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# Representation of Data in Computer Systems

## Key words and Definitions

Key Word Definition
The decimal numeral system has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations A negative base may be used to construct a non-standard positional numeral system. Like other place-value systems, each position holds multiples of the appropriate power of the system's base. Short for binary digit, the smallest unit of information on a machine. In computer terms a nibble = 4 bits = 1/2 byte. Byte = 8 bits 1KB = 1024bytes 1MB=1024KB 1KB=1024MB 1TB=1024GB of or pertaining to a numbering system that uses 16 as the radix, employing the numerals0 through 9 and representing digits greater than 9 with the letters A through F.

Denary/ Decimal Base 10 Binary Base 2 Bit Nibble Byte Kilobyte Megabyt e Gigabyte Terabyt e Hexadec imal ASCII Unicode Overflo w Error

A standard for assigning numerical values to the set of letters in the Roman alphabet and typographic characters. A standard for representing characters as integers. Unlike ASCII, which uses 7 bits for each character, Unicode uses 16 bits, which means that it can represent more than 65,000 unique characters. The condition in which the numerical result of an operation exceeds the capacity of the register.

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Lesson 1: Binary to Decimal.and back again Binary to Denary Conversion 128 0 64 0 32 0 16 1 8 0 4 0 2 0 1 1

128 0

64 0

32 1

16 0

8 0

4 0

2 1

1 1

128 0

64 1

32 0

16 0

8 1

4 0

2 0

1 1

128 0

64 0

32 1

16 1

8 1

4 0

2 0

1 1

128 1

64 0

32 0

16 1

8 0

4 1

2 1

1 1

128 1

64 0

32 1

16 1

8 1

4 0

2 1

1 1

## My method for converting Binary to Denary is

Create a table whose leftmost column is the greatest power of 2 less than the number you want to convert. If the number is between 64 and 127, the leftmost column will be 64. If the number is between 128 and 255, the leftmost column will be 128. Each column in the table is a power of 2. The rightmost column is 20 (= 1), the next one to the left is 21 (= 2), the next is 22 (= 4), etc. Instead of thinking about powers of 2, you can just think about doubling each number to get the value for the next column to the left.
Denary to Binary conversion
128 0 64 0 32 0 16 1 8 1 4 0 2 0 1 0

128 0

64 1

32 0

16 0

8 0

4 1

2 1

1 0

128 0

64 0

32 0

16 1

8 0

4 0

2 1

1 1

128 1

64 0

32 0

16 1

8 1

4 1

2 0

1 0

128 0

64 0

32 1

16 1

8 1

4 1

2 1

1 1

128 1

64 1

32 1

16 1

8 1

4 1

2 1

1 1

## My Method for converting Denary to Binary is

Find its quotient then dividing the number by two, taking away one if the number is odd and to continue to do this until the number is 0

My progress this lesson: I attempted ___6_ out of 6 in the binary to denary conversion. I got __6___ out of 6 correct I attempted __6__ out of 6 in the denary to binary conversion. I got __6___ out of 6 correct My top score on the binary game was___6_____

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

This lesson I have been working at a ______ level.

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Extension activity:
Below are a number of statements. Decide whether each is true or false and tick the correct box.

TRUE
A bit can store four pieces of data A byte can store a single alphabetic letter 1000 bytes makes up a megabyte A small piece of clipart would probably have a file size measured in kilobytes A byte contains 8 bits A megabyte contains 1024 kilobytes A terabyte is larger than a gigabyte A kilobyte is larger than a byte An MP3 music file would probably have a file size measured in gigabytes A nibble contains 4 bytes 1024 gigabytes is equivalent to 1 terabyte A Hollywood blockbuster film would probably have a file size measured in gigabytes Supercomputers would store terabytes of data Hard disks are normally measured in kilobytes A bit is the smallest unit of storage available

FALSE

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Lesson 2: Adding Binary Numbers

0 1

0 1

1 0

1 0

0 0

1 1

1 0

1 0

1 0

0 1

0 0

0 1

0 0

1 0

1 1

1 1

0 0

1 0

0 1

1 1

0 0

1 1

0 1

0 1

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

It is likely that in your exam you will have to add together two 8bit binary numbers

Example 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

Row 1 and 2 contains the binary numbers to be added Row 3 contains the answer Row 4 is the carry over row Task 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0

Task 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

Task 3 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Task 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

Task 5 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0

Task 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1

Task 7 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

Task 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Lesson 3: Hexadecimal In your exam you will have to convert 2 digit hex numbers into denary, and vice versa
Den Hex 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 A 11 B 12 C 13 D 14 E 15 F

Den
45 78 26 201 20

Hex

Den
32 54 18 36 76

Hex

Den
16 108 255 18 126

Hex

8A BB 9F 0B 45

A3 3B D1 03 FF

B2 1F AA 8A 2C

In your exam you may also have to convert hex, binary and denary numbers. Hexadecimal Binary Denary

A 7 2F 4C D1

1010 111 101111 1001100 1001 10001 11011 10001100 10011110 11110010 162 99 9 17 27 140 212

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Extension task: Complete this crossword. SOME ANSWERS ARE EXPRESSED IN DENARY, OTHERS IN HEXADECIMAL

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

My method for working out Denary to Hex conversions is

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Lesson 4: Representing Characters

My name in DENARY is _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ My name in BINARY is _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ My coded message:

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

ASCII stands for ______________________________________________________

It holds _____________ different characters and is therefore represented by _______ bits. EBCDIC stands for _____________________________________________________

It holds _____________ different characters and is therefore represented by _______ bits. UNICODE holds ____________ different characters and is therefore represented by ________bits of data.

Exam question 1. Explain how ASCII is used to represent text in a computer system [3] ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. State what is meant by the term character set [1] ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Unicode is also used to represent text in a computer system. Explain the difference between the character set of Unicode and ASCII [2] ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ I scored ____ out of 6

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Below is a section of theory written by a teacher about characters and binary code Unfortunately, the teacher made a number of mistakes. Read through the text and correct their mistakes. There are 12 mistakes can you find them all? Computers deal with denary numbers, i.e. 0 and 1. However, robots need to enter data using characters that they recognise such as the alphabet and decimal numbers. Thus a system is used to translate the characters that we enter into the images that the computer requires. The most commonly used system is called the 9 bit standard ASCII code. This has space for 512 symbols which is enough for standard English, but not for many other common languages. 7 bits however is not suitable for the computer so each code needs to be stored as a 10 bit byte with the highest bit being set to one. Using this code every alphabetic letter, both upper and lower case is represented by a binary number, for example, the 8 bit ASCLE code for a lower case a is 01100001. For English a 7 bit code is adequate but many languages such as German, French and Finnish need to use the spare 0 for their own set of special characters. This is known as Extensive ASCII. However, for some languages a 1 byte scheme such as ASCII is not enough, instead they use a 5 byte scheme which can represent 65,000+ characters. This scheme is known as Unix. Unicode can handle any language and it does so by the user selecting a specific code page which is one portion of the total Unicode space. Each code page represents the chosen language. So for example if code page 1253 is chosen then the Greek language will be represented. This means that when an Arabic keyboard is used then the correct character will appear on the screen when a certain key on the keyboard is pressed.

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Lesson 5: Binary Images Starter:
Here is the completed crossword. It is your job to write the clues!

Across 2. 5. 6. 8. 9.

Down 1. 3. 4. 7.

10.

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Binary

HEX

Binary 00000000 00011100 00100010 01000001 01001001 01000001 00100010 00011100 Binary

HEX

HEX 00 24 00 00 42 24 18 00

Binary

HEX

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Fill in the missing gaps Display Binary Resolution Pixel Images Large 256 Clearer 16.8 million Colour

Computers need to be able to store, ______________ and manipulate photographs and graphical ______________. However, computers can only handle ______________data (in the form of 1s and 0s) so it is imperative that all images must be stored in a digital format. For this to happen an image is broken down into dots of individual colours, each one known as a______________. Each pixel is assigned a ______________. If there are few pixels, they will be ______________therefore the image will appear blocky and crude. The more pixels contained in an image the ______________it becomes as more colours can be used with a better transition between each colour. This is known as picture______________. Up to ______________ different shades of red, blue and green can be displayed giving a total of ______________possible colours.

Metadata is ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ It may include ______________________________________________________________________ Without the metadata the computer would not be able to reconstruct the image correctly Extension task: The colours of an image file using a 2-bit colour depth are defined in binary as 00 (white), 01 (red) 10 (green) and 11 (blue). Colour the images below using this set of data 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 11 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 11 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 11 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 11 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 01 01 11 11 00 10 10 10 00 00 01 01 11 11 00 00 10 00 00 00 01 01 11 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 11 11 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 00 00 00 00 11 00 01 01 00 00 01 01 01 00 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 10 10 01 01 01 00 11 00 00 01 10 10 01 01 00 11 11 00 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 00 00 01 01 01 01 00 01 01 01 01 11 00 01 01 00 11 00 01 00 00 11 00 00 00 11 11 11 00 00 11 18

## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Sound Draw an example analogue and digital sound wave below Analogue sound Digital sound

## Define: A digital sound is

An example is

An example is..

The conversion from analogue sound into digital sound is called _____________ Below is an analogue sound wave. Read the graph every 1 interval to complete the table, and redraw it as a digital wave

6 4 2

Amlitude

0 -2 -4 -6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time

Interval 1 2 3 4 5

Measurement

Interval 6 7 8 9 10

Measurement

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## Representation of Data in Computer Systems

Draw the digital signal here.

-2

-4

-6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

What is sample rate? ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ How does the sample rate effect a) The quality of the sound file ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ b) The size of the file ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

What is bitrate? ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ How does the bit rate effect a) The quality of the sound file ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ b) The size of the file ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 20