CCM – Valutazione Integrata di Impatto Ambientale e Sanitario “Metodi per la valutazione integrata dell'impatto ambientale e sanitario (VIIAS

) dell'inquinamento atmosferico” Roma, 19 Aprile 2012

Valutazione del verde urbano come potenziale mitigatore dell’inquinamento atmosferico

Prof. Fausto Manes
Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma

“Valutare a livello locale gli effetti positivi/negativi del verde urbano”
Unità Operativa 6 Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma Referente Prof. Fausto Manes Compiti Effettuare la valutazione del verde urbano e sua funzione di potenziale mitigazione dell’inquinamento atmosferico (ozono e PM) per la città di Roma.


Valutare a livello locale l’influenza del verde urbano (effetti positivi e effetti negativi) sull'inquinamento atmosferico (UO 6) Indicatore (g m-2) di rimozione di ozono e di PM, da parte delle principali tipologie vegetazionali presenti in un’area verde (ville storiche) della città di Roma, in anni caratterizzati da differenti condizioni climatiche (2003-2004).

Indicatore/i di risultato

Valutazione economica del servizio ecosistemico svolto dal verde urbano. Indicazioni gestionali del verde per gli stakeholders. Conduzione del corso di formazione in tecniche VIIAS

Standard di risultato

Documento tecnico Pubblicazioni nazionali e internazionali

Biodiversity, Global Change, human health and well being

The complex web of factors affecting human health and well-being, biodiversity and ecosystems. Changes in land use through land degradation, and climate change, are the most prominent factors. Perturbation of ‘ecosystem goods and services’ is just one part of this bigger picture (Modified from Thuiller, 2007).

Urban “sociecosystem” and environmental alterations

Framework showing urban socioecosystem (lower right) as a driver of (upward arrows) and responder to (downward and horizontal arrows) environmental change. Land change to build cities and support their populations drives local to global alterations of biogeochemical cycles, climate, hydrosystems, and biodiversity. Large local environmental changes are greater than those that filter down from global environmental change (horizontal black arrow). Not all possible interactions and drivers are shown (Modified from Grimm et al., 2008).

Urban green in Europe

Rome: The public urban green covers more than 20% of the Municipality surface

(Qualità dell’ambiente Urbano. V Rapporto Annuale ISPRA, 2008)

Urban green space coverage in Europe. Points representing cities are coloured according to proportional coverage by urban green space within the city. Country polygons are coloured according to per capita green space provision for its urban inhabitants. Data unavailable for countries shaded grey. (From: Fuller and Gaston, 2009)

Benefits and uses of urban forests and trees

(adapted from Tyrväinen, 1999)

Ecosystem Services
“The conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, urban green, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfil human life” (Daily, 1997) ‘‘The benefits people obtain from ecosystems” (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005)

Ecosystem-services framework based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (From Pataki et al., 2011)

Urban Systems and Ecosystem Services
As ecosystem services are by definition addressed to human well-being, it is of paramount importance to quantify their overall performance, stability, and value in cities where human population density is highest (Dearborn and Kark 2009).

Urban ecosystems generating local and direct services (from the case study of Stockholm). (From Bolund and Hunhammar, 1999).

Soil – plant – atmosphere relations and interactions with atmospheric pollutants
Photosynthesis CO2 O2 NOx, SO2, Tropospheric ozone (O3) Heavy metals, Particulate matter (PM) Phloem, Photosynthates Xilem, H2O + nutrients H2O Transpiration CO2 + H2O Dark respiration O2 Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC)

CO2 + H2O Root respiration O2 (g) Organic compounds CO2 + H2O Mineralization

H2O + nutrients H2O + O2 (g)

O2 + exudates

Modified from: Schnoor et al., 1995

Reactions of ozone with plants can be classified as three types (Mudd, 1996):

-reactions in the solid phase (i.e., with cuticular components of leaves); -reactions in the gas phase (i.e., reactions with hydrocarbons emitted by plants); - reactions in the liquid phase that require dissolution of ozone in aqueous media, followed by reaction with lipids, proteins or other cellular components

(Manes et al., 2001 – Physiologia Plantarum)

BVOC emission from urban forest species
Main tree species of urban forestry in Rome with their emission trait (adapted from Calfapietra et al. 2009 and Steinbrecher et al., 2009).
Species Acer sp. Cupressus sempervirens Eucalyptus sp. Juniperus sp. Laurus nobilis Olea europea Quercus pubescens Quercus cerris Quercus ilex Quercus suber Pinus pinea Pinus halepensis Platanus x acerifolia Robinia pseudoacacia Tilia cordata Ulmus minor Isoprene Emission * * High * * * High * * * * * Medium Medium * * Monoterpene Emission Low * Medium Low * * * * High Medium Medium Low * * * *

Emission rates for the different species are listed as: * cells: emission rates absent or considered negligible (below 1 µg g-1 h-1), Low: emission rates ranging from 1 to 3 µg g-1 h-1; Medium: emission rates ranging from 3 to 20 µg g-1 h-1; High: emission rates above 20 µg g-1 h-1 Monoterpene emission includes both the monoterpene synthesis emission (light and temperature dependent) and the monoterpene pool emission (temperature dependent).

Biogenic Organic Volatile Compounds (BVOCs)

BVOCs implications in the ozone cycle: (1) NO2 + h! " NO + O# (2) O2 + O# " O3 (3) NO + O3 "NO2+O2 (4) RO2 + NO " RO + NO2

Percentage composition of BVOCs emissions for some Mediterranean species (Street et al., 1997 – Atmospheric Environment).

Tropospheric ozone: formation and destruction cycle

O3 and PM10 pollution in Europe
Map of mean PM10 annual concentrations (µg m-3) for the year 2005, derived from spatial interpolation of the values measured from rural and urban monitoring stations. The limit value is 50 µg m-3. Map of the SOMO35 values (O3 sanitary risk indicator, µg m-3) for the year 2005, derived from the spatial interpolation of the values measured from rural and urban monitoring stations. From: European Environmental Agency, Technical Report No 1/2009

SOMO35: sum of maximum 8-hour ozone levels over 35 ppb (70 µg/m3). It is a measure of accumulated annual ozone concentrations used as an indicator of health hazards (overall long-

Metropolitan area of Rome
Land cover map of the Rome metropolitan area, based on LANDSAT sensor (1 cell = 30 x 30 m)

(Manes et al., 2012 – Ecological Applications, 22(1): 349 -360)

Main vegetation leaf-types in the Municipality of Rome
For physiological modeling purposes, the woody vegetation within the Municipality borders can be divided into three categories, based on leaf type:
• Evergreen broadleaves (2120 ha) • Deciduous broadleaves (3477 ha) • Coniferous (1601 ha)

The area covered by each vegetation leaf type was calculated by GIS

Evergreen broadleaves (Quercus ilex prevalent) Deciduous broadleaves (Quercus spp prevalent) Conifers (Pinus pinea prevalent)
(Manes et al., 2012 – Ecological Applications, 22(1): 349 -360)

Detail: Villa Ada Urban Park

Surface of Villa Ada: 116.37 ha

Evergreen broadleaves Deciduous broadleaves Conifers

Climate and O3 concentrations in the city of Rome (2003 - 2004)

Climograms and O3 concentrations (daylight means) recorded in the Municipality of Rome, years 2003-2004.
(From: Manes et al., 2012 – Ecological Applications, 22(1): 349 -360)

Potential O3 stomatal flux in a Quercus ilex canopy (Castelporziano Estate, Rome, year 2003)

Potential ozone stomatal fluxes (FO3, nmolO3 m!2 leaf s!1) and ozone concentrations (ppb) calculated and measured, respectively, at two levels inside the canopy ("FO3 top; FO3 bottom; # [O3] top; $ [O3] bottom) in the Q. ilex forest of the Castelporizano estate (“Lo Scopone” site). High values of FO3 were reached after the drought period (October), when ozone concentrations showed low values.
(From: Manes et al., 2007 - Environmental and Experimental Botany 5: 235-241)

Modelling the uptake of air pollutants by urban vegetation
Modelling O3 fluxes
Annual profiles of daily average stomatal conductance for the three main vegetation types can be simulated by using different type of models (e.g. DO3SE, MOCA-Flux), and then used to estimate O3 stomatal fluxes as a function of stomatal conductance


FO3s = gs



Where 0.613 is the ratio of water and O3 diffusion coefficents (Nobel, 1983)

Example: Stomatal flux of O3 (2003 – 2004), simulated by using MOCA-Flux model (Manes et al., 2012)

Time series of daily average stomatal conductance and stomatal O3 uptake by the tree functional groups in Rome’s municipality in 2003 and 2004
(From: Manes et al., 2012 – Ecological Applications, 22(1): 349 -360)

Sanitary districts (ASLs) of the Rome Municipality Air quality monitoring stations

Francia Montezemolo

Libia Villa Ada Tiburtina Preneste Cinecittà

T. Cavaliere

Castel di Guido

Arenula Magna Grecia Fermi vecchia

Air quality monitoring stations, period 2003-2004

(Geostatistical approach: Co-Kriging with NOx)
April 15 May 15 June 15

Examples of daily O3 maps: year 2003

July 15

August 15

September 15

Air quality stations Sanitary districts borders

April 15

(Geostatistical approach: Co-Kriging with NOx)
May 15 June 15

Examples of daily O3 maps: year 2004

July 15

August 15

September 15

Air quality stations Sanitary districts borders

Interfacing semi-empirical model with GIS
A system dynamic tool (the O3 flux model) simulates processes in TIME A GIS integrates information in SPACE

Integration of static spatial information in a dynamic system

O3 time series in each pixel

Daily O3 spatialization

Model simulation for each pixel: - input: O3 time series of the pixel - output: FO3 in the pixel

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 …. Day n

MOCA-flux model

Quantification of the O3 uptaken by urban vegetation of Rome


Vegetation map
Summer Summer

Spatial patterns of seasonal cumulated stomatal O3 fluxes to urban trees, in the years 2003 and 2004. Spring and summer 2003 (a and c, respectively), and spring and summer 2004 (b and d, respectively).
(From: Manes et al., 2012 – Ecological Applications, 22(1): 349 -360)

Examples of daily PM10 maps: year 2003
(Geostatistical approach: Kriging)
Winter 2003 Spring 2003

Daily average PM concentration
(mg m


< 10 10 - 20 20 - 30 30 - 40

Summer 2003

Fall 2003

40 - 50 50 - 60 60 - 70 70 - 80 80 - 90 90 - 100 100 - 110 110 - 120 120 - 130 130 - 140 140 - 150 Sanitary district borders Air quality stations

Modelling PM10 deposition
To calculate the PM10 removal by tree vegetation in Rome municipality, the equations reported by Nowak (1994) can be used:

Where: - Q is the pollutant amount removed by tree vegetation - F is the pollutant deposition flux - L is the total canopy cover in a given site, i.e. the LAI estimated by the ecophysiological Model, or derived from remote sensing measurements (e.g. MODIS), or from direct field measurements campaigns (LAI 2000 – PCA) - T is the reference time interval

LAI(t)=SLA · a · PNET(t-1)

The flux F can be calculated, following Nowak (1994) as well:

Where: - Vd is the dry deposition velocity of a given air pollutants - C is the pollutant concentration in air


OPC (Optical Particles Counter)
Principle of measurements of the OPCs: light scattering

Comparative studies between OPC’s and “traditional” (i.e. gravimetric) methods are avaliable

Major Motivations for Urban Biodiversity Conservation
Benefits to nature
- Preserve local biodiversity in an urbanizing environment and protect important populations or rare species; - Create stepping stones or corridors for natural populations; - Understand and facilitate responses to environmental changes; - Connect people with nature and provide environmental education; - Provide ecosystem services; - Fulfill ethical responsibilities;

Benefits to humans

- Improve human well-being.

(Modified from Dearborn and Kark, 2009)

Urban green: cost/benefits analysis
A study in 5 cities in the United States (McPherson, 2005): • Annual cost per tree: 13 - 65 $ • Benefits: 1.37 – 3.09 $ for each dollar spent in the urban forest management A study in Davis, California (Maco et al., 2003): • Net cost: 449353 $ • Benefits: 3.78 $ for each dollar spent in the urban forest management A study in the Netherlands (Maas et al., 2006): • In areas where 90% of the environment around the home is green, only 10.2% of the residents feel unhealthy, as compared with areas in which 10% of the environment is green, where 15.5% of the residents feel unhealthy. Our study in Rome (HEREPLUS Project; Manes et al., 2012): • Based on published unitary costs of externalities, and of mortality associated with O3, it has been estimated that ecosystem service of O3 removal from the Rome urban forest can be prudentially valued to roughly $2 and $3 million/yr, respectively.

A framework for analyzing the use of urban forests for pollution mitigation
(action, intensity) Context, scale, and heterogeneity determine whether a particular end product of an ecosystem is a service or disservice and informs management Humans manage, actively or not, their ecosystem structure, this yields ecosystem functions

Ecosystem Structure:
Main vegetation types

Urban Forest Heterogeneity
(historical Villas, street trees, urban parks)

Ecophysiological behaviour

Ecosystem Function:

Multitemporal and spatial scale

Context, scale, and heterogeneity determine whether a particular end product of an ecosystem is a service or disservice

Ecosystem Services/Disservices
(social, economic, political)


O3 and PM10 removal
(Adapted from Escobedo et al., 2011)

BVOC, allergies

Thank you for your attention!
Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome Laboratory of Functional Ecology: Fausto Manes Elisabetta Salvatori Lina Fusaro Valerio Silli Gina Galante Gigliola Puppi Carlo Ricotta

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