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# AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

## Fig.1-1: Spring subjected to an axial load P

Two major things that will happen when the spring is loaded

SPRINGS

## Natural length of the spring is called unstressed, relaxed or free length

The spring increases by under the action of force and the final length is + If material is linearly elastic, load and elongation will be proportional = =

## Where are constants of proportionality

is the stiffness and it is defined as the force required to produce a unit elongation = is the flexibility and it is defined as the elongation produced by a load of unit value = NOTE: The stiffness and flexibility of a spring is reciprocal of each other. 1 = 1 =

Other terms for stiffness and flexibility are spring constants and compliance respectively.

## Fig.1-3: Elongation of prismatic bar

A prismatic bar is a structural member having a straight longitudinal axis and constant cross section throughout its length. From Hookes Law P = E = = E AE From definition of strain = L Equating and solving for deformation PL = AE

## BARS WITH INTERMEDIATE AXIAL LOADING

SOLUTION PROCEDURE:

(1). Identify the segments of the bar under study. (2). Determine the internal axial forces 1 , 2 , 3 , , In all segments from the free-body diagrams of the bar under study. Note that the internal axial forces are denoted by the letter 1 , 2 , 3 , to distinguish them from the external loads P. By summing forces in the vertical or horizontal directions, the expressions for the axial forces can be obtained. (3). Determine the changes in the length of the segments.

1 =

1 1 , 1 1

2 =

2 2 2 2

3 =

3 3 3 3

4 =

4 4 4 4

In which 1 , 2 , 3 4 are the length of the segments and is the axial rigidity of the bar. (4). Add 1 , 2 , 3 4 to obtain , the change in length of the entire bar;
3

=
=1

= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4

The changes in lengths must be added algebraically, with elongation being positive and shortenings negative.

ALTERNATIVE

=
=1

Pi Li A i Ei

## BARS WITH CONTINUOUSLY VARYING LOADS OR DIMENSIONS

PL = EA Substituting N x for P, dx for L and A x for A = Integrating over the length gives the elongation of the entire bar

=
0 0

Example 1:

Example 2:
Determine the deformation of the steel rod shown in fig below under the given load [ = 200 109 2

Example 4: A member is subjected to point loads 1 , 2 , 3 4 as shown below. If 1 = 120 , 2 = 220 4 = 160 . Determine the net change in length of the member. [Take = 200 2 ]

Example 5: The device shown in the figure below consists of a horizontal beam supported by two vertical bars . Bar is pinned at both ends but bar is fixed to the foundation at its lower end. The distance from is 450 225 . Bars have lengths of 480 and 600 respectively, and their cross-sectional areas are 1020 2 520 2 respectively. The bars are made of steel having modulus of elasticity = 205 . Assuming the beam is rigid, find the maximum allowable load if the displacement of is limited to 1.0 .

## Member CE is in tension and member BD is in compression.

Shortening of member BD =

= 6.887 106

## Where = Lengthening of member CE is

2 600 = = = 11.26 106 2 205 1020

Using similar triangle from the displacement diagram Consider triangle + + = = 450 + 225 225 Substituting for gives
+ 11.26 106 6.887 10 + 11.26 106 = 450 + 225 225
6

Substituting = 1.0 i.e. its limiting value and solve gives as = = 23.200 23.2 Note: When the load reaches this value, the downward displacement of at point A is 1.0 mm Angle of displacement: From the displacement diagram, the angle of rotation
+ = = 675

## And = 0.261 by substituting the value of P

1.0 + 1.261 1.261 = = = 0.001868 675 675 = 0.11

Question 6 Consider a circular bar that tapers uniformly from diameterd1 at the bigger end to diameter d2 at the Smaller end, and subjected to axial tensile load P as shown in fig. below:

Show that the total elongation of the tapering bar 4PL L = Ed1 d2