and perimeter surveillance, and for use at airports and train stations. AXIS P5534-E provides HDTV 720p in compliance with SMPTE 296M standard of 1280 x 720 pixel resolution, full frame rate, HDTV colour delity and a 16:9 format. The day and night camera can deliver multiple H.264 and Motion JPEG streams simultaneously. H.264 greatly optimises bandwidth and storage use without compromising image quality, while Motion JPEG is supported for increased exibility. The PTZ dome camera provides 18x optical and 12x digital zoom with autofocus. Due to its HDTV resolution, the cameras 18x zoom provides not only a level of detail that is comparable to a 36x-zoom, 4CIF camera, but also the extra advantage of a wider, 16:9 eld of view. With the unique auto-ip functionality, it can pan 360 to continuously follow an object. The cameras Advanced Gatekeeper functionality enables it to automatically move to a preset position when motion is detected in a pre-dened area. AXIS P5534-E is powered with High Power over Ethernet, which makes installation easy since only one cable is needed for carrying power, video and PTZ commands. A High PoE midspan is supplied.

HDTV 720p, day/night and H.264. Outdoor-ready: IP66- and NEMA 4X-rated. 18x optical zoom. Advanced Gatekeeper functionality. High Power over Ethernet (IEEE 802.3at). For more information contact Axis Communications, +27 (0)11 548 6780,,


CCTV Handbook 2011

Bosch AutoDome 800 series

Bosch Security Systems introduces the AutoDome 800 Series HD high-speed pan-tilt-zoom cameras. With 360-degrees of coverage, the cameras provide superior optical resolution and day/night functionality, giving customers high-denition imaging in outdoor conditions. They solve a range of surveillance challenges for trafc and transportation applications, industrial sites, government facilities and parking garages. A 1/3 inch progressive scan CMOS sensor gives customers 200x zoom (20x optical/10x digital) and HD imaging to make it easier to identify ne features in a scene, such as faces or licence ce plates. 720p resolution at 60 images per second provides smooth, detailed video of fast moving objects. 1080p resolution at 30 images per second delivers six times the detail level of standard denition cameras, ensuring crisp video even when customers zoom in digitally gitally to extend the cameras range. In addition, the 16:9 aspect ratio increases situational al awareness by maximising the eld of view without compromising image clarity. The AutoDome 800 Series HD Cameras include Intelligent Video Analysis (IVA) software that automatically processes video signals and alerts operators to potential security risks. The higher pixel densities captured by the cameras enable optimised performance of IVA with improved detection for loitering, perimeter breaches and other potential threats. With quad-streaming, the AutoDome 800 Series HD Cameras feature simultaneous streaming of high-quality video with differing frame rate and resolution settings for exibility in system design. For example, customers can select 1080p or 720p HD video with H.264 Main Prole compression for live viewing and recording while sending JPEG images to a hand-held device. The heavy-duty, tamper-resistant aluminium housing is rated to IP 66 to provide uncompromised functionality even in dusty and potentially wet environments. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems, +27 (0)11 651 9813,, CCTV Handbook 2011



NUUO Central Management System

Linux-embedded standalone NVR

Th NU The NUUO UO NVR NVR-based -ba b sed dC Central entr t al lM Management anagement t System (NCS) is a powerful system designed for large-scale and high-level enterprise projects.CMS can manage all NUUO product lines including NDVR Hybrid, NVR, DVR and NVRmini. The NUUO NCS supports unlimited cameras, I/O device, POS, servers and users. The controls and operation of NUUO CMS is clear-cut and map centric. It has a powerful alarm management system among all NUUO product lines and can control unlimited matrices viewing consoles in the centralised control room. NCS Matrix offers a video wall for users to get video and manage alarm efciently and instantly. For more information, contact NUUO, +27 (0)72 178 3200,

With a Linux-embedded system, the NUUO NVRmini platform offers the most stable, open, easy installation that is free from virus attack, and is appropriate for factories, buildings, retailers, homes, banks, hotels and city surveillance. NVRmini supports plug and play, 2-4 hard disks and 216 IP cameras from 33 different brands. Using Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 or above in combination with a RAID hard drive, NVRmini increases the data transfer rate and ensures continuous system operation in case of a disk drive failure. With online GUI recording schedule, E-map, NUUO iPhone, Android, i-Viewer support, playback and intelligent search, monitoring becomes far more efcient. Remote I/O devices connect all of the security equipment. For more information, contact NUUO, +27 (0)72 178 3200,

Next generation IP cameras

The new Vivotek IP 8151 Day/Night camera renders great picture clarity by using the latest Sony image sensor technology. Users of this new technology will experience exceptional l image detail during the day and in low light conditions the technology allows the camera to deliver image quality not possible with previous generation image sensor technology. This is due to the fact that the new sensor technology allows a greater amount of light to reach the image sensor, reducing noise, which degrades image quality. This night vision IP camera can be used to secure any site where low light image quality and image detail are required. The IP8151 supports industry standard H.264 compression n which makes efcient use of network bandwidth and storage requirements. Over and above this, camera supports multistreaming which allows optimal balance between live viewing g and video recording. The unit features many other benets such as an onboard SD/SDHC card slot; PoE; CS-Mount 3,18 mm AI IR lens, DI/DO, O, audio in/out, 802.1X network protection and ONVIF support. For more information contact Sentronics, +27 (0)11 312 4147,,


CCTV Handbook 2011

Bosch HD 720p Day/Night IP cameras

Bosch has introduced its Dinion HD and FlexiDome HD 720p Day/Night IP cameras (ONVIF conformant). These are among the rst products to be released as part of the new Bosch HD (high denition) surveillance solution. Equipped with Boschs latest 1/3-inch HD CCD with progressive scan, the cameras deliver sharp, highly detailed HD images combined with renowned Dinion performance. Pixel-by-pixel image processing generates the most detailed images, making it easier for operators to distinguish small features important when trying to recognise facial characteristics, identify small objects or make out items such as number plates. Also, being true HD, images are reproduced in widescreen format which captures more usable content from any scene. Bosch Dinion HD 720p Day/ Night IP cameras offer customers a conventional but stylish box camera, while the FlexiDome HD 720p Day/Night IP cameras provide a discreet, rugged dome option. They all feature advanced digital video processing that helps ensure image and colour performance are superb, even under challenging lighting conditions. SmartBLC automatically compensates for backlighting, while SensUp Dynamic signicantly enhances sensitivity in low light such as moonlight. iSCSI storage is supported, and video storage costs are minimised via the Bosch H.264 compression implementation, which saves up to 30 percent storage compared to MPEG-4 without sacricing image quality. Innovative Quad Streaming enables simultaneous streaming of three H.264 video streams and a JPEG

stream, giving more exibility for third-party software integration. The cameras also support multicasting and Internet streaming. Standard video content analysis features are included, such as built-in MOTION+ video motion analysis system. Also, hardware-enhanced versions of the cameras enable more advanced Intelligent Video Analysis (IVA) functionality using multi-level image analysis of pixels, texture and object direction. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems, +27 (0)11 651 9813,,

Hikvision NVR
The Hikvision DS-9616NI-SH NVR is a new generation of network video surveillance product designed for high gh quality megapixel recording, mass storage and high-denition, real-time monitoring. Built on an embedded platform and combining the latest H.264/MPEG4 video encoding and decoding technology, this NVR can support network cameras of up to 2 megapixels, and features HDMI for high-denition video display up to 1080P resolution. esolution. It supports eight megapixel network cameras of f up to t 1600x1200 1600 1200 resolution l ti simultaneously, i lt l or four f 2-megapixel 2 i l network cameras at full frame rate, or sixteen network cameras of D1 resolution. Hikvisions digital video servers and network speed domes are supported by the NVR as well. The DS-9616NI-SH NVR facilitates 16-channels synchronous playback, and digital zoom for more exible monitoring and playback. The product allows video storage on as many as eight SATA hard drives up to 2 TB each. The pre-allocated hard disk management technology allows users to maximise storage space. Remote PTZ control enables users to adjust the PTZ cameras directly via a Web user interface. The user-friendly GUI comes with a Windows-style interface and an attractive, efcient operating panel. Other class-leading features include scheduled recording, motion-detection event-triggered recording, dual video streaming, local archive, easy USB backup and more. TCP/IP, PPPoE, DHCP, DNS, DDNS, NTP, SADP, SMTP, NFS and SNMP are all supported for powerful video data transmission and network management. The DS-9616NI-SH NVR is invaluable for security-critical installations, including nancial institutions, public security, military, telecommunications, transportation, education, water conservancy and more. For more information contact Hikvision, +86 571 8700 6060,, CCTV Handbook 2011



Beef up security
Esquire Technologies has announced the availability of the latest range of Intellinet Network Solutions SOHO stable of CCTV products. The Intellinet NSC11 Wired Network Camera is aimed at home-network-based video streaming and allows users to access the camera remotely over the Internet. The compact camera can save snapshots or record directly from the Web browser to the local hard drive without installing any software or drivers. The easy to use 16-channel wired camera features LEDs (Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes), which allow for a 35-metre effective light range, and has a progressive-scan image sensor that provides excellent image quality. Added features include, integrated multi-window motion detection, simultaneous backs MPEG4 and motion-JPEG image compression, integration of e-mails and event-triggered FTP (File Transfer Protocol) and support for UPnP (Universal Plug and play) with UPnP port forwarding capability. If users prefer wireless cameras solutions, Esquire offers the NSC11-WN Network Camera, which supports WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) and WPA2 encryption. The new wireless N standard camera has dramatically increased the overall performance of a wireless network as it greatly surpasses previous wireless G technology in every aspect, with speeds up to 150 Mpbs and WPS that connects the network camera to your wireless network with the push button. The NSC11-WN Network Camera supports image resolutions up to 640 x 480 VGA (Video Graphics Array), integrated scheduler of FTP and e-mail uploads of still images. For more information contact Esquire Technologies, 086 170 0000, q

High-performance megapixel

Th AXIS P3346 is The i a 3-megapixel 3 i l day d and d night i h xed d dome d network k camera that offers superb video performance. It delivers full frame rate HDTV 1080p (1920x1080) in compliance with the SMPTE 274M standard in resolution, colour representation, 16:9 aspect ratio and frame rate. Multiple H.264 streams, as well as Motion JPEG streams, can be provided simultaneously. The camera also supports digital pan/tilt/zoom and multi-view streaming, where the full view and several areas cropped from the full view can be streamed simultaneously. The remote zoom adjusts the angle of view over the network and the remote focus eliminates the need for manual focusing. AXIS P3346 also features P-Iris, a new, precise iris control system that provides optimal image quality in all lighting conditions. It provides images with better vid contrast, clarity, resolution and depth of eld. Having good depth of eld where co objects at different distances from the camera are in focus simultaneously is ob important in the video monitoring of, for example, a long corridor or parking lot. It im also features wide dynamic range and day/night functionality enable clear images als both in daylight and in dark lighting conditions. bo AXIS P3346 with its tamper-resistant casing, is a xed dome specically designed for indoor environments where discreet and compact solutions are de required. It is the perfect solution for video surveillance in areas such as retail req stores, governmental buildings and airports. sto

Features Fe
Superb video quality in HDTV 1080p or 3MP. P-Iris control. Multiple H.264 streams and Motion JPEG video streams. Digital PTZ and multi-view streaming.

Fo For more information contact Axis Communications, +27 (0)11 548 6780, roy,


CCTV TV Handbook 2011

CCTV 2011
Company ADI Global Distribution Avigilon Axis Communications SA BFR Digital Bosch Security Systems Bosch Security Systems Bosch Security Systems C3 Shared Services Card Control Systems Crown Hyper World Dallmeier electronic Southern Africa Office Dimension Data Elvey Security Technologies Emergency Reaction Services Esquire Technologies Fibre Based Integrations Frank Street G2 Security Geutebrck Graphic Image Technologies Hikvision Honeywell Systems Group Industrial Automation & Control Inhep Digital Security IP Security Solutions Leaderware Mantech Electronics Milestone Systems Mimic Components/Crafts Miro Distribution Montgomery Africa Network Video Technologies Norbain SA NUUO Progroup Regal Secequip Group (Avigilon) Security & Communication Warehouse * Denotes advertiser Sentronics Space Security Stanley Security Solutions TeleEye (South Africa) Timeless Technologies Tyco Security Products UTC Fire & Security +27 (0)11 979 4540 +27 (0)11 575 4217 +27 (0)11 401 6700 +27 (0)11 234 6000 0861 700 000 +27 (0)11 552 8200 +27 (0)11 496 2300 +27 (0)87 940 9322 +27 (0)11 867 6585 +27 (0)11 483 0333 +86 571 8807 5998 +44 1928 754023 +27 (0)12 657 3600 +27 (0)31 705 1373 +27 (0)11 553 3300 +27 (0)11 787 7811 +27 (0)11 493 9307 +45 88 300 300 +27 (0)11 689 5700 086 123 MIRO +27 (0)11 835 1565 +44 20 8977 6614 +27 (0)11 887 1546 +27 (0)72 178 3200 +27 (0)11 493 1545 +27 (0)11 553 3300 +27 (0)31 539 4921 +27 (0)12 653 1005 +27 (0)11 312 4147 0861 40 41 42 082 738 6807 +27 (0)11 557 9200 0861 846 383 +27 (0)82 566 5274 +27 (0)11 579 7300 44,66 35* 28,34,45* 69* 9*,72 46,47* 55* 55 26,30,31, 39*,64,68 63* 51*,56,57, 65,71 62 32 49*,64 64,65 14* 31*,65* 58,59 21* 7* 29* 66 33*,48 37*,70 54* 41* 28* 59* 15*,67,70 19* 3* 17* 25* IFC*,60,67,68 53,66,67,OBC* Telephone 0860 22 55 23 +34 667 887 503 +27 (0)11 548 6780 +27 (0)11 786 5575 +27 (0)11 651 9813 +27 (0)11 651 9818 +27 (0)11 651 9604 +27 (0)11 312 2041 +27 (0)11 907 3192 +27 (0)11 830 1452 E-mail Website Page 11* 63 20,21,43, 53*,68,72 61* 69,71 24,25,27* 54 49 13* 57*

For more information on these and other suppliers please see