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(1) DC Motor Model The mathematical model of a DC motor of permanent magnet field can be expressed by the following equations

Va = Ra ia + La Te = J di + ea dt

dm + TL sign(m ) + Bmm dt


ea = Km Te = Kia
Va ia Te



!rmature "oltage $V # !rmature current $ A# %lectromagnetic torque $ N .m# &oad torque $ N .m# !rmature inductance $ H # # !rmature resistance $ Torque constant'coupling coefficient $ N .m ' A# !rmature moment of inertia $ Kgm ( # )rictional torque coefficient (damping coefficient) $ N .m '( rad ' sec)# ! DC motor is modeled as a lump inertia J * a "iscous damping term Bm * and a

torque constant K . The lump inertia term is comprised of both the motor and load inertia. +t is also assumed that the load is rigidly coupled such that the torsional rigidity mo"es the natural mechanical resonance point well out beyond the ser"o controller,s bandwidth. This assumption means that the total system inertia can be modeled as a sum of the motor and load inertia for the frequencies that can control. ! DC motor model is shown in )ig. 6.1-.

Fig. 6.10: Model of a DC motor (2) Servo Control of DC Motor Servo control in general can be bro.en into two fundamental classes of problems cascade position control and disturbance rejection control. The former can be thought of as what internal commands are needed such that the motion commands are followed without any error* assuming that a sufficiently accurate model of both the motor and load is .nown. The latter control addresses the disturbance re/ection characteristics of the system. Disturbances can be anything from torque disturbances on the motor shaft to incorrect motor parameter estimations used in the cascade control. The cascade controller with "elocity and torque 0+D control are used to combat these types of problems. +n contrast to cascade control* which predicts the needed internal commands for 1ero following error* disturbance re/ection control reacts to un.nown disturbances and modeling errors. Complete ser"o control systems combine both these types of ser"o control to pro"ide the best o"erall performance Cascade Position Control ! basic cascade position controller generally contains both a tra/ectory generator and a 0+D controller. The 0+D controller is composed of two 0+ controllers speed and torque 0+ controllers* together with two proportional controllers position and "oltage controller.

Table 6.1 2otor parameters for simulation Motor parameters !rmature resistance Ra !rmature inductance La 2oment of inertia J )rictional torque coefficient Bm Torque constant K
$ #
$H #
$ kgm ( #


$ N .m '( rad ' sec)#

$ Nm ' A#

Value (.3.(x1-45 1.3x1-46 1-45 -.1

Table 6.( Controller parameters for simulation Controller parameters 0 0osition controller
K pp

7alue 1(6.19 3(9 1: 1.5: 3::5 (--

0+ 8peed controller


8aturation limit $ pu # 0+ Torque controller



8aturation limit $ pu # 0 7oltage controller


The scheme of cascade position control of a DC motor is shown in )ig. 6.11. +n the simulation* the motor parameters are calculated and presented in Table 6.1. The controller parameters are shown in Table 6.( in the simulation. The simulation results are shown in )ig. 1(413.

position To Workspace3

speed To Workspace2

current To Workspace1

voltage To Workspace

Look-Up Table1
ac ae



va va





-KSpeed controller Torque controller KA





!" #$T$%
Tl Tl w w

1 s


current loop speed loop

position loop

Fig. 6.11: Cascade position control of a DC motor



#ommand position

"osition rad!


Actual position










Time s!
Fig. 6.12: 0osition response of motor control

12& 1&&

Velocit$ rad%s!

#ommand velocit$

+& *&

Actual velocit$
(& 2& &




Time s!





Fig. 6.13: 7elocity response of motor control

2& 1) 1&

#urrent A!

#ommand current
) & -)

Actual current

-1& -1)








Time s!
Fig. 6.14: Current control input

*&& (&&


va volt!



-(&& -*&&








Time s!
Fig. 6.1 : 7oltage control input

C!rrent Sensing The maximum continuous ;28 current supplied by the +;)63- is 9! with a pea. of (:!. There are three limits that ha"e been implemented through hardware to pre"ent o"er current on any of the motors. The first limit is the use of a software control of this current. +f this resistor had 3! through it* then the power would be
" = ( ( R = 3 ( ' -.-1 = -.(3& . )or this same current* there will only be a "oltage of

V = (R = 3 '-.-1 = -.-3V across the resistor. This "oltage is too small for any use* so

this is amplified to a "oltage between -7 and 37 where 37 represents about :!. +n this design* the sense resistor is -.-143< that meets the abo"e condition totally. The 0<2 signal has a frequency of about 1=.3 .>1* and it is first passed through a low pass filter to get rid of ripples that may form at this frequency. This feature is an option* possibly unessential for current sensing. +t will smooth out the signal to be amplified to gi"e a better "alue for the !D con"erter to come. !dditionally* this smoothed "oltage is amplified with a gain of 3- by a non4in"erting amplifier circuitry. ?sing "alues R1 = 1K and R( = 3- K * the gain can be achie"ed of 3-* and a current can be detected if of 1-!* which is well abo"e the pea. 9!. @ecause of the

small sensing current* a buffer circuit is used to impro"e the characteristic of the signal to be amplified. The current feedbac. schematic is shown in )ig. 6.16.
% * )&K

)/! "

" * 1&3 )/! " U 3U 3A 1 ( + % ( 1K + 2 3 L# 3)+ S e n s in g

* )

A0 & +

, " 13 3 3 u . -1 * /

L# 3)+ % ) 1K

Fig. 6.16: 2otor current feedbac. schematic