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Project Data:

Pt

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

()

50
50
50
50
50
20
20
20
20
20
0
0
0
0
0

(Rad)

0.8727
0.8727
0.8727
0.8727
0.8727
0.3491
0.3491
0.3491
0.3491
0.3491
0
0
0
0
0

V0 (m/s)

a0 (m)

aw (m)

Undeformed (bulk) copper


0.17
0.527 0.0002
0.004
0.44
0.515 0.0002
0.004
1.72
0.578 0.0002
0.004
2.46
0.494 0.0002
0.004
4.43
0.521 0.0002
0.004
0.17
0.162 0.0002
0.004
0.44
0.184 0.0002
0.004
1.72
0.220 0.0002
0.004
2.46
0.244 0.0002
0.004
4.43
0.261 0.0002
0.004
0.17
0.110 0.0002
0.004
0.44
0.120 0.0002
0.004
1.72
0.147 0.0002
0.004
2.46
0.153 0.0002
0.004
4.43
0.170 0.0002
0.004

Fc
(N)

532
598
651
583
713
1502
1267
1281
1405
1094
2604
2330
1685
1628
1380

Ft
(N)

Chip Hardness
(HV or
kg/mm2)

-38
-70
-95
-78
-147
326
241
169
165
137
1443
1351
976
956
770

Solution:
Assumptions for oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper (CU101)
Property
Thermal Diffusivity (a)
Thermal Conductivity (k)
Density ()
Specific Heat Capacity (C)

Value
0.000113
391.1
8820
390

Units
m2/s
W/m.K
Kg/m3
J/KgK

Constants
Ambient Temperature ()

22
0.02

C
mm

733
1368
1397
14010
1327
1215
1597
1595
14121
12730
12526
13216
783
753
753
758

a)
Required Calculations are shown in Green.
Intermediate Calculations are shown in Yellow.

Shear Angle ()
=tan-1(rcos/(1-rsin))

Shear Strain ()
=cos/sincos(-)

Shear Strain Rate ( /s)


= Vocos/(cos(-))

29.604
28.640
33.722
27.072
29.168
9.135
10.445
12.628
14.063
15.082
6.257
6.816
8.371
8.690
9.648

1.388
1.440
1.206
1.534
1.411
6.027
5.256
4.334
3.888
3.625
9.230
8.486
6.943
6.696
6.052

5905.510
15283.424
57664.428
85858.612
152291.906
8239.751
21100.807
81594.802
116223.965
208850.009
8662.971
22301.140
87040.930
124448.048
224612.402

Shear Force (Fs N) Shear Velocity (Vs m/s)


Fccos-Ftsin

= Vocos/cos(-)

481.32
558.39
594.20
554.62
694.23
1431.20
1202.31
1213.06
1322.80
1020.67
2431.22
2153.19
1524.97
1464.88
1231.42

0.118
0.306
1.153
1.717
3.046
0.165
0.422
1.632
2.324
4.177
0.173
0.446
1.741
2.489
4.492

Shear Energy
3

(Us MJ/m )

Cutting Energy
3

= Fs Vs /aoaw Vo

(U MJ/m )
= Fc/aoaw

412.604
481.747
497.373
483.857
596.823
1711.793
1432.118
1436.760
1562.159
1203.328
3057.236
2710.645
1926.733
1852.360
1561.367

665.000
747.500
813.750
728.750
891.250
1877.500
1583.750
1601.250
1756.250
1367.500
3255.000
2912.500
2106.250
2035.000
1725.000

Rtan 1=1/(4Rtan) * ERF(sqrt(Rtan))


0.043
0.107
0.509
0.556
1.094
0.012
0.036
0.171
0.273
0.528
0.008
0.023
0.112
0.166
0.333

Here,

1.336
0.833
0.338
0.318
0.197
2.538
1.466
0.646
0.495
0.329
3.078
1.829
0.812
0.655
0.439

3=e^(-Rtan)/sqrt(pi)*
2= (1+Rtan)
(1/2sqrt(Rtan) + sqrt = 1 + 2 - 3
ERFC(sqrt(Rtan))
(Rtan))
0.802
0.713
0.472
0.454
0.291
0.886
0.817
0.654
0.586
0.465
0.905
0.848
0.707
0.658
0.552

1.411
0.941
0.480
0.458
0.288
2.579
1.535
0.772
0.636
0.471
3.112
1.885
0.922
0.780
0.584

, ERF is the Error Function, ERFC is the Complimentary Error Function.

s ( C)
= (1-)*Fs *Vs /(*C*Vo*ao*aw )
32.682
55.406
96.844
96.505
138.787
76.984
104.873
197.108
252.052
236.686
115.006
163.840
225.665
251.750
268.611

Shear Zone
Temperature
o

s ( C)= + s
54.682
77.406
118.844
118.505
160.787
98.984
126.873
219.108
274.052
258.686
137.006
185.840
247.665
273.750
290.611

0.728
0.604
0.330
0.314
0.200
0.845
0.748
0.528
0.445
0.323
0.871
0.792
0.597
0.533
0.408

b) Intermediate Calculations for plotting the graph.


Shear Strain ()
=*/(Vo*sin)
3

Shear Strain ()
=*/(Vo*sin)
4

Shear Strain ()
=*/(Vo*sin)
5

= 10 /sec

= 10 /sec

= 10 /sec

0.235
0.094
0.021
0.018
0.009
0.731
0.249
0.053
0.033
0.017
1.065
0.381
0.080
0.054
0.027

2.351
0.942
0.209
0.179
0.093
7.315
2.491
0.531
0.335
0.174
10.655
3.805
0.798
0.538
0.269

23.507
9.422
2.092
1.786
0.927
73.147
24.909
5.312
3.345
1.736
106.550
38.050
7.977
5.380
2.694

Figure1: Plot showing the variation of Shear strain with cutting velocity
Note: Next to each point are Rake angle, Shear Zone temperature and Chip Hardness in the order
respectively. The three curves represent the variation of Shear strain for different Strain rates
(103/sec, 104/sec and 105/sec) as displayed in the graph.

d)
Shear Strain: With decrease in the rake angle (), the shear strain () is increasing. Also, from
the graph, we can see that the shear strain () decreases with increase in deformation rate (Vo),
for a particular rake angle ().
Shear Strain Rate (): Shear strain rate () increases with increase in rake angle (), for a
constant deformation rate (Vo). It also increases with increase in deformation rate (Vo), for any
rake angle (). So, for positive rake angle, we must make sure that deformation rate is high to get
maximum shear strain rate.
Specific Cutting Energy (U): Specific Cutting Energy (U) is dependent on cutting forces (Fc),
undeformed thickness (ao) and chip width (aw). Specific Cutting energy is independent of
deformation rate (Vo) and is dependent upon the amount of cutting force required, whereas the
Cutting Power is dependent on deformation rate (Vo).
Shear Zone Temperature (s): Shear Zone Temperature (s) increases with decrease in rake
angle () and increase in deformation rate (Vo).
Chip Hardness (HV): At lower rake angles ( = 0o), chip hardness is almost the same as
undeformed copper. At moderate rake angles ( = 20o), chip hardness is relatively higher
compared to higher rake angles ( = 50o).

e) The specific cutting energy (U) is dependent upon the cutting force (Fc) and the undeformed
chip thickness (ao) and chip width (aw) as follows:
=

The cutting force Fc is dependent upon the strength of the material. As Ti-6Al-4V (Ultimate
Tensile Strength = 950 MPa), is stronger than CU101 (Ultimate Tensile Strength = 220MPa), we
can expect that the cutting energy required for Ti-6Al-4V to be higher than that of CU101 alloy.

(1 )

where = f(Rtan) and

So, shear zone temperature is high for lower values of thermal diffusivity, density and heat
capacity. The thermal diffusivity (a) of Ti-6Al-4V (6.4 10
/ ) is lower than CU101
(1.113 10
/ ). The density () of Ti-6Al-4V (4.43 10
/
) is lower than CU101
(8.96 10
/ ). Also, the heat capacity (c) of Ti-6Al-4V (526

) is lower than
CU101 (385

). Hence, the combined effect of density and heat capacity (product


c), of Ti-6Al-4V is lower than that of CU101.
The shear force Fs is dependent on cutting force (Fc). Since, Ti-6Al-4V (Ultimate Tensile
Strength = 950 MPa), is stronger than CU101 (Ultimate Tensile Strength = 220MPa), we can
expect that the shear zone temperature change and ultimately the shear zone temperature to be
higher for Ti-6Al-4V than CU101 alloy.

2) Assumptions for AISI1018 Steel


Property
Strength Coefficient (k)

Value
900

Units
Mpa

Figure2: Plot showing the variation of Indentation Pressure with Angle . The minimum value
of Indentation pressure is found to be at = 54.735o.