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A study on concepts, techniques, provisions

Submitted to: Dr Sangeet Kumar Submitted by: Inzmamul Haque Student, 1st year, 2nd semester, Roll-933 Chanakya National Law University

I am feeling highly elated to work on the topic Minority Scholarship Scheme: An Impac Analysist under the guidance of my Sociology teacher Dr Sangeet Kumar . I am very grateful to him for his exemplary guidance. I would like to enlighten my readers regarding this topic and I hope I have tried my best to pave the way for bringing more luminosity to this topic. I also want to thank all of my friends, without whose cooperation this project was not possible. Apart from all these, I want to give special thanks to the librarian of my university who made every relevant materials regarding to my topic available to me at the time of my busy research work and gave me assistance. And at last I am very much obliged to the God who provided me the potential for the rigorous research work. At finally yet importantly I would like to thank my parents for the financial support.

-----------------Thanking You

Table Of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction a) Objective b) Hypothesis c) Research methodology 2. Status of minorities in India: A background study 3. Various schemes & scholarship related minority welfare: Impact analysis 4. Field work

Conclusion Bibliography

Aims and objectives:I. II. III. To know about the scholarship for minorities. To know about the private and government fund of scholarship. To know about the effect of schemes on concerned people.

Hypothesis:For the topic the researcher presumes that these schemes are provided to minority citizens for their literary, social, economical and financial development. However, the of these schemes is not reaching them totally.

Research methodology:For the research of concerned topic the researcher had opted the most important way of research. He has used doctrinal and non doctrinal research (field work). In doctrinal the researcher did the online study and also a bit study of book. For in doctrinal research he interviewed some people of these minorities.

Sources of Data:
The researcher will use both the Doctrinal and Non-Doctrinal method research. The following secondary sources of data have been used in the project1. Articles. 2. Books 3. Journals 4. Websites

In non Doctrinal information is derived from personal interaction and queries made during interaction.

A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further his or her education. Scholarships are awarded based upon various criteria, which usually reflect the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award. Scholarship money is not required to be repaid. Students from under-represented ethnicities and cultures may be eligible for outside scholarships and may choose to explore financial support from these outside sources.1 We hope these scholarship opportunities will prove useful and welcome any comments or suggestions on how we might better present them or reach out to those who might benefit from them in order to increase awareness of the financial aid that is available, but about which those in the most need might not be aware. The most common scholarships may be classified as:

Merit-based: These awards are based on a student's academic, artistic, athletic or other abilities, and often factor in an applicant's extracurricular activities and community service record. The most common merit-based scholarships, awarded by either private organizations or directly by a student's intended college, recognize academic achievement or high scores on standardized tests. Most such merit-based scholarships are paid directly by the institution the student attends, rather than issued directly to the student.

Need-based: In the United States, these awards are based on the student and family's financial record and require applicants to fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to qualify if the scholarship is a federal award. Private need-based scholarships also often require the results of a FAFSA, which calculates a student's financial need through a formula that looks at the expected family contribution and cost of attendance at the intended college.

Student-specific: These are scholarships for which applicants must initially qualify based upon gender, race, religion, family and medical history, or many other studentspecific factors. Minority scholarships are the most common awards in this category. For example, students in Canada may qualify for a number of aboriginal scholarships, whether they study at home or abroad. The Gates Millennium Scholars program is another minority scholarship funded by Bill and Melinda Gates for excellent African

Introduction, rships/minority_student_scholarships#sthash.n9UXi2OH.dpuf, last accessed on 26-04-2014 at 01:41 IST

American, American Indian, Asian Pacific Islander American and Latino students who enrol in college.

Career-specific: These are scholarships a college or university awards to students who plan to pursue a specific field of study. Often, the most generous awards to students who pursue careers in high-need areas such as education or nursing. Many schools in the United States give future nurses full scholarships to enter the field, especially if the student intends to work in a high-need community.

College-specific: College-specific scholarships are offered by individual colleges and universities to highly qualified applicants. These scholarships, given on the basis of academic and personal achievement, usually result in either a full-ride to the college, or for a reduced rate of tuition.

Some scholarships have a "bond" requirement. Recipients may be required to work for a particular employer for a specified period of time or to work in rural or remote areas; otherwise they may be required to repay the value of the support they received from the scholarship. This is particularly the case with education and nursing scholarships for people prepared to work in rural and remote areas. The programs offered by the uniformed services of the United States (Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration commissioned corps, and Public Health Service Commissioned Corps) sometimes resemble such scholarships.2

Athletic: Awarded to students for showing exceptional skill in a sport provided by the college.

Local scholarships:It is typical for persons to find scholarships in their home regions. Information on these can be found by asking local institutions and organizations. Typically, these are less competitive as the eligible population is smaller. Guidance counsellors: When starting to explore scholarship opportunities, most high school students check with their guidance counsellors. They can be a reliable resource for local scholarships.

Schemes, FjAI& NEFb8Eoa1RZIzZ3iJP24Unw-m8tkw&bvm=bv.65397613,d.bmk, last accessed on 266-04-2014 at 06:59 IST

Non-profits and charitable trusts: Most non-profit organizations have at some point of their history founded scholarships for prospective students. The Good Schools Guide, a guide to schools in the UK, states "Charitable grant-making trusts can help in cases of genuine need," and goes on to outline several instances where this may be the case, including an "unforeseen family disaster" and a "need for special education". Community foundations: Many counties and cities and regions have a local foundation dedicated to giving money in the form of grants and scholarships to people and organizations in the area. Music teachers: Some music teachers offer reduced-cost or free lessons to help low-income children gain access to an arts education. In addition, some local non-profits provide free music classes to youths. Foundations: Certain foundations in the United States offer scholarships for entrepreneurial endeavours. Labour/trade unions: Major unions often offer scholarships for members and their dependent children.[citation needed] Houses of worship: The local house of worship may or may not have any scholarships for their members, but the religious organization or headquarters may have some available. Of course, theology study is highly encouraged. Chamber of commerce: Many chambers of commerce offer (usually small) grants to students in the community, especially those planning on careers in business and public service. Even if they do not offer any themselves, one can usually get a listing of members, and many of them may offer small scholarships to local students. Other volunteer organizations: Many organizations offer scholarships or award grants to students whose background or chosen field overlaps the field of the organization. For example, local chapters of professional societies may help the studies of exceptionally distinguished students of the region. Similarly, charity organizations may offer help, especially if the late parent of the student was a member of the organization (e.g., a Masonic lodge might help the orphan of a lodge brother.) This kind of scholarship is mostly ad hoc. School: Old, well-known schools are often endowed with scholarship funds.

University: Old, well-established universities may have funds to finance the studies of extremely talented students of little means. Eligibility often requires that a student belong to some special category or be among a nation's best. However, universities provide information on scholarships and grants, possibly even internship opportunities. PSAT/NMSQT: In the United States, students are offered the opportunity to take the PSAT/NMSQT test, usually in their junior year of high school. National Merit Scholarship programs are initially determined by the scores received on the PSAT/NMSQT test. Some private scholarship programs require applicants to take the PSAT. The test can be used as preparation for the SAT. Enrichment Centres: In certain countries, enrichment centres have begun to provide scholarships. Disabilities: Students with disabilities may be able to apply for awards intended for people with disabilities. Those scholarships may be intended for disabled students in general, or in relation to a specific disability.

II. Status of minorities in India: A background study

Who are minorities? The Constitution of India uses the word minority or its plural form in some Articles 29 to 30 and 350A to 350B but does not define it anywhere. Article 29 has the word minorities in its marginal heading but speaks of any sections of citizensare having a distinct language, script or culture. This may be a whole community generally seen as a minority or a group within a majority community. Article 30 speaks specifically of two categories of minorities religious and linguistic. The remaining two Articles 350A and 350B relate to linguistic minorities only. In common parlance, the expression minority means a group comprising less than half of the population and differing from others, especially the predominant section, in race, religion, traditions and culture, language, etc.3 The Oxford Dictionary defines Minority as a smaller

Minorities, FjAL& 9_nNciLrQeE74BI&usg=AFQjCNHmwfb6wWVrB0wwQNEriX5-so82TA&bvm=bv.65397613,d.bmk, last accessed on 26-04-2014 at 07:04 IST

number or part; a number or part representing less than half of the whole; a relatively small group of people, differing from others in race, religion, language or political persuasion. A special sub-committee on the Protection of Minority Rights appointed by the United Nations Human Rights Commission in 1946 defined the minority as those non-dominant groups in a population which possess a wish to preserve stable ethnic, religious and linguistic traditions or characteristics markedly different from those of the rest of the population. As regards religious minorities at the national level in India, all those who profess a religion other than Hindu are considered minorities, since over 80 per cent of the population of the country professes the Hindu religion. At the national level, Muslims are the largest minority. Other minorities are much smaller in size. Next to the Muslims are the Christians (2.34 per cent) and Sikhs (1.9 per cent); while all the other religious groups are still smaller. As regard linguistic minority there is no majority at the national level and the minority status is to be essentially decided at the state/union territory level. At the state/union territory level which is quite important in a federal structure like ours the Muslims are the majority in the state of Jammu and Kashmir and the union territory of Lakshadweep. In the states of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland, Christians constitute the majority. Sikhs are the majority community in the state of Punjab. No other religious community among the minorities is a majority in any other state/UT. The National Commission for Minorities Act 1992 says that Minority, for the purpose of the act, means a community notified as such by the central government Section2 (7). Acting under this provision, on October 23, 1993 the central government notified the Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist and Parsi (Zoroastrian) communities to be regarded as minorities for the purpose of this act.4 Historical Development of Minority Rights in India Recognition and protection of minority rights in India was hardly an issue prior to the starting of twentieth century because of the hegemony of minority over majority and ruling class minoritys unwillingness to interfere within the private, personal and religious matters of either group. All people had freedom to be governed by their religious and customary laws within their private affairs. The issue became relevant during early twentieth when Britishers gradually started power sharing with the Indian natives; and minorities especially Muslims

NCM act,, last accessed on 26-04-2014 at 07:06 IST

led by Jinnah suspected their protection in the hands of majority Hindus. To address such fear Britishers along with certain princely states made special provisions for minority representation in legislature and government jobs. The Separate electorate system introduced by Britishers had two fold objectives (1) to mobilize several communities especially of minorities in India to participate in power sharing; (2) to prevent the strong nationalism growing under the single umbrella of Congress. The separate electorate system whereas criticized by congress; minorities led by Jinnah welcomed this model. Dr.B.R. Ambedkar a dalit leader also started demanding for separate electorate system for dalits an oppressed category of Hindu society. However after an assurance given by congress and Mahatma Gandhi that in independent India special provisions shall be made for economic and social minorities he relinquished his demand of separate electorate for dalits.

Present status of minorities in India

The socio-economic backwardness of the Muslim community in India was underlined by the Justice Sachar Committee report. Then came the Ranganathan Mishra Commission report which recommended 10 per cent job reservation for Muslims because the community occupied the lowest rank in the human development index. Now, on the heels of these two reports, the National Council for Applied Economic Research has come out with data about the economic status of Muslims in the country that makes dismal reading. The NCAER report says that one-third of Muslims in India survive on less than Rs 550 a month. In other words, three out of 10 of them lived below the poverty line in 2004-05. Even among the poor, urban Muslims were slightly better off compared to Muslims living in the villages who survived on Rs 338 a month during the year under review.5 Now National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), a central government body, has confirmed that Indias largest religious minority is the most backward community on the educational front. Muslims ratio in higher education is lower than even Scheduled Tribes (STs), considered most backward. Attached to the Union Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, NSSO, in its report titled Education in India, 2007-08: Participation and Expenditure, says that of 100 Muslims in the education system, just 10 are enrolled in high school and above. Similar ratio for STs is 11, Scheduled Castes (SCs) 12 and Other Backward Classes (OBCs) 14.

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The report also says that high education among urban Muslims is lower than their counterparts in rural areas. This despite the fact that urban areas have better educational facilities. According to the NSSO report published on May 19, just seven out of 100 urban Muslims in the education system were enrolled in high school or above as compared to 12 in rural areas.6 Christians lead all communities religious and social in pursing education, followed by Sikhs and OBCs. The report is based on the household survey on participation and expenditure in education conducted in its 64th round. The field work of the nationwide survey was carried out during July 2007 to June 2008. The survey covered a random sample of 445960 persons, from 63318 rural households and 37263 urban households spread over 7953 villages and 4682 urban blocks, covering the entire geographical area of the country. It is most likely this fresh report highlighting the plight of the Muslim community will give fresh blood to the demand of reservation for the community in education and job. The three reports obviously belied the allegation of certain political parties and groups that Muslims are being appeased. It is, however, true, that 63 years after Independence, Muslims were being used merely as a vote bank by all the political parties and no worthwhile administrative action to improve their socio-economic condition was taken by any government. Under the circumstances, it is imperative for the government to come out with a comprehensive plan to improve the condition of Muslims. But it is equally necessary for Muslims themselves to come out of the quagmire and achieve their own empowerment.

III.Various schemes & scholarship related minority welfare: Impact Analysis

Budgetary allocation for Muslim minority

It is evident from consecutive budget document that the allocation for minorities has been downsized during the years. In the budget of 2005-06 (Buta Singh Governor Rule) allocation for minority welfare department was 0.34% of the total plan size. It was downsized to 0.17% during 2008-09, i.e. half to 2005-06 allocation.

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For comparison, table-1 relating to allocation made for SC/ST and Muslim minority is given below that illustrates wider gap between 16.5% Muslim minority and 16.1% SC/ST, specially in view of the fact that as per Sachar Report the backwardness of Muslim community is almost similar to that of SC/ST(below OBC & just above SC/ST). Furthermore, there is also question mark on the quality of spending mentioned for Muslim minority and the SC/ST, affecting the priority of socio-economic development. Table-2 illustrates the difference of spending heads. Thus on both the above mentioned aspects of budgetary allocation and its utilization fail to satisfy the Muslim minority problems.

Table 1
(Rupees in Lacs)

(Source Bihar Budget documents of consecutive years)


Following scholarship schemes have been announced by the Central/State Governments:-

Launched by Central Government Merit cum Means Scholarship Post-Matric Scholarship Pre-Matric Scholarship Launched by State Government Matric First Division Mukh Mantri Protsahan Scholarship Scholarship after Intermediate (one-time Rs.4000/-) It is really astonishing to observe that: The State Govt. has till date completed the distribution process of centrally funded scholarship grant for only two scholarship schemes, namely, (1) Merit cum Means scholarship & (2) post-Matric scholarship (partially and not satisfactorily) for the year 200708 amounting to Rs.5.87 crores only. The state government has so far already received 29.97 crore from Central government.7 It means the state government is only able to distribute less than 20% of available fund. Thus defaulting for the session 2008-09 and 2009-10 besides default on pre-Matric scholarship scheme for 2007-10 as well as default on completion of renewal process. Moreover, the number of actual beneficiary shorts fall of the targeted number under post-Matric scholarship. It is appalling to note that against the 5442 postMatric scholarship beneficieries, the number of those, who were renewed, is only 32 students. It is to be remembered that Aqliyat Chhatravirti Morcha has staged agitation first time when the schemes were announced and defaulted by the State Govt. machinery and a detailed memorandum was submitted. (It is to be noted that the Central Govt. has announced scholarship for 63000 students every year under the above mentioned three schemes amounting to around Rs.43 crores for fresh students and the same amount for renewal of scholarship). Table inserted above illustrates the status of the centrally funded Minority scholarship schemes. There are seven Minority Concentrated Districts in Bihar for which Multi-sectoral Development Plan has been launched with 100% grant from the Centre. For the current plan period, the Central Govt. has allocated 523 crore rupees to raise the socioeconomic conditions of these districts under eight broad indicators of development to reach

Budgetary allocation,, last accessed on 2604-2014 at 07:36 IST

the national average. People of these districts, the civil society and Muslim NGOs & organizations are unaware of any positive steps of the State Govt. towards implementing the plan. A baseline survey has been done by Human Development Institute (HDI) to prioritize the indicators. The survey has some deficiency in prioritization, e.g. indicator of safe drinking water in Kishanganj district has been shown above national average. Every body knows that the area has heavy arsenic hazards in water in the district (source: Planning Commission report). Much time has lapsed in completing the required formalities on the part of the State Govt. for release of allocated grant from the Centre. It is evident that with the present level of social concern and motivation, the plan can hardly be implemented in these Muslim concentrated districts during the 11th Plan period. Minority scholarships originate from a wide range of funding sources; some of which might surprise you. The idea is to leave no stone unturned in your quest for college cash, so think outside the box for access to minority scholarships. To promote diversity, foster inclusion and prepare graduates for the global marketplace, each of these entities provides higher education scholarships for minorities.8

Federal and State Governments In general, government resources have the deepest pockets for providing college financial aid. In addition to diversity initiatives from Uncle Sam, youll find minority scholarships at the state level.

Colleges and Universities Schools give scholarships to support under-represented student groups like ethnic minorities. For example, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) advance African American education by issuing scholarships to black students.

Charitable Organizations Community groups and religious organizations often include educational diversity in their stated missions. Grants and scholarships target those applicants whose access to higher education has been slowed by social or economic disadvantages.

Corporations Companies offer scholarships that support disciplines related to their business. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors receive scholarship attention from industrial concerns that want to facilitate a steady-stream of qualified graduates. Eligibility is sometimes limited to employee family members.

Minority scholar ship resources,, last accessed on 26-04-2014 at 07:44 IST

Professional Associations Membership organizations that represent individual trades often maintain scholarship funds for educating the next wave of professionals. Even unions participate in education by financing education scholarships.

Minority Advocacy Groups - NAACP, United Negro College Fund, Excelencia in Education and other culturally-grounded organizations promote education among ethnic minorities. Partnerships with ethnic schools.

Conclusion: Budget allocation for minorities is continuously going down in percentage terms. The size of SC&ST is almost seven times to minorities in the current budget. The allocation for SC&ST is showing upward trend while the minority is on downward side. The SC&ST students will get 380 times of scholarships in comparison to minorities. Forty times SC&ST persons will get employment in respect of minorities and also should be noted that minority will only get training. Though this comparison is not compatible but will help in understanding. If we consider help to divorcee Muslims means helping the family then SC&ST will get 134 times more benefited families than minority. Increase the number of scholarship as well as the quantum of amount of scholarship for technical and professional courses. Include useful heads of expenditure by adapting the heads shown in SC/ST spending and from the schemes implemented for minoritys development in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Create some innovative heads of expenditure, like establishing Interest-free Minority Cooperative Corporation for economic development of the Muslim minority. New privately managed Muslim minority schools upto 10+2 levels, specially girls schools be allowed affiliation from BSEB with financial support on salary head like given in Maharashtra and some other States to encourage community initiative as suggested in the Sachar Committee report. Muslim NGOs and organizations may be involved and supported to run one-teacher school in Muslim-concentrated districts of Bihar to achieve the goal of universal education for the community. For effective management of the Scholarship scheme, a separate Minority Scholarship & Welfare Directorate should be created with HELPLINE FACILITY, which should be accountable for timely implementation of scholarship & students related welfare

schemes for minorities. The Directorate should be responsible for timely announcement of selected students and 100% timely distribution of scholarship. reach of the scholarship should be widened and deepened through advertisement, involving Muslim organizations and Muslim minority schools and colleges. Allocation of fund for scholarship programme under the State Govt. budget should also be raised. Implementation of the plan needs State Govt. resolve to raise the condition of Muslim minority; Effective Implementing mechanism should be created under the charge of committed administrator, Members of civil society & Muslim organizations should be involved in Monitoring & Evaluation process, Progress in implementation should be transparent and widely publicized in the concerned districts, Fund should be utilized proportionately on raising all the indicators, Plan should be simultaneously implemented to utilize the grant & to achieve the target within the plan period. The State Govt. of Bihar may prepare and initiate its own plan in the light of the recommendations made by the Sachar Committee to uplift the Muslim community on different indicators of development pointed out in the report. To begin with, some initial steps having evident transforming effects on Muslim minority in Bihar would establish the sincerity of the State Govt. for raising the socio-economic status of the community. It would build some confidence among Muslim minority regarding the concern of Government towards their genuine problems. Muslim NGOs and organizations may also be involved in the exercise. The condition of Muslim Wakf in Bihar is very pitiable. Even survey of the Wakf properties in Bihar is yet to be completed. The process should be completed as early as possible. Alongside completion of survey of Muslim Wakf, a comprehensive plan should be passed for better utilization of the Wakf property towards socio-economic and educational development of the Muslim community. Professionals like architects/engineers, real estate planners, representatives of Muslim organizations and NGOs may also be involved in planning and management of Wakf properties as suggested in Sachar Committee report. Competent persons with better reputation should be inducted in the Wakf Board. Professionals, administrators and social workers should be inducted in the Board. Transparency and Accountability should be the hallmark of the functioning of the Wakf Board. Litigation should be minimized by providing support from other

agencies of the State Govt. Wakf Tribunal should activated immediately with adequate infrastructure and human resources. Developmental yardstick should be fixed to measure the effectiveness of the management of the Wakf Board. Financial support should be provided to develop the Wakf assets towards raising the recurring income. The objectives of the programme are: Enhancing opportunities for education; Ensuring an equitable share for minorities in economic activities and employment, through existing and new schemes; enhanced credit support for self-employment and recruitment to State and Central Government jobs; Improving the living conditions of minorities by ensuring an appropriate share for them in infrastructure development schemes; and Prevention and control of communal disharmony and violence

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