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4.0.

ACTIVITY: FORMWORK

4.1.

KNOWLEDGE OF ACTIVITY
Formwork is temporary forming given to concrete until it gains strength to withstand self-weight. Formwork shall be so designed to support safely the worst combined effects of all loads within acceptable dimensional tolerance and without causing bulging or deflection. Formwork should be: Strong enough to bear the self-weight of formwork, wet concrete, reinforcement, and dynamic effects of placing and compacting, construction traffic and wind load. Water tight to avoid grout loss Easily removable without any damages should be and re-usable

t should be dimensionally accurate and give the desired finish to the top surface it is in contact with. !lways use staging of "S tubes with timber runners. #he staging should be placed on hard even surface. f placed on ground compact it and use planks under the base plate to distribute load. $ase plates should not be placed on concrete blocks or bricks, which are likely to get crushed when wet. Staging shall be true, rigid and thoroughly braced, shuttered and propped. #o achieve desired rigidity ample studs, braces, bolts, spacer blocks and stay wire to be given to avoid distortion. %heck the shuttering work for vertical and hori&ontal alignment, level, surface cleanliness, water tightness, and ability to withstand loads without distortion.

Scaffolding: !t the ground level, walk round the perimeter of the scaffold and check for
o o o Subsidence of the ground %avities underneath sole plates 'islocation of base plates

(ectify with ad)ustable base plates or fill with concrete

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Guardrails and !" #!ards


$oth guardrails and toe boards should be fi*ed to the inside of the outer standards and remain in position before decking is removed. +uardrails should be fitted at not less than ,.-m and not more than .../m above the decking. #oe boards should be at least ./,m high above the decking and the clear spacing between the guardrails and the boards should not e*ceed ,.0/m. (eleasing agent should be thin evenly applied. 1se sponge or mop to apply it. (eleasing agent should have no adverse effect on concrete. #he releasing agent should be applied within 23 hours prior to concreting. !ll spans in e*cess of / metres for beams and slabs should be kept within a pre camber of 4mm per . metre. For cantilever, give a camber at the end of span of 2mm per . metre. #he 5uality of finished concrete is dependent on the 5uality of formwork. Erection casing and shifting of formwork shall be done under the personnel supervision of a competent foreman. Striking time for formwork is as follows under normal conditions. Walls, %olumns, Starters etc 6 42 hours Slab 7span89mts: 6 0 days $eam 7span 8 9mts: 6 .2 days Slab beam 7span ; 9mts: 6 4. days <rops to cantilever 6 43 days For balcony and other rib beams, duct beams support should be continuous for at least = floors. 'ue to weather conditions if the concrete is not sufficiently hardened, the striking time to be e*tended after discussing with the pro)ect in charge. >btain the 0th day cube test result before the removal of formwork.

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4.1.1. TOOL$ TO %E &$ED %Y TRADE$MEN


R"'uir"d !!ls (us #" a)aila#l" a si " ! "nsur" *!rr"* +!r,. %asi* !!ls !- ." s.u "rin/ /an/ ar": .. Shuttering material - <rops, %up locks, %-clamps, $ase plates, 1-heads, #ie rods, !crospans, (unners, ?acks and %olumn bo*es 4. @ammer =. Aine dori 2. @and saw /. Spirit levels 9. #ube levels 0. <lumb bobs 3. "easurement #ape -. !luminium straight edge .,. (ight angle ... %hipping #ools .4. %rowbar

4.0.

IN$1ECTION MET2ODOLOGY FOR 3&ALITY A$$&RANCE


.. %heck the shuttering work for surface cleanliness, water tightness, and ability to withstand loads without distortion. Stability, safety, dimensional correctness, levels and alignment are the key factors. 4. %heck for plumb and parallelity using .mB 4m spirit level to the formwork at various points. =. !ll formwork in the periphery of the building to be plumb. 2. For all re5uired cut outs and shaft openings: !re as per drawings nner right angles at all 2 corners checked using right angle template

%heck of diagonals using a measuring tape %urved %ornices 6 checked visually and using a compass spirit level /. n case of slab formwork, supports to be perfect. The formwork should be supported by wooden wedges and not fixed by nails (because the wedges are movable and provide maneuverability) 9. !ll supports to plinth beams should be provided with a runner, as load distribution is uniform. 0. All window bands to be cast using plaster hooks

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4.0.1. TOOL$ TO %E &$ED FOR 3&ALITY IN$1ECTION


.. "easuring tape 4. Spirit levels 4 -=m =. %ompass spirit level 2. !luminium straight edge 4 -=m /. (ight angle template

9. (elated C +ood for %onstructionD drawings

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