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Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208

A late Messinian brackish water ostracod fauna of Paratethyan aspect

from Le Vicenne Basin (Abruzzi, central Apennines, Italy)
E. Gliozzi *
Centro di Studio per il Quaternario e l’Evoluzione Ambientale, C.N.R., c=o Dip. Scienze della Terra,
Università degli Studi di Roma ‘La Sapienza’, P. le A. Moro, 5-00185 Roma, Italy
Received 28 March 1996; revised version received 27 January 1997; accepted 30 November 1998


In the lower portion of the sedimentary succession of the Le Vicenne Basin (Abruzzi, central Italy) 8 m of siltitic clays
crop out, which bear a rich ostracod association in which the following fourteen taxa have been collected: Candona (Camp-
tocypria) cf. C. (C.) venusta (Zalányi), Candona (Camptocypria) sp., Leptocythere idonea Mandelstam, Markova, Rozyeva
and Stepanajtys, Leptocythere multituberculata (Livental), Leptocythere palimpsesta (Livental), Leptocythere propinqua
(Livental), Euxinocythere (Maeotocythere) praebaquana (Livental), Tyrrhenocythere pontica (Livental), Tyrrhenocythere
ruggierii Devoto, Cyprideis agrigentina Decima, Cyprideis aff. C. tuberculata (Méhes), Loxoconcha eichwaldi Livental,
Loxoconcha sp. and Loxoconcha cf. L. ludica Olteanu. The composition of the ostracod fauna shows a remarkable
Paratethyan influence (ten species out of twelve are characteristic of the Paratethys domain and, among those, Leptocythere
multituberculata, Leptocythere idonea and Loxoconcha cf. L. ludica are recorded for the first time in Italy). On the basis of
comparison with similar ostracod assemblages found in the Mediterranean Basin (Spain, Corsica, France, Greece), the Le
Vicenne association has been referred to the Loxoconcha djaffarovi Zone (Carbonnel, 1978), correlated with the uppermost
Messinian. During this time-interval the Mediterranean Basin was characterized by several isolated shallow water brackish
basins which reproduced the environmental conditions existing in the Paratethyan domain during the Neogene. The
existence of these widespread brackish water-bodies favoured the westward migration of the Paratethyan ostracod faunas
and their colonization of the Western Tethys domain.  1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: lacustrine; ostracods; late Messinian; Lago-Mare; palaeobiogeography; systematics

1. Introduction the Messinian (Carbonnel, 1978). In this time-inter-

val the Mediterranean Basin underwent a peculiar
The ostracod fauna coming from the Le Vicenne palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental setting,
Basin (Abruzzi, central Apennines) is characterized which cancelled for a few hundred thousand years
by a strong Paratethyan component as it was al- the geographical and environmental barriers between
ready evidenced by Devoto (1967). This compo- Paratethys and Western Tethys and favoured the
nent is known to become prevalent in the whole westward migration of some shallow water ostracods
Western Tethys ostracod assemblages at the end of pertaining to the Paratethyan bioprovince.
Ostracod assemblages with Paratethyan affinities
Ł Tel.:C39 06 4456634; Fax: C39 06 4468632; E-mail: were distributed in the whole Mediterranean Basin at

0031-0182/99/$ – see front matter  1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 3 1 - 0 1 8 2 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 2 3 - 1
192 E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208
E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208 193

the end of the Miocene (Krstic and Stancheva, 1990) luscs and ostracods; (3) at the top, the succession
but have been scarcely studied in detail: in Italy is closed by poorly rounded conglomerates with
systematical studies dealing with this biofacies have fragmentary marine molluscs heteropic with fine-
been undertaken only by Grékoff and Molinari, 1963 grained calcarenites and limestones bearing small
and Devoto (1967, 1968, 1969) and in the Western globigerinids (Fig. 1C).
Tethys particularly by Carbonnel (1978) (see Gliozzi The geometry of the deposits, which uncon-
et al., in press, for details and references). In the formably overlie the deformed Meso–Cainozoic sub-
present paper, the taxonomy and the autoecology of stratum, is referable to an open syncline with an E–
the ostracod fauna collected at the Le Vicenne Basin W axis, probably due to a light compressional defor-
(Abruzzi, central Apennines, Italy) are discussed as mation during the orogenic event which affected
well as its geographical and chronostratigraphical the whole Marsica region during the Messinian
distribution. Since the majority of the collected taxa Lago-Mare=early Pliocene. This setting, together
are characteristic of the Paratethyan bioprovince, it with regional data concur to define the Le Vicenne
has been necessary to refer their chronostratigraphi- Basin as a thrust-top basin (Cipollari et al., 1999a).
cal distribution to the chronostratigraphy of the dif- The ostracods studied in the present paper have
ferent Paratethyan domains (i.e. Central Paratethys been recovered from eight samples collected at every
with the Dacic Basin, and Eastern Paratethys with metre from the sandy–clayey intercalations in the
the Euxine and Caspian basins) (Fig. 1A). Updated basal portion of the well rounded conglomerates of
Paratethyan chronostratigraphies and correlation at- the Le Vicenne section.
tempts between the different basins can be found in
the papers of Archambault-Guezou (1976), Feijfar
and Heinrich (1986), Marinescu (1995), Papaianopol 3. The Paratethyan-influenced Lago-Mare
and Marinescu (1995), Popov (1996), Popov et al. ostracod biofacies
(1996), and Nosovskiy (1996).
The detailed systematic study reported in Ap-
pendix A indicates that the assemblage collected
2. Geological setting at Le Vicenne is definitely Paratethyan-influenced:
ten species out of twelve (C. cf. C. (C.) venusta,
The Le Vicenne succession is located in the L. idonea, L. multituberculata, L. palimpsesta, L.
homonymous basin in the Marsica sector (Abruzzi) propinqua, E. (M.) praebaquana, T. pontica, T. rug-
of the central Apennines (Fig. 1B). It crops out not gierii, L. eichwaldi, and L. cf. L. ludica) are well
continuously for about 400 m along the N–S rim known in the Paratethyan domain where they are
of an escarpment and the strata gently dip towards recorded mainly from the Pontian (C. (C.) venusta
SSW. The section has a total thickness of about and L. eichwaldi from the Pannonian) to the Dacian
50 m (see Cipollari et al., 1999a). From the base (except for L. eichwaldi which is limited to the Pon-
to the top, it consists of: (1) well cemented poly- tian and L. palimpsesta, L. multituberculata and L.
genic conglomerates with arenaceous reddish ma- propinqua which are still living in the Caspian Sea);
trix, characterized by low textural maturity; (2) well one species (C. agrigentina) is characteristic of the
rounded clast conglomerates, with intercalations of Mediterranean domain and is widespread in all the
siltitic–clayey levels bearing oligo–mesohaline mol- Western Tethys during the Lago-Mare event (Van

Fig. 1. (A) Structural sketch map of the circum-Mediterranean orogenic belt with the uppermost Messinian–Lower Pliocene extension
of the Paratethyan basins (dashed areas) and with the location of the sites quoted in the text. Legend: a D Vera Basin; b D DSDP Site
372 (Leg 42A); c D St. Ferréol, les Anlavaux (Rhone Basin); d D Aléria Basin; e D Belforte, Roccastrada; f D Castell’Arquato, Casa
Giovanni Bello; g D Cura di Vetralla; h D Formignano; i D Maccarone; j D Le Vicenne; k D C. Ciucco; l D Roccacaramanico; m D
Eraclea Minoa; n D Mt. Medvenica; o D Corfou; p D Obrevoc; q D Pejnovic; r D Strimon Basin; s D Karhetiana; t D Prahova district;
u D Kos; v D DSDP Site 375 (Leg 42A); w D DSDP Site 376 (Leg 42A); x D Samsun. (B) Structural sketch map of central Italy with
the location of Le Vicenne Basin. (C) Stratigraphical log of the Le Vicenne succession with the location of the analysed samples.
194 E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208

Harten, 1990); one species (C. aff. C. tuberculata) is, data, with the Early Pliocene transgressive event
up to now, recorded only in Italy, and, therefore, it (Cipollari et al., 1999b); so it seems reasonable, also
seems to be an endemic Italian form. from a geological point of view, to correlate the
It is important to emphasize that the presence of lower portion of the Le Vicenne succession bearing
L. idonea at Le Vicenne represents the first record of the Paratethyan-influenced ostracofauna with the up-
this species in Italy, while L. multituberculata and L. permost Messinian. Thus, the Le Vicenne ostracod
cf. L. ludica are registered for the first time both in assemblage represents a further record of the oc-
Italy and in the Western Tethys. currence of the Loxoconcha djaffarovi Zone in the
Paratethyan-influenced ostracod assemblages Italian Peninsula.
similar to the one recognized at Le Vicenne have The relevance of the Paratethyan-influenced fau-
been reported in the Western Tethys by Carbon- nas in the Western Tethys (Palaeo-Mediterranean)
nel (1978) which stresses their potential biostrati- domain has already been underlined by several au-
graphical value. Re-defining the Loxoconcha djaf- thors (Grékoff and Molinari, 1963; Devoto, 1967;
farovi Zone created by Sissingh (1972, 1976) on the Benson, 1976, 1984; Carbonnel, 1978). From a
Karhetiana Section (Crete, Greece) (s in Fig. 1A), palaeogeographical point of view it emphasizes a
Carbonnel correlates it with the top of the plank- unique moment of the history of the Mediterranean
tonic foraminiferal zone N17=base of the N18, Basin (late Messinian) during which a temporary
that corresponds to the very end of the Messinian, isolation from the Atlantic Ocean, following the
on the base of micropalaeontological analyses of closure of the Betic and Rif straits, occurred (Wei-
several Mediterranean sections in the Vera Basin jermars, 1988). Subsequently the Messinian salin-
(Spain) (a in Fig. 1A), Aléria Basin (Corsica) (d in ity crisis event (Hsü et al., 1977), the hyper-
Fig. 1A), Rhone Basin (St. Ferréol, les Anlavaux) (c haline Palaeo-Mediterranean waters were diluted
in Fig. 1A) and in Italy [Castell’Arquato (Emilia) (f to oligo–mesohaline conditions by an intensive
in Fig. 1A), Maccarone (Marche) (i in Fig. 1A), C. runoff (McCulloch and De Deckker, 1989) linked
Ciucco (Abruzzi) (k in Fig. 1A)]. to more humid global climatic conditions and this
To these well dated sections, it is possible to fact caused the break-off of the ecological bar-
add some other Italian localities where Loxoconcha rier which, until that moment, had prevented the
djaffarovi has been recorded together with a few penetration in the Palaeo-Mediterranean of ostra-
other species pertaining to the typical assemblage of cods of the Paratethyan bioprovince via the con-
the Loxoconcha djaffarovi Zone: several localities in nection at present located in correspondence with
Tuscany (Bossio et al., 1993, 1996) and in Abruzzi the Marmara Sea. As a consequence of the salin-
(Patacca et al., 1991). All these localities are re- ity crisis, the autochthonous Palaeo-Mediterranean
ferred, on the basis of the geological setting, to the ostracofaunas were severely impoverished (Benson,
post-evaporitic Messinian, therefore confirming the 1976) (more than 40% turnover in marine species
chronostratigraphic position of the Loxoconcha djaf- from the Messinian to the Pliocene, Benson, 1984),
farovi Zone proposed by Carbonnel (1978) (Fig. 2). and the Paratethyan contingent became predominant
The ostracod association collected at Le Vicenne in the Palaeo-Mediterranean ostracod assemblages of
lacks L. djaffarovi, but ten species out of the fourteen the uppermost Messinian also if it was represented
collected forms (C. (C.) venusta, Candona (Caspiol- only by few species in comparison with the potential
la) sp., E. (M.) praebaquana, L. propinqua, L. ido- of the Paratethyan bioprovince. Taking into account
nea, L. palimpsesta, T. pontica, T. ruggierii, L. eich- the Paratethyan guests recognized at Le Vicenne in
waldi and Loxoconcha sp.) belong to the assemblage the present paper, in Spain and France by Carbonnel
of the Loxoconcha djaffarovi Zone as re-described (1978) and in several other Palaeo-Mediterranean
by Carbonnel (1978). Moreover, the sedimentary localities (Gliozzi et al., in press; Cipollari et al.,
succession of the Le Vicenne Basin is characterized 1999b), the Paratethyan contingent can be evaluated
in the lower portion by a Lago-Mare biofacies and at around 25 species in comparison with the more
in the upper part by a marine biofacies (made up than 150 species which were living in the Dacic and
by small globigerinids), correlated, using regional Euxine basins during the late Pontian and the early
E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208 195

Fig. 2. Range chart of the ostracods collected at Le Vicenne with their distribution in the Western Tethys, in Italy, in the Western and
Central Paratethys and in the Eastern Paratethys. Asterisks indicate species still living in the Caspian Sea. Magnetostratigraphy from
Baksi (1993), nannoplankton zones from Martini (1971), planktic foraminiferal zones from Blow (1969) and Iaccarino (1985).

Dacian. It is possible to estimate the percentage of this eastern contamination cannot be defined as a
Paratethyan guests at around 16%. It is reasonable to relevant event from a biogeographical point of view,
think that this percentage will increase when more probably for the existence of minor palaeoecological
taxonomical studies on other uppermost Messinian barriers which could be understood only with a de-
deposits will be performed but not in such a way to tailed study on the autoecology of each Paratethyan
alter the present speculation. Nevertheless, although species, it represents a very important stratigraphical
196 E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208

marker which leads the recognition of the uppermost for their stratigraphical and=or palaeogeographical relevance be-
Messinian in the whole Mediterranean Basin. cause the Le Vicenne ostracod assemblages represent, up to the
present, perhaps the most diversified Lago-Mare ostracofauna of
All the specimens are stored in Gliozzi’s ostracod collec-
4. Conclusions tion (G.O.C. 18 and 19 at the C.S. Quaternario e Evoluzione
Ambientale, C.N.R., Roma).
The analysis of the ostracod assemblage collected
at Le Vicenne underlined the importance of ostracods A.2. Systematics
as a valuable tool for the stratigraphy and the palaeo-
Subclass Ostracoda Latrerelle, 1806
geographic reconstruction of the Palaeo-Mediter- Order Podocopida Muller, 1894
ranean area at the end of the Messinian. In fact, the Superfamily Cypridacea Baird, 1845
quasi-instantaneous migration of the Paratethyan os- Family Candonidae Kaufmann, 1900
tracod contingent in the Palaeo-Mediterranean, due Subfamily Candoninae Kaufmann, 1900
to its isolation from the Atlantic Ocean and to the Genus Candona Baird, 1845
Subgenus Camptocypria Zalanyi, 1929
subsequent global climatic oscillation towards more
humid conditions, seems to testify the only real Candona (Camptocypria) cf. C. (C.) venusta (Zalanyi, 1929)
connection between Parathetys and Western Tethys (Plate IIb)
since their separation occurred during the latest Bur-
1929 Stenocypris venusta Zalányi, pp. 72–73, text-figs. 33–34.
digalian (Hámor, 1988). 1963 Candona cf. venusta (Zalányi), Grekoff and Molinari, p. 2,
pl. 1, fig. 1.
1965 Stenocypris venusta Zalányi, Stancheva, p. 22, pl. 2, fig. 8.
1972 Candona (Caspiolla) venusta (Zalányi), Sokac, p. 47, pl.
20, figs. 7–13.
1976 Candona (Caspiolla) venusta (Zalányi), Hanganu and Pa-
I am grateful to N. Krstic for the useful dis- paianopol, p. 64, 65, 68, pl. 5, fig. 6.
cussions, to R. Whatley and J. Rodrı́guez Lázaro 1978 Caspiolla venusta (Zalányi), Carbonnel, p. 111, pl. 1, figs.
which revised the manuscript, improving it with pre- 13–14.
cious suggestions, and to L. Cabrera and Saez which 1980 Candona (Caspiolla) venusta (Zalányi), Freels, p. 51, pl.
7, figs. 7–10.
edited it carefully. Thanks to Mrs. L. Angeloni for 1986 Candona (Caspiolla) venusta (Zalányi), Olteanu, p. 57.
the technical support. S.E.M. photos were taken with 1992 Caspiolla venusta (Zalányi), Patacca et al., p. 426.
the Cambridge Stereoscan 250 and ORTEC System
Material. Le Vicenne sample 1 (LV1): 4 fragmentary adult and
5000 (Centro di Studio per il Quaternario e l’Evolu- juvenile valves; LV5: 1 decalcified carapace (for the location of
zione Ambientale, C.N.R.) with the help of Mr. A. the samples inside the Le Vicenne section, see Fig. 1C).
Mancini. Remarks. The collected valves are very fragmentary. Only two
of them are sufficiently complete to allow the depiction of
the outline that seems comparable to that of C. (C.) venusta
Appendix A. Systematics According to Krstic and Stancheva (1990) the subgenus Cas-
piolla Mandelstam, 1960 (new spelling of the genus Caspiella
A.1. Methodology Mandelstam, 1956), to which the species C. (C.) venusta was
previously referred, is preoccupied and must be replaced by
Clay–siltitic samples were disaggregated in a hydrogen per- Camptocypria Zalanyi, 1929 following the informal opinion of
oxyde solution (20%), washed with current water using a 125 the International Zoological Nomenclature Commission.
µm mesh sieve and dried. About 100 g of each dried sieved Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. Hanganu
sample were observed under the stereomicroscope (6–50 ð) and Papaianopol (1976) signal the species C. (C.) venusta in the
and ostracods were hand-picked, measured and determined. Pho- late Pontian and in the Dacian (both Getian and Parscovian) of
tographs were made with a Cambridge Stereoscan 250 and the Prahova district (Dacic Basin) (t in Fig. 1A), while Olteanu
ORTEC System 5000. The frequencies of each species have been (1986) records C. (C.) venusta from the late Pannonian to Pon-
obtained by counting the number of valves recovered in each 100 tian of the Dacic Basin. The species occurs also in the Pontian
g sample analysed. Some species are represented by very few of Mt. Medvednica (Croatia) (n in Fig. 1A) (Sokac, 1972) and in
valves, sometimes only by one, particularly the Leptocytheridae. the late Pontian of Obrebovoc and Pejinovic (Serbia) (p and q in
Also these species were determined, in some cases with doubt, Fig. 1A) (Zalanyi, 1929). Stancheva (1965a) records it from the
E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208 197

middle Pontian of Bulgaria and Freels (1980) reports this species Material. LV6: 1 adult right valve; length 0.52 mm; height 0.25
from the Late Miocene of Samsun (Turkey, southern border of mm.
the Euxinic Basin) (x in Fig. 1A). Remarks. The single valve collected at Le Vicenne has been
In the western Tethys Carbonnel (1978) signals the species in referred to L. (A.) idonea on the basis of the comparison with the
the late Messinian of France (Rhone Basin) (c in Fig. 1A) and specimen figured in Carbonnel, 1978.
Spain (Vera Basin) (a in Fig. 1A). Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. L. idonea
In Italy, C. (C.) venusta has been recovered from the late is known from the Pliocene of Turkmenistan (Caspian Basin)
Messinian of Maccarone (Marche) (i in Fig. 1A) and Roc- (Mandelstam et al., 1962). In the western Tethys Carbonnel
cacaramanico (Abruzzi) (l in Fig. 1A) (Carbonnel, 1978; Patacca (1978) records this species from the latest Messinian of Corsica
et al., 1991) and from the surroundings of Cura di Vetralla (Aléria Basin) (d in Fig. 1A), Spain (Vera Basin) (a in Fig. 1A)
(Latium) (g in Fig. 1A) (Gliozzi, unpubl. data), while it is doubt- and France (Rhone Basin) (c in Fig. 1A). The specimen collected
fully recorded by Grékoff and Molinari (1963) from the latest at Le Vicenne is the first record of this species in Italy.
Messinian of Castell’Arquato (Emilia) (f in Fig. 1A).
Leptocythere multituberculata (Livental, 1929) (Plate IIa)
Candona (Camptocypria) sp. 1929 Cythere multituberculata Livental, p. 14, pl. 1, figs. 36–38.
Material. LV1: 10 fragmentary adult and juvenile valves; LV5: 3 1962 Leptocythere multituberculata (Livental), Mandelstam et
fragmentary juvenile valves; LV6: 1 juvenile valve. al., p. 299, pl. 37, fig. 6.
Remarks. Several fragmentary adult and juvenile valves, refer- 1965 Leptocythere multituberculata (Livental), Stancheva, p.
able to Candona (Camtocypria), were recovered in three levels 24–25, pl. 1, fig. 3.
of the Le Vicenne section. The material does not allow any 1969 Leptocythere ? multituberculata (Livental), Gramann, p.
specific attribution also if it is possible to recognise a certain 498, pl. 34, fig. 12.
similarity with the specimen pictured by Carbonnel (1978, pl. 1, 1972 Leptocythere multituberculata (Livental), Sokac, p. 71, pl.
fig. 15), referred by him to Caspiolla sp. 1. 32, figs. 14–15 (cum syn.).
Abundant valves of a Candona (Camptocypria) very similar 1975 Leptocythere (Amnicythere?) multituberculata (Liv.),
to those of Le Vicenne have been recovered in Italy in the late Krstic, p. 216, pl. 3, fig. 15.
1986 Leptocythere multituberculata (Livental), Papaianopol and
Messinian of Cura di Vetralla (Latium) (g in Fig. 1A) (Gliozzi,
Olteanu, pp. 76, 79–80, pl. 5, fig. 1.
unpublished data).
1986 Leptocythere multituberculata (Livental), Olteanu, p. 58.
1995 Amnicythere multituberculata (Livental), Olteanu, p. 290,
Superfamily Cytheracea Baird, 1850
pl. 16, figs. 1–8.
Family Leptocytheridae Hanai, 1957
Genus Leptocythere Sars, 1925 Material. LV5: 1 adult left valve and 1 instar; length 0.84 mm;
height 0.40 mm.
All the following Leptocytheridae are referred, by several Remarks. Only two valves referable to the genus Leptocythere
authors such as Hanganu and Papaianopol (1976), Carbonnel have been identified as L. multituberculata on the basis of the
(1978), and Olteanu (1986, 1995), to the genus Amnicythere comparisons with the specimens figured by Olteanu, 1995.
Devoto, 1965 created as a subgenus of Leptocythere on the Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. The
basis of peculiar differences in the external ornamentation of species is known in the Paratethys from the Pontian of the
the carapace, in the hinge structure and in the marginal pore Caspian Basin (Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Caucasus) (Mandel-
canal pattern, and subsequently raised at the rank of genus by stam et al., 1962), from the early Pontian of the Pannonic Basin
Stancheva (1968) and accepted by the majority of the East- (Olteanu, 1995), from the late Pontian to the Dacian (particu-
ern European palaeontologists. On the contrary, Whatley and larly in the early Dacian) of the Dacic Basin [Romania (Olteanu,
Maybury (1981) do not accept as valid the genus Amnicythere. 1995; Papaianopol and Olteanu, 1986) and Bulgaria (Stancheva,
According to them, in fact, this genus is questioned because in 1965b)] and from the Pontian of Croatia (Sokac, 1972) and
its diagnosis Devoto emphasizes the importance of the secondary Serbia (Krstic, 1975).
reticulate ornamentation which, actually, is observable also in L. multituberculata is herein recovered for the first time for
true Leptocythere species. In this paper the more general attri- both Italy and Western Tethys. Gramann (1969) records it from
bution to genus Leptocythere is retained waiting for a general the Choumnikon Beds (Pontian) of the Strimon Basin (eastern
systematic review of the Paratethyan Leptocytheridae. Macedonia) (r in Fig. 1A).
Ecology and palaeoecology. L. multituberculata is still living in
Leptocythere idonea Mandelstam, Markova, Rozyeva and the Caspian Sea (Gofman, 1966 in Sokac, 1972) from 10 to 800
Stepanajtys, 1962 (Plate Ia) m (but with maximum frequency above 100 m), in waters with
salinities between 11.5 and 13.5‰. It seems to prefer muddy
1962 Leptocythere idonea Mandelstam, Markova, Rozyeva and
1978 Amnicythere idonea (Mandelstam, Markova, Rozyeva and
Leptocythere palimpsesta (Livental, 1929) (Plate Ie–f)
Stepanajtys), Carbonnel, p. 112, pl. 1, fig. 18; pl. 2, figs.
4–5. 1929 Cythere palimpsesta Livental, p. 15, pl. 1, figs. 3–4.
198 E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208


(a) Leptocythere (Amnicythere) idonea, right valve in external view (LV5).

(b) Euxinocythere (Maeotocythere) praebaquana, right valve in external view (LV5).
(c) Leptocythere (Amnicythere) propinqua, right valve in external view (LV5).
(d) Loxoconcha eichwaldi, right valve in external view (LV1).
(e–f) Leptocythere (Amnicythere) palimpsesta, right valve in (e) external.
(f) internal views (LV5).
(g) Loxoconcha cf. L. ludica, right valve in external view (LV6).
(h) Loxoconcha sp., right valve in external view (LV3).

1929 Cythere andrusovi Livental, p. 16, pl. 1, figs. 6–7. 1965 Leptocythere palimpsesta (Livental), Stancheva, pp. 23–
1929 Cythere picturata Livental, p. 16, pl. 1, fig. 5. 24, pl. 3, fig. 3.
1929 Cythere saljanica Livental, p. 17, pl. 1, figs. 8–10. 1971 Leptocythere palimpsesta (Livental), Krstic, p. 397.
1962 Leptocythere palimpsesta (Livental), Mandelstam et al., 1972 Leptocythere palimpsesta (Livental), Sokac, p. 69, pl. 32,
pp. 196–197, pl. 31, figs. 3–4. fig. 3.
1963 Leptocythere? lacunosa (Reuss), Grekoff and Molinari, p. 1975 Leptocythere (Amnicythere) palimpsesta (Livental), Krstic,
3, text-fig. 1, pl. 2, figs. 3–4. p. 215, pl. 2, figs. 4–6.
E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208 199

1976 Amnicythere palimpsesta (Livental), Hanganu and Papa- Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. In the
ianopol, text-fig. 2. Paratethys the species is recorded from the Pliocene and Pleis-
1978 Amnicythere palimpsesta (Livental), Carbonnel, pp. 112– tocene of Turkmenistan (Mandelstam et al., 1962), from the
113, pl. 2, fig. 14. Parscovian of the Dacic Basin (Olteanu, 1995) and from the
1995 Amnicythere palimpsesta (Livental), Olteanu, p. 291, pl. Pontian of Mt. Medvednica (Croatia) (n in Fig. 1A) (Sokac,
18, figs. 8–9. 1972).
In the western Tethys Carbonnel (1978) has shown its pres-
Material. LV1: 1 adult left valve; LV2: 1 adult carapace; LV4: ence in the latest Messinian of Corsica (Aléria Basin) (d in
2 adult right valves and 1 juvenile right valve; LV6: 2 adult Fig. 1A) and of Italy, in the sediments outcropping at C. Ciucco
carapaces, 1 adult left valve and 1 juvenile left valve; length (Abruzzi) (k in Fig. 1A).
0.54–0.57 mm; height 0.30–0.32 mm. Ecology and palaeoecology. L. propinqua lives at present in the
Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. The Caspian Sea where it can be found most frequently between 10
species is known from the Pontian and the Plio–Pleistocene and 15 m (but also down to 100 m) and under salinity conditions
of the Caspian Basin (Azerbaijan, Caucasus and Turk- from 7.5 to 13.5‰ (with an optimum around 12–12.5‰). It
menistan)(Mandelstam et al., 1962), from the Pontian (and spo- seems to prefer silty–sandy bottoms.
radically from the Getian) of the Dacic Basin (Olteanu, 1995; On the coast of the Pahlavi Lagoon (Iran), Yassini and
Stancheva, 1965b) and from the Pontian of Mt. Medvednica Ghahremann (1976) report the presence of L. cymbula in the
(Croatia) (n in Fig. 1A) (Sokac, 1972). channels connecting the lagoon with the Caspian Sea, in waters
In the western Tethys L. palimpsesta is recorded from the with salinities between 4 and 6‰.
latest Messinian of Corsica (Aléria Basin) (d in Fig. 1A), France
(Rhone Basin) (c in Fig. 1A) and Italy [C. Ciucco (Abruzzi) (k in Genus Euxinocythere Stancheva, 1968
Fig. 1A), Castell’Arquato and Casa Giovanni Bello (Emilia) (f in Subgenus Maeotocythere Stancheva, 1968
Fig. 1A)] (Grékoff and Molinari, 1963; Krstic, 1971; Carbonnel,
Euxinocythere (Maeotocythere) praebaquana (Livental) Suzin,
Ecology and palaeoecology. L. palimpsesta is still living in
1956 (Plate Ib)
the Caspian Sea (Gofman, 1966) from 25 to 180 m of depth,
spanning a salinity range of 12.50–13.50‰ and a temperature 1956 Leptocythere praebaquana (Livental) Suzin, p. 88, pl. 2,
range around 10–14ºC; it prefers silty, sandy or coarse substrate figs. 19–21.
(Gofman, 1966); 1956 Leptocythere praebacuana Livental (sic), Agalarova, p.
105, pl. 11, fig. 31a.
Leptocythere propinqua (Livental, 1929) (Plate Ic) 1963 Callistocythere ex gr. bendovanica (Livental), Grekoff and
Molinari, p. 4, pl. 1, figs. 6–8.
1929 Cythere propinqua Livental, p. 20, pl. 1, figs. 21–22. 1967 Leptocythere praebacuana (Livental) (sic), Agalarova, p.
1962 Leptocythere propinqua (Livental), Mandelstam et al., p. 100, pl. 12, figs. 1–7.
201, pl. 31, fig. 18. 1971 Leptocythere (Amnicythere) praebaquana (Livental),
1972 Leptocythere cymbula (Livental), Sokac, p. 69, pl. 32, figs. Krstic, p. 397.
7–9. 1975 Leptocythere? (Maeotocythere) praebaquana (Liv. in Ag.
1978 Amnicythere propinqua (Livental), Carbonnel, p. 113, pl. et al.), Krstic, p. 218, pl. 2, figs. 7–8.
2, fig. 1. 1977 Leptocythere praebaquana (Livental), Krstic, p. 397
1995 Amnicythere propinqua (Livental), Olteanu, p. 298, pl. 24, 1978 Maeotocythere praebaquana (Livental), Carbonnel, pp.
figs. 1, 3, 6; pl. 36, fig. 12. 113–114, pl. 2, figs. 2–3.
1991 Amnicythere praebaquana (Livental), Patacca et al., p. 424
Material. LV5: 1 adult right valve; length 0.48 mm; height 0.29
1995 Amnicythere praebacuana (Livental) (sic), Olteanu, p. 290,
pl. 16, fig. 2.
Remarks. Leptocythere propinqua was considered synonymous
with Leptocythere cymbula (Livental) by Schornikov (1966) and Material. LV5: 1 right adult valve; length 0.34 mm; height 0.18
by Sokac (1972), but these authors gave the priority to the mm.
latter name. According to the International Code of Zoologi- Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. In the
cal Nomenclature (I.C.N.Z.) the name propinqua should have Paratethys E. (M.) praebaquana is recorded from the
priority over the name cymbula, having been described firstly Kimmerian–Pontian of the Caspian Basin (Agalarova, 1956,
by Livental (1929) (respectively at pp. 20 and 21). However, 1967), from the Pontian–Getian of the Dacic Basin (Olteanu,
Agalarova et al. (1961) consider the taxon cymbula as a variety 1995) and from the Pontian (Portaferrian) of the Pannonian
of Leptocythere propinqua, and, more recently, these two species Basin (Krstic, 1971).
have been considered as valid, independent taxa (Yassini and In the western Tethys this species has been collected from the
Ghahremann, 1976; Carbonnel, 1978; Olteanu, 1995). According latest Messinian of Corsica (Aléria Basin) (d in Fig. 1A), Spain
to Olteanu (1995) L. propinqua shows slight morphological dif- (Vera Basin) (a in Fig. 1A), France (Rhone Basin) (c in Fig. 1A)
ferences in comparison with L. cymbula in the hinge structure and Italy [Castell’Arquato and Casa Giovanni Bello (Emilia) (f
and in the marginal pore canals. in Fig. 1A); C. Ciucco (Abruzzi) (k in Fig. 1A)] (Krstic, 1971;
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E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208 201

Carbonnel, 1978) and from the post Messinian salinity crisis of some specimens collected from the Messinian of Roccastrada
deposits of Roccacaramanico (Abruzzi) (l in Fig. 1A) (Patacca et (Tuscany, central Italy). Olteanu and Vekua (1989) showed that T.
al., 1991). pontica is represented by two morphotypes probably linked with
the decrease of salinity: the ‘Tyrrhenocythere’ morphotype, with
Family Hemicytheridae Puri, 1953 fasciculated marginal pore canals and the ‘Hemicytheria’ mor-
Subfamily Hemicytherinae Puri, 1953 photype with straight and simple radial pore canals, which occur
Genus Tyrrhenocythere Ruggieri, 1955 in the adult stages only under unstable ecological conditions.
Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. In the
Tyrrhenocythere pontica (Livental) in Agalarova et al., 1961 Paratethys domain T. pontica occurs from the Portaferrian (middle
(Plate IIc–l; Plate IIId) Pontian) to the Getian (early Dacian) of the Caspian Basin (Azer-
baijan), of the Euxinic Basin (south Ukraine and Kerch Penin-
1961 Cythereis pontica Livental in Agalarova et al. sula) and of the Dacic Basin (Romania and Bulgaria) (Krstic,
1967 Hemicytheria pontica (Livental), Devoto, p. 35. 1977). Gramann (1969) reports this species (as T. cf. pignatti)
1969 Tyrrhenocythere ballesioi Carbonnel, pp. 154–156, pl. 13, from the Pontian of the Chouchmnikon Beds (Strimon Basin, east-
figs. 11–13. ern Macedonia) (r in Fig. 1A) and Guernet et al. (1976) signal it
1969 Tyrrhenocythere cf. pignatti Ruggieri, Gramann, pp. 501– from the latest Miocene or Early Pliocene of the island of Kos
503, pl. 36, figs. 6–7. (the Dodecanese, Greece) (u in Fig. 1A). Besides, it is signalled as
1976 Tyrrhenocythere ballesioi Carbonnel, Guernet et al., p. 66, very frequent in the Quaternary of the Danube delta.
pl. 1, figs. 12–13. In the western Tethys the species is recorded from the latest
1977 Tyrrhenocythere pontica (Livental) in Agalarova et al., Messinian of Corsica (Aléria Basin) (d in Fig. 1A), France
Krstic, pp. 396, 400, pl. 2, figs. 1–2. (Rhone Basin) (c in Fig. 1A) (Carbonnel, 1978) and Italy [Casa
1978 Tyrrhenocythere pontica (Livental), Carbonnel, p. 116, pl. Giovanni Bello, Emilia (f in Fig. 1A) and Roccastrada, Tuscany
2, fig. 17. (g in Fig. 1A)] (Devoto, 1967; Krstic, 1977).
1982 Tyrrhenocythere pontica (Livental), Olteanu, pp. 53–54, Ecology and palaeoecology. The living species Tyrrhenocythere
pl. 6, figs. 1–2, pl. 8, figs. 24–25. amnicola (Sars) inhabits mesohaline waters (9–13‰) but also
1989 ‘Hemicytheria’ pontica (Livental), Olteanu and Vekua, p. tolerates low salinities, down to 1‰. Generally it is found at
69, text-figs. 6–8; pl. 2, figs. 1–4. depths ranging 0–30 m (Krstic, 1977). Tyrrhenocythere sicula
1989 ‘Tyrrhenocythere’ pontica (Livental), Olteanu and Vekua, (Brady), considered synonymous with T. amnicola by Krstic
p. 69, text-figs. 6–8, pl. 1, fig. 1, pl. 2, figs. 5–7. (1977), is reported from the Issyk-Kul’ Lake (Kazakhstan) rang-
1995 Tyrrhenocythere pontica (Livental), Olteanu, p. 301, pl. 25, ing between 0.75 and 50 m and more (Bronshtein, 1947) and
fig. 8. from the Caspian Sea down to 200 m (highest frequency above
30 m) and under salinity conditions of 12–13‰ [Yassini and
Material. LV1: 1 carapace, 4 adult left valves, 6 adult right
Ghahremann, 1976 as T. scitula (sic)].
valves, 61 instars; LV2: 1 adult right valve, 6 instars; LV3: 3
According to Krstic (1977) fossil forms of the genus
carapaces, 2 adult left valves, 6 instars; LV4: 1 adult left valve, 1
Tyrrhenocythere lived in shallow waters with an estimated salin-
instar; LV5: 3 carapaces, 1 adult left valve, 2 adult right valves,
ity of 5–15‰.
39 instars; LV6: 1 adult left valve, 12 instars; LV7: 1 carapace;
length 0.79–0.89 mm; height 0.48–0.54 mm.
Remarks. Devoto (1967) referred Livental’s species to the genus Tyrrhenocythere ruggierii Devoto, 1967 (Plate IIIa–c)
Hemicytheria Pokorny, 1955 on the basis of the morphologically 1967 Tyrrhenocythere ruggierii Devoto, pp. 31–35, text-figs.
simple and straight (instead of fasciculated) radial pore canals 5–8.
1968 Tyrrhenocythere ruggierii Devoto, Devoto, p. 403.
1969 Tyrrhenocythere ruggierii Devoto, Devoto, p. 20.
1969 Tyrrhenocythere cf. ruggierii Devoto, Gramann, p. 503,
PLATE II pl. 36, fig. 8.
1978 Tyrrhenocythere ruggierii Devoto, Carbonnel, p. 116, pl.
(a) Leptocythere (Amnicythere) multituberculata, left valve 2, fig. 18.
in external view (LV5). ?1982 Tyrrhenocythere aff. ruggierii Devoto, Olteanu, p. 54, pl.
(b) Candona (Camptocypria) venusta, fragmentary left valve 1, figs. 1–6.
in external view (LV1).
(c–l) Tyrrhenocythere pontica. Material. LV1: 1 adult left valve, 1 adult right valve; LV2: 2
(c) Left juvenile valve in external view (LV1). adult right valves, 1 adult left valve; LV3: 1 carapace; LV5: 1
(d–e) Right valves in external view (LV5 and LV1). carapace, 1 adult right valve, 1 adult left valve, 9 instars; LV7: 1
(f) Left valve in external view (LV1). adult left valve, 1 adult right valve; length 0.86–0.89 mm; height
(g) Carapace in dorsal view (LV3). 0.54 mm.
(h) Left valve in external view (LV2). Remarks. According to Krstic (1977), T. ruggierii is probably
(i) Right valve in internal view (LV1). synonymous with T. truncata (Schneider) and, under this name,
(l) Left valve in internal view (LV1). she gives a wide distribution from the Caspian Basin to Western
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E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208 203

Tethys. This interpretation is not accepted by Carbonnel (1978) Material. LV1: 1 carapace, 3 adult left valves, 1 right valve,
and Olteanu (1982) who consider it as a valid species. 8 instars; LV3: 1 adult left valve, 3 instars; LV4: 2 adult left
Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. Tyrrheno- valves; 2 instars; LV5: 2 carapaces, 1 adult right valve; 1 adult
cythere ruggierii has been collected from the latest Messinian left valve, 1 instar; length 0.96 mm, height 0.57 mm (female);
of Spain (Vera Basin) (a in Fig. 1A), Corsica (Aléria Basin) (d length 0.95 mm, height 0.51 mm (male).
in Fig. 1A) and Italy [Le Vicenne (j in Fig. 1A) and C. Ciucco Remarks. This species is represented by juvenile and adult
(k in Fig. 1A) (Abruzzi)] (Devoto, 1967, 1968, 1969; Carbon- valves. The specific attribution of Cyprideis species is gener-
nel, 1978). Gramann (1969) reports a doubtful record of this ally difficult when specimens are not very abundant because
species from the Chouchmnikon Beds of the Strimon Basin (r in diagnostic characteristics can be often detected only on a sta-
Fig. 1A) in eastern Macedonia (Pontian age). The sole records tistical basis (Decima, 1964). Nevertheless, the comparison of
from the Paratethys is that of Olteanu (1982) who reports T. aff. several characteristics such as the high outline, the weak me-
ruggierii from the mid and late Pontian of the Dacic Basin. dian sulcus, the feebly punctate valve surface, the dimensions of
Ecology and palaeoecology. See ‘Ecology and palaeoecology’ of the female valves and the number of the marginal pore canals
T. pontica. correspond to those described by Decima (1964) for Cyprideis
pannonica var. agrigentina. According to Krstic (1968a,b), the
Family Cytherideidae Sars, 1925 species C. pannonica does not extend westwards into the Tethys
Subfamily Cytherideinae Sars, 1925 and Decima’s specimens must be attributed to a phylogenetically
Genus Cyprideis Jones, 1857 near but not identical different species. Van Harten (1990) men-
tions the species C. agrigentina as a typical ubiquitous form for
the Messinian Lago-Mare facies of the Western Tethys.
Cyprideis agrigentina Decima, 1964 (Plate IIIe–h; Plate IVa–
Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. C. agri-
c; e)
gentina is recorded in the Western Tethys from the latest
1964 Cyprideis pannonica agrigentina Decima, p. 108, pl. 6, Messinian of Eraclea Minoa (Sicily) (m in Fig. 1A) (Decima,
figs. 4a–8b, pl. 7, figs. 1a–10, pl. 8, figs. 1a–2, pl. 14, 1964), of Le Vicenne (Abruzzi) (j in Fig. 1A) (Devoto, 1967,
figs. 16–21. 1968, 1969) and, doubtfully from the latest Messinian of France
1967 Cyprideis pannonica cf. agrigentina Decima, Devoto, p. (Rhone Basin (c in Fig. 1A) (Carbonnel, 1969). It is widespread
30. in the Messinian of the western and eastern Mediterranean from
1968 Cyprideis cf. pannonica agrigentina Decima, Gramann, DSDP Site 372 (Algero–Provençal Basin) (b in Fig. 1A) and
p. 508, pl. 35, figs. 6–7. DSDP sites 375–376 (Florence rise, west of Cyprus) of Leg 42A
1968 Cyprideis pannonica cf. agrigentina Decima, Devoto, p. (v,w in Fig. 1A) (Benson, 1978; De Deckker et al., 1988) and in
403. the Late Messinian of Corfou (o in Fig. 1A) (Vismara Shilling et
1969 Cyprideis pannonica cf. agrigentina Decima, Devoto, p. al., 1976).
20. Gramann (1969) reports this species from the Pontian (very
?1969 Cyprideis torosa (Jones), Carbonnel, p. 78, pl. 12, figs. abundant) and Maotian (rare) of the Strimon Basin (eastern
14–15. Macedonia, Greece) (r in Fig. 1A).
1976 Cyprideis agrigentina Decima, Vismara Shilling et al., p. Ecology and palaeoecology. The genus Cyprideis is a typical
291, text-figs. 11.12–11.15. brackish dweller with a wide salinity tolerance. It is defined
1978 Cyprideis pannonica Méhes, Benson, p. 778, pl. 2, figs. by Van Harten (1990) as ‘anomalohaline’ because also if it is
4–8. generally found in marine-derived waters, it can inhabit waters
1988 Cyprideis agrigentina Decima, De Deckker et al., p. 354. with aberrant alkaline water composition.
1990 Cyprideis agrigentina Decima, van Harten, p. 196. The present living Cyprideis torosa Jones can survive in
extremely varied salinity conditions which range from 0.4 to
150‰ (Neale, 1988), but it is more typical of oligo–mesohaline
PLATE III Following Benson (1978), Cyprideis is a littoral genus which
inhabits shallow waters, probably not deeper than 50 m. This
(a–c) Tyrrhenocythere ruggierii. figure is accepted also by Van Harten (1990), particularly for C.
(a) Left valve in external view (LV7). agrigentina.
(b) Right valve in external view (LV7).
(c) Left valve in internal view (LV2). Cyprideis aff. C. tuberculata (Méhes, 1908) (Plate IVd–h)
(d) Tyrrhenocythere pontica, right valve in internal view
(LV1). 1964 Cyprideis tuberculata tuberculata (Méhes), Decima, p.
(e–h) Cyprideis agrigentina. 125 (partim), pl. 27, figs. 1–6e, pl. 37, figs. 8–9.
(e) Left valve in external view (LV1). 1967 Cyprideis tuberculata (Méhes), Devoto, p. 30.
(f) Left valve in internal view (LV5). 1968 Cyprideis tuberculata (Méhes), Devoto, p. 402.
(g) Right valve in internal view (LV5). 1968b Cyprideis cf. tuberculata (Méhes), Krstic, p. 154.
(h) Right valve in external view (LV1). 1969 Cyprideis tuberculata (Méhes), Devoto, p. 20–21
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E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208 205

Material. LV1: 4 adult valves, 3 instars; LV3: 1 adult right 1961 Loäoconcha bairdyi Müll., Agalarova et al., pl. 89, figs.
valve; LV4: 1 instar; LV5: 2 adult right valves, 5 instars; LV6: 1 2a–b (fide Krstic, 1972).
carapace, 1 adult right valve, 2 instars; length 0.85 mm; height 1967 Loxoconcha eichwaldii Livental, Sokac, pl. 4, fig. 6.
0.44 mm. 1972 Loxoconcha (Loxoconcha) cf. eichwaldii Livental, Krstic,
Remarks. Some Cyprideis valves, characterized by a punctate p. 248, pl. 7, figs. 4–5.
to almost reticulate surface, ellipsoid outline and a remarkable 1978 Loxoconcha eichwaldii Livental, Carbonnel, p. 114, pl. 1,
median sulcus, are clearly distinguishable from those of C. agri- fig. 4.
gentina and are comparable with those figured by Decima (1964)
from the late Messinian of Formignano (Romagna). Decima re- Material. LV1: 12 adult valves, 4 instars; LV2: 1 adult valve, 1
ferred these specimens to C. tuberculata tuberculata (Méhes) instar; LV3: 1 adult valve, 2 instars; LV4: 1 adult valve; LV5:
but, according to Krstic (1968a,b) they are not identifiable with 7 adult valves, 15 instars; LV6: 1 adult valve, 2 instars; length
certainty as belonging to that species and, more probably, are 0.57–0.73 mm; height 0.39–0.48 mm.
related to a different form, near to C. tuberculata. The scarcity of Remarks. Following the articles 25–28 and Appendix D (III)
specimens collected at Le Vicenne does not permit a taxonomical of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature the name
revision, so these valves are generically referred to Cyprideys aff. eichwaldii must be emended into eichwaldi (Kempf, 1980, 1991;
C. tuberculata (Méhes). International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1985).
Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. Cyprideis According to Krstic (1972) L. eichwaldi is a true Loxoconcha
aff. C. tuberculata has been recorded only in Italy. In addition referable to the rhomboidea group.
to Le Vicenne (j in Fig. 1A) it is recorded from the latest Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. In the
Messinian of Formignano (Romagna) (h in Fig. 1A) (Decima, Paratethyan domain, the species is widespread in the Pliocene
1964) and from the ‘Messinian’ of Belforte (Tuscany) (e in of Azerbaijan (Caspian Basin), in the Pontian of Azerbaijan,
Fig. 1A) (Devoto, 1967, 1968). Turkmenistan, Crimea, Caucasus and Moldavia (Agalarova et al.,
1961), in the Pannonian and Pontian of Serbia (Krstic, 1972) and
in the Pontian of Bosnia (Sokac, 1967).
Cyprideis sp. (instars) In the Tethyan domain, L. eichwaldi is reported from the
Material. LV1: 11 instars; LV2: 4 instars; LV7: 1 instar; LV8: 2 latest Messinian of Corsica (Aléria Basin) (d in Fig. 1A), of
instars. France (Rhone Basin) (c in Fig. 1A) and of Italy (Maccarone,
Remarks. Several juvenile valves are referable to the genus Marche) (i in Fig. 1A) (Carbonnel, 1978).
Cyprideis, but no specific attribution is possible. Ecology and palaeoecology. The genus Loxoconcha comprises,
at the present day, numerous species inhabiting mesohaline to
euhaline waters worldwide. Some of them are stenohaline and
Family Loxoconchidae Sars, 1925
limited to the marine littoral environment (Loxoconcha multifora
Subfamily Loxoconchinae Sars, 1925
(Norman): 25–35‰; Loxoconcha batei Bate and Gurney: around
Genus Loxoconcha Sars, 1866
50‰) (Neale, 1988), while others are euryhaline such as L.
rhomboidea (Fischer), which can tolerate salinities from 7 to
Loxoconcha eichwaldi Livental, 1929 (Plate Id) >30‰ and L. elliptica (Brady) (0.5–30‰) (Wagner, 1957).
1929 Loxoconcha eichwaldii Livental, p. 34, pl. 1, figs. 42–43.
1961 Loäoconcha eichwaldii Liv., Agalarova et al., p. 141, pl. Loxoconcha sp. (Plate Ih)
79, figs. 4a–b.
1978 Loxoconcha kochi Méhes, Carbonnel, p. 114, pl. 1, figs. 5,

Material. LV1: 1 carapace; LV3: 2 adult valves; LV5: 1 adult

PLATE IV valve; length 0.53–0.57 mm; height 0.32–0.33 mm
Remarks. The specimens collected at Le Vicenne are comparable
(a–c) Cyprideis agrigentina. to those figured by Carbonnel (1978, pl. 1, figs. 5, 9–10) as
(a) Right juvenile valve in external view (LV1). Loxoconcha kochi Méhes, but not with the holotype of this
(b) Muscle scars of a right valve, inside view (LV5). species figured by Méhes (1908, pl. 9, figs. 5–9) or to the
(c) Carapace in dorsal view (LV1). specimens of L. kochi illustred by Krstic (1972, pl. 1, fig. 9 and
(d) Cyprideis aff. C. tuberculata, right valve in dorsal view pl. 5, fig. 4). The specimens of Le Vicenne differ from L. kochi
(LV1). for the lacking of the median depression which, in the holotype,
(e) Cyprideis agrigentina, left juvenile valve in external view divides the anterior and posterior surfaces of the male valve, that
(LV1). are slightly inflated.
(f–h) Cyprideis aff. C. tuberculata. The scarcity of the material from Le Vicenne does not allow
(f) Right valve in internal view (LV1). any specific attribution.
(g) Right valve in external view (LV1). Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. In the
(h) Muscle scars of a right valve (detail of (f)), inside view Tethyan domain Carbonnel (1978) reports this form from the
(LV1). latest Messinian of Spain (Vera Basin) (a in Fig. 1A), Corsica
206 E. Gliozzi / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 151 (1999) 191–208

(Aléria Basin) (d in Fig. 1A) and France (Rhone Basin) (c in Bronshtein, Z.S., 1947. Fauna SSSR, Rakoobraznye, Tom II,
Fig. 1A). Vyp. 1, Ostracoda Presnykh Vod. Academy of Sciences of the
USSR, Moscow. (English transl. Russian Translation Series
Loxoconcha cf. L. ludica Olteanu, 1989 (Plate Ig) 64, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1988, 470 pp.)
Carbonnel, G., 1969. Les Ostracodes du Miocène rho-
1989 Loxoconcha ludica Olteanu, p. 165, pl. 27, figs. 1–2. danien. Systematique, biostratigraphie écologique, paléobiolo-
1995 Loxoconcha ludica Olteanu, Olteanu, p. 307, pl. 30, figs. gie. Thèse Doc. Lab. Géol. Fac. Sci. Lyon 32 (1–2), 469
Material. LV6: 2 adult valves; length 0.63 mm; height 0.38 mm. pp.
Remarks. Two valves of Loxoconcha are doubtfully referred to L. Carbonnel, G., 1978. La zone a Loxoconcha djaffarovi Schneider
ludica Olteanu on the basis of the comparisons with specimens (Ostracoda, Miocène supérieur) ou le Messinien de la vallée
figured by Olteanu (1989, 1995). du Rhône. Rev. Micropaleontol. 21 (3), 106–118.
Geographical and chronostratigraphical distribution. The Cipollari, P., Cosentino, D., Esu, D., Girotti, O., Gliozzi, E.,
species is known only from the Dacic Basin where is widespread Praturlon, A., 1999a. Thrust-top lacustrine–lagoonal basin
from the Portaferrian (middle Pontian) to the Parscovian (late development in accretionary wedges: late Messinian (Lago-
Dacian). Mare) episode in the central Apennines (Italy). Palaeogeogr.,
If confirmed, its recovery at Le Vicenne represents the first Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 151, 149–166 (this issue).
record of L. ludica in Italy and in the Tethyan domain. Cipollari, P., Cosentino, D., Gliozzi, E., 1999b. Extension-
and compression-related basins in central Italy during the
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