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Learning algorithm for neural network with applications

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c World Scientic Publishing Company

DOI: 10.1142/S0129065712003067

A NOVEL EFFICIENT LEARNING ALGORITHM

FOR SELF-GENERATING FUZZY NEURAL

NETWORK WITH APPLICATIONS

FAN LIU

Singapore, 639798, Singapore

liuf0009@e.ntu.edu.sg

emjer@ntu.edu.sg

In this paper, a novel ecient learning algorithm towards self-generating fuzzy neural network (SGFNN)

is proposed based on ellipsoidal basis function (EBF) and is functionally equivalent to a Takagi-Sugeno-

Kang (TSK) fuzzy system. The proposed algorithm is simple and ecient and is able to generate a

fuzzy neural network with high accuracy and compact structure. The structure learning algorithm of the

proposed SGFNN combines criteria of fuzzy-rule generation with a pruning technology. The Kalman lter

(KF) algorithm is used to adjust the consequent parameters of the SGFNN. The SGFNN is employed in

a wide range of applications ranging from function approximation and nonlinear system identication to

chaotic time-series prediction problem and real-world fuel consumption prediction problem. Simulation

results and comparative studies with other algorithms demonstrate that a more compact architecture

with high performance can be obtained by the proposed algorithm. In particular, this paper presents

an adaptive modeling and control scheme for drug delivery system based on the proposed SGFNN.

Simulation study demonstrates the ability of the proposed approach for estimating the drugs eect and

regulating blood pressure at a prescribed level.

Keywords: Self-generating fuzzy neural network; Ellipsoidal Basis Function (EBF); criteria of generation

and pruning; Kalman lter (KF) algorithm.

1. Introduction

Over the past decade, many novel articial intel-

ligence or machine learning algorithms have been

successfully developed and widely applied to many

applications, for example, neural network models for

earthquake magnitude prediction using multiple seis-

micity indicators,

1

estimation of the freeway work

zone capacity based on neuro-fuzzy logic model,

2

nonparametric identication of structures based

on fuzzy wavelet neural networks using nonlinear

autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs

approach

3

and nonlinear complex system identi-

cation based on internal recurrent neural networks

(IRNN).

4

Recently, many researchers focus on combining

evolutionary algorithms (EA) with machine learn-

ing algorithms. Hung and Adeli

5

combined a genetic

algorithm (GA) with an adaptive conjugate gradi-

ent neural network learning algorithm for training of

feedforward neural networks. Elragal

6

adopted parti-

cle swarm optimization (PSO)

7

algorithm to update

the weights and bias of a neural network to improve

network prediction accuracy.

Another well-known work is the development of

fuzzy neural network (FNN) which has been proven

to be able to reap the benets of fuzzy logic and neu-

ral networks.

1,812

Theoretical investigations have

been proven that fuzzy logic systems and neural

Corresponding author.

21

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

22 F. Liu & M. J. Er

networks can approximate any function to any pre-

scribed accuracy provided that sucient fuzzy rules

or hidden neurons are available.

13,14

In FNN sys-

tems, standard neural networks are designed to

approximate a fuzzy inference system through the

structure of neural networks while the parameters of

the fuzzy system are modied by means of learning

algorithms used in neural networks.

15

Twin issues

associated with a fuzzy system are (1) parameter

estimation which involves determining parameters of

premises and consequents and (2) structure identi-

cation which involves partitioning the input space

and determining the number of fuzzy rules for a spe-

cic performance.

16

FNN systems have been found to be very e-

cient and of widespread use in several areas such as

adaptive control,

1,7,18,19

signal processing,

20

nonlin-

ear system identication,

21,22

pattern recognition

23

and so on. Besides the well-known adaptive-network-

based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS),

24

many

FNN algorithms have been presented. Juang et al.

9

proposed an online self-constructing neural fuzzy

inference network, which is a modied Takagi-

Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type fuzzy system possess-

ing the learning ability of a neural network. Leng

et al.

25

proposed a self-organizing fuzzy neural net-

work (SOFNN) employing optimal brain surgeon

(OBS) as the pruning method. A novel hybrid learn-

ing approach, termed self-organizing fuzzy neural

networks based on genetic algorithms (SOFNNGA),

which is used to design a growing FNN and to imple-

ment Takagi-Sugeno (TS) type fuzzy models has

been also proposed by Leng et al.

26

However, like

most online learning algorithms, it encounters the

problem of slow learning speed due to the grow-

ing and pruning criteria and complicated learning

process due to the use of GA in optimizing the

topology of the initial network structure. A major

signicant work of developing FNNs is the online

sequential learning algorithm known as resource

allocating network (RAN),

27

to dynamically deter-

mine the number of hidden layer neurons based

on the property of input samples. Enhancement of

RAN, named RANEKF,

28

was proposed where the

extended Kalman lter (EKF) method rather than

the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm was used

for updating parameters of the network. Another

improvement of RAN developed in Ref. 23 employs

a pruning method whereby inactive hidden neurons

can be detected and removed during the learning

process. Other improvements of the RAN in Ref. 29

takes into consideration of the orthogonal techniques

such as QR factorization and singular value decom-

position (SVD) to determine the appropriate input

structure of the RBF network and prune the irrele-

vant neurons within the same network. Another sig-

nicant development of FNNs was made in Ref. 3

where a new dynamic time-delay fuzzy wavelet neu-

ral network has been proposed. The model consists

of dynamic time-delay neural network, wavelet, fuzzy

logic and the reconstructed state space concept

30,31

from the chaos theory which can be used for many

applications such as structural system identication

3

and nonlinear system control.

32

Recently, the idea of self-generating method has

been proposed in FNN systems. The well-known

growing and pruning radial basis function network

(GAP-RBF)

33

algorithm generated FNN automat-

ically based on growing and pruning approaches.

The generalized GAP-RBF (GGAP-RBF)

34

algo-

rithm can be used for arbitrary sampling density

of training samples. A fast and accurate online

self-organizing scheme for parsimonious fuzzy neu-

ral network (FAOS-PFNN)

35

based on RBF neural

networks has been proposed to accelerate the learn-

ing speed and increase the approximation accuracy

by incorporating pruning strategy into new growth

criteria. Unfortunately, like most of the RBF-based

online learning algorithms, all the widths of Gaus-

sian membership functions of the input variables in

a rule are the same due to the use of RBF neural

networks. This usually does not coincide with the

reality, especially when input variables have signi-

cantly dierent operating intervals.

Based on the key idea of self-generating method,

this paper presents an ecient algorithm for con-

structing a self-generating fuzzy neural network

(SGFNN) that identies a TSK-type fuzzy model.

The structure learning algorithm for generating new

ellipsoidal basis function (EBF) neurons is based on

the system error criterion and the -completeness of

fuzzy rules.

36

The salient features of the approach

can be summarized as follow.

By using criteria of generation and pruning neu-

rons, the SGFNN can recruit or remove EBF neu-

rons automatically so as to achieve optimal system

performance.

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

A Novel Ecient Learning Algorithm for Self-Generating Fuzzy Neural Network with Applications 23

All the widths of Gaussian membership functions

of input variables in a rule are dierent and can be

adjusted due to the use of EBF neural network.

Overlapping of membership function can be over-

come signicantly since the number of membership

functions of every input variable is dened sepa-

rately. They can be the same or dierent.

The KF algorithm is adopted as consequent

parameter adjustment learning algorithm. The lin-

ear least squares (LLS) method is employed to

adjust weights of many other FNNs.

10,12

Although

it is computationally simple and fast for deter-

mining weights online, it is expensive in computa-

tion when dealing with matrix inversion. The KF

algorithm shows good performance and robust-

ness in noisy environment. To make a compromise

between learning speed and system robustness,

the KF algorithm rather than the LLS method

is used to adjust consequent parameters of the

SGFNN.

The eectiveness of the proposed SGFNN algo-

rithm is demonstrated via some benchmark problems

in the areas of function approximation, nonlinear

dynamic system identication, chaotic time-series

prediction and real-world benchmark regression

problem. Comprehensive comparisons with other

popular learning algorithms have been made. In par-

ticular, an adaptive modeling and control scheme

based on the SGFNN for drug delivery system is

presented. The proposed SGFNN is a novel intelli-

gent modeling tool, which can model the unknown

nonlinearities of the complex drug delivery system

and adapt online to changes and uncertainties of the

system.

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 intro-

duces the proposed SGFNN algorithm. The structure

learning algorithm which includes criteria of genera-

tion and pruning neurons is given in details in Sec. 3.

The KF algorithm for parameter learning is also pre-

sented in this section. Section 4 presents simulation

results and comparative studies with other popular

learning algorithms. Furthermore, the adaptive mod-

eling and control scheme of the drug delivery system

using the proposed SGFNN is presented in this sec-

tion. A detailed discussion on the merits and work-

ing principle of the SGFNN algorithm is presented

in Sec. 5. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Sec. 6.

1

x

Layer 1

Input layer

Layer 2

Membership

function layer

r

x

Layer 4

Output layer

Layer 3

Rule lalyer

11

A

j

A

1

u

A

1

1 r

A

1

R

rj

A

ru

A

j

R

u

R

j

w

1

w

u

w

y

Fig. 1. Structure of the SGFNN.

2. The Proposed Self-Generating

Fuzzy Neural Network

The SGFNN is constructed based on EBF neural

networks which are functionally equivalent to TSK

fuzzy model. The SGFNN has a total of four lay-

ers as shown in Fig. 1. Layer one transmits values

of input linguistic variable x

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , r) to the

next layer directly, where r is the number of input

variables. Each input variables x

i

has u member-

ship functions A

ij

(j = 1, 2, . . . , u) as shown in layer

two, which are in the form of a Gaussian function

given by

A

ij

= exp

_

(x

i

c

ij

)

2

2

ij

_

i = 1, 2, . . . , r

j = 1, 2, . . . , u (1)

where A

ij

is the jth membership function of the ith

input variable x

i

and c

ij

and

ij

are the center and

width of the jth membership function with respect

to the ith neuron, respectively. Layer three is the rule

layer. Each node in this layer represents a possible

IF-part of fuzzy rules. If the T-norm operator used

to compute each rules ring strength is multiplica-

tion, the output of the jth rule R

j

(j = 1, 2, . . . , u) is

given by

j

(x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

r

) = exp

_

i=1

(x

i

c

ij

)

2

2

ij

_

j = 1, 2, . . . , u (2)

Layer four is the output layer and each node rep-

resents an output linguistic variable. The weighted

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

24 F. Liu & M. J. Er

summation of incoming signals is given by

y(x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

r

) =

u

j=1

w

j

j

(3)

where y is the output variable and w

j

is the THEN-

part or connection weight of the jth rule and

j

is

obtained from (2).

For the TSK model, weights are polynomials of

the input variables given by

w

j

= a

j

b = a

0j

+ a

1j

x

1

+ + a

rj

x

r

j = 1, 2, . . . , u (4)

where a

j

= [a

0j

a

1j

a

2j

a

rj

] is the weight vector

of input variables with respect to rule j and b =

[1 x

1

x

2

x

r

]

T

is a column vector.

3. Learning Algorithm

The learning algorithm of the SGFNN is based on

structure and parameter learning algorithm which

constructs the FNN automatically and dynamically.

In this section, the learning process of the SGFNN

including structure learning and parameter learn-

ing is presented. In structure learning, FNN with

high accuracy and compact structure is constructed.

The EBF neurons are generated and pruned dynami-

cally during the learning process. In parameter learn-

ing, the KF algorithm is used to adjust consequent

parameters of the SGFNN.

3.1. Criteria of fuzzy-rule generation

3.1.1. System errors

The output error of the SGFNN system with regard

to the reference signal is an important criterion to

determine whether a new rule should be recruited or

not. Consider the ith observation (x

i

, d

i

) where x

i

is

the input vector and d

i

is the desired output. The

overall output of SGFNN with the existing struc-

tures is denoted by y

i

. The system error is dened

as follows:

e

i

= d

i

y

i

. (5)

If

e

i

> k

e

(6)

where k

e

is a predened error tolerance, a new

fuzzy rule should be considered if other criteria of

generation have been satised simultaneously. The

term k

e

decays during the learning process as follows

k

e

=

_

_

e

max

1 < i < n/3

max[e

max

i

, e

min

] n/3 i 2n/3

e

min

2n/3 < i n

(7)

where e

max

is the maximum error chosen, e

min

is

the desired accuracy of the SGFNN output, n is the

learning iteration and is a convergence constant,

which is shown to be

=

_

e

min

e

max

_

3/n

. (8)

3.1.2. System errors

The -completeness of fuzzy rules is for any input

within the operating range, there exists at least one

fuzzy rule such that the match degree (or ring

strength) is not less than . The minimum value

of is usually selected as

min

= 0.5.

37

The ring

strength of each rule shown in (2) can be regarded

as a function of the regularized Mahalanobis distance

(M-distance), i.e.,

(x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

r

) = exp[md

2

(j)] (9)

where

md(j) =

_

(X C

j

)

T

1

j

(X C

j

) (10)

is the M-distance where X = (x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

r

)

T

R

r

,

C

j

= (c

1j

, c

2j,

. . . , c

rj

)

T

R

r

and

1

j

is calculated

as follows:

1

J

=

_

_

1

2

1j

0 0

0

1

2

1j

0 0

0 0

.

.

. 0

0 0 0

1

2

1j

_

_

j = 1, 2, . . . , u.

(11)

According to the -completeness criterion of fuzzy

rules, when a new observation (X

i

, d

i

), i =

1, 2, . . . , n, arrives, the M-distance md

i

(j) between

the observation X

i

and the center vector C

j

(j =

1, 2, . . . , u) of existing EBF units is calculated

according to (9) and (10).

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

A Novel Ecient Learning Algorithm for Self-Generating Fuzzy Neural Network with Applications 25

Find

J = arg min

1ju

(md

i

(j)). (12)

If

md

i

min

= md

i

(J) > k

d

(13)

this implies that the existing FNN is not satised

with -completeness and a new rule should be con-

sidered. Here, k

d

is a predened threshold that can

be chosen as follows

k

d

=

_

_

d

max

=

ln

_

1

min

_

1 < i < n/3

max[d

max

i

, d

min

] n/3 i 2n/3

d

min

=

ln

_

1

max

_

2n/3 < k n

(14)

where (0, 1) is decay constant which is given by

=

_

d

min

d

max

_

3/n

=

_

ln(1/

max

)

ln(1/

min

)

_3/n

. (15)

The idea for the choice of k

e

and k

d

is called

coarse learning. The reason is to rst nd and cover

more troublesome positions which have large errors

between the desired and actual outputs but are not

properly covered by existing rules.

10,21

3.2. Criteria of fuzzy-rule pruning

If inactive hidden neurons can be deleted during

learning process, a more parsimonious network topol-

ogy can be achieved. In the SGFNN learning algo-

rithm, the pruning strategy is the same as the

GDFNN

38

which is based on the error reduction ratio

(ERR) method of Ref. 39. The ERR method is used

to calculate the sensitivity and signicance of fuzzy

rules in order to check which rules would be deleted.

Suppose for n observations, (3) can be written as

a linear regression model or in the following compact

form:

D = W + E (16)

where D R

n

is the desired output and E is the

error vector.

The regressor matrix can be rewritten as

= KA (17)

where K is an n v (v = u (r + 1)) matrix with

orthogonal columns and A is a vv upper triangular

matrix. Substituting (16) into (17), we obtain

D = KAW + E = KG + E. (18)

The orthogonal least squares solution, G is given by

G = (K

T

K)

1

K

T

D or equivalently

g

i

=

k

T

i

D

k

T

i

k

i

1 i v. (19)

The ERR due to k

i

as dened in Ref. 39 is given by

err

i

=

g

2

i

k

T

i

k

i

D

T

D

1 I v. (20)

Substituting (19) into (20) yields

err

i

=

k

T

i

D

k

T

i

k

i

D

T

D

1 I v. (21)

Dene the ERR matrix ERR = (

1

,

2

, . . . ,

u

)

R

(r+1)u

whose elements are obtained from (21) and

the jth column of the ERR corresponding to the jth

rule. Furthermore, dene

j

=

T

j

j

r + 1

j = 1, 2, . . . , u (22)

Then

j

represents the signicance of the jth rule. If

j

< k

err

j = 1, 2, . . . , u (23)

where k

err

is a predened parameter, then the jth

rules is pruned.

3.3. Determination of premise

parameters

When a new rule has been generated, the problem is

how to allocate its parameters for a Gaussian mem-

bership function which includes centers and widths.

Firstly, suppose that u neurons have been gener-

ated. A new neuron will be generated when the ith

observation X

i

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n) arrives according to

the criteria of rule generation. Next, the incoming

multidimensional input vector X

i

is projected to the

corresponding one-dimensional membership function

for each input variable x

k

(k = 1, 2, . . . , r) and we

dene the Euclidean distance (E-distance) between

the data x

i

k

and boundary set

k

as follows:

ed

k

(j) = |x

i

k

k

(j)| j = 1, 2, . . . , u + 2 (24)

where u is the number of generated neurons and

k

{x

i min

, c

i1

, c

i2

, . . . , c

iu

, x

i max

}.

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

26 F. Liu & M. J. Er

We dene

j

min

= arg min

j=1,2,...,u+2

(ed

k

(j)). (25)

If

ed

k

(j

min

) k

m

(26)

where k

m

is a predened constant, the new incom-

ing data x

i

k

can be represented by existing fuzzy sets

A

kjmin

(c

kjmin

kjmin

), (k = 1, 2, . . . , r) without gener-

ating a new membership function. Otherwise, a new

Gaussian membership function is allocated whose

width and center are dened as follows:

k

=

max{|c

k

c

k1

|, |c

k

c

k+1

|}

_

ln(1/)

(27)

c

k

(u + 1) = x

i

k

(28)

where c

k1

, c

k+1

are the two centers of neighboring

membership functions of the membership function.

3.4. Determination of consequent

parameters

After the premise parameters and structure of the

SGFNN are determined, it is important to deter-

mine the consequent parameters. In this paper, the

KF algorithm

11

is used to adjust the consequent

parameters.

Firstly, we suppose that u neurons are generated

for n observations with r input variables. Rewriting

(3) in the following compact form

Y = W, (29)

the KF algorithm consists of a recurrent formula

given by

s

i

= S

i1

S

t1

T

i

S

i1

1 +

T

i

S

i1

i

i = 1, 2, . . . , n (30)

W

i

= W

i1

+ S

i

i

(T

T

i

T

i

W

i1

) i = 1, 2, . . . , n

(31)

with the initial conditions given by W

0

= 0 and S

0

=

I, where S

i

is the error covariance matrix for the

ith observation,

i

is the ith column of , W

i

is the

weight matrix after the ith iteration, is a positive

large number and I is an identify matrix.

4. Illustrative Examples

In this section, the eectiveness of the proposed algo-

rithm is demonstrated by MATLAB-based simula-

tion studies on ve examples. They are the two-input

nonlinear sinc function approximation,

24

nonlinear

dynamic system identication,

21

Mackey-Glass time-

series prediction problem,

21

real-world benchmark

regression problem

40

and real-world drug delivery

system.

41

Simulation results are compared with

other learning algorithms, such as the RBF-AFS,

21

the OLS,

39

the MRAN,

23

the ANFIS,

24

the DFNN,

10

the GDFNN,

38

the SOFNN,

25

the SOFNNGA,

26

the

RAN,

27

the RANEKF,

28

the GAP-RBF,

33

the OS-

ELM(RBF)

42

and the FAOS-PFNN.

35

4.1. Example 1: Two input

nonlinear sin c function

This function was used to demonstrate the eciency

of the ANFIS.

24

The sinc function is dened as

follows:

z = sin c(x, y)x [10, 10], y [10, 10]. (32)

A total of 121 two-input data sampled and the cor-

responding target data are used as the training data.

The parameters of the SGFNN are chosen as follows:

= 0.9, e

max

= 0.5, e

min

= 0.03, k

err

= 0.00015,

k

m

=0.5,

max

=0.8,

min

=0.5 and =300.

In order to determine the eect of noise, the

training data are mixed with Gaussian white noise

sequences which have zero mean and dierent vari-

ances as shown in Table 1. The results are illustrated

in Table 1 and Fig. 2.

For the same variance (e.g. = 0.1), the SGFNN

generates ten fuzzy rules with ten membership func-

tions for input variables x and y respectively. The

total number of parameters is 70 and the root mean

squared error (RMSE) is 0.0229. The number of

parameters is less than those of ANFIS,

24

i.e. 72

and the SOFNNGA,

26

i.e. 76, but is more than the

Table 1. Results of two-input function with noise.

Variances Number of Number of

(

2

) fuzzy rules parameters RMSE

= 0 9 59 0.0139

= 0.01 8 56 0.0175

= 0.05 9 59 0.0217

= 0.1 10 70 0.0229

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

A Novel Ecient Learning Algorithm for Self-Generating Fuzzy Neural Network with Applications 27

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

Root Mean Squared Error

Sample Patterns

R

M

S

E

Fig. 2. Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE).

SOFNN,

25

i.e. 68. The RMSE of the SGFNN is less

than that of SOFNN

25

(which is 0.0767), but is more

than the RMSE of the SOFNNGA.

26

The SGFNN

has better performance than the ANFIS

24

and the

SOFNN

25

in terms of network structure and RMSE.

However, the RMSE for training of the SGFNN is

close to that of SOFNNGA,

26

i.e., 0.0173 with fewer

parameters.

4.2. Example 2: Nonlinear dynamic

system identication

The identied nonlinear dynamic system is described

as follows:

y(t + 1) =

y(t)y(t 1)[y(t) + 2.5]

1 + y

2

(t) + y

2

(t 1)

+ u(t)

t [1, 200], y(0) = 0, y(1) = 0,

u(t) = sin(2/25) (33)

To identify the plant, a series-parallel identication

model governed by the following equation is used:

y(t + 1) = f(y(t), y(t 1), u(t)) (34)

where f is the function implemented by the SGFNN

with three inputs and one output model. There are

200 input-target data sets chosen as training data.

The parameters of the SGFNN are set as follows:

= 0.9, e

max

= 0.5, e

min

= 0.03, k

err

= 0.0015,

k

m

= 0.5,

max

= 0.8,

min

= 0.5 and = 320.

Simulation results are shown in Figs. 3 and 4.

The membership functions of input variables y(t),

y(t 1), and u(t) are shown in Figs. 5 to 7.

0 20 40 60 80 10 0 120 140 160 180 200

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Fuzzy Rule Generation

Sample Patterns

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

F

u

z

z

y

R

u

l

e

s

Fig. 3. Fuzzy rule generation.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

Root Mean Squared Error

Sample Patterns

R

M

S

E

Fig. 4. Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE).

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Input y(t)

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

h

i

p

F

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

s

Membership Functions of Input y(t)

Fig. 5. Membership functions of input y(t).

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

28 F. Liu & M. J. Er

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Input y(t-1)

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

h

i

p

F

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

s

Membership Functions of Input y(t-1)

Fig. 6. Membership functions of input y(t 1).

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Input u(t)

M

e

m

b

e

r

s

h

i

p

F

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

s

Membership Functions of Input u(t)

Fig. 7. Membership functions of input u(t).

A set of six fuzzy rules is generated with ve,

four and four membership functions for inputs y(t),

y(t 1) and u(t). It can be seen that the number of

each input variables is not the same. Table 2 shows a

comparison of structure and performance with dier-

ent algorithms. The RMSE of the SGFNN is 0.0228

which is less than that of the other algorithms and

the total number of parameters is 44 which is also less

than that of the other algorithms. As seen in Table 2,

for nonlinear dynamic system identication problem,

the proposed SGFNN algorithm outperforms other

learning algorithms. The SGFNN provides a satis-

factory RMSE performance in spite of a simpler net-

work structure.

Table 2. Results of nonlinear dynamic system identi-

cation.

Number of Number of

Algorithms fuzzy rules parameters RMSE

OLS

39

65 326 0.0288

RBF-AFS

21

35 280 0.1384

DFNN

10

6 48 0.0283

GDFNN

38

6 48 0.0241

SGFNN 6 44 0.0228

4.3. Example 3: Mackey-Glass

time-series prediction

The Mackey-Glass time-series prediction

21

is a

benchmark problem which has been considered by

many researchers. The time-series is generated by

x(t + 1) = (1 a)x(t) +

bx(t )

1 + x

10

(t )

(35)

The same parameters as in Refs. 10 and 21 i.e., a =

0.1, b = 0.2, = 17 and the initial condition of

x(0) = 1.2 are chosen. The prediction model is also

the same as Refs. 10 and 21 i.e.

x(t + 6) = f[x(t), x(t 6), x(t 12), x(t 18)]

(36)

For the purpose of training and testing, 4000 sam-

ples are generated between t = 0 and t = 4000

from (35) with the initial conditions x(t) = 0 for

t < 0 and x(0) = 1.2. We choose 1000 data points

between t = 124 and t = 1123 for preparing the input

and output sample data in (36). In order to demon-

strate the prediction ability of the SGFNN approach,

another 1000 data points between t = 1124 and

t = 2123 are tested. Simulation results and compar-

isons with the OLS,

39

RBF-AFS

21

and DFNN

10

are

presented in Table 3.

From the simulation results, it is clear that the

SGFNN can obtain better performance with less

Table 3. Comparisons of structure and performance

with dierent algorithms.

Number of Training Testing

Algorithms fuzzy rules RMSE RMSE

OLS

39

13 0.0158 0.0163

RBF-AFS

21

21 0.0107 0.0128

DFNN

10

5 0.0132 0.0131

SGFNN 7 0.0112 0.0113

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

A Novel Ecient Learning Algorithm for Self-Generating Fuzzy Neural Network with Applications 29

RMSE for training and testing even it has generated

more rules than the DFNN.

10

However, the SGFNN

shows superiority compared with the OLS

39

and the

RBF-AFS

21

in terms of the RMSE for testing and

network structure respectively.

4.4. Example 4: Fuel consumption

prediction of automobiles

In order to further validate the performance

of the proposed SGFNN algorithm, compar-

isons of the SGFNN with other popular learn-

ing algorithms

22,23,27,28,33,35,42

are presented for

benchmark prediction problem named auto-mpg

prediction.

40

All the simulation results are averaged

over 50 trials. The average RMSE for training and

testing are calculated and compared in this section.

The auto-mpg problem is to predict the fuel con-

sumption (miles per gallon) of dierent models of

cars based on the displacement, horsepower, weight

and acceleration of cars. A total of 392 observations

are collected for the prediction problem. Each obser-

vation consists of seven inputs (four continuous ones:

displacement, horsepower, weight, acceleration, and

three discrete ones: cylinders, model year and ori-

gin) and one continuous output (the fuel consump-

tion). For simplicity, the seven input attributes and

one output have been normalized to the range [0, 1].

For the sake of comparisons with other learning algo-

rithms, 320 training data and 72 testing data are ran-

domly chosen from the auto-mpg database in each

trial of simulation studies. Table 4 summarizes the

results for auto-mpg regression problem in terms of

training RMSE, testing RMSE and the number of

generated fuzzy rules. The number of generated fuzzy

rules for OS-ELM (RBF)

42

was determined based

on the model selection process while for the other

algorithms, it is generated automatically by the algo-

rithms. As observed from Table 4, the average num-

ber of fuzzy rules of the SGFNN is 5.15 which is

slightly more than the other algorithms except the

OS-ELM (RBF).

42

The average training RMSE of

the SGFNN is 0.0613 which is less than that of

the other algorithms except the FAOS-PFNN.

35

It

means that the approximation performance of the

SGFNN is better than the other algorithms except

the FAOS-PFNN.

35

It should be highlighted that the

SGFNN has the least testing RMSE and best gener-

alization performance among all learning algorithms.

Table 4. Comparisons of the SGFNN with dierent

algorithms on auto-mpg problem.

Number of Training Testing

Algorithms fuzzy rules RMSE RMSE

RAN

27

4.44 0.2923 0.3080

RANEKF

28

5.14 0.1088 0.1387

MRAN

22,23

4.46 0.1086 0.1376

GAP-RBF

33

3.12 0.1144 0.1028

OS-ELM (RBF)

42

25 0.0696 0.0759

FAOS-PFNN

35

2.9 0.0321 0.0775

SGFNN 5.15 0.0613 0.0658

4.5. Example 5: Real-world drug

delivery system

For the real-world application, we employ the

SGFNN to model unknown nonlinearities of com-

plex blood pressure system. We investigate the use

of fuzzy neural network technique for modeling and

automatic control of mean arterial pressure (MAP)

through the intravenous infusion of sodium nitro-

prusside (SNP).

Control of MAP in many clinical situations such

as certain operation procedures for hypertensive

patient is one attractive application in postsurgi-

cal drug delivery systems. A powerful medication for

control of MAP is SNP that has emerged as an eec-

tive vasodilator drug.

43

A model of the MAP

41

of a

patient under the inuence of SNP is given as follows:

MAP(t) = p

0

+ p(t) + p

d

(t) + n(t) (37)

where MAP(t) is the mean arterial pressure, p

0

is the

initial blood pressure, p(t) is the change in pressure

due to infusion rate of SNP, p

d

(t) is the change in

pressure due to the rennin reex action which is the

bodys reaction to the use of a vasodilator drug and

n(t) is a stochastic background noise.

A nominal discrete-time model of the MAP of a

patient under the inuence of SNP is given as follows:

y(t) = f[y(k 1), u(k d), u(k m)]

= a

0

y(k 1) + b

0

u(k d) + b

1

u(k m) + n(k)

(38)

where y(k) is the output of the system which rep-

resents the change in MAP from the initial blood

pressure at discrete time k, u(k) is the input of

system which represents the infusion of SNP at dis-

crete time k, d and m are integer delays which rep-

resent the initial transport delay and recirculation

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

30 F. Liu & M. J. Er

time delay, respectively, a

0

, b

0

and b

1

are parameters

which may vary considerably from patient to patient

or within the same patient under dierent conditions,

and n(k) is an unknown disturbance term which may

contain unmodeled dynamics, disturbance, measure-

ment noise, eects due to sampling of continuous

time signals, etc. The model is also known as autore-

gressive with exogenous inputs model.

Using linear modeling techniques, the parameters

a

0

, b

0

and b

1

are assumed to be constant, thus result-

ing in a linear system. The time delays denoted by d

and m are constant integer in (38). This is a restric-

tive assumption since in practical systems these val-

ues may vary from patients to patients or within the

same patient under dierent conditions. It is sug-

gested that d and m have a general range between

30 s and 80 s.

44

In the context of using the SGFNN for blood

pressure control, the FNN is viewed as a modeling

method. The knowledge about system dynamics and

mapping characteristics are stored in the network.

Here, direct inverse control method is used to con-

trol blood pressure system. Direct inverse control

method is based on the reference model of the sys-

tem, the FNN is used to learn and approximate the

inverse dynamics of the drug delivery system, and

then the resulting FNN is used to estimate the drug

infusion rate given the desired blood pressure level

r(t). When the FNN is used as a controller in a drug

delivery system, the control object is to obtain appro-

priate control input u(t) to make the output of sys-

tem y(t) approximate the desired blood pressure level

r(t). The control procedure consists of two stages: (1)

learning stage and (2) application stage. In learning

stage, the FNN is used to identify the inverse dynam-

ics of the drug delivery system while in application

stage the FNN is viewed as a controller to generate

appropriate control input. The direct inverse control

method is shown in Fig. 8. It can be easily derived

from (38) that the inverse model of the dynamic sys-

tem is given by

u(k) = f

1

[y(k + d), y(k 1 + d), . . . ,

u(k m + d)] (39)

The generation of u(k) requires knowledge of the

future values y(k + d) and y(k 1 + d). To over-

come the problem, they are usually replaced by their

reference values r(k + d) and (k 1 + d). Another

problem is that the inverse of function f

1

may not

Fig. 8. Control structure of drug delivery system.

always exist. Instead of considering the existence of

the function f

1

, the inverse model of the dynam-

ics system can always be congured in a nonlinear

regression model as follows

u(k) = g[y(k), y(k 1), . . . , y(k m + d)]

= G(z, k) (40)

where z = [y(k)y(k 1), . . . , y(k m + d)]

T

.

The SGFNN is trained to obtain an estimate of

the inverse dynamics as illustrated in Fig. 8. The

output of the SGFNN is calculated as

u

SGFNN

(z, k) =

D(z) (41)

The inverse dynamics of the drug delivery system is

identied by the SGFNN and then it is used as a

controller to generate the control output. The objec-

tively of simulation studies is to demonstrate the

capability of the SGFNN to approximate a dynamic

system and control a drug delivery system based on

sensitive model.

Without any loss of generality, we assume the

integer delays d = 3, m = 6 and sample time is

15 s. Usually, we use the sensitive model of the drug

delivery system which is described as

y(k) = 0.606y(k 1) + 3.5u(k 3) + 1.418u(k 6)

(42)

In the simulation study, the FNN is trained to

model the inverse dynamics of the drug delivery

system. The input signal to the system (SNP infu-

sion rate) for SGFNN training is set as u(k) =

|Asin(2k/250)|, where A is set to be 10. For the

purpose of training, 200 training samples are gen-

erated from (42) with initial conditions y(k) = 0,

u(t) = 0 for t 0.

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

A Novel Ecient Learning Algorithm for Self-Generating Fuzzy Neural Network with Applications 31

The inverse model of (42) is given by

u(k) = f(y(k), y(k 3)) (43)

The parameters of the SGFNN are set as follows:

= 0.9, = 0.95, e

max

= 0.2, e

min

= 0.02, k

err

=

0.0001, k

m

= 0.95,

max

= 0.8,

min

= 0.5, and

= 400.

The results are illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10. A

total of seven fuzzy rules are generated during the

training process. The RMSE of the paradigm at the

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

fuzzy rule generation

sample patterns

Fig. 9. Fuzzy rule generation.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

root mean squared error

sample patterns

Fig. 10. Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) during

training process.

end of the training process is shown in Fig. 10. It

can be seen from these gures that the proposed

FNN can model the drug delivery system very well

as the RMSE is 0.0134 at the end of training pro-

cess. After training, the SGFNN is tested for online

adaptive control of the system. The reference trajec-

tory represents a reduction of MAP from 140 mmHg

to 100 mmHg initially, maintaining the level at

100 mmHg. Considering another situation in simula-

tion study, the output measurement y(k) is corrupted

by white noise n(k) with a variance level of 1 mmHg

(resulting in peak-to-peak noise variance of approx-

imately 4 mmHg), which is considered as moder-

ate noise level in the physiological system. Simula-

tion results are shown in Figs. 11 to 13. Figure 11

depicts comparison between the actual change and

desired change of blood pressure. The long-dash

curve denotes the desired change of blood pressure.

The desired change of blood pressure maintains at

0 mmHg initially, and then increases to 40 mmHg at

t

s

= 500. The solid curve denotes the actual change

of blood pressure in the drug delivery system. Fig-

ure 12 demonstrates that the SGFNN controller is

able to regulate the MAP to the desired set-point

even with the noise. It can be seen from the Fig. 12,

for sensitive condition (k = 2.88 mmHg/ml/h)

the overshoot of MAP is 3.76% which is less

than that of the fuzzy controller

45

i.e. 13.2%. The

actual infusion rate of the SNP is demonstrated

in Fig. 13.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Real DP and Desired DP

sample number

Fig. 11. () Actual change of blood pressure and ()

desired change of blood pressure.

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

32 F. Liu & M. J. Er

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

135

140

145

Real Map Using SGFNN controller

sample number

Fig. 12. Real MAP using the SGFNN controller.

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

Actual Infusion Rate Uac

Sample number

Fig. 13. Actual infusion rate of the SNP.

5. Discussions

The basic idea of the proposed SGFNN algorithm

is to construct a TSK fuzzy system based on EBF

neural networks. The motivation of this paper is to

provide a simple and ecient algorithm to congure

a fuzzy neural network so that (1) the system could

be used as a modeling tool to model and control of

a nonlinear dynamic system (2) the system could

be used for predicting real-world benchmark pre-

diction problem. Many related learning algorithms

have been developed by other researchers as shown

in Sec. 1. Here, we would like to give a comparative

study between other state-of-the-arts algorithms and

the proposed SGFNN.

5.1. Structure identication

The structure identication of the proposed algo-

rithm is self-adaptive. The resulting structure

depends critically on the generation and pruning cri-

teria of the learning algorithm.

5.2. Parameter adjustment

The method of parameter adjustment has great

impact on the learning speed of the proposed learn-

ing algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, nonlin-

ear parameters (premise parameters) are directly

adjusted during the learning process. On the other

hand, linear parameters (consequent parameters) are

modied in each step by the KF method in which

the solution is globally optimal. The learning speed

is much faster than other algorithms

9,15,21

in which

the back-propagation (BP) algorithm is employed.

The BP method is well-known to be slow and easy

to be trapped into local minima.

If the SGFNN is employed for online identica-

tion or control process, the adaptive capability of

the KF algorithm would decrease when more sample

data are collected, especially, if the identied system

is to account for time-varying characteristics of the

incoming data. Therefore, the eect of old training

data should decay when new ones arrive. One com-

monly used approach is to add a forgetting factor

to (30):

S

t

=

1

_

S

t1

S

i1

T

i

S

t1

1 +

T

i

S

t1

i

_

i = 1, 2, . . . , n

(44)

where 0 < < 1.

5.3. Generalization

Another important issue of FNNs is generalization

capability. Note that the approximation and gener-

alization capability of the resulting FNN depends

on the structure and parameters of the system. In

this paper, two criteria are used to create the fuzzy

rules and the KF method is adopted to update the

consequent parameters of the SGFNN. It follows

that parsimonious network structure and suitable

January 9, 2012 13:15 00306

A Novel Ecient Learning Algorithm for Self-Generating Fuzzy Neural Network with Applications 33

weights in consequents can be obtained simultane-

ously. Consequently, the resulting fuzzy neural net-

work is able to achieve good generalization accuracy.

As seen from the auto-mpg prediction, the SGFNN

can obtain the best generation performance of all

learning algorithms.

6. Conclusions

In this paper, a novel ecient algorithm towards

constructing a self-generating fuzzy neural network

(SGFNN) performing TSK fuzzy systems based on

EBF neural networks has been proposed. Struc-

ture and parameter identication of the SGFNN

can be done automatically and simultaneously.

Structure learning is based on criteria of genera-

tion and pruning neurons. The KF algorithm has

been used to adjust consequent parameters of the

SGFNN. The eectiveness of the proposed algo-

rithm has been demonstrated in nonlinear function

approximation, nonlinear dynamic system identi-

cation, time-series prediction and real-world bench-

mark prediction problem. Simulation results show

that a more ecient fuzzy neural network with

high accuracy and compact structure can be self-

generated by the proposed SGFNN. Comprehensive

comparisons with other well-known learning algo-

rithms have been presented in this paper. In sum-

mary, the SGFNN is a very ecient algorithm for

function approximation, nonlinear system identi-

cation, time-series prediction and real-world bench-

mark prediction problem. In particular, an adaptive

modeling and control scheme based on the SGFNN

for drug delivery system is presented. The proposed

SGFNN is a novel intelligent modeling tool, which

can model the unknown nonlinearities of the complex

drug delivery system and adapt on line to changes

and uncertainties in the system.

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