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Mapping groundwater contamination in a landfill site using frequency Electromagnetic method.

Shaohong Zhang
College of Resource and Environment Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Liaoning, Fuxin 123 ABSTRACT The Electromagnetic Method (EM) is one of the most promising geophysical techniques for remediationprocess and subsurface environmental monitoring. The method is sensitive to fluid content saturation and composition as !ell as subsurface temperature. The EM has a demonstrated ability to measure very small changes in subsurface properties over time. "or these reasons the technique has seen increasing use for monitoring of aggressive environmental remediation processes. #n the study the EM measurement is carried out to map the e$tent of contamination at a landfill site to detect the spread of ground!ater contamination to locate possible path!ays of leachate plumes and to locate the buried ground!ater pipeline. %ased on the analysis of electrical conductivity of the survey area the geophysical anomaly &ones are delineated. %ecause the electrical conductivity of contaminated formations tends to be higher than that of uncontaminated formations as the dissolved salts due to pollutants diminish the electrical resistivity of the formations containing them the EM method is sensitive to the conductive layers and demonstrates the ability to measure small changes in subsurface properties involving ground !ater. The measurement sho!s the behavior of ground!ater contamination and the position of ground!ater pipelines and it is beneficial to help the !aste management processes and to determine possible locations of monitoring !ells in the survey area in the future. The study sho!s that the EM technique has high accuracy and it is quite suitable for providing a rapid reliable and time-saving means for the environmental monitoring. KE !"R#S$ Electromagnetic Method contamination ground !ater pipeline anisotropy %&TR"#'CT%"& 'round!ater resources are very important for public !ater supply. Many of the environmental problems are directly or indirectly related to the location of ground!ater and its protection from contamination sources of various (inds. %ut due to the poor urban planning overpopulation and rapid industrial development there are many open dump sites and landfill sites etc. !hich cause surface and ground!ater contamination. #t is !ell (no!n that ground!ater contamination can easily occur and carry on for a long time because recovery is slo! and difficult. The problems associated !ith municipal abandoned or non-controlled landfills are of general concern especially because of the interactions bet!een the ha&ardous contents of the leachates derived from them and the ground!ater. The fast and ine$pensive methods to investigate the shallo! subsurface are becoming increasingly important. The physical properties of many roc(s are significantly altered by the presence of ground!ater in pores and fissures. "or e$ample the electrical conductivity of contaminated formations tends to be higher than that of uncontaminated formations as the dissolved salts due to pollutants diminish the electrical resistivity of the formations containing them. This ma(es it possible to investigate the quality of !ater using appropriate geophysical techniques (%enson et al. )**+, Sauc( -..., /te(!ana et al. -..., %aba et al. -..0, %a(er et al. -..0, 1orsani et al. -..0, Martinho et al. -..2). The Electromagnetic Method (EM) has many unique qualities that ma(e it amenable to environmental monitoring and has seen increasing use for detecting of buried ob3ects such as subsurface pipes fuel oil tan(s and utilities etc lea( detecting of ground!ater pipeline monitoring of aggressive and environmental remediation processes (4arli( et al. -..), 4aya et al. -..+). #n the landfill site of the survey area the ground!ater contamination is manifested because the ground!ater is located above permeable and porous formations !hich aid in contamination scattering. The ob3ective of the survey is to obtain geophysical information from ground surface to appro$imately 5m belo! surface using The EM to investigate the ground!ater contamination. MET("#")"* "+ EM The EM method transmits primary magnetic field using magnetic dipole coil and measures the induced secondary electromagnetic field during the brea(-up of the primary field (see "igure )). The secondary field is a electromagnetic field produced by subsurface conductive body and is the comprehensive response of underground geologic body. The EM is an indirect method to investigate the underground engineering and hydrologic geology based on the physical difference of subsurface body. , China

1roceedings of the *th SE'6 #nternational Symposium 7#maging and #nterpretation- Sapporo 6apan )--)0 8ctober -..*

9ormally in an EM field survey the quadrature-phase (vertical component) of magnetic field is measured !hich is sensitive to metallic ob3ects and hence very useful in loo(ing for buried metal materials (e. g. pipelines). The quadrature-phase component gives the ground conductivity usually in millisiemens per meter (mS:m), and the apparent conductivity is given by the follo!ing formula;

a = 0( ! - : !) ) :( . s - )
<here a is the apparent conductivity !2 is secondary magnetic field at the receiver coil !1 is primary magnetic field at the receiver coil "=->f is the circle frequency and f is the frequency of the electromagnetic !ave(?&) # is permeability of free space s is distance bet!een the transmitter and receiver coils (m). The EM meter normally consists of t!o coils separated by a set distance. The transmitting coil induces currents in the ground !hich generate a magnetic field detected by the receiving coil ("igure )).

sand dune and mud formations of 1leistocene. /lluvium unit is the ma3or aquifer of the study area. The static ground!ater level is appro$imately -m in the site. The Buaternary formations contain a free ?olocene aquifer on top. The 1leistocene mud layers of semi-confined aquifer constitute a heterogeneous aquitard !hich does not isolate the lo!er aquifer and therefore contamination can reach the lo!er sediments. The aquifers are recharged by direct infiltration of surface !ater and by lea(age of ground!ater pipelines.

+igure .. Docation and setting of the survey area. The EM survey !as carried out !ith a 'eonics EM@)M4- terrain EM meter in -..C. The intercoil spacing is @.22 m operating frequency is *.C (?& the line spacing is 5m and sample rate is ..5s. The quadrature-phase of vertical electromagnetic field is measured and it gives the ground conductivity in millisiemens per meter (mS: m). %oth the processing and interpretation of acquisition data are sho!n on "igure @ and "igure 0. #%SC'SS%"& "+ RES')TS "rom the general characteristics of these maps and the previous geologic information the maps can be interpreted as follo!s. 8n the north-east side of the road the survey area can be divided into three &ones; Z89E ) - original area or untouched area !hich are closest to the road on the south end Z89E - - transitional &one area in the middle of the survey area and Z89E @ - contaminated area on the north and east boundaries. These @ &ones are mar(ed by thin dotted lines on "igure @ and "igure 0. Z89E @ sho!s high conductive values compared !ith Z89E ) and Z89E -. This fact can be related to a more li(ely salt intrusion in Z89E @ o!ing to its shorter distance to the mud layers - a heterogeneous aquitard - compared !ith Z89E ) and Z89E -. These maps also sho! a strong geoelectrical property contrast among three &ones.

+igure /. Schematic map of EM method. %oth primary and secondary magnetic fields are sho!n. S'R,E S%TE A&# +%E)# #ATA AC-'%S%T%"& The survey area is at one abandoned hydrocarbon site (see "igure -) appro$imately )@.m A )-.m. The target area is on the north-east side of the road. The fact that the landfill is located in the vicinity of ground!ater used for domestic consumption urges the investigation of possible ground!ater contamination. There past service !as done by drilling to monitor the ground !ater (2 monitor !ells done). ?o!ever additional information is often required to map the subsurface structure the lateral and vertical e$tent of the ground!ater contamination and to locate the ground!ater pipelines. #n the survey area the local geology consists mainly of Buaternary sedimentary units composed of alluvium

1roceedings of the *th SE'6 #nternational Symposium 7#maging and #nterpretation- Sapporo 6apan )--)0 8ctober -..*

The result also reveals a north-east!ard evolution of contamination plume.

The apparent conductivity map ("igure @ and "igure 0) sho!s a great variation in the apparent conductivity values of the subsurface soil layer. These values range from less than @. mS:m to more than +5 mS:m. This !ide conductivity range reflects a comparable !ide variation in the soil (or roc() constituents over the area. The lo!er conductivity contours can be attributed to dry and compact soils on the north-east !hile the higher contours are attributed to soil logging seepage or to !et soils on the south-!est. The EM data sho!s that high conductivity is associated !ith contaminated areas and the occurrence of higher geoelectrical values can be due to -F or @F geometrical effects related !ith contaminant plume. The conductivity values in the contaminated &one (Z89E @) are from 5. to C. mS:m transitional &one (Z89E -) bet!een 05 -55 mS:m and untouched &one (Z89E )) !ith lo! values of less than 05 mS:m. The conductivity data confirm that contamination e$tends from the free aquifer to the lo!er semi-confined aquifer !hich can be due to discontinuous muddy levels that allo! the hydraulics connection bet!een the t!o aquifers or rupture of that level. These discontinuities are li(ely to have been induced by mechanic means !hen the landfill !as deepened. 8ne pipeline position and shape can be identified on the boundary bet!een Z89E @ and Z89E - in the information of conductivity !hich is typically featured by lo!er values !ith high values on both sides (see "igure @ and "igure 0). The ground!ater pipeline ta(es a continuous path mar(ed by thic( hidden lines on the interpretation map (see "igure 0). C"&C)'S%"&S #n the survey the contamination behavoirs can be defined on the maps of conductivity. The EM data sho!s that higher conductivities are associated !ith contaminated areas and the occurrence of high geoelectrical values can be due to contaminant plume. /ccording to the contamination evaluation of grounder !ater the studied area can be divided into three parts; original area or untouched area transitional &one and contaminated area. The survey also sho!s that the contamination involving area carries on and evolves northeast!ard. Thus the study sho!s that EM is sensitive to the detection of ground!ater and can be used to dynamically monitor the ground!ater contamination. 8ne subsurface pipeline is located and the anomaly is obvious on the apparent conductivity map. The ground!ater pipeline basically has characteristic of lo! conductivities !ith high values on both sides. The study demonstrates that EM method has strong ability to locate the ground!ater pipeline.

+igure 0. Eolor contour map of conductivity. Three anomaly &ones are delineated by thin dot lines.

+igure 1. #nterpretation of conductivity data. 8ne pipeline is located by a thic( hidden line. Three anomaly &ones are delineated by thin dot lines.

1roceedings of the *th SE'6 #nternational Symposium 7#maging and #nterpretation- Sapporo 6apan )--)0 8ctober -..*

ACK&"!)E#*EME&TS These research results are carried out in -..C and financially supported by the 9ational G*+@H1ro3ect "oundation of Ehina (9o. -..+E%-.*2..). The author than(s Ms. Meng Bingping for computer dra!ing for the paper. RE+ERE&CES /te(!ana E/ Sauc( </ <er(ema FF -... #nvestigations of geoelectrical signatures at a hydrocarbon contaminated site $ %&&lied 'eo&hysics, ,ol. 11 )2+-)C.. %aba /. 4avdIr J. Feni& 8. -..0 The impact of an open !aste disposal site on soil and ground!ater pollution (nternational $ournal of Environment and )ollution ,ol. .. 9o. 2 2+2-2C+. %a(er S. S. Eull 6. 1. -..0 Streaming potential and ground!ater contamination Ex&loration 'eo&hysics ,ol. 02 0)-00. %enson /. 4. 1ayne 4. D. Stubben M. /. )**+ Mapping ground!ater contamination using Fc resistivity and KD" geophysical methods 7 / case study 'eo&hysics ,ol.3. C.-C2. Ehristensen T. ?. %3erg 1. D %an!art S. /. 6a(obsen L. ?eron '. M /lbrechtsen ?. 6. -... Eharacteri&ation of Ledo$ conditions in ground!ater contaminant plumes $ournal of Contaminant !ydrology ,ol. 12 )257-0). Martinho E. /lmeida ". -..2 @F behaviour of contamination in landfill sites using -F resistivity-#1 imaging- case studies in 1ortugal Environmental 'eology, ,ol. 14 ).+)-).+C. 4arli( '. 4aya M. /. -..) #nvestigation of ground!ater contamination using electric and electromagnetic methods at an open !aste-disposal site - a case study from #sparta Tur(ey Environmental 'eology ,ol. 15 9o. 2 +-5-+@). 4aya M. /. 8&urlan '. Nengul E. -..+ Felineation of soil and ground!ater contamination using geophysical methods at a !aste disposal site in Oana((ale Tur(ey. Environment *onitor %ssess ,ol. /02 9o. @ 00)-002. 1orsani 6D "ilho <M Elis KL Shimeles " Fourado 6E Moura ?1 -..0 The use of '1L and KES in delineating a contamination plume in a landfill site; a case study in SE %ra&il $ %&&lied 'eo&hysics ,ol. 22 )**--.*. Sauc( </ -... / model for the resistivity structure of D9/1D plumes and their environs in sandy sediments $ %&&lied 'eo&hysics ,ol. 11 )5)-)25.

1roceedings of the *th SE'6 #nternational Symposium 7#maging and #nterpretation- Sapporo 6apan )--)0 8ctober -..*