Fabric Finishes

MODULE - 1
Home Science in Daily Life

11
Notes

FABRIC FINISHES
Marie-Ann and some of her friends had joined a hobby class to learn fabric painting. While evaluating individual articles, they noticed that the colours of some of the articles were not uniform despite the fact the same colour had been used to paint all of them. When they asked the instructor about it, they were told that the cotton fabrics with uneven colour-spread had been given some finish which needed to be washed before using fabric painting colours. What does this mean? Do colours behave differently on different types of materials? You have learnt about starching and heard terms like dyeing, printing, mercerization, etc. What are these processes and how do these influence the functions of fabric? In this lesson we will try to answer these and many similar questions.

OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson you will be able to do the following: • • • • • • explain the meaning and importance of finishes given to fabrics; classify various finishes according to their properties; describe the effect of the application of basic finishes on fabrics; enumerate special finishes and explain the ways of employing them; elaborate the methods of dyeing and printing; evaluate different techniques of decorative dyeing and block printing on fabrics.

11.1 TEXTILE FINISHES
You know that the word “textile” means the complete study of fibres, yarns and fabric. Certain treatments are applied to improve the look and qualities of textile goods. These treatments are called finishes. A finish is a treatment given to a fabric, to change its appearance, handling /touch or performance. Its purpose is to make the fabric more suitable for its end use. 189

HOME SCIENCE

HOME SCIENCE . these are termed as gray goods or unfinished textiles. packaging. 11. It implies that no finishing treatment has been given to it. fabrics has dull and shabby appearance. improve the feel or touch of fabric. for example: a fabric is washed. produce variety in fabrics through dyeing and printing. and these make fabrics look attractive. When no finish is applied on the textiles. These are not actually gray in colour Different colours or prints on fabrics are also finishes but are ‘unfinished’. etc. are purchased only for rough work. Relatively less expensive. no defects on the surface. Some major differences between ‘Unfinished and finished fabrics’ are as follows: Unfinished / Gray fabric Dull looking. attractive. uneven in width. available in different tints and shades of colours. Finished fabric Lusterous.off white. brown. The finishes help to: • • • 190 improve the appearance of fabric and enhance its looks. etc. even width. Notes Finish includes any general treatment given to clean and iron fabrics and create exclusive variations of them by using chemical treatments.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes A series of treatments are given in mills to finish textiles goods. Gray goods lack customer appeal and you will not like to buy these for your dress or shirt. This does not mean that the fabric is gray in colour. Can you say why? Yes. with broken threads. It is because in the absence of any finish. printing. dyeing. free from stains. you are right.1 Importance of Textile Finishes Textile finishes are important because of the following reasons. etc. etc. to make fabric attractive and appealing. prints. starched and ironed before it is sent to the market. But it is not a must that all the textile-products are finished before use. it is known as a finished textile. etc. Lack customer appeal. dyed or printed. stained. Wrinkled. black. Customers get attracted and buy.MODULE . bleached.1. backing. available only in natural colours. etc. Smooth and wrinkle-free. Gray goods are the term used for fabrics that come directly from the loom and are used as such. Cost of fabric depends upon the type of the fibre along with the number and type of finishes applied. When a fabric is given a finish.

CLASSIFICATION OF FINISHES Finishes can be classified in several ways depending upon their functions.2.1 On the basis of function The finishes may be basic or functional i Basic or common finishes are applied to almost all the fabrics. These are also known as aesthetic finishes. finishes are temporary. bulletproof finish on fabric saves the people from bullets and is generally used by defence and police personnel for their safety.2. with an aim to improve their appearance. make fabric suitable for an end (specific) use. HOME SCIENCE 191 . Notes 11. durable and permanent.2. starch is applied to increase its weight and shine. Pale white cotton fabrics may be bleached to improve their whiteness. performance and nature.Fabric Finishes MODULE . waterproof finish makes fabrics water repellent for making umbrellas and raincoats. FINISHES Functional Performance Chemical and Mechanical Basic Functional Temporary Semi Durable Durable Permanent Chemical Mechanical 11.2 On the basis of degree of performance On the basis of performance. Calendaring (industrial ironing) is a basic finish. For better look of a thin cotton fabric. for example– – – – fireproof finish prevents the burning of fabrics used by fire brigade personnel. ii Functional or special finishes are applied to improve the performance of a fabric for some specific purpose.1 Home Science in Daily Life • • • make the fabric more useful. feel and body. Steam Ironing. semi durable. 11. and crease-resistant finish makes cotton / wool fabric wrinkle resistant. improve the draping ability of light weight fabrics. Dyeing and printing are also considered as finishes as they enhance the aesthetic appearance of fabrics.

g. Waterproof finish is a__________________ finish. etc. Mechanical finishes: These are also known as dry finishes. brushing. These finishes are either temporary or semi durable and do not last long. Many of these are renewable and can be reapplied at home. pressure and heat or a mechanical device to finish a fabric. wrinkle resistant. chemical treatment is given to fabric. 11. ii We will learn more about these finishes further in the chapter. performance or handling is known as __________ (N I F S I H E). When no finish is applied on a fabric’s surface. INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.MODULE . etc. e. e. Here the process consists of application of moisture. etc. i Chemical finishes: These are also known as wet finishes. it is known as ____________ fabric (R A Y G). Fill in the blanks after unscrambling the clues in the brackets: i.1 1. iv Permanent finishes are is usually given by a chemical treatment. e.g. Examples are: fire proof. Semi durable finishes stay on the fabric surface for several washings.g. vi. ii Notes iii Durable finishes last through out the life of a fabric or a garment but may lose its effectiveness after many washes. A chemical finish is also known as ______________ (E T W . filling.3 Chemical and Mechanical Finishes / Wet and dry finishes On the basis of processes involved in application of finish. there are two types – chemical (wet) and mechanical (dry) finishes. are some of the finishes included in this group. either to change its appearance or basic properties. e. calendaring.I S H F I N). (N C F U T I O N A L). Beating. ______________ and ________________ produce variety in fabric (Y E D I N G. starching and blueing of white fabrics. iii. etc.2. N I N G P R I T). bleaching and certain dyes used on cotton. These finishes are usually durable and permanent or wet finishes. crease resistance. v.g. ii. permanent pleats. In these. waterproofing. fire proofing.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes i Temporary finishes are not durable and run off after first washing or dry-cleaning. 192 HOME SCIENCE . The treatment given to fabrics to enhance their appearance. It changes the fibre structure and remains as such on the fabric for the entire life of a fabric.

the presence of these additives hinders further finishing processes such as bleaching. To get exact light shade of the colour. etc. curd and facial bleach to remove sun-tan. dyeing. unfortunately the brush was not washed properly and had remains of brown in it. as it comes from the loom. Cottons are boiled in soap solution for cleaning.Fabric Finishes MODULE . HOME SCIENCE 193 . the existing colour has to be removed. Man-made fibres do not need bleaching. What do you think will happen? You will not get the pink you wanted. the fabric becomes smooth. Many a times natural fibres like cotton. Put both the pieces of fabric in water. is dull in appearance. The new fabric will first float on the water. Fabrics have to be carefully bleached as bleach can harm the fabric if used in high concentration. This becomes a problem as light shades of dyes do not come out well on such fibre colours. these need to be removed before sending the fabric for further processing. What do you observe? The old one will sink faster because it is more absorbent as it has no finishes or starch on the surface. The method of washing a fabric is chosen according to the nature of fibre. Scouring is the process of washing fabric with soap solution. BASIC FINISHES AND THEIR TYPES Now that you know about different types of finishes. that are applied to yarns to make weaving easier. It may have stains of oils as well as starches. lets us learn a little more about basic finishes. Different types of basic finishes are – (i) Scouring / Cleaning Fabric.. waxes. Notes ACTIVITY 11. milk. Gradually water penetrates through the starch applied on the fabric surface. (ii) Bleaching At home you use lemon. neat and more absorbent. Suitable bleaching agents such as hydrogen peroxide for protein fibres and sodium hypochlorite for cottons. yarns or fabric to remove paleness or colour and make them white. A similar treatment is also given to fibres. etc. Therefore. It cleans the fabric and makes them more absorbent. printing.1 Carry out this experiment and note your observations Take two fabric pieces of 4// x 4// size of white colour. Scouring is the process of industrial cleaning of fabrics with the help of warm water and soap solution. silk and wool are available in pale / light brown colour. Silks are boiled to remove silk gum (degumming) while the wool fibres are boiled with soap solution to remove grease and oils. one of theses should be new and the other old and washed. Once the fabric is woven.1 Home Science in Daily Life 11. Bleaching is a chemical treatment given to fibres.3. are used. and the fabric sinks. Fabrics made from man-made fibres are given normal washing.After cleaning. Suppose you have to paint some thing in light pink colour.

Sometimes the loosely woven cotton fabric is starched heavily so that their quality looks better but the starch comes out with the first wash and the basic loosely woven structure of the fabric becomes prominent. Place a black sheet of paper on table.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes (iii) Starching / Stiffening Starch is generally applied to fabric of fine quality and light weight or loosely woven fibres.MODULE . Similarly. Now hold this fabric against light. 11. stiff. Shrinkage is the reduction of a fabric or a garment in size (length and width) after it is washed or dipped in water. Starch particles will fall on the black paper in the form of white powder.2 • • Take the starched cotton fabric. Try to look through it. This is the simplest and the common finish used to improve the looks of any gray or finished fabric. answer the questions given below. Give reason. cambric and thin silks are generally starched. You will notice that light can not pass through the fabric surface. Based on your experience above. Starching makes the fabric heavier.4. and crisp. starched fabric should be examined properly before purchasing. It makes the fabric smooth and lustrous. Therefore. Notes ACTIVITY 11. A marked 194 HOME SCIENCE . SPECIAL FINISHES (i) Pre-shrinking You must have heard your mother saying that the cotton kurta that she bought has shrunk and become smaller after the first wash. thereby improving its appearance. poplin. Yes. Cottons – muslin. through the process of Calendering or industrial ironing a fabric is passed through a series of smooth hot rollers to remove wrinkles and to make it smooth. you can see light through the open spaces in the weave. It also adds shine and smoothness to the fabric. Hold the starched fabric in your hands and rub it. – – – Will you use this fabric as a fall for a saree? Will you use this fabric to make a shirt? Will you use this fabric as a backing for a blouse? (iv) Calendering Why do you iron the garments at home? It is to remove wrinkles and make them look better.

Discuss the following in a Personal Contact Programme or with friends: • • • Best way to ensure that the material of the suit is shrinkproof.1 Home Science in Daily Life reduction in size takes place after washing certain cottons. Fabrics that are treated for pre-shrinking are labeled as ‘sanfronised’ or ‘anti-shrink’ or ‘shrink-proof. What else does one need to check about the quality before buying the material? Where can one look for such information? (ii) Mercerization Cotton is basically a dull fibre. reduction in the measurements because the fabric has shrunk. transparent. Dip it in water for at least 3-4 hours. Good quality cottons. Notes ACTIVITY 11. The shopkeeper had assured her that it was Let us see if the same happens in this experiment Take a gray cotton fabric of 10// x10//.3 Sujata was very angry and disappointed because a printed cotton suit she had bought so fondly had shrunk so much that it did not fit her at all. It is not due to a starch but because of application of a finish called parchmentization. light weight and stiff fabric and seems to be heavily starched. lustrous and absorbent. its stiffness remains intact even after washing. You will find the word ‘mercerized’ on the labels of cotton fabrics and reels of sewing threads denoting that the goods have been mercerized. Yes. It is. This pre-shrinking is called sanfronisation. linens and wools are pre-shrunk before marketing them. In parchmentization. It is all due to shrinkage. linens and woollens. Sanforisation is the pre-shrinking treatment given to certain fabrics made from natural fibres to prevent further shrinkage after washing. You will notice a change i. But unlike starched fabric. This process is called mercerization. Dry and iron it. the HOME SCIENCE 195 .e. (iii) Parchmentization Have you heard of a fabric called organdie? Take a piece of organdie fabric and carefully observe it. it is a thin. Even sewing threads which are used for stitching are mercerized. The fabric is different from other cotton fabrics. Now-a-days this finish has become a routine finish for all cottons.Fabric Finishes MODULE . therefore. Measure all sides of the sample again.’All these mean that the fabrics have received a finish for shrinkage control and will not shrink on washing. It also improves the dye uptake of fabrics. The fabric made from cotton wrinkles easily and is difficult to dye. Before buying she had asked the shopkeeper repeatedly if the material was shrink proof. treated with sodium hydroxide to make it strong.

____________________________________________ (True / False) (ii) Bleaching has no damaging effect on fabric.You must have noticed that all the cotton fabrics get crushed very easily. The fabric thus treated does not wrinkle too much and becomes easy to maintain. (v) Dyeing and Printing In the market you see a number of fabrics in plain colours or having colourful designs on them. the fabric looks shabby and old and its design becomes dull or smudged. So. What should Bhanwari do? There is a finish called wash ‘n’ wear which when applied on cotton fabrics completely changes its nature. respectively. She does not get enough time to maintain her uniform which comprises of cotton clothes that are most comfortable to wear specially in summers. Rajasthan. It is very important for the dyed and printed fabric to be ‘colourfast’. The temperature goes as high as 40-42 degrees C.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes cotton fabric is treated with a mild acid that partially eats away the fabric. State True or False and explain if the answer is false. (True / False) (i) Scouring is a finish used to clean the fabric.e. Bhanwari should select a wash ‘n’ wear fabric for her uniform. i. Has this ever happened to you? INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.MODULE . Besides cotton. ____________________________________________ (True / False) (iv) Organdy is a permanently stiff fabric. The process of producing colours and designs on a fabric is called dyeing and printing. ____________________________________________ (True / False) (v) Mercerized thread should be used for stitching. resulting in a transparent and stiff fabric called organdy. (iv) Wash ‘n’ Wear Notes Bhanwari works as a security guard in a school in Bikaner. If the colour runs on washing. ____________________________________________ (True / False) (iii) Shrinkage control can be done at home also. Dyeing gives a solid colour to the fabric whereas printing is the application of dye on specified areas to create designs. You don’t need to apply starch to organdy fabric. ____________________________________________ 196 HOME SCIENCE . wash ‘n’ wear fabrics can be worn without ironing or with a little ironing. rubbing or ironing.2 1. The colour may also spoil other fabrics during washing. the colour should not come out or fade easily. If dried and stored properly. wash ‘n’ wear finish is also given to linen and wool.

basic. small and big prints.5. These differ in their chemical composition and behaviour.5. (sanforised / parchmentisation) (iii) Wash n wear is a ________ finish. henna (mehndi). (ii) Shrinkage control is indicated as __________ on the label. All these are possible because of dyeing and printing. animals or minerals. azo. (ii) Synthetic Dyes – These dyes are prepared synthetically with the help of different chemicals. difficult and expensive. (water proof / colour fast) Notes 11. Fill the blanks with the suitable word given at the end of each sentence (i) Mercerisation is a ________ finish. HOME SCIENCE 197 .1 Home Science in Daily Life 2. Dyeing and printing improve appearance of fabric and add diversity to our dresses through colours and designs. (i) Natural Dyes – These were the first dyes known to mankind. These are obtained from natural sources – vegetables. DYEING AND PRINTING OF FABRIC Can you imagine wearing a plain white dress or one having same print every day? No. Synthetic dyes are very easy to use and have better fastness than natural dyes. It is very difficult to think of fabric without variation in colours. 11.1 Types of Dyes Used for Textiles Finishing Dyes are used for dyeing and printing of textiles. While tyrian purple and lac dyes are obtained from animal sources. The residue of these dyes can be safely used as fertilizer in the fields. Some of these dyes such as azo are very harmful for human health and their use has been banned. prints or designs. These also give a brighter and larger colour range. never. disperse. vat and reactive dyes. Dyes are divided into two major categories – natural and synthetic dyes. We usually distinguish one fabric from another by its colour. (routine / special) (iv) If the colour does not bleed on washing. Major natural dyes obtained from plants are turmeric (haldi). woven in colourful designs. (renewable / durable). Khakhi dye comes from a mineral source. even the very thought is unwelcome. These dyes cause a lot of pollution and skin allergies etc. you will find fabric in all tints and shades of colours. it means fabric is ____________ _________. These are eco-friendly and do not pollute water or land. In the market. Popular classes of synthetic dyes are – direct. madder (manjishta) and indigo (neel). print and texture.Fabric Finishes MODULE . But the process of dyeing with natural dyes is slow. acid.

etc. pleats and gathers.e.1 (popular term used in textile dyeing) on fibres after spinning into yarns. but sewing threads. are also available in various colours. The two most popular techniques of 198 HOME SCIENCE . especially when they have to be sold as such. it is called decorative or resist dyeing. (iii) Fabric Stage – Most of the dyeing in the textile industry is done at this stage. The term resist dyeing is used because in these techniques. Since a garment is dyed. (iv) Garment Dyeing – Sometimes dyeing is done at this stage i. which are colourful. open one pleat or seam. But the colour may not be uniform.2 Application of Dyes In the market. Notes Fig. Colour matching becomes easier at this stage. If you have a garment which has been dyed just now. When the process of dyeing is carried out in a selective way to get different designs. after the garments have been stitched. 11. yarn or at fabric stage. This is also known as piece dyeing. we find it is not only fabrics. 11.5. Knitting yarns and all types of threads – sewing.2 Fig. the process of dyeing is carried out on textiles at the fibre. knitting yarns and cords. Different stages at which textiles are dyed include – (i) Fibre Stage – Though all types of fibres can be dyed at this stage. embroidery. some resist materials (threads. It gives uniform dyeing and it is colourfast. and fabrics are dyed in one solid colour. there is no fabric wastage. yarns or wax) are used on specific areas to prevent them from being dyed. This method is also suitable for dyeing blended fabric.5. especially around seams. Therefore. are dyed at this stage. crocheting.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes 11. (ii) Yarn Stage – Colour can be applied or rendered Fig. Blends are made by mixing two fibres together and then made into a yarn and fabric.3 Decorative Dyeing You already know about simple dyeing. It gives uniform colouring.3 11. etc. 11. You will find that fabric inside the seam will be lighter or darker depending on the time and exposure of fabric to the dyeing medium. A number of beautiful designs can be created in this manner. the method is more popular for dyeing man made fibres.MODULE . There is a lot of wastage of coloured fibres during subsequent processing.

5 : Binding c) Knotting : Put knots on the fabrics wherever desired and dye it. table cloth or bed sheets) from one point and tie with a thread at intervals and dye it. Roll the fabric from one corner to the diagonally opposite corner and tie at regular intervals to get diagonal lines.11. Fig. Pleat and fold it uniformly in lengthwise direction. Tie it with a thread at different areas.11. HOME SCIENCE Fig. For horizontal lines.11. Then dye the fabric. to get widthwise lines after dyeing.11.6: Knotting d) Folding : Put the fabric flat on a table. There are many ways in which you can create designs using tie and dye technique. Fig. The dyed fabric will have a marble effect. Tying of the fabric is done according to the design to be made. Open it and dry.Fabric Finishes MODULE . These are – a) Marbling: Take the fabric and crumble it to form a ball. pleat and fold the fabric widthwise. Fig.7 Folding 199 . Tie it with a yarn at regular intervals.4 : Marbling Notes b) Binding: Pick up the fabric (Duptatta. threads are used as a resist material to stop the dye from entering the selected areas of the fabric. randomly.1 Home Science in Daily Life decorative or resist dyeing are – (i) Tie and Dye (ii) Batik (i) Tie and Dye In tie and dye.

ACTIVITY 11. On selected areas of the fabric. She was happy also because her saree was much cheaper than her friend Nidhi’s saree. Discuss the following: – – – What could be the reasons for Nidhi’s saree being more expensive? How can you differentiate between a genuine and a fake piece of tie and dye? Could the place of production and/or sale outlet also influence the price of Dipti’s saree? (ii) Batik Batik is also a method of resist dyeing. Both are usually dyed in two or more dyes by resist dyeing techniques. Here. woven fabric is tied and dyed to have innumerable dots and lines (laheria -wavy pattern) in Bandhni. Fold the fabric and put pegs at regular interval.MODULE . She proudly exhibited her possession to everybody at home and she also bragged that it is so inexpensive. 11.8 Tritik Tied and Dyed Fabrics Patola fabrics of Gujarat and bandhani of Rajasthan are two famous traditional textiles of India made by tie and dye technique.4 Dipti was happy as she was finally able to buy a saree with beautiful tie and dye design on it. Notes f) Tritik : Make a design of your choice on the fabric with running stitch. a mixture of Bees’ wax and paraffin wax is filled with a brush or a block. wax is used as a resist material to prevent the dye from colouring certain areas.9 200 HOME SCIENCE . However her mother asked her to think about the possible reason for her saree being priced so low. On the other hand. according to Fig. But there is a difference between the stages at which they are tied and dyed. In Patola the yarn is tied and dyed according to the design before weaving and are then woven to form intricate multi-coloured designs.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes e) Peg Tying: You can also use cloth pegs or clamps as resist materials. pull the thread tightly and tie it.11. Fig.

HOME SCIENCE 201 . Here a wooden block. which has a design engraved on it. Popular methods or techniques of printing are – Block printing Screen printing Roller printing Stencil printing Block printing and batik are two traditional Sanganer in Rajasthan (near Jaipur) is printing methods.Fabric Finishes MODULE . The stamp is first pressed into an ink pad and then onto the letter or parcel. 11. Here. is pressed into a thick dye paste and then stamped onto the fabric. You already know that dyeing is the process of colouring the fabric.4 Printing Let’s us see and understand how printing of fabrics is carried out? Keep two fabrics side by side. one a red coloured fabric and the other a fabric having red print. we will learn the details famous for Block Printing. Shantinektan in West Bengal is known for Batik. Printing is also a process of colouring the fabric but here colour is applied only in selected areas. Observe the difference between the two carefully. These areas do not get coloured when dyed giving a patterned effect. Take any vegetable like ladies’ finger or onion or gourd (torai). of only one type of printing i. The wax is later removed. yarn or at fabric stage but printing is done only on the fabric surface. Though both the fabrics have red colour. Block Printing. This is also known as selective dyeing. Block printing is similar to this. Do not worry if you do not have a wooden block. This clearly shows the difference between dyeing and printing.1 Home Science in Daily Life the design. to create designs which decorate the fabric surface. The major difference between dyeing and printing is that dyeing is carried out in fibre.5. Fig.10 You can follow the same procedure for printing at home using easily available objects in place of a blocks. but the dyed fabric is red all over while in the printed one. only certain areas are of red colour. Notes Block Printing Have you ever gone to a post office and observed letters or parcels being stamped. 11.e.

MODULE . (man-made/synthetic) (iv) Tie and dye is _________________ dyeing.11 ACTIVITY 11. Fill in the blanks : (i) Vegetables and animal dyes are known as ______________. Even bowl. glasses leaves and flowers can also be used for printing. (natural/animal) (iii) Fibre dyeing is more popular in _____________ fibres.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes cut and use it as a block. onion and a few leaves to be used as blocks.3 1. Pour fabric paints in a small flat container. (bolck/ roller) 202 HOME SCIENCE .(natural/ artificial) (ii) Tyrian purple dye is obtained from _____________ source. You can make different designs with the same block by changing its placement. INTEXT QUESTIONS 11. 11. Dip your home made blocks in paint and press them on the fabrics. Notes Fig.4 To make a block printed article at home. (resist/discharge) (v) At home fabric can be decorated easily by ____________ printing. Spread a 10// x 10// fabric on a flat and padded surface. take a few pieces of ladies’ finger.

followed by statements. Also known as wet finishes. VI. The first one is done for you. II. CROSS WORDS V. stiff and crisp. WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNT For your convenience. Fill the word in the grid at its respective number. V. I. I. Look at the grid given below.Fabric Finishes MODULE . The answer to each statement is in a single word. It makes cotton fabrics easy to maintain. It is one of the tie and dye technique. IV. It is a chemical treatment given to a fibre. yarn or fabric to remove yellowing. VI. here are the main points of the lesson:Textile Finishes -Meaning -Importance in relation to textiles -Classification of finishes on the basis of theirBasic functions Degree of performance Nature (wet and dry) Basic finishes:i) Scouring ii) Bleaching iii) Starching iv) Calendering Special finishes:i) Pre-shrinking ii) Mercerization iii) Parchmentisation iv) Wash ‘n’ wear v) Dyeing and printing • Natural and synthetic dyes • Stages of dye application • Decorative dyeing • Printing HOME SCIENCE 203 . B L E A C H I N G Notes IV.1 Home Science in Daily Life 2. III. III. II. It makes fabric heavier. The term used for fabrics that come directly from loom.

shiny and strong.2 1. What do you understand from it? What are the other methods of dyeing textiles? 8. soaking the fabric overnight and drying it causes shinkage. You have just brought a shirt that has a label “Piece dyed”. What is a textile finish? Why is it necessary to apply on fabric? Notes 2. ANSWERS TO INTEXT QUESTIONS 11. Describe batik and block printing. 2. i) True. The sewing thread Ritu brought had the label mercerized? Give the advantages of ‘mercerization’ and explain the process of mercerization to Ritu. 4.1 Home Science in Daily Life Fabric Finishes TERMINAL EXERCISE 1. this is due to a permanent finish called Parchmentisation.1 i) Finishes iv) Wet finish 11. Strong bleach can damage the fabric to some extent.3 1. How does a gray fabric differ from a finished fabric? 3. “Dyeing is finishing with colour”. 7. ii) Gray goods v) Wash ‘N’Wear iii) Chemical finish vi) Binding HOME SCIENCE ii) Gray v) Functional iii) Dyeing and printing i) Durable ii) Sanforised iii) Special iv) Colourfast iii) Man-made . 6. 11. mercerization makes cotton smooth. It destroys the colour. Describe any two basic finishes and their application. Bleaching has to be done very carefully. iii) True. iv) True.MODULE . scouring is washing fabric with soap and chemicals to remove all impurities ii) False. 5. Differentiate between natural and synthetic dyes. Explain. 2 i) Natural dyes iv) Resist i) Bleaching iv) Starch 204 ii) Animal v) Block. v) True.

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