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v
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1

VOL. 4

APRIL 1975

EDITORS

DALSUKH MALVANSA
DR. H. C.

BHAYANI

L. D.

INSTITUTE OF INDOLOGY AHMEDABAD 9

CONTENTS
An
Alternative Interpretation

of

Patanjali's

Three Sutras on Is'vara

Nagin

J,

Shah
Candrananda by Abhinavagupta

Reference to Bhatta

Umakant PV Shah
The World of
J,

Literature Life according to the Jaina

C. Sikdar

Dialectic Vedic Origins of the Sankhya

Harsh Narain
/

The Treatment of Suspense (Katha-Rasa)


as

a Conscious Narrative Skill

in.

Dhanapala's Tilakamanjarl

N M. Kansara

PATANJALI'S THREE SUTRAS


Nagin
J.

AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION OF ON li?Wit


Shah

of Indian Philosophy our explanation of Pataftjali's three sutras on Isvara. While explaining these that are found in the sutras we shall use only those concepts Yogsutra. By

We

would

like to present before the scholars

doing so
later

we

intend to keep

concepts.

Let

us

take

our explanation as free as possible from the up the concerned satras one by one for

explanation.
[/]

kle'sa-karma-vipaka'sayair aparamrtfah purusavi'sesah

"i'svarahl

I.

24.

The extra-ordinary person who is untouched by vipaka and asaya is called Tsvara. I. 24.

klesas, karmas,

We

shall try to explain this sutra

on the basis of the concepts or ideas

found in other sutras.


Patafljali tells us that during the

practice

of

Samprajfflta yoga

if

one

does not desire

anything

(or

any

siddhi)

he surely attains

infallible

and

perfect vivekakhyati,

he attains Dharmamegha samadhi? further he says that on the attainment of Dharmamegha samadhi follows the destruction of klesas and karmas.* From this we deduce that a viveki who
as a result of this

and

has attained Dharmamegha samadhi

[Bhasyakara Vyasa

calls this

is always free from klesas and karmas. 3 person a jivanmukla ]


.

Patafijali states that klesas are the root- cause of karmnsaya*.

He

further

declares that so long as the root (viz.

klesas)

exists,

there will be vipnka. 5

These two statements imply that karmasaya and vipuka,

in the

absence

of klesas, there cannot be

On
klesas
free

the attainment of
as

and karmas; and

Dharmamegha samadhi a viveki becomes free from soon as he becomes free from klesas he becomes

from vipaka and

asaya.

From

all

this

it

naturally follows that a viveki

who

has attained Dharmamegha

samadhi

vipnka and oiaya. Hence


1

this viveki

by klesas, karmas, can legitimately be called extra-ordinary

is

untouched

pratisankhySne'py akusidasya sarvatha vivekakhyater dharmarneghasamadhih/


Yogasjitra, 4, 29
tatali klesa-karmanivrttih/ttW 4,30 klesa-karmanivrttau jivann eva vidvan vimuktp bhavaii klesamalali karmasayah . / Yogasutra 212.
.

2
3

Yogabhasya, 4.3Q

4
5
"

sati
"

mule tadvipakah

...

Ibid 2.13

Ihi4-l

2
person.

Nagin

J.

Shah
to

By

Isvara

Patafijall

seems

mean
this.

this

viveki*.

We

are not

warranted by the Yogasutra to go beyond


[2]

The next

sulra

is

tatra niraiiiayam

sarvajRahjam
is

I.

25
|

In this [=Tsvara\ there

infinite

(=>niratihya=ananta) jRSna

which
jffina.

is

the seed or

germ of all-comprehending (sarvajna)

1.25.

jRegarding ananta-jnana and sarvajna-jnana much confusion and misunderstanding prevails among scholars who wrongly identify ananta-jffirja with sarvajtia-jnana. This Sutra is very important as it removes the mist of misunderstanding and confusion. It clearly suggests that ananta-jiotna is not identical with sarvajna-jfivna.

We
in hand.

shall

have

to turn to other sutras for the clear

difference between the two as also

for

the

full

understanding of the explanation of the sutra

Pataftjali explicitly states that as

on the attainment
get completely

of

soon as klesas and karmas get destroyed


all

Dharmanegha samsdhi,

the

avarayas and malas

removed and

jmna
is

attains

its

infinity

(=anantya)

Thus

anmta-jKSna {or niratisaya-jmna) which is free from all Ananla-jmna


is

nothing

but

ninvarana-jmna
is

jnma

obscuring veils and impurities


Patafijali

ananta-jnana.
that all the objects

not samtfKa-Jiana.

taken together are al

who
is

compared to the anantya of jnnna of the person has attained Dharmamegha saaadhi.' What Patafijali wants to drive at that however infinite all the objects taken
together

says

as

can never coincide with the vast infinity of jmna. From what we studied above it follows that those who sav naturally ^ that jMh. i. infinite because it knows all ^ananla) things are committing blunder. Agarn, our study shows that does not want to Patanjali attach much importance to mrmjna-jmna. As we shall see, he considers it h * simply a Mdhi which a person who has attained flMj ,,?/-f uir, And we al, 4BOW aCq Patafijali ,

may

be, their infinitv

marmmegha
.ft<.;*i an be

and

./,

when vmkajnma becomes perfect ,at (perfect)

sanadhi marks the perfection of mvekajmnal So regarded as identical with ananta-jmna. When get removed the n ve kajm na becomes
there
is

^^^^ ^
M
a,J

perfect

automatical^ removal of
is

*,

An
Thus
jnana
is

alternative interpretation of

PatanjaWs three Sutras on Jhard


is

jhana

sanajna-jnana is vivekaja. Another taraka-jnana. Pataojali explicitly states that/sra/ca it in his treatment of siddhts, it becomes quite clear that he considers it to be simply a siddhi.

to say that niratisaya-JMna frnanta-jiatna) the same thing as to say that


is

the seed of sarvajna,

name

for sarvajna jnana

is

vlwkaja*.

As he has placed

Why
jmna
jmna.
?

is

there

sarvajna jnana does never automatically

anahta-jhana i. e . vivekajnana regarded as the seed of sarvajnd is a good reason for that. Patafljali wants to suggest that,
follow on
the attainment of ananta
acquires
as

As soon

one attains
all,

ananta- JtOlna

one

the

(=labdhi) to

know

but he does not actually

capacity
all
'

know

all.

He knows

provided he performs sathyama (dharana, dhyana and samadhi) on ksana and ksanakrama^. This means that the capacity to know all functions under' a If jnana were to become specific condition. automatically sarvajna on its becoming ananta, then ananta jRana would not have been regarded as the seed of sarvajna jnana; in that case it would have been regarded as identical With sarvajna-jMna. But this being not the case, ananta jnana is regarded as the seed of sarvajfia-jfiana.
>
.

On

the attainment of

Dhannamegha samadhi
and
as soon
as all

all

the Mesas and

karmas

get completely

destroyed,

the kJesas
all

and

karmas are
Veils

destroyed the jnana

becomes

ananta

because

the obscuring

and

impurities have already been destroyed.

The person who has

attained thii

ananta-jmna acquires the capacity to know all but this only if he performs a special type of samyama.
All this discussion clearly suggests that a vive/a

capacity functions'

who

has attained Dharmain the stitra in

megha samadhi is Isvara- and it is he who is described Thus Tsvara is not necessarily sarvajna; he becomes
he performs that sarhyama.
In other words,
but this capacity functions all, provided certain This capacity to know all is a siddhi which is the

hand

sarvajna

only when

he has the

capacity to know conditions are fulfilled


result of his attainment

of anantajfwna.

he

is

Thus he is invariably characterized not invariably characterized by sarvajfia-jnana. The next sutra is[3]
pttrvettm apt

by

ananta-jnnna

but

gumh

He [Isvara] is the persons because he


(a)

kalenanavacchedat/l. 26 spiritual teacher of


is

even
I.

the elderly

not limited by time.


is

26.

Here the

role of Tsvara as

(b)
.

The
verse

phrase 'purvesnm api

upadetfn suggested by. the term fguru'. gumh' reminds us of that well known

from

the Daksinnmurtistotra attributed to

'citram vafataror mule vrddhah si^yo

very
9,-.
;

common

in

viz. Ac. j^aftkara, "' gurur yuva' etc.' This idea is. Brahmanic, Buddhist and Jaina religions.

10

tarakam.sarvavijayam sarvathavisayam akrainam ceti vivekajam jnanam kjana-tatkramayoh samyamSd vivekajam jfiSnam / Ibid 3,52
'

Ibid 3.54 -,-

Nagin
c)

J.

Shah
a spiritual teacher of even the provided in the rewhich being in
Tsvara's

What

is

it

that qualifies

him

to be

elderly persons ?

The answer

to this question is

maining part of the


the
fifth

sutra, viz. 'kalenanavacchednt'

case-ending gives

the

reason

for

being

the

of spiritual teacher

even the elderly persons.

Let us try to understand the idea suggested by the term 'kaUnnnavaccheda the bails of another sutra. Patafijali states that for that person whose

detas and karmas are destroyed on the attainment of

Dharmamegha
infinity,

sainctdhl

ind as a result of this


to

whose jmna

has

attained
is,

its

gunas come

11 an end of the sequence of change.

That

imlriya, sanra, etc. for that person. for him. For him the cycle of birth

The
and

gunas stop evolving citta, of rebirth ends series of round death ceases. 12

He

rises

above
13

time.

Now

he

is

not limited by time.

He becomes
- 'As he

kalanavacchinna. Thus

we equate 'kslenSnavaccheda' wilh

'giin3nam parinamakramasamnptih' (IV.32).


is

Now

what

this sutra

means

this

[=7ivara]

risen above the cycle" of birth royed klesas and karmas] has is the spiritual teacher of even the elderly persons [who are

[having destand death, he

caught up in

the cycle],'

The

equation given above suggests that for Patafljali ksla

is

nothing but
is

parinsmakrama. Hence one who is untouched by parinUmakar ama or is not limited by Ma. ched by

untou-

Ma

Kalsnavaccheda or parinarnakrama-satnfipti
or vitarSgats.

Klesarahitya

is

has attained supreme


elderly persons.
It
is

spirituality
this

is the result of kleSarahitya nothing but supreme spirituality. So one who can be the spiritual teacher of even the

supreme
that

spirituality

suggested by kalttnavaccheda

or pariifimakmmasam'd.pti

qualifies

one to

be the spiritual teacher of

even the elderly persons. Only those

who have

crossed the ocean of samsard

can show

others

how

to cross

it.

Only those

who have stopped


1*

the cyclt

of birth and death can

show

others

On

our interpretation Jsvara

how to stop it. according to Patafljali

is

identical

wit!
th<

the oivekl

capacity to

who has attained Dharmamegha samndhi, ananta-jMna and know all and is free from the cycle of birth and death.
seen, this vtveto, according to Patafi jail, is free

A:

we have already
11

from

tatah IqrtirthSna'th parinamakramasamaptir

gunanam

Ibid, 4,32

12

kuklasya
nctarasya

[=dharmameghasamadhisampannasya
iti
/

vivekinah]

saihsaracakrasamapti

Yogabha?ya, 4,33
is

13

'gunSnSm parinSmakramasamapti'
takes place

different

from

-gunSnam

pratiprasava' whic

14

when the viveki's body falls. Compare 'upadelyopadesfrtvat tatsiddhih'


gurusisyabhsvairavanad jlvamnukta-siddhir
'Sptakalpas cSyara
4.1.21,
/

Sankhyasutra 3.79; ity atthah'

'festre?u

vivekavia)
3.7|

Smkhyapravacanabhasya

yatha pita apatySnarh tatha

pitrbhuta livaro bhntSnSm' -ffySvt

An

sntras on 't'svara alternative interpretation of Patatijali's three

5
that

karmas, vipnka and

n'saya.

Thus

by

Tsvara Patanjali seems to


again that

mean
we

We repeat calls jtvanmukta. person whom Vyasa warranted by the Togasutra to go beyond this.
ption

are not

Elsewhere15 we have shown that Nyayabhasyakara of Tsvara corresponds to that of fivanmukta

vivela,

Vatsyayana's conceand it is only

of the Padarthadharrnasangraha, who introduced in the Prasastapsda, the author the conception of Tsvara as nitya mukla. Similarly, Nyaya-Vaisesika system that of that conception of Tsvara is identical with

we

feel

Patafijali's

jivanmukta

vivela

and

it

is

only Bhasyaksia Vyasa who

introduced

in the

Yoga system

the conception of Tsvara as nitya mulct a.

The following presentation


[i]

recapitulates well

what we have said above.

ffcw-sB&f^w&wras: gwfttto

[=g?i sf&^i] sfscw.

15

g ee

N yaya,Vdtesika-darsanft mem

Isvara' Sambodhi Vol. 2. No, 4 (January 1947).

frag** J. Shah

[i.e.
[i.e.

produce
[i.e.

35:

A REFERENCE TO BHATT A CANDRANANDA BY ABHINAVAGUPTA


Umakant
Jambuvijayaji's Vrtti on the
P. Shah

Munr

edition,

for

the as

first

time, of

Candrananda's

Va.sesika-Sfltras,

published

G. O.

well-known.

The date of Candrananda was

Series, no. 136 is

now

not certain.

However

Journal of the Oriental Institute, Vol.

'

in the

XIX

Ashoka
th.ree

no, 4 (June 1970), pp

34Q_4j

Aklujkar published a note on "Candrananda's Date'' quoting passages from Helaraja's Commentary oq the Vakyapadiya. and thus

qf Candrapnda's date Ha probability a senior contemporary of Abhinavaguptai the famous philosopher and poetician unanimously assigned to tenth century A.D. by scholars."
It would, therefore, be Interesting to has also referred to Candrananda, in the

showing the tenth century as the lower limit also said that Helaraja was "in all

note here that

Abhinavagupta

Tsvarapratyabhijfia-Vivrti-Viraa-

Pandit Madhusudan Kzjul Shastri and published in Kashmir Series of Tex^s and Studies Vol. LX LXU and *LXV (1938,1941, 1943, respy.) This famous commentary was completed in Nov. 1014 A. D., which is arrived at by Pandit Kaul on the basis of the following hemistich occurring at the end of this work :

r%i,

edited in

three

volumes

by

Abhinavagupta
self in this

wrote

this

commentary

at the

fag-end of

his life

at

the imploration of his

commentary.

own younger brother Manoratha as shown by In this comm. on Utpalacarya's


etc.
.

him-

bhijna-Vivrti,

Abhinavagupta has himself quoted from many qf


is

Kyarapratyahis earlier

works

like

Abhinava-Bharati, Tantraloka

a mine of quotations from various authors and works Of these, Abhinava's most favourite source is Bhartrhari and his Vakyapai other works and authors mention Amongst diya. may be made of the Bhagavad-Gita (cited with reverence), Siya-JDrstj, Naregvara-Yjyeka, Pramana-Laksana, Ajadapramatrsiddhi, Sambandhasiddhi, Abhidharnjakp.sa
1.
,

This work

In support
(i)

of

Charudeva

yapad%ya and
Lahore, Vol,

its

contemporaneity of Helargja apd Abhinayagupta, Aklujjtar cited Shastri, "Bhartrhari a critical study with special reference to the Pakcommentaries, proceedings of the Fifth All India Oriental
Conference
,

1(1930),

p. 652-<S53,

and

(ii)

Subramia

Iyer
III,

K.
Part

A.,
I.

Bhartrafiari with the

commentary

of HelarSJa,

Kanda

VSkyapadfya of Deccan College

Monograph

Series, np. 21 (Poona, 1963), p. y\,

Umakant P, Shah
(the

Pmnranapanksa-

author of this work

is

referred to as Bhatta),

Snmat-

KSiapada-Sanihita,

Nyaya-sutras,

Yoga-satras,

Satarudriyam,

Siva-Sutra,

Sn SpandaSistra, Kaksya-Stotra, Advayopakramal,, Sn Kirana, Sn Mukutasamhtta, etc. avasiltra-samgraha, Vssanaprabodhasutra, name are Bhatta Divakaravatsa, Bhatta Sri
Amongst authors cited by Nsriyana (author of Stava-Cintamani),
Avadhatacaya,

Su Raur-

Mimsmsakagranih Bhattanayakah,
Bha^ta

Dharmottaropadhyaya, Acarya DharmoKallatapada, Divaone and the same Dharmottara ?), Bhatta ttara (these two may be Snmad Anantapadah, Snmad Bhatta kira, Sn Laksmana-gupla-guruh,

Bhart r ahari,

Vjranaga,

saAkaraaanda,

Bhatta

Sn

Munih Varahmihira,

Pradyumnapada, and others.

The author of
citing the verse

the

Mahimnastotra

is

referred

to as

Siddhapsdah while
Bhagavad-

3^;

q-,^
(

etc.

It is

interesting to note that the


"
>

Gita

is

called

sirf^ra^

cf- Part

P- 73 -)-

Commenting

on the verse

%&
after quoting

BROT. Rfar.^ "nfg^


etc,

inv

ii

from

Spandaksrika

Abhinava-gupta,

explains

as f^jfefifi

and

first

quotes Bhatta Sankarananda about

whom

Abhinava-

gupta writes

II"

About

v$t$n,
I

he

further

writes
ft

'^
:
I

^%
r

^
^T^

ffi f|

%%

^"5^

?raf

^s ^

^f
,

WT5i7cirr

cT^If

2-

isvarapratyabhiifiavivrtivimarsini,
Ibid p,

Vol.

II,

adhyaya

1,

vi. 5.

p. 199,

S.

200

THE WORLD OF

LIFE

ACCORDING TO THE JMNA LITERATURE


J

C. Sikdar

Biological Inter-relationship

glance the world of living substances (jivatiratyaa) as revealed works appears to be made up of a of bewildering variety 3 all quite different and each plants and animals going its separate at
first

At

in

the Jaina

its

own pace. A close study of them reveals, liDwever, that all organisms/ whether plant or animal, have the same basic needs for survival, the same problems of getting food* for energy, getting space to live", producing a new generation 1 and so on. In solving their problems, plants and animals
to live in

way

have evolved into a tremendous number of different forms 5

each addpted some particular sort of environment/' Each has become adapted not only to the physical envii eminent - has acquired a tolerance to a certain
,

range of moisture, wind, sun, temperature, and so on - but also the biotic environment, 7 all the plants and animals living in the same general region.
Living
descents

organisms

are

inter -related

in

two

main

ways,

evolutionary
or shelter For

and

ecologically.

One organism

may

provide food

1.

Sutra-krtuiiga, II- 3.48-62; Bhagavati, 33. 1. 844; 7. 5, 282; etc- Uttaradhyayana, 36. 68-202; Pannava v ri, JivapaiinavanTi 14-138; Jivibhigama, 3. 9i>, 33-34, 35,- Gommaia-

2.
3.

sara (Jjva-kanda}- 35, 70, 71, 72, Sutrakrtanga. II. 3, 40-62.


Ibid.
4. Ibid.

etc.

5. 6.

Uttaradhyayana, 36. 135; 144; 169; 178; 179; 186; IPS; 202.
Sutrakftanga, II. 3; Bhagavuti
34; 35. Pannavana,
1. 5. 232; Uttaradhyayana 36 171 IT. Jivabhigama 1. Jivapaimavana, Jalacara - Sthalacara - Khecara - mamisyaprajfia-

pana 28-34.
7. 8.

SutrakftSnga, II. 3. 43-62.


It
is

suggestive from the stxtdy of the wcrld of

life

of Jaina Biology on the basis of

the struct' ires (Sarii/feras)

of living forms - plants

and biochemical
and biochemistry
outlined in

similarities

and

differences,

between

and animals, on ihe physiologic species, etc. and on the analysis


i.

of the genetic constituiion

of piesent plants and animals,


cmbryologic

of plants and animals, their

e. anatomy, physiology and genetic histories as

Jaina Biology
3. 42-62;

and the manner


Bhagavati
7. 5.

in

which

they are distributed of an

over

the

earth's surface, that a sort of organic evolution has occurred.


9.

Sutrakftaiiga

II,
it

282.

"The

habitat

organism

is

the

place where

lives,

physical

area,

Some

specified

earth's

surface, air.

soil

or

water", Biology p. 90.


It

organism for the place in which it lives, for aquatic animals and plants, lands for terrestrial animals and plants
is

a remarkable

fitness of the

e.

g.

water

arid air for

aerial beings.

in which they live

of fitness of organism for the habitats suggestive frpm this fact that they are interacting a::d interdependent parts of larger units for survival, as evidenced by a closes study of AliSrapadaniUsepa (knowledge of
It
is

food) in the, Sutrakrtafiga

II.

3.43-62.,

Sambodhi

4-1

10
another 1 * or produce

J.

C. Sikdar
to the second, 11

some substance harmful

The

classifications of Living Substances.


tried to set

The Jainacaryas have

up systems of

classifications

based

on

natural relationships

-,

putting into a single group those organisms which

13 are closely related in their evolutionary origin.

Since

many

of the struc-

tural similarities

1 "1

nisms

is

similar in

15 classification of depend on evolutionary relations, orgamany respects to the one of the principles based on

logical structural sioiilacitiss^tbat is to

sav species, genus, and phyla.


.

Many

plants and animals fall into easily recognizeable, natural groups,


classification presents

and their

no

difficulty,

The Vedic sages


1*

also have desrcibsd

and
of

classified plants

and animals. and


animals

Toe Vedic Index of Names and


Vanaspati
of

Subjects
large

Macdonell and Keith"


of
plants and

Mazumdar

reveal

number

1* the equivalent (see also Aiyer),

scientific

names of which have been given

10, Suirakftinga 11. 3. 43-62. 11.

Shagaten

8. 2.

316.

12, e. g, ekendrfya,
clwsified on the

dwdriya,
basis

tryidriya,

caturindriya,

and paficendrtya organisms

are

of

natural

organisms ate

classified

according

related in their evolutionary orgin.


13.

relationships. Similarly, Jalacara and Khecara to their natural relationships, as they are closely
3

Sstrakttenga 11.

3.

Jivabhigamasutra

1,

96.

tthagavati 7. 5. 282, (awfaja, potaja

and sofnnmrccltinta)

Uttaredhyayana 36

171

ft'.

Jpebhigtma 33

1.

34, 35.

Sthalacara
Aquatic, terreMrial

Khecara

and

and aerial organisms

have been

the
14,

members of each of them are


8.3.324; 7.3.277;

classified info three single *ro,,Ds

closely rel.ted in the;r

Uagavali

7.5.282.

evolutionary origin g

3.1.91; 33. 1-34,

1-35, l_3fi.

a 36.135;

M4,

154, 169, 178, 179, 186, 193

202

catujpada-parisarpeti bhedadvayam ' p 30 C<Hipadc.namekak.:uradvik}uradiblieda tatttikam p 30


'

SthalacaratiralcSm

31

15.

IbiJ. Ibid.

16.

and
press >

^> ^

**-.
Pr?ss ,

The World of
by the experts. There
is

Life according to the Jaina Literature

in the ancient literature.

mention of about 739 plants 5 " and over 250 animals The whole 24th chapter of the Yajurveda embodies

valuable materials on Zoology. 21 A bewildering variety of birds, and about 21 kinds of snakes are described, each distinct by its own
features of colour, structure, or habit.

particular
23

There

is

also

organism - bacteria, and


fish
8
".

mention of microscopic
aquatic
origin
arid

insects of

terrestrial

and

Distinctions

Between Plants and Animals.


bs divided into two kingdoms,
"

The
plants
34
3

living

world

may

broadly

one of

and one of animals on the basis of the (pahi) of Tairyagyauna (lower animals). Tile word Vanapphai 8 ? (Plant) suggests trees, shrubs, flowers, grasses and vines - large and familiar objects 3* of every day And the word world. indicates both wild" and 'pasu'
(vanaspati)

category

domestic 80 animals in a wider sense, such as,


birds, frogs, fish, etc.

lion, tigers,

cows,

buffaloes,

In the Vedic
trees,

herbs,
in

trees

the

kingdom has been divided into shrubs, creepers and grasses. 81 The term 'Vrksa'** stands for and the word Rgveda8 'Osadhih or Vimdh denotes minor
in the

literature

also the plant

20.

Shastry, V. R., Science


India,

Vedas, BulJetin

of National Institute

of Science of

No, 21,

p.

102, 1962,
prujapatya\i. etc., Yajurveda, 24th chapter.

21. 22.

A'svastu

paro gomrgaste

23.

Shrinivas Rao, H., History of our knowledge of the Indian Fauna through the Ages, Bombay National History Society, 54, 251-280, 1957. Macdonell, A. A. and Keith, A.B., op. cit, p. 510, 1912. See Biology in Ancient and Mediara.1 India, Dr. K. N. Kapilvidie The Indian Journal of History of Science, Vol. 5, No. 1. 1970, p. 126, for all these references.

Journal of

24.
25. 26.

Bhagavati, (Slate of existence of Vanapphai), 24.16,704.


Bhagavati, 3.1.134; H.9.417.

Tattvarthadhigama

Sutra

II.

6.

Bfhatsafngraham,

Sri

Candrasuri, vv. 419-434, pp

234-242. Gommatasara, (Jivakanda), 148. "Tiryaficah

Pancadhaikaksadikah Paacaksa-

s%maknh
27. 28.

/"

Lokaprak a'sa

4.16.

Bhagavati. 24.16.707; 33.1.844.


Bhagavati, 3.1.134; Ibid; 7.8.288.
Ibid; 5.3.375.

11.9.417.

29.

30
31,

"Yah phalinwya aphala apuspti ya'sca piispiinh" Rg, Veda, 10.97.15. "Dvo suparna sayuja sakhaya safnanam vtksam pari pasvajate j Tayoranyah
svadvattyaiia'snannanyo abhicakasfti
//

pippalam

Rgveda

1.

164.

20
/
'

"Yasmin vrkse madhvadali suparna

nivi'sante suvate cadhi vi'sve

32,
33,

Tasyedahtify pippalam svadvagre tamionna'sadyah pitaram na veda Osadhayah, Atharvaveda viii. 7, Vedic Indpx I, p. 125,

//,

Ibid,, 1.164.22

"Adhvaryavo yo apo vavrivamsain vrtrant jaghana'sanyeva Vfksam", fgvecfa^ 2,14.2. "" ~ tadidartham jarelhe gfdhreva Vfksafn nidhi-mantamaccha" Ibid,, 2,39,1
'
:

12
31 vegetable growths like herbs,

J* C. Sikdat

The

plants whicb

the hetling power,88

while

those under the head of

come under Ofadhi contain Virudh do not have

3' The word 'Pasu' 3a medicinal properties, 39 The word 'Trna' denotes grasses. in Uw Vedic texts indicates animals including man, while the word \Jagat'

*!nds

for

domestic animals as against Svspada (wild animals). 3 "


life

Fuitber thought about the world of


life,

brings to
1

mind such
,

forais of

such

es,

mushrooms 40 and pond scums

(Suva/a)*
etc.

etc.

quite different

2 but recenizible as plants, and insects,* worms, 43

that

are definitely

snireak,
Fundamentally, plants and animals, as mentioned in the Jaina
are alive in

many

ways, both ate

made

of cells 4 1 as structural
13

'

Agamas, and functional


there are

units and both have

many metabolic

processes'

in

common. But

some

obvK.js ways and some obscure ways in which they differ.


cells, in general, secrete a

Pian*

hard outer

cell wall

of cellulose (tvac) 16
cells 47

whiefi encloses the living ceils arid supports the plant, while animal
34. "A'fl tat ptthitycm m>
iliti

yeiia pramutti vmidhal), Atharvaveda, 1,32.1.

>irurimutitiKJtiZ miullutiin

H3

kiiunamani

inailhoracllii

prajatasi sa

no

nmdhu-

i" //, Atkamawifa., 1.04.


w;,?/ iitrujftfi \iirucf hiipuiliayapoiii
/f|!ii
/

malamha prt'wkin
ii,

san'tin maccliaputliuii

adbi"

//,

Ibid,

7,1,

Tvt

iiffte

vi\\e uiiniZso titimlui as

rfevi-

havirudantyahutath

/,

narKsah
,* U juMtf

svadtuitu

csutifn

tram

.earh/ia

vintdham

jtijfiise

suchih"

/J

j,-.

i'nrn,

j<.-i

a iif.Tunyasiriyugflin

pur a,"

et,\

RgYeda

10.97. 1-22.

'Ofadk)Cn

fhahpikeiiteii,",

Amarakosh, 661;

In J*in iitmrate also Osadh, dcnott-s ceroaU-sSli-bihi, etc. Pannavana 1 50 Vedk. Index !, ft, 125,
36.

.....
125
Ida

'-l-rftoww
ta

,^,to wdnyam \lry am


v

^^Ihayo wudho Mtnwsa prajSpaHmapWar


t

Talttirlya SafnhilT,, 2.5, 3.2.

Vedic Index p
r bid

.1.161.!.
tfntittt

nnf'tff^r' -lad ghtya f nM


ttodakamn, etc, Ibid, 10
I,

5iasm ....... "*


f ,ama Sye

Mto'dnna

WftU,
162 8

t.,^ smvS
1-4
'

102

10
4.2 10

38.

Vedk

iauex

p. 509; Taittiriya SariAiiii

41. SffSfe; $t* Stttrakrtenga II 3.55.

42. tKttnlkt], UttarStJhyayma 36.137,


43.

UtiafMttyayima 36,128 (Krmi).

44.
45.

4i'A^s

46.

Jfit r;aiw,
,

fcell), ttc,, Tandulawyaliya V. ' 2, p. 6. Tarkatakawdiplktt, Tika on V, 49. G Gu'iarnrna "-' mtifM

II, 3.47;

(7V)
(Challi).
[t,

GammtrasZfa {JirakS^Ks), IBS, 189


47.
Thejf have tyiflo (skin),

tSutrakrtm.ga

2 ,18,

The World of

Life

accor ling to the Jaina Literature'

13

have no outer wall and hence can change their shape. But there are some plants* without having cellulose walls and one group of animals, the primitive chordates, having cellulose walls around their cells.
Secondly, plant growth generally is indeterminate, that is, plants keep on growing indefinitely because some of the cells remain in an actively growing state throughout. But although the celh of animals are replaced from time to time, the ultimate body-size of most animals is established after a definite period of growth. 51

A
most

third

difference

between

the

two types

of living substances

is

that

are able to move about (trasa),^ while most plants remain one place (sthavara), sending roots into the sail to obtain liquid substance and getting energy from the sun by, exposing broad flat

animals

fixed in

surfaces.

Of course

there are exceptions to both of these

distinctions.
is

The most important

difference between plant and animal

their

mode
their

of obtaining nourishment. ss Animals move food from organisms in (he environment, but

about (trasa) and obtain

and manufacture
bacteria

their

own
on

which

feed

food, with the of sap

planis are stationary (sthavara) the exception of fungi and plant 5' other or plants humour of
it

other living or decaying things/* in conclusion that plants may be classified into bacteria,""
48.

can

bs

summed
<"

up
6a

alage/o

fungi

herbs

eg. Bulbous plants,

like onion, garlic, etc.,

49. e.g.

Some

fishes,

amphibia,

have no cellulose, walls. rep tilts-vertebrate animals have cellulose

walls

around

their inner cells,

50.

'P'a^fliaM/-fl/aHAnmAHrt/flj'aifl/c//^/ji'

7l<UVif/yi/j/f-t'/icjfl,7(

pratiniyatam

vardhata"

Tarkarahasyadtpika, Tiku on V.
Plant's duration of life
51.
is

49, p. 137, ten thousand years in


life
-

maximum.
is

Uttaradhyayana Sutra 36.132, etc.; animals' See Tarkarahasyadlpika (J'ikS) on V. 4-9.

shorter than that of plants.

52.

Acafanga,
sutra, II.

I,

9.1.14;

Sutrakftoiiga, IJ, 2. 18;

Sl/ianufiga 2.4,100;
p. B6;

Bhasvatl,. 254.739;
p.

Utlaradhyayanci, 36.08; I'annavar.a kayadvara,


12,14-

Jivabhigama,
2;

12;

Tattvattha-

MvlScSra,

Ft.

I.

30(226), p. 295; JivavicSra,

53.

fika on V. 49; Gomma(ass,ra (JJva) 3; Acarahga 1.9.1 Hj SthanTmga, 3.1.164; UttarSdhyayana

Tarkaraltasyadlptts '

Panmvana kayadvara,
54.

36.39; -Shagavatl, 25.4.739'

4.232, p. 86; Tattvarlhasfitra 2.13.


'

Bhagavatl, 7.3-275-6.

55. StitrakrtSfiga, 11.3. 56. Ibid. 57. Ibid. 58. Ibid.


59.

Suksma vanaspati (subtle plant) of one class modern Biology; See Uttaraclhyayana, 36.100.

may

be

identical

with

bacteria

of

60. Algae

my

be identified

with Sevala. the aquatic plant, vallisneria

and other

water

plants, etc.; See Sfitrakrtafiga, II. 3, 55,

Fungi laclss clilorcphyll. It may be identified with some of the subtle plant bacteria growing on other objects. See Uttai tidhyayana (panaga)36-92. See SBE. XLV p. 103 62. Bhagavatl 21,5.691; il.7.6'91; 'Hariyakayff Uitaradfiyayana 36.95.
61.

14
shrubs
*f

.7.

C. Sikdar
trees 00

creepers," grasses
ceils,

83

and

on the

basis

of general properties of
plant, reproduction,

green plant
etc,

the struclute
(i.e.

and functions of a seed


earth,

Microscopic bacteria
terrestrial"
7

of

and aquatic**

origin,

and animals up to plant-bacteria), insects and aerial beings" 9 find mention with
It

their distinct classifications in

the Jaina Agarnas.

animals were classified into species and genus,


principles, such
etc., i.e.

etc.

appears that plants and on the basis of certain


features, utility,

as, birth, habitat,

living, special structural

evolutionary descent

and

ecology in general.

Mode

of Nutrition of Plants aad Auimals

can synthesize their foods. According to Jaina Biology, some organisms 1 and They may b ca " ed autotrophie (self-nourishing)., eg. green plants'
78 purple bacteria.

Some organisms cannot


therefore,

synthesize their
live

own

food from

inorganic materials,
78

they

must

either

at the

expense

of

autotrophes

They may be called upon decay ing AH animals, fungi and most bacteria, are heterotrophs.
or
It

'matter. 74

heterotrophs.

is

stated in the Sutrakftanga that

some organisms
the
fire

(e.g.

trees) feed

on

liquid substance of the particles

of

earth,

oirgin of

various

things;

these beings

consume earth-bodies, water-bodies,


they
beings;

bodies of plants;

deprive
the

of

life

the

bodies

bodies, wind-bodies, of manifold movable

and immovable
63.

destroyed

bodies which have been consumed

VttarSdhyayana. 36.94,

Gumma,
p, 216.

similar to Guccfta, e.g. Vrintaka Soldnutn,


e,g,

but

bring forth twigs


etc,

on stems

instead uf stalks,

NavamSlika Jasminum Sambac, Kanavira,


.

See S.B.D.

XLV,

64. Bhagavail, 21.5.691; 21.6,691; 23.1.693; 23.4.693

Uttaradhyayana 36,94.
4 692,
etc.

65. BftafBttffl, 21.5.691; 21.6.621; 11.9.427; 12.8459; 22

tlttorat&yaymm 36.94 (Tana)


66. Bkagavatl, 22,2.692; 22,3.692; 22.4.692;

23.1,693;

23.3.C93;

23.4.693;

23.5.693

etc.

UttarSdhyayana, 36,94 (Rukkha)


67. SUrakftUga. II.3; Bhagatatl 7.5.282; Uttaradhyayana 36.71; Patinavana, Tirikkhajaniya ywttt*fWa*S)> 61-91; p, 29. 68. IbidL 69. Ibid.
TO, Sitrakffflnga, II. 3.2 (AliSrapadanik^epa); 71. ehaeavati, 7.3,275.

72. Sulphur bacteria


kftZiiga II 3.61

(Sogamdhie)
fas

mentioned

in

the Uttaradhyayana 36.77,

may

indentified withpurpk' bacteria. See


of Nutrition, pp, 318-19.

Paul, B.

Wete, Forms

and SutraThe Science of Biology

'

73.

SitnkrtSga U.

3.20, 21. 22-28, 29. All

one way or other exrept some carnivorous animals.


74.

animals live at the expense of autotrophs in

Ibid. II. 3.16. Fungi

that

origin of various things as

and some bacteria feed on the decaying matters, as it is found some beings born in earth, growing there in particles of earth that are the Jya kaya, mushroom (Kuhana). etc. from the decom, .

posed things in the earth.

The World of
before, or absorbed

Life according to the Jaina Literature


digested
(trees

IS

That

is

to say,

by rind (are) some organisms

and

or

assimilated (by them)." are self-nourishing plants)

and they can synthesize

their own food from inorganic materials and bodies of plants, while sodu holoioic organisms among plants (like pitcher-plants, must constantly find and catch other organisms - movable and immovable, consume, digest and assimilate them. Therefore, they ihust liVe they

at the expense of others, ftutotrophs or heterotrophs.

Some organisms born


from
trees

in trees, originated by trees, sprung froai trees, springing

that

originated in earth, come forth as trees originated by trees, feed on the sap of the trees originated in earth (3).'** That is parasitism - heterottophie nutrition found among both plants and animals*

That

is

to say,

"Partasite lives in or

on

the living

animals (called the host) and


every living organism
is

obtains

its

nourishment

body of plant or from it. Almost

the host for

one or more

parasites".''

Some

the sap of tree, also (6-9), 78

creepers feed on the liquid substance of the particles of earth and e. they are both autotrophic and parasitic. i.

In the same way grass, herbs and plants also feed on the liquid substance of the particles of earth (10-15), etc. 70 Here it is suggestive that a few plants like the misletoe are in part parasitic and in part autotrophic,
for although they

grow from

into stems of other plants,


their hosts."

have chlorophyll and make some of their food, their roots and they absorb some of their nutrients

Some organisms born


Panaga, Sevala

as

aquatic

plants,

such

as,

Udaga,

Avsga,

(algae), etc. feed

on

the particles of water, etc.

(19).si

They belong

to the type of autotrophs

which can synthesize


from
etc.

their

own

food from inorganic materials.

Some organisms born


trees

as movable beings-

trees

born

in

earth
trees

originatad by trees from

the roots, seeds,


trees,

produced
etc.

by

originated by creepers

bom

on

from the

roots,

of creepers born

on

creepers,

from

born in earth, born in water feed


plants, be they

from herbs, from plants, from Aya down to Kura from trees born in water, from Udaga up to Pukkhalatthibhnga
grass,
(1 ))

on

the

born

in earth,

sap of the trees, creepers, grass, hsrbs, or water, on trees or creepers or' grass

or herbs or plants; (the sap) of their roots, dr.vn to seeds of Ayas. etc. of Udakas, etc. And these creatures consume earth bodies, etc., assimilated
8 3 by them.
'

It

is

the well

known

fact in

India

that parasitic insects

and

75. Sutrakrlanga II, 3.2.

76

Ibid. II. 3.3.

Some

parasitic

-fonts live

on the sap of the host


n.+SHtrakytahga,
80.

plants.

77. Biology, p.

85.
,

II.3. (6-9).

79. Ibid. 11,3 (10-15). 81. Sutrakrtafiga,


II.

Biology, p. 85,
Ibid, II, 3. (19-20),

3,18.

82.

16
pests are

J.

G. Sikdar

born in the host plants and destory thousands of trees and crop

including

paddy and wheat,

etc,

by feeding on

their sap.

These parasites are movable benigs


ingesting

and
or

may

obtain their nutrient by

and

digesting
cell

through their

absorbing organic molecules walls from the body fluids or tissues of the host.
particles

solid

of the mother and the


fool

The children of the developing embryos at first feed on the menses semen of the father or both combined into unclean
(substance).

the essence of

And afterwards they absorb with a part (of their bodies) whatever food the mother takes. After birth the babies suck
when
and
they grow older, they eat boiled rice or gruel immovable beings. These beings consume earth

the mother's m!lk but

or both
bodies,

movable
etc.

up

to assimilated by

them(21).s

This

mode of

nutrition of

human

beings is

scientifically

true

and

it

may be

called heterotrophic nutrition.


five

organs of sense, viz. fishes up to propoises (Sisumara) feed on the mother's humour as long. as they are young, they eat plants, or both movable and immovable beings (22). 84
This scientific observation of the
is

Aquatic animals of

mode

of nutrition of aquatic animals

biologically true.

The quadrupeds,

terrestrial

animals with

five

organs

of sense, viz. solidungular animals, biunguiar animals, multiungular animals and animals having toes with nails, feed on their mother's milk as long as they are young (23),85 the rest as above.

Some of

the reptiles
viz.

moving on

the breast, terrestrial animals with five

organs of sense,
eggs,

some bring

forth living

males,

some

snakes, huge snakes, Asalika and dragons bring forth young ones, some come out of the egg as

as females,

some
(

as neuters.
rest as

As

long

as

they

are

they live

on wind

(24)88

T ie
j

young '

Terrestrial animal with five organs


are the following?, viz,

of sense, walking on their arms iguanas, ichneumons, porcupines, frogs, chameleons'


rats,

Moras, Ghonkoillas, Vissambharas,


CVupptiyas,
etc,

raangooses, Pa'ilaiyas, cats, Gohas ' '

(The rest as in the

last

paragraph. (25) 8 '


sense

birds with membranous wings, birds, with feathered wings, birds with wings in the shape of a box

Aerial animals wjth five

organs of

and tads' (which


is

sit

on) ouupread wings.w

(All as before,

As long as they are young, they are mother's warmth (The rest as above) (26)". ''(.'.
passage
different.
83.

only the following

hatched by their

85 - ibid -

SUnkrBtga. u 323
-

II.
'

3.21,
:

84. Ibid

II

3 22
3 ; 24
.

8 6 . ibid.

n.
'

87. Sutrakrtmga, II. 3.25,

vide S.B.E, Vol.

XLV,
89.

p,

395

88. SStrakrtSAga, II. 3,25.

Ibid,

The World of
It is
strial,

Life according to the Jaina Literature

]?

from the above statements on the mode of aquatic and aerial organisms that some of these
clear
"

nutrition of terre-

heterotrophs live

either at the

expense of autotrophs or upon movable organisms

and bacteria upon decaying matter.

and fungi

There are several types of heterotrophic nutrition as there are various classes of heterotrophs. When food is obtained as solid particles that must be eaten, digested and absorbed, as in most animals; the process be

known

may

as holozoic nutrition,

i.

e.,

and catch other organisms

Holozoic organisms must constantly find

for

food."

The parasitic organisms (Anusuya=anusuta or anusyuta) growing on the animate or inanimate bodies" of manifold movable or immovable
creatures

feed

on tha humours of
In
this
It

(28, 29).

way the vermin means that the

9! various movable creatures (27). also feeds on the humours of living parasites may obtain their nutrients

animals

and digesting

by ingesting
through

solid particles or

by absorbing

organic

molecules

their cell walls

from the body

fluid or tissues of the host.

animate or inanimate bodies of manifold movable .or immovable creatures as that (water) body, which is produced by wind, condensed by wind, and carried along by wind, e.g. hoar-frost snow, mist, hailstones, dew and rain, feed on the humours of these manimovable and immovable creatures (30) 8 *, etc. Some fold beings born in water, come forth in water (bodies) in the water, produced by manifold
in the

Some organisms born

movable or immovable

beings, feed

on

the

humours of

the,

water

(bodies)

produced by manifold movable and immovable creatures (31). Some beings born in water come forth in water-bodies and
the

feed

on

these other water-bodies produced by water-bodies (32) come forth as movable creatures in the water produced by water-bodies and feed on the humours of the water

humours of

Some

beings born in water,

mate bodies of movable


90.
91.

9S (bodies) produced by water (34). Some beings come fonh as fire-bodies in manifold animate or inanior immovable creatures and they feed on the

Aya, kuhana (mushroom),


Sutraktahga
II. 3.2 II, 3.27.

etc.

feed on decaying matter,

i e.
.

decomposed
. .

bodies.

92.

Sulratytahga

93. Ibid. II 3.28-29.


94.

This paragraph gives the 'Scientific' Sutraki'tafiga. II. 3.30. explanation of the way by which water-bodies or the bodies of water-lives are produced by wind,

SHE

XLV.,

p, 226, fn. 2,
II.

95. Sstrakftafiga

3(31-33). This statement on the

mode

of ''nutrition of water-bodied
its

beings or
difficult

bacteria

needs

scientific

experiment and verification for

validity.

It is

them on the
Sambpdhi
4.1

to suggest their true identifications at the present state of knowledge about basis of the Xgamas,

18

J.

C. Slkdar

80 manifold movable or immovable creatures (34).

Some

beings born as
creatures (35),

wind bodies feed on the


9?

manifold

movable

or

Immovable

Some beings born

as earth-bodies,

e.

g., earth, gravel, etc.

feed on the

humours of the manifold movable and immovable beings

9S

(36).

These modes of nutrition of water-bodied, fire-bodied, wind-bodied, and eaith-bodied beings as described in the Sutrakrianga needs a careful study

and

scientific verification

by

the biologists in the light

of modern Biology

before accepting

them

as true, as they are

thought-provoking.

Ecosystem
It

appears from the study of the

mode of
aerial

nutrition

of

all

organisms

including plants, aquatic, terrestrial

and

described in the Jaina

Agamas

that plants

of other living things but are interacting


units for survival.

etc. as beings, and man, and animals are not independent and interdependent parts of larger

and interdependence bring to light a natural unit of living and non-living parts that Interact to produce a stable system in which the exchange of materials bettheir interaction

So

that ecosystem

which

is

ween

living

organisms-fish,

system in their habitat-water in a


It

there

circular path, e. g., aquatic green plants and snails (sambuka)^ form a very small ecopond or lake.has been observed in the discussion on the mode of nutrition that are "producer" organismsiMb.e green plants that can manufacture

and non-living

parts

follows

organic

compounds from the simple

the earth or water, etc.

inorganic substances drawn up from Secondly, there are 'consumer'"! organisms-insects

and

insect larvae in the

may

and fungi "which break down the organic compounds


96. Ibid., II. 3,34. eg.
fire

plant-bodies, etc., and fish, etc. in water which be carnivores. Finally, there are "decomposer"^ organisms bacteria

of dead protoplasm

when two

bulls or

elephants

are seen

JSS u ing

of

wood
II

or stone are

from their horns or teeth. rubbed one against the


3.36.

rush upon one another, Fire is produced when

sparks

ol

two piecJ
,

other,

SB.E.XLV

97. Ibid

3,35

9B;

Ibid., II.

produced
teeth
99.

According to the

the shape of precious stones, in the

head of snake,

co^^^i, V
'

397 fn

nf

of elephants,

and so

in reeds, etc. S.B.E,

XLv"
'

p.

397 fn

^^

are

">

"*

'

'

Tattvafthadhigama Sutra 11.24,

100.

earth,

inorganic substances.
101.

Sttrakrmsa II. 3.2 Trees (p,ants) feed on the liquid substance, of the particles of Particles consume earth bod es, etc. by manufacture . manufacturing organs ' commpound, from the
II, 3.19-20; II.

Sutrakrtmga

3,22; II

327

28

29

'

The World of

Life according to the Jaina Literature

19

of the dead bodies of plants and animals into organic substances that can be used by green plants."

Thus Jaina Biology suggests an ecosystem consisting of biotic componentsproducer, consumer and decomposer organisms and non-living compounds
i.

e.

abiotic

components -

earth, air, water,

and

fire."'

Habitat and Ecology Niche

ecology relations of organisms,


physjcal area,

A brief analysis of ecosystem of Jaina Biology brings to light two ba slc concepts-the habitat and the ecologic niche^ usefu , JQ describing tne i. e . the place where an organism lives a
some
specific, part of the earth's

and

the

status

of an organism within the ecosystem.

surface, air, soil


It

or water"'

structural adaptations, physiologic responses eat*" and what eats lyo. its range of
effects

depends
etc

on

its
it

and

behaviour

-what

movement

on other organisms and on


of

and tolerance and

its

the non-living parts of the

surrounding.^

Types Interactions Between Species of Plants and Animals, The study of the knowledge of food of organisms, the third lecture of Book of the Sntrakrtahsa, throws some light upon the types O f interactions between species of plants and animals in several different wavs which take place due to their search for food, space, or some other need
the Second
g. relationship of competition,^ or predatori mutualism,"" parasitism"" as found between them. 103.
104.
e.

the

commensalisra

Sutrakrtahga II.
II.

3. 3.

SStrk^a (earth surface),


105.

1-2, 3.16

(soil),

.17(wa ter),

8t re), Dearth),

26(aerial),

SStra krtSng a U..3.2 (liquid

27(animate or ammimate bodies) substance) of the particles of


trees),

^ wa ^>
22(wat e r)
21

23

movable and immovaWe b eings ]3 .5 ) (Sap of the

earth), bodies
trees)

of manifold

20 (Sap of

creatures) ' 30 36
'

107. SutrakrtSiga II. 3.30 (liquid substance), etc. See foot note above 108. MrrtrtStga. II. 3.27. i.e. The parasites feed on the humours of

IW.SStrakrtifigall. behaviourism o f
reproduction.
110.

immovable creatures-animals and plants 3. The entire chapter 'knowledge plants and ani m a, S in addition to

'various movaoie movable

and

of

food'

throws

their

Some

beings

bow the
111.

(are) d lges ted

(trees) deprive of life the bodies of manifold movable and destroyed bodies which have been consumed before, or

assimilated (by them). SWakvtZhga II, 3 2 Some beings born in trees originated by trees, sprung from trees that originated in earth, come forth as trees

and

12.

sap of the trees originated in earth, Ibid, II. 3.2. The relations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and legumes and See BhagaVatl 7,3. 275; II, 3.5.16 OTa ), 18

o^naL

Su^ka^a

(L

20

J.

C.'Sikdar

The host-parasite or predator-prey-relationship the host or prey as a species when such relationship
study of different examples of

may

be

harmful

to

is first set

up. But the

parasite-host and predator-prey interrelations show that "in general, where the associations are of long standing the long-term effect on the host or prey may not be very detrimental

and may even be The

beneficial." 114

brief survey of the classification of living things

- plants

and ani-

mals, their distinctions,

mode of nutrition, ecosystem, habitat and ecologic niche, and types of interactions between species as found in the Jaina Sgaraas gives a picture of the world of animals and plants, all related
closely or distantly

by

evolutionary

descent,

and

bound together

in

variety of interspecific interactions.

113,

or

Some organisms growing on the animate or inanimate bodies of manifold movable immovable creatures, come forth as parasites. They feed on the humours of various movable and immovable creatures, II, 3-27,

114.

Biology, 93.

VEDIC ORIGINS OF THE SANKHYA DIALECTIC


Harsh Narain

The dominating

section of

Sankhya

scholarship today

is

inclined to

trace the orgins of the

Sankhya to non-Vedic, ante-Vedic, and even antiVedic traditions. The present author proposes to strike a note of dessent in this paper. To us, the tendency is an index to the sad plight of Vedic
studies at our

hands and

is

responsible for

much misreading

of

Indian

philosophy, history and culture. It is a big topic, however, and refuses to be covered in a single paper of morderate In the present paper, size. therefore, we will content ourself with attacking the problem of the origin
of not the

Sankhya

entire but only the

SaAkhya
in

dialectic.

According to the Sankhya, as embodied


available today, the ultimate
the psycho-physical (Prakrti).
reality is

(he

Sankhya
spiritual

texts

proper

twofold the

(Pumsa) and

The psycho-physical
is

principle to which the

cosmos

is

ultimately reducible

said to

have three

Saliva, Rajas

and Tamas. There


is,

are, that is to

say, three

dimensions (guna~s) dimensions to

whatever there

apart of course from the spiritual unities called Punifa-s,,

This trilogy of dimensions translates variously but not aptly. Neither English nor any other language for that matter has any appropriate equivalents for the trilogy,

which

is

so multidimensional that one has to

content

oneself with partial translation by selecting a particular dimension of the concept as the occasion demands. It would be advisable, therefore, to bring

home
it

to the reader the richnes of the trilogy in content by juxtaposing to as general equivalences as possible, current somewhere or other, independently, such as the following, culled from different sources, including Western

thought and Sufism.

22

Harsh Narain

The

original

Sa~nkhya trilogy

is

not just a trilogy but a


it

veritable

tri

chotomy of a

dialectical character:

serves to divide the

whole of
into

reality
threi

the whole of thought, the whole

of the

universe of

discourse

moments
and

exhaustively, like the

moments of

dialectic, viz, thesis, antithesis,

synthesis. Dialectic

has developed in the main along two independenl

lines, viz. dialogical

or reasoning dialectic

dialectic or dialectic as the concept

on one hand and metaphysical of struggle of opposites on the other.*


in the latter
texts

Here we

are taking the

Sankhya

dialectic

sense.

There are
is

certain clear indications in certain ancient

that
in

the

trilogy

all-

pervading, without exception.^

It

is

also suggested

serveral

texts

that

the trilogy represents the unity,

it

likc.Sunda and Upasunda (the mythological each other) because their functioning is for a

proverbial form of objective or metaphysical dialectic. 3 Vacaspati that ths guna-s are mutually contradictory but do not destroy

interpenetration, struggle of opposites

the

Misra has
each other

demon
the *

brothers

who

killed

gtvmg LghMIndeed,

l^HM^'T
Well, the
to

^^
6
is

common

purpose,

even
it

as
in
is

fireand

yet

"operate with
that

it

also suggested

sometimes

the

cosmos wN,mos

essentially dialectical.*

Sankhya

dialectics has

tto Paper

1) to the

2}

show that it owes its origin to |edic cosmogony well-known cosmic trilogy of the Vedic texts tojLto cosmogonic trilogy of creation,
the

an interesting history

The burden of

vt:

preservation, and destruction,

3) to

creation

hymn

of the

Rg-Veda

ft.

.-s

ere

to nto, ofcosmogonta 8 princE l.f n , ta , to "7; *

odgtall, a

r,

?
B
, .,

a 'S
iVi!iM '

mal

e!lta

""'

elevated '"

U,

toX"*
to

*-- - %
be

appeat

,, MSCI

eo

grade of the base


ft

betraying the
.

.of

meaning

faLJ^^ ^7 ^
'

>>

-^atEp T
and formed h!
SeCOnda
as

'

derived

are

" CCessive s
(

^om ^ ^', V ^
the

zero
ia

the

.of

the evolution
2)

(substantive)

(3j

^inew'

tond W iL^
(4)

(adjectlve^
,

, cord

'bovine

(of rope)

Vedic Origins of ihe Sahkhya Dialectic


(6)

23

'virtue'^

The

last fcur

rceanirgs are found actually attested in Sanskrit.* 3


'giintf

Disagreeing with Rice, Keith suggests that as the Avestan word 'gaono', meaning
earliest sense

must have the same origin


'if

hair, arid,

this is

accepted as the
of plaiting

the hair the

how from meaning "strand" might easily come


it

of guna,

is

easy to see

the practice
to
a

be that of gitna.'^

The

earliest texts in

which

'guna" figures

with

more or

less

deaf

sense ate the Taittiiiya-SamMtn of the Black Tajur-Veda, where it means 'strand' as constituent of rope,** and the Saunaka-Samhim of the Aihatva-

Veda, where
also
the

it means 'constituent.' According to Keith, the Iranian term assumes the sense of 'quality and 'colour According to Walde, both Avestan word and the Vedic 'gnvint (groin) are derived from the root

1"

''geu-'" (Avestan), 'biegen,

1 krlimmen, wolben'. ?

In the Sartkhya system, 'guna\ retains its original (or almost original) sense of strand or constituent, whereas, in the Vaisesika system, it assumes
the later sense of quality (or rather attribute).

By

the time of Patafijali the

grammarian,

it

assumed a

great variety of

meanings.^ In the Mahabhsrata,


(sattva)
'I

monad
is

(manas) intellect (bttddki), quantity,


'this is

am

the doer' 'another

the doer*

mine and

this

is

not mine,'
etc.

the matrix (prakfti), the


'gutia-s.'*

manifestation (vyakti) time

(kala') } etc.

are also termed

signified

these considerations, it is evident that 'guna* has, from the first an objective fact and not just a psychological one as Dasgupta, Burrow, and Johnston take it 'to have signified originally. In fact, on the basis of certain clear indications in the Mnhnbharata the

Prom

author

is inclined to believe that, at the three mental states with first, which these writers identify the three guna-3 were treated as dependent the and christened 'bhava' or upon guna-s (tadn'sritah] 'vedana.'

The Saunaka-Samahita of the Atharva Veda


refer to the 'three guna-s,',
is

is

the

first

extant

text

to

where the ontological import of the expression

happens to be the first to mention 'rajas' and 'lamas' together, by name, once, where, too, the objectivity of the concepts is unmistakable. 21 It is no less significant a fact that the trilogy of guna-s appears to have been used in the sense of the objective constituents of
the Potentiality [prakrti] even in the oldest

clear. It also

known SaAkhya

treatise, Satfi-

3 a Tantra, no longer extant, Now, quite a number of triads are found scattered in the Vedic texts 2S some of which are bound to interest us here. Besides the triads found

therein "elsewhere,

full

hymn

of the &ai'sinya-&zkala-Samhitn of the


is

Rg~

Veda, comprising a dozen stanzas,

.denoted to triads of various


in
this

sorts.' 24

As

.is

well

known,

a recurrent

phenomenon

text

is

the
:

trilogies

s pertaining to fire (agni)J Fire is spoken of as having three forms of the waters, the fire of the firmament, and the fire of the sun. 2

the fire

Corres-

pondingly,

the

Vedas divide existence or the cosmos

iqto

three

worlds

Harsh Narain
vertically, as subjoined
(2)

trrttfed

from lower

up:

(I)

The dark world


world

of

the etrte (pjthvi)

The intermediate,
(3)

and transparent
2

of the

irmitnent (antarikja}

The

bright world

(Dyo)

''.

Thk

cosmic trilogy

is

variously designated, such as

Ff/fe!
(earth)

Antenna
(firmament)

Dyo

Idam

(this)

Svapna-sthana Paraloka-

(earth) Bhttvas

(firmament)
AVOIR
(low)

Madhyama
(middle)

^Wf(low)
Ut
(high)

Madhyama
(middle)
Ut-tara
(higher)

Ayaflt

Mah

Antarikfa

(this world)

(firmament)

(yonder

world)"

The

three worlds constitute the

three

strides taken

% Ffi

by Visnu

as the

would have

it,

39

Itefdenlaily,

the

three

worlds

are

themselves devided
triads

into

three

sab-woiWt each

generally speaking.'"

The

connected with

fire

and

the cosmos are believed to be the most ancient of the Vedic triads

Now,

in the

Vedas, term

'rajas'

is

also used in the sense

over 8 dozen times.* Therefore, the cosmic trilogy of

the

of firmament Vedas is also

njxmiUe
This
tritely

at;

frtti* (earth) Rajas (firmament)

Dyo

(solar world).

Wat

and the gima-trilogy of tamos,


the earth
is

appears to have been a connecting link between the cosmic


rajas,

and

sattva.

Well

coares, inert, dark;

firmament represents activity and


heavenly
to

eowgy

characteristic of the air


ft til

and

the

fWl

bodies;
have,

and
to

the

light.

M otlw, teen responsible for a~.* _, <^ and


}>

Such a consideration seems

solar

some extent

m
,

the suggestion of the

of darkness principles P nes

{sama]<
.

The connection of the


thrown into further
relief

trt* to the effect that faltva ends Upwatd and tamn tends downwards.* 8

that of (h by the statements, occurring in sev e ral


rajas

tripliclty

O f wor i ds wi(h

reVainHn

H middle>

The Vedfc

deities

are also divided '

Vedic origins of Sankhya Dialectic

25

or Indra to the firmament, and the sun


the sun is also designated as Visnu>' and Visnu the highest of the deities,
It

to the solar

world/* In the Vedas,

So,
all

appears that later, in order of importance,

Siva respectively. (masculine) In the result, the Vedic of sun, Indra, and fire was supplanted by the Pursnic trinity of Visnu, Brahman (mas.) and Siva.* It is significant that even in an Upanisad of sufficient antiquity tamas is identified with Rudra or with Siva,
trinity

to

Brahman

it is said that fire is the lowest other deites falling in between.** Indra and fire yielded place

and

rajas

Brahman

(mas.),

and

sattva with Visnu. 47

Thus, the cosmic trilogy as the divine trinity envisaged in the has had much to do with the origin of the guna-trilogy, The cosmogonlc trilogy of chaos (vi-sarga, parti-sarga,
tion (sorgo-),

Vedas

and cosmos

(srsfi)

gima-trilogy. In the

Veda

pra-laya), creaalso seem to have been at the root of the as well as other ancient the state of cosmotexts,
in

gonic chaos

is

always identified with darkness or 'tamos',

manner.

An Upanisadic text identifies this 'tamas' with the 'tamas' of the gww-trilogy in clear terms. 40 Well, if chaos is identifiable with darkness, cosmos will naturally be indemnified with light and the creative process with down or dusk as the case may be. In fact, the three cos mogonic are
phases
clearly described in certain
texts

categorical

as the night,

the dawn,

and

the

day of

Brahman

(mas.)

on one hands" and slumber (pra-swpa),

and wakefulness (jagarana) on the other, respectively.!* Ss said to be dark during chaos, red during the process of creation, and white during the life of the cosmos. BS In several texts, it is also indicated that tamas is black, rajas red, and sattva white. 63 As already noted tamas
is

dream (svapna), In some texts, God

also indentfied with Rudra or Siva, rajas with Brahman (mas.) and sattoa with Visnu, the gods of chaos, creation, and cosmos respectively. Puraoically, the dark colour of God is the manifestation of tamas; the red

colour,

of rajas- and the white colour, of sattva - the three guna-s of SaAkhya." The Upaniad has it that there is a goat or eternal one (apparently Prakrti of Sankhya) -black, white, and red-giving birth to beings of all .kinds!"?

Here the reference

to

the ga~trilogy

is

unmistakable.
in the

The penultimate form of

the gwna-trilogy

cosmogonlc

context

appears to be the trilogy of forms of existence (raps?*) given in the Chtindogya-Upanisad, viz, anna (solid), ap (liquid), and tejas (heat), which are said to be, respectively, the black, white and red forms of the world to be 66 , and which are to become threefold each through contact with the purusa Here the expression 'through contact with the purusa' is specially (self).
reminiscent of the Sankhya.
the
J.

A. B.

Van Buitenen
in

has

very ably tracede?

why of
4,1

this trilogy to

statement
here,

the

which need not be discussed


3ambodhi

2$
So,

Harsh Narain

we have been able

to trace the origin of

the g^a-trilogy

to

the

Vedic cosmogony as
Dlalectlcally the

well, to

a considerable extent.

most

significant

hymn
last

of

the

Rg-Veda

is

the

one

hundred and twenty-ninth one of the


of),

book
the

la-Sam hit a there(of the Saka


two stanzas of the

the fatuous creation-hymn.


:

Baldly,

first

hymn

translate thus

'Then there was neither sat nor a-sat, nor was there rajas, nor

it cover even the sky (vyoma) which is beyond. What did Who guarded it? Was there water, unfathomable, deep ?

up (or contain)? Then there was

neither death nor immortality. There

was no beacon of night and day. That

one (tad) alone sustained life, windless, by its own power (sva-dhaya). There 9 Out of this rather puzzling hymn, we was naught beyond, other than it.'e and rajas - or, can, on good authority carve a significant triad, sat, a-sat, - sct-asat and rajas-vyoma - for our purat any rate, two pairs of opposite?
pose.
sat

What does
is

the triad or the pairs of opposites

and a-sat

good and

evil, right

and wrong,
that,

mean? One meaning of which is not attracted

here, however, for the simple reason

since the

hymn
must

institutes

an
the

inquiry into what was not there before

creation,

we

interpret

expressions under consideration ontologically rather than ethically.

Another

meaning of
-the

sat

and a-sat

existent

and non-existent, being and

non-being,

meaning which
is

this pair

of opposites
in

parlance. This

the

meaning

in philosophical usually bears which sat and a-sat are found used in

the Chnndogya-Upanijad,* 1 where, referring to those


Is

who maintain
can
spring

that a-sat-

the root of sat and posing the question

how

sat

from

a-sat

Uddalaka Aruni proceeds to prove to Svetaketu, his son, that sat is the root of all, In the same vein but in stronger terms, the Taittlnya-Upanifad has
it

that he

who

thinks the the sat

Brahman
and

comes
tion,
first

a~sat.

M Do

to be a-sat (non-existent)

himself

be-

too, signify existence

a-sat of the Rg_Vedic hymn under examinaand non-existence? May be. In which case the
to say that before creation there

verse

would have to be construed

was

neither existence nor non-existence, neither rajas

nor the empty space. Rajas

according to Ysska, means, alternatively,

light.,

water, world, the planet

Mars,

and day. 88 Here it may be taken to signify the world,


ing to

DaySnanda,
matter
.

who

also construes sat

It means atom accordand a-sat to mean the void and

primeval

mean

respectively." Saya n a interprets sat, a-sat, and rajas to the existent, non-existent, and worlds respectively. According to him before creation, there was neither existence nor non-existence but

beyond existence, and non-existence, indescribable, Maya, Brnhmana does say that 'then it was all indescribable

something The Satapatha-

(a-vynkrta).

Manu

M/ejw).
Sayana

speaks of the chaotic state as unimaginable and unintelligible (a-pratarkyam Another verse of the Rg-Veda (Sakah-Samhitn] informs us that a-sat and sat were in the supreme space (parame vyoman) OB
interprets

also,

^at

H'e

as

inscrutable

(a-vytkrta)

and

mt

;,

Vedic Origins of
(vydkrta).

the

Sahkhya Dialectic
it

27

The Taittiryia-Upanisad-bus
all,

that

first

there

was

as-at,

from

which sat sprang up. 70 But here a-sat appears to be the unmanifest Brahman,
as held by Sankara 71 and, above

suggested

by

the the
is

Upanisad
world],
72

itself,

adding, immediately
interesting
to

after, that a-sat

made

itself [into

It

is

note
a-sat

that,

in

the

RgVeda

iteself,

there

a statement that

gave birth to sat. Sayana interprets a-sat and sat there to signify the unmanifest Brahman and the manifest cosmos respectibefore creation
vely, seers
74

The Satpatha-Brnhmana

states

that

first

there

was

a-sat,

that the

(rsayah) are called a-sat, and that the breaths or vital energies (prannh) are the seers. 75 Here, too, Sayana construes a-sat to signify 'having the

' unmanifest name and form. 70 Following him, we can construe sat and a-sat to signify the chaos and the cosmos. In Hesiod, 'chaos' which be considers antecedent to the cosmos, means the space, the firmament - 'antariksa' in

Vedic

parlance.

It is

neither 'primordial disorder'

nor primordial matter

but the 'yawning


thing to

gap' between the earth and the sun. Does it have anydo with the Vedic concept of a-sat? Plato's 'space', too, which he declares 'incomprehensible' and 'hardly real' and which is nevertheless the
also
is

source of the four elements, 77


four elements. 78

In the Upanisads as well, aha'sa

appears to answers to the Vedic a-sat. sometimes said to be the source of the

Another, import of
suggest itself
is>

sat

and a-sat
'unreified'.

as

used in the Rg-Veda that would

'reified'

and

The Satapatha-Brahmana elsewhere says that there was (originally), as it the mind (manas), were, neither sat nor a-sat and that what there was was M Sayana explaIt adds immediately that the mind is neither sat nor a-sat.
ins that
for the

something

beyond

sat

and a-sat there


81

was, which was the mind;


etc. characteristic

mind

is

neither sat, being devoid

of form

of the

jar etc.,

nor a-sat, being cognizable.


does
not

help us much, however. In fact, being Sayana's explanaUon too loose in expression, too profuse in the use of adjectives, and too paradoxical

and symbolical
literally.

in

approach - 'bahubhaktivddwi't

viz.

likening any-

thing

and everything

to anything

and

everything**

9
,

the

Brahmanas cannot

be taken

According
before the
is

to a passage in the

Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad, nothing existed


enveloped by death, that is, by hunger, elsewhere that before the cosmos

cosmos,

which was

all

which
there

death. 88

The Upanisad

declares

with immortality.

was Brahman.** At a third place. It equates a-sat with death and sat 85 If we can make anything out of these rather obscure and
(of course
to us
it
is

mystical passages

moderns,

not

necessarily to those

for

whom

these were composed),

this

that in the

beginning there was the

inscrutable. reign of the unmanifest

ftarain

The hymn of
is

creation

is

exquisitely dialectical.

la

it

the

thesis

'fat*

'a-sal' and finally both the thesis and antithesis negated by the antithesis come to be negated altogether (nasad asin no sad'aSlt}. This line of thought
is

also followed by the Upanisads,


reality is

which,
sat nor

sometimes,

categorically declare

that the ultimate


it

neither

a-sat;(na san
dialectic thus

na e3sat), eii that


is

is

1 neither this nor that (neti neti}?

The

emerging

-expre-

ssible as

under

Thesis Sat

Antithesis

Synthesis

Neither (neti neti, avyskrta) A-sat Sometimes, the Upanisads speak of the third moment as both sat and m in which case their dialectic would stand revised as under : O'sat,
Sat

A-sat

Both (sad-asat)

Both

these

patterns are found in the Vedic

and Upanisadic
a9

literature.

In the lait analysis, both the creation-hymn and the Upanisads


positive principle: the

hymn, upon the one

(e/z);

the Upanisads,

come upon upon the

dialectical relation involves

also a unity that the

and presupposes not only a conflict but and intcrpenetration.of opposites, and it is interesting to find
suggest

Vedas do

such a relation

between sat and

a-sat while

describing
It

a-sat as the

kin (bandhu) of

sat. 81

seems

that, in their early career,

the terms

'sat',

'a-sat',

and

'rajas

carried,

among

others, the
is

sense of luminous, dark,


believe that 'sattva'
this

and

activity respect-

vely, Buitenen

inclined to

has taken the place


is

of

y>ny,
tapaf

-tapas" or 'tejas'.w

In

connexon
to use

it

interesting to note that


for
'sattua'

sometimes the Mahahharata tends


with
'light'

'tapas'

"

equating

and -knowledge*."

Likewise, while

using 'rajas'

and
to
It is

tamas together,
light" (jjw/fr},*

as "rajas-tamos', the

Athavra-Vada

juxtaposes

them

which

appears to be easily
'
'

interchangeable with sat

significant, indeed, that

sat

and
'

'rajas'

retain their original

sense in the

Ssnkhya system and


in the

that <a- sat

signifying

'dark'

is

able with the g una called


that,

'tamos'
itself,

in that system.
it

patently interchangeit is also significant


that in the

creation-hymn

is

also stated

there

was 'tmaf enveloped by SamC


will
).

TH have
a

to

I be

***, Is the tte Smhy&1


to

first

beginnina of the two instances


*>

If

il

construed
5s

mean

'arose'

or

4m e
fot

verb

'was'

Indeed, there

wen-attested

tradition

o,Uhe
one

M^^-Upani^
:nny. words.

identifies the

Vedic

in -so

of the birth

Besides,
as

frofn

a . sa{>

V when
Y SPeaking ' the Brhadaranyaka-U panijad

a-saf
Is,

may be

taken to stand

for the

pair

however, pure conjecture in the of opposites .Sat iramea , and framed

in m

th the

Vedle Origin of
as well as

the

Sankhya Dialectic
as
well be taken to

29
correspond to
sat

Taittinya-Upammd**
of the

may

the sat-asat pair

hymn of

creation.

In that

case,

would mean immortal

and a-sat Thus


the

(satya) and mortal (ait-fta) respectively. terms 'a-sat' and 'tamos' occurring in the creation hymn become

synonymous.

The Toga-Sutra appears


nomenclature:
standing
respectively
for

to refer to the

guna-trikgy under a different


activity

'prakala-kriya-sthtti.'
sattva, rajas,

literally, light,

and

inertia,
to'

and

tamos.

This, too,

serves

buttress the above thesis.

From
'a-sat,

the foregoing considerations, rajas, and sat of the creation

the conclusion

is

irresistible

that

hymn

precursors

of the

and prototypes of Sankhya system,


interesting
<

the three

of the guna-s - tamas,

Rg ~ Veda
rajas,

are

the

and

sattva -

From an
that the terms

passage

in the
'sat'

a-sat', 'rajas',

and

of (he

Taittinya-Brahmana, it appears hymn of creation are also

of the three worlds earth, firmament, and the solar world. We have seen that the opening verse of the creation hymn says that (originally) there was neither sal, nor rajas, nor asat. The unmistakable import of this statement is that there was
nothing whatever.

identifiable with the Vedic triad

The

Taittinya Brahamana

also has

it

that

first

there

was

nothing

whatever

(naiva Idncand) and, -rather in explanation of the 'nothing whatever', hastens to add that 'there was no solar world no earth no

(dyo),

(prtliiui),

firma-

ment

(antariksa)'

101

- none

of the

three worlds.
triads:

So, there appears to be

an agreement between the following


A-sat

Rajas

Sat
solar world
is

Earth
Incidentally, the

Firmament
Vedic-Brshmanic
'one' of the

something inscrutable, the

pure void. It is creation-hymn already referred to.


'nothing'

not

That

is

why

the

and gave birth of creation) who created the world. 103 The
trilogies related

Brahmana text adds that the 'nothing' decided to 'be'. 1 " 2 to the mind (manas), which begot Prajapati (the lord of
to the trilogy

of guna-s and discused above


:

are

culled below for a synoptic view of the matter

Tamas
Earth

Rajas

Sattva
|

Firmament Sun
Energy Middle
Air/Indra
Light
|

Dream Dark/Black Red


Slumber
Solid A-sat

Wakefulness

White

Darkness

Liquid

Heat
Sat
Being

Below
Fire

Above
|

Rajas

Sun
Visnu

Nothing
A-sat'

Becoming
nor a-sat

Rudra/Siva

Brahman
(masculine) Creation

Neither sat Sat

Chaos
Night

Cosmos
Day

A-sat
|

Dawn

Both sat and a-sat


Activity

Sat

Inertia

Light

j,j

Harsh Retrain

In fid, there ate

hundreds of
Saltee,

(riiogies

corresponding

to the Saiikhya

,rkf
lasts.

,v

uf

KW-S

called

Ryx, and

Teams,

scattered

in ancient

"Our Aim

being simply to

trace the origin

of the

a-trilogy in the

Brahmanic and Upanisadic) literature, to-phiteopiMCiii Ve4ic {including

nd
The
*ft t

sot try to explore them question arises,


if the
it

all

in the present paper.

Saiikhya dialectic has such


djserve
to

modest

origins
it

out in this paper, does

be taken so seriously as

has
in

alo long been, as a fundamental


ii in

casmoiogical principle?

Our reply
this

is

affirmative.
(hat,

Our

well considered

opinion, not discussed in


its

paper,

vthitcvMit might have


key to the
it,
it

been in

origins,

the

Sankhya

dialectic

provide* a wonderful

understanding of
entitled

which
,'f

te;Hi.m,

we lake
Sankhya

was

Vedic cosmology, for Vedsnta long before the inception

the extant

texts.

Great thoughts are often found to have humble

.bfginningt like ihe rose which originates


jrigiru! Ideas are occasioned by remotest
1 lersni at th, farthest

from

mud.

possible similarities

Sometimes, highly between (he

remove from each other. -But our present project does

permit * proper probe into this issue,

foot
i,

wits
(Varanasi
:

H'.fth Narain. Solution of Dialectic in Western thought <!, 1973), |j, 2,


<i\is

Motilal Benarsi-

1 jMtfjwW
31.34
ff,

{Goraihpiir Gita Press) 18.40;

Mahabharata (Gorakhpur
:

Gita Press)

Df'i-njj/Mitu, Ramatej* I'andc, ed. (Vanarasi


Cp, MaklbhSrata Santi-Parvan 187.25

Pandit Pustkalaya, 1969) 6.30.43-51;


12,4 describing

and Anusasanaparva

the three ismas ai attributes of soul (Jiva-gunah); 280.4, describing the as identic*} with the Lord

three

gunas

(NarayanStmakan),

3,

Biwfa**/

(iita

18,

passim;

Mahabh&rata.

SSnti

Parvan

19},
:

33-40;

'

248,22-24'

36.4-7; 39.1-3; Vsyu-PurTina (Bombay Sri Venkatesvara Sttun prw. 1933], Ponirdha 5.16-17; Karma Puram, Rama Shankara Bhattacharya tVanuiMi Indological Book House, 1967, 2 92; SSnkhyS KSrika with SSHchyaiaifakiumfi, Ganga Hath Jha and Har Datt Sharma, eds. (2nd ed,, Poona Ori tatai Book Agency, 19M), 28-31. 12-13,
.4.
:

Xinuncdhilw-Parvan

pp,

t."Stnklt)iatatvalttui*wili 13, pp. 30-31.


5,

MvH-Smrii, with

***
.

No,

SSnti rtrvan 233.20.

n4{y

MamarthawkiSvali, Gopala Shastri Nene, na K Choklmrnba Sanskrit Series Office.


Kesheo

ed.

Kashi Sanskrit

1935),!. 26; Mahtbhcirata

&i. Vna
?J).

Dtw,

ed.

(Bombay

Ni raaya- sagar Press g

'

ii-rlrs-Sshlfta 1,34, 66-67, 140.


?,

I9221 19 *>'

AfftireJii, fenti Par van 219.25.

'

^Sl'm.^'^
fa

#/

M!m Ml

SOf"'-V <

Vo1

'

^Cambridge University
J

P reSS

9,

T,
'

Brrow. -Samkrit Raj', BTO^S,


S SllWil ,- U1I),

WOA
(

X,
77,

p. 469,

quoted in

A B Vin
93

B,,-

Vol.

10.

t. ,ud,j M-

Jbn,,

&rfr

Sfc%

No. 2 (April-June,

Wfee Publication Fund


:
.

^ ^92
}

9
:

Vol

Asiatk Society. 19J7), pp. 34-41.


11.

XV

Lo!d on (London

p R

ya!

naigttpta, p.

223,

Vedic Origin of the Sahkhya Dialectic


No.
7, S.

3;

K. Belvalkar,

ed.

(Poona

Bhandarkar

oriental

pp. 311-314.
13.

Research Institute, 1934)


'

See,
9.54;

for

example,

Kalidasa,

Raghuram'sa (Lucknow
Acharya,

Nawalkishore

Press

KmnarsamMava, Narayan Rama


1955),
4.15,

1896)

ed. (14th ed.,

Sagar Press,

29- for
ed.,

'guna' as

bowstring;

A, Chmnaswami

Shastri,

Kashi

Sanskrit Series,

khamba
merit,
follows.

Sanskrit Series

Bombay Nirnaya BaudhSyana-DharnmWo No. 104 (Varanasi Chow:

Office.

1934) 211?,...* , 2515j, *..^,ii., needs

41 19 t.i.ii,

10.

->/

/o

lor

worth, virtue.

Guna

*guna' as
as strand

as quality

no introduction, and guna

14
15

Keith, p. 313.

Yajur-veda (Taittinya-Samhita) with

Sayana's
:

shrarni ed., Bibliotheca Indica (Calcutta


16.

VfdSnliaprakS'so, Satyavrata Asiatic Society of Bengal,


11)99)

Sama "

(Saunaka safnMts), Shripada Damodara Svadhyaya Mandala, 1943), 10.0-43.


Keith,
p.

Atharva-veda

7242
'

Satavalekar'a

'

ed' fOiinlh

17.
18.
a

313.
:

Mahubhasya (Varanasi
MahabhSrata,
as 'guna-s'.
I

Motilal Banarasidaa, 1967) 5.1. Up.


ff,

5.

Mahabharata, S:anti~Parva 320.103


Sffnti-Parvan
16, 22-28; 295.2. Op. 320.

19.

194.15,

29-30; 219.25;

248, passim

275 25

23-

9fl<:

103-1.3 describing
1

mind

cannot bring myself to endorse Buitenen'i interpretation m^an '(evolved) form of being in his 'Studies in
,

(manas), intellect (buddhi)

etc

SSnkhya'

of BhSva ' to

TAOS Vnl

IR
'

3 (July-September, 1956), pp. 153-157, Alharvaveda (Saunaka-Samhitn} 10.8.4321. Ibid 8-2.1. 22. Vyasa-Bhasya, with Yoga-Sutra, Goswami Darnodara

No.

20.

Series,

No. 110 (Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit


p.

Shastri, ed.,
Office

Kashi

Series

19351 *'

411
'

BhSmati 2,U;
23.

352;

Sanskrit Ai \ Pv 415;
'

See, for example, Rg-Veda

Maxmuller,

eel,

(Stkala.&Mta) with Sy.na'. Vedarth-pnKSta F Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series, work No. 99


(Varanasi' Chowkl, B
3 J; '

M
i,
'
'

'

Office, 19G6), 1.22^7-lB; 1.95.3; 1.146.1; 1.164.20; 2 40.4; 10.45. 1-2; Atharva-Veda (Saunaka-Samhlta)
3.21.7; 8.1.11.

sij)

'

^
'

3!

24.
25.

Rg-Veda (^akala-Samhitg)
10.88.10.

1.34.

See. for example, ibid, 1.95,3; 1.146.1; 3.20.2; 3.26,7; 4.1.7; 10.27.

1045

2 JU 104*9 46 y
-

'

'

'

26

See

for example, ibid

1.95.3; 10.45.1-2;

10.88.10.

Of

the last

verse,

we

follow the
'

interpretation given by Sakapnni. See Yaska, Nirukta, with Durga's Nirukta Vrtti V. K. Rajavade, ed. (Poona: Anandadirama, 1921, 1926), 7.7.5 Also see Atharva Veda Saunaka-Samhita 3.21.7; 8 1.11.

Sa m hita) 10.631;
.

12.3.20; A'tareya-BrSlnmna, Wasudeva La xman Sharma Pansier and Krishnambhatta Gore, cds. (Bombay: Nirnaya-SaRar Press, 192-j) 1.5 8Satapatha BrShmava, Satyavrata Samashrami, ed. (Calcutta: Royal Asiatic
7.3.

C P>

(Paradi:

28.

Yajur-Vcda

Yajur-Veda ( MSdhyandina-SaMitS), Sl.ripada Damodara Satavalekara Svadhyaya Mandala, 1957), 17.67,68; Yajtir-Veda Toittiriya-SaMito 465 ( MSdhyandin-Samhtta 3 5,37; 7.29; 8,^3; 23.8; 36.3;
Yajur-V^da

Society 'l903)

ed'

3 4'

'(Taitti

riya-SatoMta) 1.6.2.2; 5.5.5.3; 7.4.20.1;


29. 30.

and

in several

other Vedic texts

Rg-Vecia (Sakala-Samhita) 5.606.


Ibid

W.K^Atlwva-Veda^aunaka-Samhitii)
(Sakala-Stimhitfi) 1.50.1Q.

10.7.8; Yaj

31.

pg-Veda

Harsh Naraln
_jj

y>

7,2.4.2. tttfw4*flfe (Talttinya SafnfiiK)

M-

Safapatha-Brahmana
1.191.6;

14.7.1,9.

34

jff^'eJj

^Skala-SaMta)
6.120.2,

1,89.4;

190.7;

1,164.33;

6.51.5.

Atharva-veda

f,eafatfia-Br>:kmat,a 14.4.3.1 1;

Taittinya-Bralimaiia

V.S. R. Narayana

'\MwSMlw

i.
faff a
tli

Shastri, ed;

Sanstm

Series,

No. 37 (Poona: Anandashrama, 1934, 1938), 2.1.8.1.

12.9.2.12.

57

I'l.ta

with Sayaija-Bhasya. I'urwrdLa 45. b7. Cp, Taittinya-Ara^yaka, Vaiudf-uShasiriAbhyankaraand Ganesh Shastri Joshi, eds. Anandashrama,
No. 36 (3rd ed.

Series
as
j

Poona; Anandashrama, 1967, 1969). Prapathaka 10


22;

Mrfyava-Upanisad), AnuvSka,

Mahanarayana Upanisad

14.1.

iyrA/a-5un,A;lo) 1,22.17-18; 1.154, passim; 7.100,3-4.


2.8.

We

follow

akapuni'a

s<-,

-,h!ir*tjstim given in Nirakla 3.2,

t>j* fur

example, ibid
18,2,49.

34.8; 2,27.8-9; 4,53.5; -7.87.5j 7.104.11;

Atharva-veda (Saunaka
to

-Senhttl
.

Sw, FT

fxanipSe,

Athana-Veda
jolar world.

(Sauintka-Safnhita) 4-14,3;

which refers

fourth

wwM
41.

bfyond the

,MM>>& l^Au/a-5wA/()
fi,M V,

1.56.5; 1.G2.5; 1.84.1;

1.124.5;

1.168.6;

1.187,4;

2.40.3;

X*fs-rfdla

(baunaka-Saftihita} 4.25.2; 7,25.1; 7.41.1;

10.3.9; 13.2.8; 13.2.43;

YaJHf-ffia (MecUtfandina-SaniMla) 13.44.

41 S?**jj4?frt

Pa 3W
fif-JVas
(

M. Mattu-Snift! 12

40;

Bhagavad-GitS

14.18;

Mahabharata,
1,30.3;

Santi-

47.

4'
44,

^/*afa-VB"Ai/) 1.139.11; Atharva-Veda (Saunaka-Sfimhita)

109.12;

hS'Vtdi

\tljtle-Sambiii 10.158,1; JWrttte 7.2.1.


(.ttate-SaHihiii)

41
4*.
*

%-l>&

1.22.16-21.

J teM->ff-JWia;a
Ujs-ifttr.''!.,

1.1.1. ftg--fcrfff (gakala-Samhita) 1.27,10; 3-2.5; 4.3.1. PurvJnJha 5.14. 'Agnirapi Rudra ucyate 'Nimkta' 10.1.7.

4'.

W/rt">rf.Mpa/.'d</,
irltt t
j

Narayana

Rama

thtw

rcferre.l to infra

(5th ed.

tt

\g-ltttt ih'iataSamltiiif) 10.129,3;


5.2.

Acharya, ed., with 119 other Upanisads Bombay; Nirnaya-Sagar Press, 1948), 5,2. Matm-Smvti 1.5.

4. ^aif'id'r.rpcai'aJ
so
*l.

Cp. Mahabharata,

^Snti-Parvan

194.33;

219,31-

247.22"

Unmt'&iftrtt 1.52, /*.

^jws^B'fWte
Wrf. la.Uii.

(Gorakhpur: Oita Press) 11.25,20. Cp. note 33 '

supra

"

52,

'

"* M ***

8 B Shastri, ed. (Varana.i:

10

3,20.

io)

9.2;
'

mi.
6,2.3-4-

10,5;

r>

Cp.

). B -.^ >-n Mahabharata Santi- Parvan

64
.

Vol 7 ;
_

1,2 1-2,

59.
'

Cp

tl

P ?_ Ferfa

17.26 definmg ms

sa f as sat

10

ttuth,

goodness,

K beauty,
'

modernizing! y

J.J-2 ..M>. .Cn

3191 3,19.1.

*>
62,

Taitttriya-UpaiilMd 2,6-7,

Vedlc Origin of the Ssiikhya Dialectic


64.

33

65.
66. 68. 69.

DaySnanda. ffgvedtidiltliasyci-Bfnimikii (Ajmer: Vaitlika Yantraiaya, 2008 Anno Vikrami) p. 131, Here DaySnanda is not a trinitaria;), which he is in his Satyartha-PrakTisa. Sayana on fig-Veda (Sakala-Sainhita) 10.129.1. 67. Mann-Smrti 1.5. Satapatha-Bralumna 14.4.2.15.
fig-Veda (Sakala-SaMta)
10.5.7.

Cp. Atharva-Veda (saitnaka-Samhita} 10.7.10; 17.1.19.

Sayana on Rg-Veda
Sarikara ad Ibid.

(s<ikala-Sa,hhita) 10,5.7.
72.

71.
73.

As

in

70. Taittinya-Upanisad note 70. supra.

2.7.

74.
75. 77.

Rg-Veda (SAKALk-Safahita) 10.72.2.3; Atharva-Veda (Stumaka-Safnhita) 10.7.25. Sayana on Rg-Veda (Sakala-Samhita) 10.72.2, 76. Sayana ad Ibid. gatapatha-Brahmana 6.1.1.1. Plato, Timaeus, The Dialogues of Plato, B. Jowctt, tr. (4th dl, Oxford: Clarendon
press; 1953), Slab. 52b.

78.

79.
82. 83.

Taittiriya-Upanisad 2.1; ChTindogya-Vpatiisad, 1.9.1; 8.14.1. 81. Sayana ad 80, Ibid 10.5.3.2. Satapatha-Brahmana 10.5.3.1. Nirukta 7.7.1, read with Durga's Comments thereon.

Ibid.

BfhadSranyaka-Upani }ad
Ibid 1.4.10.
Ibid 1,3,28,

1,2.1.

84.
85.
86.

Mundaka-Upanisad
2.6.12;

2.2.1; Sveta'svntara-Upnnifad 4.18; Bliagavad-Gifii 13.12.

87.

Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad
Taittinya Upanisad

4.5.15,

Cp. Kena-Upanlsad

1.4;

Katha-UPanisad

1.2.20;
7,

88.

2.4; Sveta'svatara-Upanisad Pra'sna-Upanisad 2.5; Bhagavad-Gltri 9.19; 11,37.

1.8;

MmitJTikya-Upanisad

89. 91.

/J^-Fefto (Sakala-SamhitS) 10,129.2.

90.

Katlta-Upariisad 1.2.20, for

example

17.1.19;
92.

Rg-veda (Sakala-Samhita') 10.129,4. Cp, Atharva-Veda ($atinaka-Safiihita4.l.l; 10.7,10; Yajur-Veda (Madhyandina-Samlutii) 13.3. Vol. 77, No. 2 (April-June, 1957), p, (III) JAOS. Buitenen, 'Stxidics in Sankhya
1 ,

106, note 80.


93.
94.

Mahabharata Santi-Parvan 216.1


Ibid 216.16-1 7; 217, 15-16,

6-18; 217.16.

95.
97.

Atharva-Veda (gaunaka-Samliita) 8.2.1-2.

90.
98.

Sniikhya-Karika 12-13.

99.

Rg-Veda (Sakala-Samhita) 10.129.3. Taitnnya-Vpanisad 2,6. l'J2. 101. Tahtlnya-Brahmana 2.2.9.1.


Satnbodhi 4.1

Brhsdaranyaka-Upanisad

2.3.1,

100. Yoga-STiira,

Vyasa-BhSgya 2.18.

Ibid 2.2.9.1.

103. Ibid 2.2.9.40.

THE TREATMENT OF SUSPENSE (KATHA-RASA) AS A CONSCIOUS NARRATIVE SKILL IN DHANAPALA'STILAKMAN/ARI*


N, M. Kansara
create an illusion of reality in his listeners or raadsn; and a sure means to this end is to audience in suspense sj that it is to) much interested to have any time to reason and so .spoil its own enjoyment; any deviation from

successful writer of a narrative must

the

mind of

hold the

the legitimate unfolding of the plot the suspense, which is inherent in

of the Problem, with


the s^ory.
*

its

breaks the continuity of any unsolved Problem, and the solution attendant removal of the is the end
it

is

fatal

as

suspense,

of

one

at

that,

Dhanapsla, being a skillful narrator, and a highly concious seems to have been pretty aware of these requirements He
a

therefore, fully employed his skill in weaving his plot in such maintain constant interest of the audience in his narrative."

way'asto

The

story of the Tilakamanjari

of Ayodhya, king Megbavshana, and his wish to undertake the


progeny. So
tions.
far,

begins with the description of the


his

city

queen,

their lack of

a male

issue

propitiation

of

some

deity to ensure

male

the interest

is

generally sustained by the novelty of descrio. v

The introduction of

the flying

Vrdyadhara

Muni

who

birth of a son, and imparts to that end the Aparajitg Vidya, marks the beginning of the suspense, and we do not expect that we shall meet with
this

predicts

the

same Vidyadhara Muni

again,

till

his identity

is

very

by the poet, towards the end of the story, by informing same Maharsi who had imparted the to
Vidya

skillfully revealed
It

us that

was
*

this

king Meghavahana.
.

The advent of

the

Vaimanika god named

Jvalanaprabha

is

also very

since it heralds his purposefully skillful, impending descent to the human world by his gift of the Candratapa necklace to the king. The poet has here quietly introduced the necklace which is intended to be a reminder to PriyaAgusundari, when she is later on born as Tilakamafljari of her love with Jvalanaprabha." Thus the future role of the necklace has been faintly indicated by the poet well in advance in a skillfully casual manner at- tb6' very outset of the story.

could ever expect that this same the narrative to rescue Samaraketu and

Who

suspense really gathers strength with the sudden But^the appearance of the Vetala who introduces himself as an attendance of the Goddess Sri i-

Mahodara would

turn up again in Malayasundari and actually inform.

,,.
of
'.''

ft,

M. Kansara
he happens
to

about
the wring

it

quite

when unexpectedly
?*

exchange words with

Gsndhamka

The words
ifidiratfly the

of the Goddess Sn that the Candratapa necklace^, to Prince Harivahana lialsiuna ring too, was to be presented

and

ben tie ct'tnes of age and that it sound very innocent the batiks and calamitous situations,"

should be always kept with

him during
till

and natural

me come

Jv

Vajrsyudha Ptince Harivahana, the hero or the main of the by -plot,' to unite him with
plot.

that this ring enabled the commander quite unexpectedly to capture Samaraketu, the hero to win the losing battle* and

know

The

ring'

and

the necklace

later

on remind Matayasundan and


11

Tila-

katateijan

their past births. respectively of

The

sudden

night-attack

on Vajrsyudha's
which
is

forces.'by

Samaraketu"

farther enhance* the suspense

resolved oniy
military

when we

know

that

V,ffdiia had
MaJayasuridari

asked,

as

a pries of

peace,

for the

hand of

who had

in marriage to mentally offered herself


to help

Samaraketu,

ted

the litter

had na other choice but

her father and

win her over

* from him honourably. 1

The poet has

skillfully

dropped an advance hint

about

ii

in the course

14 of bis description of the battle,

and
the

it

is

only

much

15 later in the narrative

that

we come

to

know about

connection

of te. deputation on military mission to Kaflci


sundari ind she consequent night-attack,

with his love for Malaya-

The enigmatic verse"


raka in the

in the

anonymous
testifies

love-letter,

found by Mafijithat

Mattakokila garden,
reveal*
its

to the

conscious art of the poet

who

speciticalJy

significance

through
past

Harivahana's words

perfeaps

Samaraketu
of
the

was reminded

of his

experiences, thus rousing

the. curiosity

audience as to the tragic love-affair

of

Samaraketu

and
intetade about Taraka, the sailor
gives

youth, and his marriage

with

an

of Sa&tiakatd's natal

unexpected turn to the smoothly sailing narrative expedition and provides him a companion who is

neafitte enable him 'cross over the ocean; 19 but in fact he becomes iestttwwte! in almost drowning him, aad consequently, his beloved too,
-by
fiis
liffl, '.though

at

his

own
girl

request,

to the

island
,

where the prince


to grief.

tetew
fetal

with to' unknown

Malayasundanall

and comes

Ttest

oomequeiicea

are

not at

clear

till

the poet

unfolds the
>

events at their proper

places.

The ratpeoce about


iihsd
with
ia toe turbnknt
its-

the sudden alluring music

ocean
spirits,

conjures up an

unfrequented atmosphere of a fairy tale


turns out
to

from the

nymphs and

but

unexpectedly

be the music
'a

of ibe Holy-Bath

Ceremony

at the

temple of

Lord

'Manama,"

most

The Treatment of Suspense

in

Dhtnapula's Tilakamaftjan

37

unimaginable place for worldly affairs like youthful passion; but it is the holiness of this place that comes to the succuor of the damned lovers. 38

The poet's mastery at creating suspense is very much evident when he brings the account of Samaraketu upto a point at which the latter sees the

unknown
artist

introducing the portrait of Tilakamafljm.


in

the

girl (Malayasundan), and he abruptly drops the account by The consciousness of the literary Dhanapala becomes quite transparent here as he slyly alludes to the audience of whose interest in the frame of the narrative response

has so far been

well-sustained, 3 *

The presentation of the portrait of a young girl, and through it the entry of Gandharvaka, has been skillfully utilized to introduce TUakamaftjan and inweave the episode regarding as a male-hater (purusa-dvesini],
Gandharvadatta.

The

poet

confounds the

audience

by

throwing

in

number of

abaut probable causes of Tilakaraanjari's joint suggestions aversion to males, 25 the reason being revealed at a very late stage in the 20 that a human The suggestion narrative. prince was the destined match
for heri" faintly betrays the possibility of Harivahana's chance. The unspecified task 2S for wnich Gandharvaka was directed to go to Vicitravirya at the Suvela

mountain has been

disclosed later

on when

the aeroplane

of

thrown away into the Gandharvaka is Adrstapara lake by enraged Mahodara. 29 The insertion of the confirmation of the identity of Gandhawhich is but satisfied only rvadatta rouses the when curiosity partially

Malayasundan

is

interrogated

by Vicitravirya

81

and the determination

of

in bringing about the union of Samaraketu this identity is very essential with Malayasundan, as it. attracts the assistance of the superhuman agency 38 in the form of Patralekha and Vicitravirya.

In the simple casual promise of

Gandharvaka

to

Harivahana that he

will

AyodhyS and do a portrait of the prince, unless he is not held up on his way to Trikata mountain, the poet shrewdly implants the seed of 33 The element of suspense the incident of Mahodara's curse to Gandharvaka. 34 begins to sprout when Gandharvaka does not return to Ayodhya. Likewise
return to
the casual polite

"istaphaladnyakam"

promise containing the adjectives "sakalsrthidruwasya" and by which Gandharvaka qualifies Harivahana and his
pregnant
with dramatic irony suggestive

feet respectively, 85 is very

of the

80 who is later on panegyric verse about Harivahana sung by Gandharvaka, S7 The rid of the cursed state of a parrot at the hands of the prince, expres-

sion of the natural aspiration

vshana so

as to allay Tilakamafljan's

of Gandharvaka to draw a portrait of Hariaversion to males 88 is an advance

suggestion about Harivahana's being her destined lover. Likewise, the usual customary remarks of Harivahana to departing Gandharvaka that the latter should not forget the brief acquaintance" is related to the task of carrying
40 messages by the parrot.

N. M. Katlsara
.
.

[fee
.

sntf

addressed to Malaya, htjaeo purpose of the letter of Samaraketu is disclosed MtJed over by Harivahana to Gandharvaka"

MjU)a>uiidan
enth
jivcf
ttf'tr,jf

suddenly finds

it

tied

So her

garment, and
2

consequ-

suicide again.* up the idea of committing


,1*

as brtra>i his consciousness

an

artist

when he seeks
in

to

enhance

tw rat fc
,

<tf

ltne

of 'Harivahana
imagination

fur

Tilakamafijan, and almost challenges

n eMm*
*

our

as to the

manner

which
43

Harivahana

its be made

to reach the

remote

region of the Vidyadhras.

By inttt'Juctng
it

the incident

of the

mad

elephant to be pacifhd

by

the

U*M!

r-

m of Hativahana, and
away,"
In the

the elephant suddenly flying

and kidnaus

pj-inp she prince

poet catches us by surprise

and leaving

t**WtU
Mt
ctrtH-rf,

and

qunelv pa^CN on

now happen to the prince, he galling as to what will 1 Samaraketu's search operation. * The suspense inten-

bn

small

t'wl

was, of <he poet slyly drops in the news that the elephant teetered bat the whereabouts of the prince were untracable." This here is taken up later on to lay bare how introduced Willfully
tnt

Ctra<n^}i touL

form of the prince's

elephant,

4'

at the

instance of

49 Cin^bt*akcj,* wbu bad promised to meet the prince again . Ibe sudden arrival of Paritosa with a message from Kamalagupta adds the to tfce * fleet of susipens.e especially when the former reports about

iiig

incident of carryiBjBterkms auival of the message and equally surprising 50 It is noteworthy that the A*a,y of the reply message by a parrot.
letter

poet gives oat the contents of the


tbut jmfltfj

only after giving the


tactics. 61

full

m$

the

molted
into A
fes
ttofe

only

hen

by the delaying Gandbatvaka relates as to


suspense

background,; This mystery is

poet
tfi<e

paiot and how he carried the it evident in the remarks which

how he was transformed 53 The self-conciousness of messages.


indirectly

draw our attention


of the riddle

to

of the incident (of the mysterious


'be audieace,

taking

away of the message by


is

a parrel w

at the

same

time, the solution

wgfe*wd
fete

in the last

alternative of the

remarks."

And

the poet drives at

inirrtmity s? displajed in this

wonderful parrot-episode. 54

Ta

beightea the suspense about the neighing of horses heard


utilizes

rak^a, Libaeapala

the former's curiosity

by Satnaand poses a number of

ateitttiw
Tfcc pct*t

powibilities of

ew
ibs

gathering so

many

art

unfolds
the

itself as

in a place nearby. he gives put the last alternative.*?

horses

Tfee eowsiotts

ariist in

tfps&
and

to

at
fee

Mast!

peeps in etgiaved in the Jaiqa temple


poet again

when Samaraketu.
at

Mount

Ekagrriga,

underwent and the strange proclaims the uniqueness of the situations so far, tbu< JBdirectly directing our attention to their excellence in the of story oat only that he is also conscious about the the j plausibility of the " 4eiiaa*ti0a of various incidents. 8

rfrcaptolst!!^ the strange experience that he


tfeat

plas

reached,

TM

The Treatment of Suspense

in

Dhanapslefs Tllahnatjan

39

..

Dhanapala's conscious effort at enhancing the curiosity of the audience most transparent when he poses a series of
questions
relating to

plot and ,ts progress.'* And, when, through comments on the parrot-episode, one can

the

the reply of Gandharvaka

he

easily gather that

relates about his having incurred the curse from Mahodara And the conscious plan in the plot is suggested when the poet indirectly consoles us that the rest of the incidents beginning with the departure of Gandharvaka to his meeting with Samaraketu at Mount Ekairft-a will be narrated in due course. 2

parrot-episode fa Banas Kadambar, contrast to the one Dhanapala has himself utilised The series of solutions and their points of impjausibili^ are skillfully employed to argument the effect of suspense. The real cause is revealed when

these^cornments

are ainoed at the

most probably

irnplousibility

of the

Gandharvaka

The
the
side

hint about the attempted suicide by the princess, of Harivahana creates curiosity which is

now

relaxing by

doubled

verse of the panegyric

who

by

the

allegorically

being caused in entering the city of Rathanspuwcakravsla" The lenerfw description of the Vaitadhya mountain only serves to heighten the effect of already roused curiosity till the poet himself at last feels it is sufficiently aroused,'* and proceeds to pick up the thread of the narrative from the point at which Harivahana was kidnapped by the flying elephant and indi cates the missing links in the story narrated so far. The leisurely unfoldlnJ of the story is in the manner of dangling a carrot in front of a donkey impelling it to go on and on. Likewise, the poet promises that the storv to be unfolded henceforward is also full of pleasant surprises and express confidence as to his capacity to hold the iaterest of the audience bv y hi s 65 narrative
skill.

reminds the prince about the delay

,is

forth to rationalize the accident of

mystery of the flying eleohant given in the reflections of Harivahana, and the element of destiny Is nu
the flying elephant

faint indication of the solution of the

carrying

particularly to the region of the Vaitadhya

the nrin P

mountain."

the unexpectedness of the situation is fu ii v plioted by the poet for propounding the typical Jajnistic ideas about the .nature of the worldly happiness and this in its own turn
also

The suspense based on

heighten our

serves to tn ^rves

curiosity.-*

poet again betrays his consciousness as a narrator when he closes the connection of the portrait of Tilakamanjari with his

The

dis

Vaitsdhya region which

arrival at the

is

recognized

to

him

in the portrait. 80

be identical with the one seen hy


related
tragic

The induction of the long narrative prelude'" with the comment that it comprises a series of

by Malaysnttdan
incidents'"
!s

eommon

device aimed

at

fanning

the

curiosity

of

the

audience

and

JV.

M. Kansara
to give a

them
|IW

for a

seeks change as the poet

turn to the narra-

creates the interest since

about ^prediction by VasurSta it is not known


to
fulfil

the marriage

of

Malayasundan"
be the beloved

as yet that she is to

of Sanarakeiu and going

the conditions.

The narrative
with

purpose

of the prediction
Vldtravirya and
71

is

out in the course of partly given

the dialogue between

Malayasundan,

where

it

is

connected

identity of

Gaadhrvadatts.

Dhanapala has dexterously


dhatas that they kidnap
as suspense in surprise by

utilized the
girls;

human

and

it

the Vidyspopular belief about is a potent means of creating


full

much

as the poet

has

made

use

of the technique of

chamber

at

group unexpected surroundings in the midst of situated on the remote island


incident of kidnapping of

was sleeping in her palace bedmaking Malayasundan who as though in a dream, in totally KaAct, wake up quite unexpectedly, of princesses gathered in a Jaina temple of a
the

southern ocean.' 4

This

Malayasundan

has been cleverly

made
as

instrumental in

Ratnakuia by the Vidyadharas she was to bringing her there where


to

meet her

lover,

55

as Pilysriivada. in illusion or a

was predicted by Jayantaswarm, in her former birth This whole incident keeps us guessing as to whether it is dream " It is partly resolved when Tapanavega is ordered
this

to her palace,' 8 though b\ Victtravirya to take Malayasundan back incognito

not fully until we are assured by the poet later on that 70 an illusion, nor a dream, but a concrete reality.

all

was

neither

The
tips
is

in holding the credulity poet's mastery

of the audience to his fingerhe keeps up the element of

witnessed in the dexterity

with

which

between Malayasundan and Vicitravjrya, 80 wherein iuspense in the dialogue of the indetity of Gandharvadatta is kept hanging 81 and, the auproblem dience almost forgets that the poet has already dropped
solution well in advance in the talk

the hint about

its

between Harivahana and Gandharvaka. 93

In this dialogue, again, the poet has

sown

the

seeds of

further suspense

when Malayasundan

declares that her maternal

grandfather

was a

'hermit'

(tapasa)/ thus giving an advance suggestion about the incident of Gandharvadatts's transportation to the Prasantavaira hermitage ofKulapati Santatapa;s*
it

has been hinted at also in the words


lies in

of

Gandharvadatta

herself.es

The

poet's skill

the fact that in spite of ail these

advance hints he could

sustain the suspense successfully to the ultimate delight of,

and consequent

applause from, the audience.

And
kin.s*

see the

poet's versatile art in

slyly

inserting

the prediction by

Muni Mahayasas about


which
fate

the

union of

Gandharvadatta

with her kith and

dosed

Th

proves to be the vital key to unlock the otherwise of the so far impossible union of Samaraketu and Malayaundans', poet is conscious enough to paint out to some of the minor missing

in turn

The Treatment of Suspense


links in the story disclosed so far
in turn
is

in

Dhanapala's Tilakamanjan
to the solutions

41
this

and

thereof> and

would

to further enkindle the curiosity of the audience! And hardly the audience remember that the mission entrusted by Vicitravirya to

meant

Citralekha to verify the identity


closed to

of Gandhrvadtts,s

has already been disstirred at the sight

sort of dramatic irony, temple was actually built by her 9 previous birth as Priyarhvads. " Similarly, the sight of the image of Mahavira arouses her longings regarding some beloved seen in past 83 and it

them long back. 80 memories of Malayasundarj slightly the temple of Mabavira at Ratnakuta 01 serve as a

The

faint

of

referring as

it

does

to the fact that this

serves as an advance suggestion about her being the beloved of Sumali during her former birth as Priyamvada. 04 The poet's consiousness as a narrator again comes to the surface when he assures us, through the words of Tsraka, that he has some plan ready up his sleeves to bring about the union of Samaraketu with Malayasundan 95

The poet is very double-entendre based


,

much

conscious,

again, about the ingenious device of

on meaning

(artha-slesa)

employed
for
if

in the invocation
8

apparently addressed to the boat but actually meant he draws our attention to it four times. 97 And as

Malayasundri, " that not satisfied with this

much, Dhanapala cleverly brings into, and the purposes served by,

out the

various good qualities that


invocation.**

went

the composition of the

The dramatic
sharply
tells

irony

is

again utilized

when Malayasundan

somewhat

the son of the temple-priest

cipal jewel (also

her

beloved hero Samarketu)


to

that she would take to the prinwhen the latter happens to

come

to Kaflci."

These same

words have been repeated when Samaraketu

relates his past experiences

Malayasundan.""
at

When Malayasundan swoons


her

on

the

rampart of the temple

on finding that the princess accompanying Ratnakuta have suddenly disappeared, 101
incident of this disappearance to the

the poet skillfully


effect

subordinates the

of

it

revealed.

was

first

on Malaysundari whose subconscious yearnings are thereby The audience does not know for certain whether Malayasundan made invisible to Samaraketu for a while,103 though even after
to witness the suicidal

that she

was present there

attempt of the love-lorn


suit there

prince to
after.
109

drown himself, and she The poet seems to have


the audience
104

also followed
deliberately kept
is

and then soon


facts

certain

uncleared

in order to leave

guessing as

clear

from

the remarks of

Malayasundan.

Future incidents are


the future marriage of

Malayasundan

indicated by means of dramatic irony cuggesting with Samaraketu.WE and this serves

to enhance our curiosity as to

how

the poet

is

going to manage
into the ocean. 1 '18

this

when
poet

he

made both

these

lovers

drown themselves

The

$ambodhi 44

12

ff..

M, Kansara
by assuring
us,

consciously Indicates his future plan

through the words of


be

BandnuMJndari,

'hat

though drowned

Samaraketu

will

saved and he

would

set

out

in search

of Malayasundan. 1 " 7
is

The

rationaliiy of

the poet

remarkably

noteworthy

when he brings
very

the hopelessly desperate lovers, viz.,

Samaraketu

and Malayasundan,
the

near to each

other without

their

knowledge when

former

has

been

passing his night alone in the temple


at Kiificj,l9

of Cupid in the

while the latter reaches the door of the

Kusumakara park temple and bows down


is

to the deity

from outside

lest

somebody might notice her as she

out to

commit

1 suicide. *'

Dhanapsla
he
tries

is

highly

conscious of

his

plot-construction

in

so far

as

to carry his audience with

the narrative progresses

from point

him by recapitulating the past events as fo point, That is why he takes such an
beginning with

opportunity of

summing up

the incidents

transportation to the temple at

Ratnaktita and ending with the

Malayasundarfs end of her

unconsciousness

consequent to the strangling

by hanging
miising

herself.'" Again,

Dhanapala

during her attempt at suicide draws our attention to certain

links,

through

the reflection

of Malayasundan.J" to enhance the

suspense and indicate the course of future events yet to be narrated. Similary, the recapitulation

by the

poet about the events after


supplies

Malayasundarj's

attempt at hanging

herself11 *

the missing

links in the narrative

much

In the

manner of a

veritable

Visknmbhaka

in a Sanskrit

drama.

The use of identical situations in which the companion forcibly makes one of the lovers bow down to the other, as in the cases of Samaraketu" 8 and Malayasundanm would naturally tickle the audience. So would a sort of a telepathic Instinct of both the lovers to commit suicidem create
them. The recounting of tragic past events through the answers of Samualnta.to the question of Malayasundan, has also been used
interest

In

tbo poet to bring the

narrative

Memt

uptodate, though

he further keeps

by UD the

by'leaving

the

problem

NYCQ.

of Samaraketu's rescue from the ocean

The dramatic irony


HA
***

in the
*

u .lL.

WSth

"**-_

doubt expressed by
I

Samaraketu as
the audience

to *''' his *"">

the T, flftue to* I"


,

Malayasundri

ls

meant

to

k<*P

hurdles that

guessing

wh

might be coming
of

in the path of their r

the transportation

happj app

ptt

SDfetap..and

the night-attack by

Rum

captured alive by the forces of Vajrsyudha. marriage i s when King

peeled Samaraketu rescued

to the hermitage of Samaraketu who is thereby The li nk ta the pa th of their Kusuma^ekhara Co mes to know

Malayasundan

how

Malayasundan while she had thrown


being

The Treatment of Suspense

in

Dhanapala's Tilakamahjan

43

in

Dhanapala may not be taxing our credulity a little too much when, and point out a doubt,117 he his anxiety to summarize the past events
sailing

expects us to belive that the .crew

down below

could

listen

to the

remarks of Malayasundari apparently addressed to the temple-priest boy. The poet certainly intends here to exploit the remarks fully for the purpose
of drawing our attention to his ingenuity as to the clue provided well in advance to Samaraketu for tracing the whereabouts of the unknown
beloved,
viz.,

highly transparent in the

Malayasundarj. The purposefulness of this recapitulation is remark with reference to the letter from the father
connected
is

of Samaraketu, 118 the contents whereof are of the siege of Kanci by Vajrayudha.no It

with

the

incident

now

only that

we

gather the

purpose of Vajaryudha episode, viz. to bring about the martial nature of Samaraketu and his love for Malayasundari for whose sake he mounted the
12 night attack. o

The incident is recollected again in the brought by a Brahmin at the Prasantavaira hermitage.^i The
evident
poet's minute care for gathering the

form

of

news

threads
is

of the
to

narrative

is

when we

notice

how

Gundharvaclatta

made

know about

her

father Vicitravirya, the


the latter reports to

Bandhusundan when her how her daughter Malayasuiidan tried to commit


is

Vidysdhara emperor, through

suicide.^

Dhanapala's

skill

again evident when he cuts short the narrative on

echoes the curiosity of the audience linking the threads of It and also about the part of the narrative now left untold. J2a The element of suspense is again introduced when Malayasundarj, who swooned on the sea-shore near the Prasantavaira hermitage, suddenly found herself in a wooden aeroplane floating in the waters of
the Adrsta-

para lake situated thousands of miles


suspense
is

resolved

aeroplane there

away from the hermitage. '21 The when we know how Mahodara had angrily thrown the when he cursed Gandharvaka.^ The event is
events

intelligently

exploited to recapitulate past

under the

pretext of

reflections

of

Malayasundari. 126
Scarcely
utly

do we remember
to

found tied

the skirt

which Malayasundari accideof her garment,^ the one that was handed
mystery as to

that the letter,

over to Gandharvaka by Prince Harivahana.ia* The came to be tied to the skirt of


11

how

it

Malayasundan's garment is unveiled oniy when Gandharvaka relates about his curse.^ The suspense as to why Gandharvaka could not return* is resolved only when he discloses how while returning from the Suvela mountain he happened to see unconscious Malayasundari lying on the sea-shore, and how in a bid to search some medicinal herb to counter the
11 ''

effect

of

poisonous

fruit

she had eaten, he incurred the curse of

the aeroplaae, with

Malayasundari lying unconscious

in

Mahodara, and how in it, was thrown

$4
the Adpttpsra Wte.

N.

M.

Kansara
the audience
to

The poet reminds

of GtndhifVBkt when Malsyasundan happens

about tbJs episode meet Patralekha.'sa

and also with Patralekha The relation of Gaadharvadatta with Citralekha


diickwed

hea Citralekhri introduces

Malayasundarj and
the

summarizes
3*

the incident about the Jailer's the jK*et


'
1
'

transportation by

Vidyadharas.'

And

tragic,

wants us to note that the account of Malay asund an is ceaselessly ' meant as it is to illustrate the inexorability of the Law of Karma.
of the episode of the love-affair
137

The moral

between

Safflirtltta has been skillfully put forth in so

many words

Malayasundarj and in the form of

While the poet has indicated poiJowphieaJ reflections of Harivahana. that the process of reaping the consequences of evil deeds by Malayasundan w no* aitnos! over, 138 as a result of her worship at the Siddhayatana
temple, and
etc.,

we

are

still

deliberately

left

in the

dark as to what
misery. It
is

was
later

that evil deed far which she


os,

was subjected

fo so

much

diidoscd in the form of Priyaftgusundan's

anxiety for

when

the former entrusts the care of her temple to the


poet's conscious art
is

Priyamvada 139 Goddess Sri, 1 "


1
'

T*

again to be witnessed when, while


1

summa-

he attempts at enhancing the susSarnaraketu, situation in view of the more evident when Dhanapala resumes the account of Hiv.iijaRa by changing the focus from one scene to another in order
rtzinj the events about

*1

by pointing out the incompatibility of the


links.
1

musing

*2

It

is

to bring

tlje

account uptodate. 14 *

A
earrj

frail element of suspense, with a seed of its solution, is introduced


Maiitj.asuadiifi
regrets that
in

not

even a bird

is

at her

a messtfe, 1 " and

disposal to

response

to that

utterance

tpe&kiog-ia
entries ibe
ii

human

tongue, suddenly comes


1

down from

The typically Jainistic message away. rationality of Dhanapala be sJjly makes his parrot say "Paksi-mpl nabhascaro'ham"^ word 'nabhascara' is a double-meaning one as an jtdjwtiw oMmog 'the one soaring in the sky', and a substantive meaning *a Vidjidlttra*. The categorical remark of Harivahana as to the parrot's being Mtnebody dw tban a mere bird,"' is also meant to rouse our curiosity wlticto is dkjed'.hter on in the account of Gandharvaka i The s

"

of hers a parrot a nearby tree and

wta

ia wfefcfa expression the

casual

Bitnrtive

wmtrk..^., "Kamalaguptaw guptena bhulva satvaram


fe*to*

h meant

avaih
as

to justify the incidents

previously narrated

Harivahana

almost

from

The
K tie

-mwn *hy
ladies,."
is

Prinee

Harivahana

first

saw

fresh

describes how they ran awa'as the deptaoi embed **> the waters of the Adniapara lake in The fad deal of Htnvstaitt't first meeting with Tilakamanjan in the briefly from the latter's point of

railed when he

footprints

and

%i B

view,^

The Treatment of Suspense


narration 1 ' 4 of
the narration
it

in

Dhanapala' s Tilakamanjari

45

being from the prince's view point. of the cause of, love-sick condition

The news about, and


of

Tilakamanjari 158

arouses our curiosity especially in view of her aversion for males. 150
poet seizes an opportunity to summarize the events about Harivahana in the form of his reflections in response to the tragic tale of

The

Malayasundari.
fully revealed

"

Similarly, the consciousness of

Dhanapala as an

artist

is

158 of course in a quite different recounts, context, Tilakamafijarj did not show even the common courtesy of speaking to him when he first happened to meet her in the creaper-bower.

when he

how

A simple casual question from Mrgankaiekha as to whether Harivahana could see the beauty of the city of Rathanapuracakravala, and his equally natural reply that it cannot be called 'seen' till he has the opportunity to
see
it

leisurely

the magic mantle later on,

and unobserved by anybody,* " is which inducts further


relieved of the curse of
It

really

meant

to

introduce

element

of suspense as

Gandharvaka

is

own Vidyadhara form. lfio

is

becoming a parrot and resumes his resolved in Gandharvaka's narration about

having incurred the curse of Mahodara. Here, the return of Gandharvaka in the form of a parrot^ is, introduced at a poiut when Harivahana has at only just arrived Rathanapuracakravala. The message brought by Gandharvaka induces Harivahana to return to 1 '^ and
the rest of the events in

The importance
poet in that
it

is

Ayodhya precipitates the in a quick succession. of the magic mantle is stressed by the consciously said to be invisible .and to be felt by touch only; and

TM

other divine qualities of the mantle, such as its power to make one inviare also listed, the last to rid one of a one, viz curse, being skillfully put at the end of the Hst.J Wo are rather amused when the poet expresses, through Harivahana, his satisfaction at the narrative
sible, etc.,
,

served by the magic mantle in the narrative,"* introduce the tragic account of Gandharvaka,*" threads of the narrative.

purpose

and

skillfully utilizes it

to

as he

now
Thus

gat , Jera

the

us that

Dhanapala is very particular about minor Gandharvaka had tied the to

details.

he

informs

ment"
at

upper garment over unconscious body of Malayasundari,"' since it is now only that we know how Malavasundan acctdently found the message tied to the skirt of her garment and that the seeming accident was after all no accident at all The lamentation of Tarangalekha nhen Malayasundar, ate the poison
ous
fruit

are told by

Ayodhya. The strategic importance of Gandharvaka how he spread his

the skirt of hJs message upper gar before he set out for the Suvela mountain after meeting Harivahana
this detail is realized

when we

and swooned,!
1

is

skillfully utilized
in

to

attract

Gandharvaka
mountain.
'9

who was

the attention

of

returning

an

aeroplane

from

the

Suvela -JUVCM

4$

JV,

M. Kansara
as

Manodara

is

again

referred to

having

assumed

the

form

or'

the identity of Veiala 1 '" in order to remind the audience about Mahodara, Vetala who tested the the ihe Yaksa attendant of the Goddess Sri, and

devotion of

King
(

Meghavahana,
)

The missing
and

links as to the

rescue

of

Samaraketu

along with Taraka

Malayasundari after

they

tried to

drown themselves

into the ocean, are

supplied here by revealing


lovers

that

it

was Mahodara who saved


iheir respective places

these
1

desperate

and reached

them
in

to

safely.

'

However, the

little

doubt lurks

our
is

mind
also

a& to

why Mahodara should have


when, in response
to the

taken the trouble.


request by

This doubt

removed

Priyangusundari
,

the

Oldens
one
vads
at

Sri entrusts the task of guarding both the Jaina temples, viz

the

built by

the

Ratnakata

Priyangusundari at Mount Ekasrnga and the other by PriyamI7a who therefore island, to the care of Mahodara,
interested in averting the

was naturally

mishap in
to

order to prevent

the

defilement of the holy premises.

The

end of the

curse of
gift

Mahodara

Gandharvaka
It is

is

stipulated

to

be only by grace - or
e'enicnt

- of the Goddess Sn. 1 ' 3

noteworthy that

the

of accident

is

not wholly irrational

and

is

justified

by

as Sn the case of
<Jtera,
tJI

Gandharvaka, who, remembering that he came down from the tree when Malayasundari invoked the help of a Wrd OT a Vidyadhara to carry a message of Harivahana, who had asked

Dhanapala was Vidys-

him not

to forget his acquaintance in times of need. It is here that the mystery of the parrot who carried the messages of Harivahana and of is The speech of Gandharvaka is revealed.!" Ktuialagupta skillfully utilized

by the poet to recapitulte past events and show

their

interrelationship.
to

"

couple
7

of missing links are

also

indicated

in

order

maintain

the

interest!"

though the solutions to these have been indirectly revealed


of the poet
sent by
is is

long

back, 1

The
of the
after

skill

again witnessed when

we

find that the contents

letter

Gandharvaka

rid

Karoalagupta as a reply!?" are of Mahodara's curse, and the

revealed

only

'.utilized for

providing a reason for sending Harivahana Sn search of Samaraketu. "o Malayasundarj's doubt

message is further back to Ayodhya about the identity of

Samuiietuiri

the identity of

Tiw casual
mastery of

our curiosity to be allayed, later on when him with Sumalj in his former birth^a i s disclosed reference to impending arrival of Harivahana and his the mystic Vidyss'^ is intended to suggest the incidents to be
is

meant to 'rouse

narrated shortly,
incident of the

viz.,

the propitiation of the mystic

Vidyas by him

is*

The

of Tilakamaftjan.iw- which was referred to in connection with the account of Gandharvaka, IBS j s again adduced to with reference to the love-lorn condition of Tilakamafijatj. 187 The Candrstapa necklace and the Bslanma are
portrait

She narrative at the proper juncture towards

the

ring close

^introduced

In

of the

nwraSS L

The Treatment
the

of Suspense in Dhanapala's Tilakamanjari

47

most natural manner 1 " 8 already suggested long back. 180


of the events of the
presentation of the necklace

The recounting

lere

serves to

remind the

audience about the original thread

by Jvalanaprabha of the narrative

ind prepares them for final revelation of the identities of pairs of lovers of past birth. The presentation of the necklace and the ring to Tilakamanjari

and Malayasundari

respectively

by

Harivabana

is

also justified

by the

100 poet in a very convincing manner.

The element of suspense is aga!n introduced in the message from rilakaman.^n after she is reminded of Jvalanaprabha at the sight of the 191 and 192 necklace, generates desperation in Harivahana, thereby preparing
him
for propitiation of the mystic Vidyss

by rousing bis sense of

pity

for

Anangarati by referring to
3ousins

how
it

the

latter

who usurped

his
to

kingdom.
by

10 !*

was rendered homeless by his The process of unfolding is skillfully


the

utilized to further

add

boxing

account of

Vikramabahu. 194

curiosity is heightened by referring to some confirmation received by Virasena from the Munis on Astapada. 105 The Illusory aspect of the episode af Anangarati is also revealed in so many words. 1B

Our

The sad news about Tilakamanjari


Gandharvaka 19 '

and

Malayasundari

brought by

is but an attempt by the poet to wind up the story by supplying the remaining links of the story, while at the same time sustain108 ing the interest right upto the end. It is but a projection of past events

utilized for bringing the narrative uptodate

by shifting the focus by means


riddle of
Sniro-

of boxing technique.

The suspense

is

completely resolved by the revelation of the


10

past births by Maharsi,

whose

identity with the

Vid \adhara
slightly

Muni
and

duced in the beginnig of the prose-romance 200


indicated.
201

is .but

carefully

The
last

poet's skill at sustaining the interest in the narrative right upto the

page of his novel is seen as we notice how he keeps the audience oscillating between hope and despair when just after the appearance of some bad 202 Sandipana brings the sad news about the attempted suicide by omens,

Harivshana and Tilakamaftjari's

desperate resolve to follow suit. 203 The element of accident in the timely arrival of Prakarsa with a message from Gakrasena urging Tilakamaftjarj to postpone her retolve of committing
serves to enhance our curiosity, suicide for six months though relevant events have already b^en described in detail only recently. 20 "
204

the

The conscious
audience
about
the necklace to

art

tie the

of Dhanapala is again seen when he reminds the events right from the moment Tilakamanjari saw

last

day

of six-monthly postponement of her

resolve

commit suicide, and brings.,the suspense to a final end by using it as a means to rouse the memories of Harivghana about his past birth, 200 The
to
to the past events poet again points out

.beginning with the questions put

4S

N. M. Kansara

and ending with his meeting the latter sitting by Samarsketu to Harivsbana into the Vidyadhara with Tilakaroanjari, just before his ceremonial entrance
city called

Gaganavallabha.

2 '7

Samaraketu's sorrow
the audience curious.

on

listening to
is

Harivahana's account 208

still

leaves
is

The

curiosity

heightened
of two

when Malayasundari
births

introduced

to

Samaraketu

as a beloved
refers
it

m pranafun}
to
till

and Samaraketu

to

some

injustice

(janma-dvayadone by him2io
rather

her

wirhout

specifying what

was, also leaves


fled to

us

guessing
flirt

we remember how, as Sumali, he had 2" with leaving Priyarhvada


Svayamprabha,
lastly,

Nandjavaradvipa to

in the Iurch.2i2
artist

And

the poet

is

quite a conscious

when
for

he
to

poses

the

question about the possibility of Samaraketu being

known

Vicitravirya

and the former's

being selected as

worthy

match

Malayasundari

213 inspite of the objections of the relatives,

give solution, with

reference to

the predictions

and immediately proceeds to by Vasurata and Muni

Mahayasas.2"
Thus, Dhanapala has exhibited his complete mastery over the rare art of interweaving minute details of twin plots and their numerous motifs in
a highly organized plot in which each detail a skillful

manner

The treatment of suspense


matic
level in his

is revealed gradually in such enhance the suspense with reference to another. hands of Dhanapala has reached the draprose romance. Inspite of a couple of still unresolved loose

as to serve to

at the

ends
krit

in the

plot's Dhanapala

still

remains unrivalled in the

field

of Sans-

prose-romance

in so far as the artistic skill

Interest through a highly

of sustaining the narrative dramatic and well-organized plot -construction is

concerned.
References
Being a part of Chapter
^

XIV

of

my

thesis

approved for

the Ph.

Maharaja Sayajirao University, Baroda, in 1972; I am thankful to the" Faculty of Arts for the kind permission to publish the thesis 1. Kobald Knight, A Guide to Fiction Writing (2n d .Edn,) London, 1947
2, cf.

degree by the

Dean
pp

of the

43-45

Tilakamafijari-TM (N), p.3, Intro,

vs.

18:

alto,

cf. ibid., p. 7, vs,

Sat-katha-rasa-vandhyesu nibandhesu niyojitah / Nicesv iva bhavanty arthah P rsy o vairasya hetavah 50 d:
'

//

sphutsdbhuta-rasa racita katheyam

//

S,

cf.,

ibid.,

pp. 34-45,

The
6.

Treatment of Suspense

in Dhcnajftila's Tilafianiafijon

49
tu

cf.,

ibid.,

p. 44

(I5ff.)

Durlbhttta cvaisa

me

svarga-cyulasya

Grhitas

kadacin
/

manusya-loke labdha-Janmanali pmiar-anruidayali dntim is|at;una-dat'BUnarh cainaih Amara-lokacyuta kala-kramena dcvy apt me priyai'igUHiimlari kntliicid alokayati
Darsanabhyasajanita-piirvajSti-smrtis
7.
cf., ibid.,
cf.,
c;a

smarati
srih
10,
12.
/

Hit:.

p. 49 (9ff.)

iyam asmat-sviuninl
ff.).

N.

cf.,

ibid.,

pp. 381-383.

9.

ibid., p.

CO (17-23); 61 (15 326 (6-20).


321 (15-23).

of., ibid.,
cl'.,

pp. ltl-95.

11. 13.
15. 16.

cf.,'ibid.,
cf.,
cf.,

pp. 404-405.
p.

ibid., pp.

83-93.

ibid,,

14.

el'.,

ibid., p. <)5 (7ff.).

ibid., p.

cf,,

p. .109 (13-14):

Gurubliir adattiiih voclluun vufichnii

iniiiu akraniiil
//

tvain acircua

Sthatasi patra-padapa-i;abane tatr;inlikastli;T|jnih


17.
cf'.,

kacciu na may! jalpaii jalam uinitapaditymah sva-vrttan~ id.su tasya kasyacid akasmikimi sinaranam / ibid,, p. 114 (3lf) Nijuyaivu prajfiayS niveditas te sakalo' pi siimiiuy^iia in;td dui.ikha-vi'Uaiiluh /.
ibid, p. 113 (14ff.)
;

18.

cf.,
cf.,

ibid.,

pp. 126-130,

cf., ibid., p. cf.,

I,I'M

(M-ff,).

20.

ibid., p.

292

(Iff.).

21. 23.

ibid., p.

HI

(12 21).

22. 24.

cf.,

ibid., pp.
ibid.,
p.

268-269.
101
(15ff.),

cf.,

Hi

Icatlui

319 (HUT.). 382 (("iff,), wui'kfiipla cctasi sva-vriuinlaiu iivcilayati satna,

cf

ibid., p.

raketuu

nikala-palisnmleklii!

likhiia

iva

pasyati

ladiya uiuUhaiii

aliliiinuklm-dra

sabhya-Joke

slathikrtii '!(ara-.li allies'/ aharriayiitsu

,'i:ikii[nli;iliuii
f'.iiM.'ii

jiniarii 'nt:irU--vi.si&rita-

-luirsa-kolahalesu

-piUnHju saraaatam kathfi-pafijanisya l>andi vrndc.


fiija cf., ibid.,
cf.,
cf.,

pradluma

pi'iicalhu

liaprapficum

itkarnayiui

25.

p.

169 (JUT.).

2(i.
!l.

cf..
cf.,
c.f.,

ii.id.,

ji.
I',

410
17(1

(I'.HT.).
(Jfiff.).
(2t)IT.).

27. 29.
31.

ibid., p.

109

(20ff.).

ibid.,
il>i\|.;

ibid,, p, 341

(15ff.),

37

(13-14).

30.

p.

170

cf.,
cf.,

ibid,,
ibid.,

pp. 271-274,
pp. 3K1-383,
p.

82.
31,

cf.,
cl'.,

ibid., p.
ibid,, p.
j:ia

34?. (Hlf,),
J7<( (2j,

423 (9-20).
lulra.
/

33.
35.

Akriagamucu

cf., ibid.,

171
tc

(15ff.)

punarapi

diaslavyarn
/

jdinla-iiiiyaktiii

siiknlft'nhi-

kalpadrumasya
36.
38.
40. 42.
cf.,

carana -pravfila .ydgraaiu


(17IT.).

ibid., p.

222

37,

of.,

ibid,, p. ibid., p.
p.

37f
173 173

(I7fi'.).
(t

cf., ibid,,

p.

171 (17ff.).

39. 41.

cf,,

2}.

cf., ibid.,

p. 384 (9-10).

cf., ibid.,

(4-51),

cf,, ibid.,
cf., ibid.,

pp.
p.

338-339.

43.

176

(20ff.):

Kasya krarni?yate

tad.-<lL'Lt-|;ttinaiMipayetti buddliih /
/

Knsym

44. 45. 46.

sShayakena setsyati tayS saha Baniagaina-^H'.lptili cf., ibid., pp. 184-187.


cf., ibid.,
cf.

p. 187 (5ff.).

ibid., p.

189
/

(16IT.):

Na

Icuvalarii gainiuia-niiji-gab so 'pi dii* jSimll

p*pa~karniabhlr
/

dfjto 'smabhih
47.
cf., ibid.,

Kevalam

sa

mi

'nli

saiiala -iiiudiiii-rakra-candi'ama'li fcitrnfirah

387

(<lff.):
/

Kuniilra,

<lui'fdiat.i

iiluin /

Na

hi

hliiliiiigiitiira-4arenur
piinuii
nvastlifinain

anta*
fiyati
/

rikseria saficarati

Na

ca ptificatva-fjatin tfnaiva vapujtt


'pi
/

Tan na
48.
cf.,

so 'yaw

Anyah ko
ff.):

ibid., p.

380 (21

Avilatubn daiva yogn't

s;ti'ijii(a<i

tutah iisipram eva


/

bliavatfi
hi gatc'nfi-

parityakta-purusa-rUponti rtUlianupuriicnkraviilaiii
'ncna mahatt kSryasidillur asmiikam
/;

ktintfirti iir'lftvyah

"i'ntri*

2 19 (5-7); S!)2 (0

11)

Mayaiva gandliarvakakrtS'paliaram

prSrthitena atta-dvirada-rapena lauhitya-tiijit-p,-(ri'atij>vyiil,i


.

kuraJru-

j^
.

JV".

M. Kansas
50.
52.
cf. 5

rf.. *

iW..
>

P.
r,

171

<H-"J.
18<

ibid., pp.

19M 85.
parthivaitah

*,

V "

d
'

nui

cf., ibid.,

p. 384- (9-13).

rr.'iWd'V 1^ (Z-7)Vai n va-pBtir f v"i ,rltff


to

npi

jSui-visrnayah

saha'ntikasthcna

abhyarthana'nantaram

eva taru-akharBd

,; mttrnah dm tva difa


kakW
*k?
P
p

kin. nimittaih ea lefcbo 'ya

amunS

grhltal...

kim vs'vilambita-gatir
suka-vya-

iirityi prasthitah,
isi

kim paramSrlha^ iuto cvayam uta


/

jena
54
cf.

divyah-

kfti'neka-vikalpah

r;r

(>)

sarva-jana-vismaya-kararii
ht.svid
i

Suka-vyatikaram.
'vatlrnah

^'ef."ibW ""

^03iI?-lJ.

ambarM svayam evB


anyatamah

wBtum

sapta-ttpB.

HtW.p<lUtv a . W ,vidyadt, i.5 ? am


'" 5fc
ef.,

katamo'pi

kan^aniyoddekdarlana-

ibk!,,p.

2:0 iW>; Samprati

hi

diyate

darkniya-kathaaam
/

mudra

Kriyate

tfsaivi^itwaiiu
57, "

iuv[tiih, vitlryate aa-atya-darbnasyodakafijaini.


;Si!,)

cf

jhiil, p.

220

Kati.aih nu nania'sya

pranina

iva

kansnycna

karma-pariapi

mait-vikssl

ifiSjurU.,-,

jnayauianfi

api

kena prakarena vamyante, varnyamSnfi


/

lay* yukty* patasya ptaiitivjsayani aropyante


!l,
S9,
<tf, j5

Wd.,

p.

223 (223ffj
<:Qff,
);

.....

cf,> ibid., p,

224

Auupajata-pratijiiatfiriha-nirvgheria yuktiyuktam
'pi

apy ucyamanam
Idrsam
srai.va

klttrkrtt,
c

lim prmaJ' aiainbhSii^'amanataya wiujanasya


piati hhJisam

hasya-vfddhi-hetur
'pi

CA

vifa<i

atidirgha-kalam

anubhutam ,atmana

lad \ksra-cawra-buddhch
avaiarisyati
/

katliyaniSnath

mahabhagasya

na sakyate katham

W
61.,

tf,, ibid,, p.

225

j,!!tj:
S: c.

divyair apy aiakya-pratikaram

vyasanam

Spanno

'stniti pra-

tfakta-wrwjclh.arn,
cf,,

'

ibM., pp. 373-38*.


ibid.
i

':

42.

ct

p.

22;

(J5if.)

pafcltl

akliila-lokotpadita'scaryam asmad-vrttantam aparam


ta d api

J,

py ajodhyS-nii'gainat-prabhrti yat pf5{ ain d., ibid., P. :32 {4ft .}.


1

sarvara

kramena

jnaiasi

64.

cf.,

ibid., p. 24J

1,7-21),

Twi* *vS 'rfa>a yaths


63,
ef..

Tad vttwm

astfirii

tavad

asya

sikharino

darsana-vyavarnanani
/

8di(ah prabhrli sar/am atmlyam vrttantam

<*!., p. 241 {20iT.) YuvarSja, katlinyami

yadi

te

kautukam

Avahito

bhava

Atfeavlt inaaii

'M:yarthaneyam

Ayam
/

eva

bhumna

nirantarS 'scarya-raso

raadiya-

tftttntah iatraj-aiy svadiiSnavaiUam


,

cf.,

W4,
:

p. 243. (Jff.)

67.

cf.,

ibid., p. p.

259 (1-4). 250


(19ff.)

tf., ibid., p.

244 323).
259

69.

cf., ibid.,

W,

cl,,-iWd. s pp.259-3-5.
(llff,),

"1, cf, ibid., p.

Kim nu

sarvada sukhocitasya tena


/

kificid

aneka-duhkha/

-para.Bspr4-viraeaa iruicni 'nena plialam

Atha kutuhalara tatah


273 (3-10;! pp, 276-292
p.

enmu

n,
7f.
76.

cf., JfeML, p.

263

tS.N>J,

73. 75.

cf., ibid,,

cf., ibid., pp.- 264-2*55.


cf'-,

cf, ibid.,

iha.,p, 40,
itvid,.,

(22ii }

77. cf.

p, 265U,?ff,);

"Kaccin mays svapno 'yam anubhHyate,


iti

vibhramo va'yam
cintayanti,
f

iadtivtolia isidra -jIam va kenS 'py upadarsitam etat


78.
cf,,

punah punas

ibid., p,
."
.

274
.

(20ff.);
:

Ate

tapanavega

ptipayainSm

pracchanna-rupSra

eva

ef, ibid., p.292U9ff,j, Apasjia-svapna-darsina-fefikS ca tedavalokanena sakalamapi


rfttri-

vftttntam' Rviutham

m*nyamSna,.

/
'

'''.
-

80.

cf.,

Wd., pp, 2?0-2?3.

.:

The Treatment of Suspense


81,
82cf.,

in

Dhanapala's Tilakamanjari
/

57

ibid.,

p 273
170

(22fl>)

Arya kim karomi


/

Etad api srutva na

me

nisarga-durvi-

dagdham sraddadhati dagdha-hrdayarn


cf-,

ibid,, p.

(20ff-)

ya

sa

gandharvadatteti
saiva

nama-samyad

upajata-saridchena

devasya 'tmaja gandharvadatta yato. maya; gatva svayarh drsta ity avadharya karyo na devana tarn prati sandehah / 83- cf-, ibid., p. 271 (20ff.> Vatse, kas tasySh pita / Tata, tapasah kas cit / 84- cf-, ibid-, pp. 342-343. .;-

tatha-srta devena

purvam

asit,

8586-

cf., ibid-,
f

ham apunya-bhagini
ibid., p.
/

272 (14ff.) Bhagavan, akhila-bhuvana-vikhyata-vidyadhara-vamsa-sambhya sisur eva nagara-viplave viyukta bandhubhih /


.

.'

cf,,

dhubhih

87.

ef-, ibid.,

p.

punar adisa kada bhavisyati me samagamo ban-': Mahabhage, yada taveyam ayusmti duhita-ityadi kirn apy avadit / 274 (5ff.). Yadi sa satyara eva vatsS gandharvadatta tatah asya eva
273
(Iff.),

tat praslda

malayasundai'ya vivahasamayo rnayavia prastutah sadliayita 88. cf., ibid., p, 273 (15-19).

89. 91.

cf., ibid., p.

274

(3ff.)

90. See supra,


cf.,

ft,

nt. 82.

TlVt (N), p.

275

(5ff-).

dptain iva pura, sevitam iva bhavantare,

karitam
/

iva'
'

'

traana, parimalitam iva sarvakalam avalokya prita-hrdaya

pr5sadam

9293-

cf-,

ibid-, p.
p.

cf-, ibid-,

408 (942). 275 (17ff-) Srudha-gatjhotkantha' smarantiva

purvasaihsrstasya kasyacid
/
;

abhista-janasya nirnimittodirna-manyuvega" kampita-kuca-yuga-

949596-

cf; ibid.,

p.,

cf-, ibid., p-

407 (13-15)281 (20ff-). Yatha samarthyam avasare


283-286-

'sya

yatnam ahameva

cintayi;-

y3rni
cf-,

ibid-, pp.

97-

cf-, ibid-, p-

tvad-arthe mayettham abbyarthita

lam

296

(18ff-)-

(18ff-). Yeyam abhyarna aste ati-rnpa-dhariny avanipala-nandant sa /; 287 (11) Nau-prasadana-nibbena pravartita bahuNau-stava-chadinana vidhaya tarn tatha-vidha-prarthanam /; 320. Yat tada samudrodare nau-stava-chadmana tvadarthe krta-prarthanasya ./ (2ff-) 99cf.,

286

98- cf-, ibid-, p. 287 (3-16)1OO. cf-, ibid-, p- 320 (20-23). 1O2. cf.. ibid., p. 289 (17ff.); sahaiva
"

ibid-, p.

288 (20-23). 290 (1-H).


tirodhSya
.

101-

cf-.ibid-, p.

pai'ijanena sa tava pranayini sva-saktya


/

pasyata eva

me
294

nita kalscid api rnayavibhih

"103.
104.
105,

cf.;
cf., cf,,

ibid, pp. 290-292.


ibid., p.

(llff,);
(8ff.);

Aham

tu jata-vismayS..., &c.
/

.....'' .'.-..
Na
tad~bhasito
".

ibid p. 295

'rthah kadacid visarhvadati

Avitathadeso hi tatrabhavan Sryavasufatah /, &c.


107. cf, ibid., p. 296 (5ff).
109.
111.
cf.,
cf.,

106.

cf., cf., cf.,

ibid,, p. 292 (2-6).


ibid., p. ibid., p.

1O8. 110. 112. 113,


114.

324 (13-14). 310 (4-17). 314 (8-12). 286 (6ff.);

ibid,, p.
ibid., p.

305(16-17).
312
(11-17).

cf., ibid,, p.

cf

ibid., p.

ity

udirya kandhara-nihita-panis (am

me

rirpa-kumara^h,

udirya kandhara-lujhita-panih prathama-darsana-trap's -vikuncita-smitardra-nayana-taraka tasya mam pranSmatn akSrayat / ' .'" 1 15. cf., ibid., p. 324 (10-14). 116. cf., ibid , p. 318 (21-22); pasa-ccheda-vihita' sinat-prana-rak?e sithhalenra-sQnau
ity
.
.

caranayor apatayat / cf., ibid,, p. 314 (16ff.J;

bandhu-buddhim abadhnat
cf,, ibid., p, cf., ibid,, p.

117. 119.

321 (1-5).
82ff,

118.

cf.,

ibid., p.

311 U9ff).

j^
120.

JV.

M, Kansara

cf,

ibid.,

pp. 325-326, also 339(5-8).

JtulvS
Prit

tyadbhutam asmad-aji-lalitam vaitalikebhyah prage kafici-narSdhSpat tava sakliim prapyadara-prarthitam


* ti

Vci4''lSsnl

wanoratliali

...

&c.
122.
cf.,

121. cf, ibid., p. 331 (15-20).


123, cf., ibid., p. 332 (1-2;,

ibid., p.
iti

327 (1-3).
cintayitva' vadhirita-tad-

"Kim
/

atah parath srotavyam"

faabdha-virta-pirisamSptih
121
cf.,

ibid.,

pp. 336-337.
ity

125. cf., ibid., p. 383 (6ff.j,

udirya

datta-humkarah

sthanastha eva
/

tad-vimanarr

ksthafieid utksipya durara adrstapare sarasi nyaksipat

\K,

ef.,

ibid., p.

337 (19ff.)-338

(3).

1*7.

of.,

ibid.,

pp. 338-339.

128. cf., ibid., p. 173 (4-8).


130.
ef., ibid
,

129.
131.

cf,, cf,,

ibid., p.
ibicl.,

384 (1-3).

d.

170 170 (15ff.), 79 (1).


34! (*lff
/
),

pp. 378-383.

132

cf.. ibid,, p.

kevalam idam na jane sa gandharvako varakah

kam nama

ava-

ijhirii

prSptah

133.

cf., ibid., p.

312

(yff.).

priyathvadaya

yathi sahodari

gatidharvadatta

HIE

fsvasS

yaviyasy asit

&c.

13*. 135136.

cf., ibid., p. cf., ibisl-, pcf-,

343 (I9ff.). 345


(.21)'

amvasSnodvega-karina ciramtanena tasyah

ibid', 3^")
/

(22i'f.)

Aho

niravadlii-pracSro
/

vidliili /

Nasty
gatili

agocarah
sarvatra

pura-kttabhavitavya-

kannanStn
tSyali
/

Asakya-praiJkara knanta-saktih

Avyahata

Il7

cfv

ibid-, p. 3t(5 (1-18).


3-16 (19-20).
/

Ihc

iii

saihsara-sadmani

fee-

US*

cf- ibid., p-

Antam upagatah

samprati

pratikula-cari

visatnayah

sa

le
139-

v^ama-dalS-vipskah
ibid-, p.

giddha simya-siddhayatana-Eeva &crriy.'uigusundan


tv

cf-,

410

(Jiff.):

ajata-pati-sam5gan a
;

'pyarmlpannabhavSntarc

ridvtii

arvravid-vacssi
iti

kifidd-utpanna'ratir

arati-bliagini

bhavisyati
/

varlki stoka-kalam

muhur muhuh priyamvadSm

socayanti

HO.
141,

cf- ( ibid-,
cf., ibid-,
cf-,

pp.

40M10.
(23ff.)

p. 348

142.

ibid-, 347 (7-9): Kevalam "anasanna-deksthena katham ihasthitayas tena samaprao bhvi bhavatjah" ity eiad eva' viditam aste /

M31*4,

cf-,
f.,

iWd-, p. 348 (4-10).


ibid-, p.

Kevalam idam

ksinoti

cetah

&c.
'

348 05ff-J.

Kim

tu vidhi-vaJSd avasare' tra paksimatro


/

pi nikate na-

'ti ksfcin

nabhascaro yas tvadiyavrttantam 5vedayet

I4S, *,. ibid,, pp. 348-349.

M7.

146. cf., ibid., p. 348

(3).
/

cf,, ibid., p.
cf.,
.

m,

*,

348 (6E)i Naisa pak|i-matrah, viii ? ta-jatih kafcid ayara ibid,, pp. 333-385. 149j 349 (1 ff) Ibid., p. 194 (4-6). 151 cf,, ibid ,, p. 245 4 . 9 \ > 3 " i53 cr" ibid " p 354

^m

'

P .250fF.

,.

'

155. cf.,

ibid, pp. 352-35

nagaram"

iti

madhuram

sampaditam abhilasitam

The Treatment of Suspense


165.
166.

in

D liana pfila's

Tilakamafijan

53

cf, ibid., pp. 378-384.


C f.,
ef.,

ibid., p. ibid.,
ibid., ibid.,

167.

168.
170.

cf
cf.

171.

cf.,

ibid.,

378 (15); uttartyMcala-nibaddha-nikalasBmarakeiu-lekhnl ca &c p. 380 (13ff.); pidhaya ca prathlyasS nija-pravarakena sarvaneesu / S pp. 334-337. ibid __ p p. 382 (4); aviskrta-vetala-rupah / p. 382 (11-17).

m^

'

172.

c r., ibid., p. 410 (9-11) Bhadra, tasya priyamvada karitasya" sya Ca priyangusundan-prasadasya pratatmr apy apasta-tandrena bhavata raksaniyah k?udra-lokopadravah /
cf.,

173.

ibid,,

p.

383

(5ff.);
/

na cirad api praktanlm

prakrtim asSdayisyasi vina' sniat-

svamini-prasadam
174.
175.
cf.,
cf.,

ibid., p.
ibid,, p.

385 (22):

purva-jati-smrlis tu tiryaktve 'pi


p.

me

na' payata

173 (1-2); 384 (9-10);

384 (9-12).

176. 177.

cf., ibid.,

p. 384 (2-16).
p.
1

cf.,

ibid.,

384

(I4ff.)i

Kevalam

"iyam bhartr-darika

malayasundarl
safljata.

matraiva titra drsfapara-sarasi katham apeta-visa-yikara mitfam eva 'ham purusarnpata apannah' iti na janami /
178.
cf.,
cf.,

patitanirni-

katham ca

ibid, pp.
ibid., pp.
ibid., p.

173 (1-2)

194-195, 337, 348-349.

179.

13.

194-195. ISO. c f., ibid., p. 384 (20ff.)-385 (20) 385 (6-9). 182. c f.. ibid., pp. 412-413. 390 (22): sampraty upeyuao niravaseSa-vidya-para-darSinah kumaraharivahanasya / 184. cf,, ibid,, pp. 398-401. 185. cf., ibid., 161-173,
181.
cf.,
cf.,

ibid., p.

pp.

186.

cf.,

ibid., p.

378 (1-3):

"Tvam

api

drata
ity

nirvighna-nihitekanena
pnrva-vrttarii

dlrgha-kalam

asya

paramopakfirinah
/

praaadena"

udlrya

'citrapata-vriantam

avedayam
187. 189,
cf.,
cf., cf,, cf., cf.,

ibid., p. 391 (10-13).

188.
190.

cf.,
cf,,

ibid., p.
ibid., p.
ibid., p.
ibid,,
p.-

191.
193.
195.

60 (13-23). 396 <19ff.), 398 (19ff,). 402 (1-3).

ibid., p,

ibid, p, 395 (8-10). 395 (2l)-396

(4)

192,
194.

cf., ibid., p,
cf,,

ibid., pp.

397 (1-14) 401-402.

'

196.

cf.,

ibid.

p.

402

(7);

pray ukta-vidya-pradarsi tarn

paraspara'nurakta-dampati
ibid,, p.

197.

marana-cesfitam / cf., ibid., pp. 404-418.


cf.,

198.

cf.,

404

(19ff.).

199.
201.

ibid., pp.
ft,

406-413.
nt, 4.

200.
202.

cf., ibid., cf.,

pp. 23-25.

See supra,
cf., ibid.,
cf.,

TM

(N), p. 413 (19ff.).

203.

pp. 415-416,

201
iti

cf., ibid.,

p. 417.
prabhrti

205.
206.

ibid.,

pp. 398-402.
(18ff.);

cf, ibid., p. 418

nivedayati

hara-darsanSt

pQrva-vrttam

lilakamafijarl-vrttantatn agrato vinaya-kharve gandharvake sahasaiva purva-janmanubhutam sarvam api girvana-sadanSvasa-Sukham asraaram /
207. cf,
iti ibid., p. 420 (8-10); nivedya vidyadhara-girau kutahala-krta-praSnasya paharatah prabhrti pilrva-vrttatmlyavrttantam /

208. 209.

cf., cf.,

p.

420 (10-15)
421 (15ff.).
ff,);

ibid., p.
ibid.,

210.

cf.,

p 421 (21

Aharii

tu

krta-vipriyah priyamvactS-bhavatah
/

prabhrti

tasySs trapaya

na saknomi viksitum vadanam.


40-41.

211.

cf,,

ibid., pp.

u
"ICf ibid
i)

,N.

M. Kansara

v ieva dvIptotara-vihSra-iiirgatena preyasa .umfili-nfimno hrdaya-bhntayS priyaAvadfi' bhidhanaya praiuktaya bhartv-suhrdah

407(14ff);

1'urvam

tadhSna-devyS
,

213. cf
214.

ibiJ.

PP- H-20P. 263 (2-10);

'

cf., ibid,,

273 (3-19).

215.

Kamara, N. M.,
Intro, p., 25.

Tilaka ffl anjarI- S 5ra of Pallipala DhanapSla,

Ahmedabad,

1969,

owaership and other particulars about Samhodhi the quarterly Journal of L.D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad, to be published the first issue

Statement about

every year after the

last

day of March.

Form
(

iv

See Rule 8

1.

Place of Publication
Periodicity of
Printer's
its

Ahmedabad
Quarterly
1.

2.
3.

Publication

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Swami
Shri

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Nationality

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Address

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2.

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Mandir,
4.

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Publisher's

Name

Nationality

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L.

Address

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5.

Editors'

Names

1.

2.
1.

Dalsukh Malvania Dr. H. C. Bhayani


L.

D.

Institute

of

Indology,

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School of Lauguages, Gujarat


University,

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Signature pf Publisher

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EDITORS

DALSUKH MALVANfA
DR. H. C.

BHAYANI

D.

INSTITUTE OF iMno,

DNTENTS
!

Page

ran of Mudgala Bharmyasva


Fresh Approach

X. 102

Q, Mainkar

~
lasa's

Treatment of the Krsna Legend

23

K, Bhat

^
.

y
The

THE HYMN OF MUDGALA BHARMYA^VA


A FRESH APPROACH
T. G.

(X.102)

MaJnkar
Js

of Mudgala and at the same time very


to be fragmentary
fully

Hymn

Bhsrmyasva (X.102)
interesting one.

a very baffling

hymn
it

As

it is,

the

and

Hymn

appears

Griffith

thinks
offers

it

to be

-impossible to

and

interpret

satisfactorily'.

Ssyana

somewhat

limited help for a satisfac-

tory understanding of the

Hymn

and

therefore Wilson

who

is

Sayaria is also not of much significant use. Ludwig in his effort to understand the hymn in a cogent manner 3s forced to have a recourse to many conjectures. Bloomfield, Geldner, Pischel, Velankar and Dange have also rendered this Hymn, each in his own way. Not being completely satisfied with any of these interpretations though these interpretations are imdoubtedly from very able and competant hands I have here undertaken a study of this very Hymn with a view to offer another interpretation.

seen following

The Hymn clearly centres round an incident in which a certain Mudgala and Mudgalam are involved. Who are these two personalities? According to Velankar, (his is a Brahmin couple while according to Bbomfield, Geldner and others they are a 'sage and his wife'. To
Dange,
are
to

Mudgala and Mudgalam are not proper nouns and these two him 'a village head-man and his wife'. To Dange it appears
sage

however',

according'

improbable that

is

Mudgala and Mudgala and

Mudgala has anything to do with this hymn and he remarks that it pertinent to note that Mudgalam does not come elsewhere as the wife of in the Malmbhsrata there is only a
passing
reference to
his

wife Indrasens and not

Mudgalam. He
it.

explains

away

this reference to the

obscure tradition of the


historical

Vedic hymn and he does not

consider that there

is

fact
to

behind

There

is

however evidence

show

that

Mudgala

Bbarmyasva was

king and Mudgalsni was his wife. Mudgala belonged to the clan of the Trtsus and an account of this particular dynasty is available in the Harivamsa
(32.63-80) and this account is supported by an account available in several Pursnas; thus the Vayu Purana (99,194-210), the Matsya Puraaa (50.1-16), the Brahma Purana (13.93-101), the Visnu PurSna (IV.19.56-72), the

Agni Purana ( 278,18-24), the Garuda Purgna ( I. 140,17-24 ), and the Bhagavata Purana (IX.19.56-72). It will appear that this traditional account upto King Mudgala Bharmyalva is cogently preserved and confusion appears to enter in the account of the princes after Mudgala. Mudgala had two sons
inBrahmistha and Vadhrya^va, The Mahgbbsrata
Sambodhi 4,2
(111.113.23-24) informs
us.

7".

G. Mainkar
illustrious

that

Mudgala's

wife

was Indrasena and she was an

lady

_ as

would appear from her being Epic goes on:

grouped with

other celebrated

ladies.

The

'nalasya vai datnayann yatfia ahhut

yaiha
nit

sad vajradharasya caiva

nuruyan
This a

cendrasenn babhuva vasys

yam mudgalasya njamidha

//

name Indrasena
as
to

appears in the
it

Hymn

of

manner

suggest

being Mudgalam's
bhare
cleirly

name.

Mudgala The

also in such

reference

is

'rathirabhunnuulgaiani gavufau

krtam vyacedindrasena / 2.cd.


expresses
a

The grammatical form 'mudgalain'

the

relation

of the

woman

with

Mudgala while Indrasena


Further

being

co-ordinated with 'nntdgulnri? would appear

to be the

word again 'grammatically proper name of the


the

lady in question.

Bharmyasva. a
the seer of

fact that

Mudgala's father in seems to be conQrmed


is

Puranic accounts

is

in the

Rg-vedic name of

this

Pursctas seem to

'mudgalo bhzrtnyasvah'. The create some confusion in the accounts by mixing up the
given

hymn which

as

two peoples, the Trtsus and the Pancalas, but it is to be remembered that there is a fair agreement in their accounts upto Mudgala Bharmyasva. The family tree would indicate that this king Mudgala and Indrasena
flourished three or four generations prior
central figure in the Dasarajfla
to

Sudasa Paijavana who

is

the

War. The Rgveda as


it
is

times of Sudasa' Paijavana and


,

it is, is largely of the therefore perfectly natural and under-

standable

if

and

his wife

an event of three to four generations earlier involving Mudgala is regarded as an Whasa-akhynna' and becomes a proper

subject

for a ballad.

Mr.
be

Jambunatham
typical

(SP.
a

25.

AIOC
who

1969. p.

13)

regards

Mudgala
god

to

a
his

Vedic tf,

sage,

BhSrmyaiva was a king undoubtedly and yet he was regarded as a sage or a 'maniradrK quite in keeping with the Vedic tradition for there are like Devspi and 'others who
are 'ksatriya' seers.
to Indra
;.tadra

no

worshipped

other

than

mace.

Mudgala

The Vedic hymn of Mudgala makes repeated references


(I.

scekmg

his protection in 'indro avatu'

b),

'antaryaccha
finally

vajram
is

oMadasatap

(3.ab) 'indra udttvat patim'

(7.c)

and

there

the

eulogy of fodra in
it

-tow

atmya

jagatah caksu

view of Mr. Jambunathan Mudgala did not worship any other god than his mace.

would be diaicult

mrf/V (12) and therefore


that the sage

to accept the

'

it

w would be
ullage

"t dSc It?


difficult to

Unif0mly
agree with
,he

aSSertJn8

Similarly y wi h

r yalty

the

Dange
lady
is

that
his

pra

headman

and

md,c.t,on whatsoever

only a wife the h mn

he

Mu dg a,

is

iu this regard.

If at al.

an indicat on

is

many

The Hymn of Mudgala Blmrmyasva (X. 3 102) wives among whom Indrasena had an inferior status, a circumstance that would be more probable in a royal house than in a
hermitage, though

of course we have sages having more than one wives. The War the Chariot, the Driver, Wives, Cattle-wealth -all these items suggest a possibility of Mudgala being a King rather than rs\. He becomes a sage by virtue of bis having seen a hymn, having been a 'mantradrk'. In view of this indi-'
cations from the
I

hymn and
better

also in view of the uniform

Puranic

tradition'

think

it

would
Indrasena
a

accord

with
a

facts

if

Mudgala and
his wife.

his wife

Mudgaiam

are regarded as
royal

King and

So we are

couple and not with a Brahmin couple as Velankar suggests, nor with a sage with Mace as his only god as Jambu* nathan thinks or with a village headman and his wife as Dange suggests.
dealing here with

Geldner has interesting


the view that

suggestions

regarding
an,

this couple.

He

is

of

as the word Mudgalani was young and fair wife of this old man. Geldner further thinks that humourous as well as biting fun has been made of this odd but victorious couple by the spectators of the race in

Mudgala

was

an

old person,

impotent

'vadhri'(l2) suggests.

'esaisya cidrathyn

jayemn

fft/tySnci

kucakrena sincan' (ll) in which they express


fair

their desire to have a ride with the fair

takes

Mudgala

to

be a King and the


for

and young driver Mudgalani. Ludwig Mudgalanj to be a parivrkfn wife, a


her
sterility

neglected wife,

who made amends

by driving her husband's

chariot to victory in a battle and

this triumph of hers restored her to a honourable place among the wives of the King. To Bloomfleld, Mudgalsnr as Indrasena represents the female forces of Indra while the Mace

represents the

'vajra' the

of Indra, the male and the female

male forces of Indra, as embodied

When

these

two

forces

and Mudgalani
Mudgala.

the Sena,

are

combined
this

they

in the Mace, the Vajra secure victory in war for


is

Pargiter feels that an actual

historical incident

here involved

(IRAS'. 1910. p. 1328) and connects Keith is not inclined to accept any
that here
historical
is

Mudgala with
and
a
there
race.

the Puranic

history

in this ballad.
is

ploughing
incident,

ritual

involved
or

Mudgala. Dange thinks no reference to any


are

whether a war

Such

the

different,

approaches raada by scholars towards


its

this

hymn

in their efforts to solve.


i
,

riddle.

Thus
for this

it

will

be seen that

there are three


Griffith,

different

contexts

proposed

hynn

by these scholars.

Bloomfield,

Ludwig

suggest

War

as

the central incident; Gelduer, Velankar think it to be a Race while Dange takes it to be a Ploughing Ritual, it would be worth our while to examine

itself.

these views in the light of the internal evidence What does the hymn tell us ?
In the

available

from the hymn


,,

hymn

there

is

a reference to a chariot
is

as the word

mthrf,(l)

shows, Furlher Indra's protection

invoked in a famous (leading to fame)

T. G, Mainkar

contest,

<W

at .he very outset.

Mudgalam

became

the

drive,,
the

conquered a thousand,
krtam vyacet booty', 'bharc
his

'ajayat
(2).

tonm'
Again,

and she did


Indra
i,

collect

indrawn'
at the

invoked
kill

and b
danoil

weapon requested to hurl whether of an gerous weapon


(3)

enemies who seek to


a

and the

Arya or
has

Dasa

is

desired to be

warded

In this contest,

aji,

ga*m
there

pradhane jigtya'

Mudgala The driver Mudgalam had her (5).

won

thousand

cows,

'sahasto*

status increased

on account of
is

Indra had favoured


to victory belonged
fact;

Hnaliv this victory, 'panvfkteva palhidyamnnat ptpywf (11). whmn on the part of the victors the expression of the gratitude extol The (12). and whose greatness therefore they

Mudgala
'sahasram

is

asserted

twice

as

if

to

emphasise
(5)

the

for

we

get,

gauam

mudgalah

pradham jigaya'
(9).

and

the

mudgalah. prlanajyesit' again 'jigsya satavat sahasram gaVam asserted twice, fact of being the driver is

Similarly
'rathlrabtiui
in

Mudgalam

in

mudgalsnf (2) and in 'strathirasya in suggestion third somewhat clever The contest in which Mudgala and
(6).

ke'sV

and

this

is

implied

'rcchanti

Mudgalam
are
for

sma nispado mudgalanim* participate is an 'fijf


elements
that

(I)

'gavitff (2)

a 'pradhana'
to

(5).

There

three

seem
bull,

to
it

have brought success


is

Mudgala;

while speaking about the

said

'yena

<drughana"lh&

of the also while speaking mudgalah jigaya' (5), so Wooden Block or Mace' it is said that it was the associate
it

of the bull, 'wabhasya yufijam' and through

Mudgaia won the thousand,


been responsible by Indra
in in

yena jigfya sahasram'


securing this victory

(9).

Mudgalanfs
lastly there
is

driving too has

and

the protection offered

in 'ratham Indro 'vatu' and 'puruhuta no 'vti' (1). At response to the prayer this contest the presence of murderous enemies, 'jighamsatah abhidnsatal?

and of the
nent
is

weapons of 'tea' and an


to

'arya

is

referred to (3), (he oppo-

referred
eti'

as

being

attacked by the bull

in 'kulam

sma

trmhat

abhimstim

(4),

drove
'uta

'the chariot

Other graphic details supplied are that when Mudgalani and won a thousand, the wind made her garment flow,
bull

sma raw

vahati vuso asyah' (2); the

had drunk a lake of


This bull

water
the

'udno hfdam

apibaf

(4)

and

with

his
eti'

shattering
(4).

horn he attacked was a very

opponent, 'ku\am sma trmhat abhimatim

vigor-

ous and strong one, 'mujkabh'Srah' and during the


bull thunder

contest they
(5).

made

the
bul!

and urinate, ^nyakrandayan amehayan vrsabham'


fell

As the

ran, the dung

on

the person

of the

driver,

the

lady

Mudgalsnj,

'fcchanti (ma ni$pado mudgalmm' (6). The bull was, it appears, protected by Indra, 'indraudsvat patim aghnyTinnm' (8) and so it worked a wonder and seeing the cows gained strength (8), The Mace was the

'dntghana'

bull's

companion
this

at

the

chariot
to lie

at the

other side

'drughanam vrfabhasvs
<katfhayah madtye
carried

yuRjam' and

was allowed

on the

battle-field,

layvnam\9].

Neither was grass nor water taken to

some one who

The

Hymn

of Mudgala Bhnnnyasva (X. 102}


Ttbharantyuttaro dhuro vahati
(1)

the yake, 'rfasmd trnam

nodakam

pradedisat\lQ).

Indra has protected the chariot


victory to a
It really

given

protection to the bull and given

weak

friend.

(7, 12),

therefore

it

is

needs no argument to prove that all this is war imagery and a war that appears to be the central event. In of
spite

this,

one
that

may
'it

overwhelming clear internal evidence, Dange observes can be said with certainty that there is no indication of a race or
justifiably say,
it,

a battle in

though the words

like "sjT

and 'ahhimati' are

apt

to lead

one

to this hypothesis'.

He
it

is

of the

view that the words

'blwre krtam'-

which obviously support the


too literal sense.

battle or the race-theory are not to be taken in

To him
difficult

appears
be

that the words

'are

agha ko mi

itthn

dadarsa' (10) are

to

understood

in the context of a battle.

In

according to him, the race or the battle is to see him observe again -after helpless. It is amusing having denied with certainty the existence of any indication of a race or battle 'we have in
this

'yarn yunjanti tarnvfi stht/payanti,'

probability,

hyirm a figurative use of the race we have here a traditional

or the battle'
ritual

and
in

further

-in

all

couched

the terminology
in

of battle'.

On

the strength

of

the

word

'mithakttam'

the context

of

'ratham' (1) he takes the chariot to be a

mock

one, a procedure in which


takes the enemies,
as 'imagi-

he

is

supported by Velankar and Geldner, and further

the jighamsato, nbhu/iisato, Tiryasya va dasasya vadhafi) in spite of the clear past tense nary opponents' and
'jigfiya.

abhii>ic/ti(4)

in 'ajayat sahasram',
is

sahasram'

(2,

5,

9),

he observes avoiding
(2)

that this light

mock

one, not

for anything lost, but

for

possible loss.
'an

To him

the words

<dhanabhak,sa'(l) and
ritual',
'

'gavisp

indicate

agricultural or a pastoral

Now
sma

what are the


the
vTito

details or indications of this 'agricultural or pastoral

ritual' in

hymn

itself ?

tn the innocent

description of the fair driver

'uta

vahati vliso

asyei/i'

Dange

sees a suggestion of her being 'naked'

a rain ritual a naked woman plays some part amongst obviously because for Kocha women or in South India and the Behirs. Mudgalani who is
the
the Earth and is symbolically Indrasena, the same as IndrSni and represents So Mudgalani is the field-wife of
that digs in the ground Indra. Next, the 'kutf refers to the plough-share connected with the in the process removes the barrenness 'abMmWV and the thunfield is the ordinary soil The <?yT is not a battlefield but baaed on symof the bull (5) is a 'fertility-charm dering and the urinating

the wife of Indra that would' bring rain.

and

the gZ?A patpatanalt cause rain, To him it appears that pathetic action to the bull for end of the field waiting to be 'touched' by is 'an end other unholy the at is cast their fecundation. The -drughana* not to be taken as ind.viduals with

ace at the other

thing.'

Mudgala and Mudgalani

are

the village-head and proper nouns but are

his wife

who might

first

plough the

f,

T, G. Main/Mr
ritually to

field

mark
is

the beginning of the


to

ploughing
in

season. This

ritual

ended with an invocation


used for the ritual

Indra for success

agriculture.

The language
of the

which goes well with the style Reveda wr.ich uses the battle-garb cvon to describe a sacrifice. stand on its the hymn makes This 'Ritual theory' virtually
that of light

head a

complete inversion of the material supplied by


in
'uf.j
s'H.-z

it.

The

poetic
that

observation

IY//O

vahfiti

vcisa asyTilf

is

made
it

to suggest
is

Mudgalani

is

quasi-naked. The I'mi^hnnn

about which
to represent

said that 'vena jigTiya salaval

stAmram

^.-iitem'

is

made

the evil

which

is

discarded at the

other end of the

field,

Mudgala and

his wife

Mudgalsm

are

made

the village

headman
she
ii

a;id

his

wife and further on

the strength

of the word Indrasena

regarded as hidra's wife and represent Earth.

The

thousand
the

cows

that are 'wou'

by Mudgala

for

himself and his wife are


the

for

common

weal,

'liaiiatc }<in(/ya'

and are won through

normal

process of cattle-'
points out that

reariiu!.
'tliis

:>:mt!C
is

practically refutes his

own view
IV. 57.

when he

hymn

not utilised for the

ploughing-ritual as seen

from the Sutra


absence in

literature, the

hymn

utilised being
c

RV.
Vedic

In spite of this

the later

ri'.ual.

he asserts (hat

we have

here a ritunl of agriculture


tradition

which
long

long bick

became obscure
it

in the

which

had in the
It

past adapted
difficult to

from

the popular

tradition

of Folks.

really

becomes

follow the reasoning here for

whatever has
India,

been

preserved in

the popular practices of the

Behirs, in South

the

modern
prserved

Bendur
by
a

practices in Balanihat region cjuld

have

been

very well

people

wh<.)

are very zealous about a tradition,

who

are preeminently given


skilfl

to agriculture

and

cattle

and who have an especial


I

in

developing and

retaining a complicated structure of ritual,


ibis ihecifv

nv.-art

the Vedic tradition.

Thus in
is

what

is

given in the

hymn

itself is
all

regarded as imaginary, what


ritualistic

poetical

is

regarded as real and finally

this

explanation lacks
is

the support of the

Vedic

ritualistic tradition

itself

and what

more

signiis

ficant is that a very weighty,

continuous and uniform historical tradition

opposed

to
EI

it.

hymn

'as

whether liU

an explanation that would explain the whole' in a satisfactory manner and one is left wondering explanation achieves what he is seeking.

Dange

rightly desires

Velankar and Geldner are of the

here, According to Velankar in this race episode


figure.
bull,

At

this race

view that a 'race' is contemplated Mudgalsntis the principal Mudgala and Mudgalani won wiih (he help of a single

yoked

to

perhaps
the race.

tilted

skilltol 'driving that

a bullock cart, along with a dummy block, the Drughaiia, with smaller wheels, in place of another bull. It is Mudgalan'i's has been in the main responsible For this victory at
also did play
cart for the

Mudgala
up the

he

fitted

race,

an important part in this episode since was himself in the cart and drove also
7ab, Sab, 9cd and
<j ttyem tf

with a whip in his hand

(vv, 5 b,

in

lie)

He

is

The Hymn of
therefore 'as^Tivi"
in the

Mudgala
(8a).

BhTtrmya'sva (X, 102}

Mudgala drove the bull while Mudgalani drove the dummy, apparently a more difficult part. This very dummy is the (6b). The dust raised by the dummy settles on 'dudhi' (6c) and 'kabardu
11

hymn

the tresses of Mudgaljinj,

'rcchanli

snu nijpado mudgalWiim*


the expressions

(6).

Since the

be joint victory was to

we have

like 'no'va'

and 'jayema'

to Velankar, the entire hymn is spoken by Mudgala him(lie). According self and he is here seen reproducing the whole scene .of the race before his includes rks 1,3 and 12 which according to some scholars, mind and this and are in Griffith, Dange and others do not form a part of the account
all

a
it.

The hymn is therefore according to Velankar probability later additions. monologue of Mndgala about the race and the incident of his victory in Geldner is also of the view that we are here dealing "with a race as
his picture of the race
is

Velankar thinks, yet


of Velankar.

entirely

different

from that

MudgaU

according

to

Geldner

is

an

old

man,
is

decrepit
the
fair

and

impotent as the word 'vadhri' (12) suggests. odd couple wife of this old Mudgala. This
the but of ridicule of the

Mudgalani
participates

in a

young race and is


spectators

spectators.

The ;conple wins and


to

the

indulge in jokes and ribaldry and


with
a

appear

be

jealous

of the old

sage

fair

young

wife.

They

pity

Mudgalam's
and

lot in

an impotent sage, 'kucakrcn'i


ride with her, 'csaifjia

stican' (11)

spouse of express a desire to have a


being the

ddrathya jayema' (11). Mudgalani had no child as and this was in all probability due to the old parinrkifi* suggests of and Mudgala, Thus the hymn breathes the turf-club impotency age talk. According to Geldner therefore atmosphere with fun, jokes and bose and the rks are to be accordingly distributed. The there are
the

word

'

dummy
is

by the rivals in the race.


the subject of the

many speakers or the urinating of the bull only represent the obstructions The odd couple winning a race with a

created
false car

hymn

according

to

Geldner's rendering.

The
put

atmos-

phere and the peculiar circumstances

in

which

Geldner has

Mudgala

of a Vedic race. Again and his wife are entirely foreign to the atmosphere even remotely suggests that ia the hymn itself there is nothing whatsoever is a neglected wife or impotency of Mudgala. Mudgatem the old
either

age

parivr/cta,

and she with her


find

victory

won

the esteem of her husband, tn the


as his wife and the victory

hymn again we
is

Mudgala exerting himself


is

a joint one

Mudgalani

the

skillful

driver but

Mudgala

is

the victor,
all

rathtrabhnt

mudgalm?

(2) but 'Mudgalah

In view of jiglya' (5,9).


is

this
s

evidence available from the

hymn

itself,

it

difficult

to accept

Geldner

a modern circumstance and atmosphere perhaps suggestions. He is reading evidence from the text. in an ancient hymn without any close manner no doubt. It is true VeJanker follows the text in a very case with a battle and a race. So is the to

that the

the

word -tf refers word ''pradhauf, and

both,

Jf*fto. Ifldra

is

invoked in both

the centers of

T. G. Mainkar

war and a chariot

race.

For instance we see Ekadadyu Naudhas

in

his

Races involved horses, erva i. obvious race-hymn (VIII.88.8) invoking Indra. One may here refer to 'vtijesu arvatsmiva'

bull think rarely bulls, vrtabhas.


(IX.47.5),
railyll vji'

'anmto na kVs(hm'
(IX.91.1)
call

(VII.93.3).

The words
races.

'rathasafiga' (IX.53.2),
all this

do indicate the chariot

Yet with

evidence

which

may

as 'indecisive in itself

being relevant in the

contexts of

not inclined to accept Velankar, Geldner, both the war and the race, T am reasons Bradke so far as their 'race theory' goes. Pischei and Von we are dealing here with a bull and the car or

My

are that in 'the

first

place

the chariot since the


(6)

hymn

uses both the words,

'rat ha' (1,2,11)

and

'anas

winning

It may be urged against and more commonly the race involves horses. we have a unique race in which a chariot or car this arsument that here driven and by a lady is shown as drawn "by a bull and a wooden dummy be granted. But then what about the presence the race, This

may

of the persons

who
the

seek to

kill,

those

who

attack

and of
i-Ti

the

weapon

of

an zrya or a dnsa
indicated In

'jighamsatah, abhidasatah,
(3)

nryasya

dtisasya

radhn'

hymn.

Who
Such

are the proud rivals,


vile

'abhimati' against

whom

the

bull charges ? (4)

enemies

are not

spoken of
There
be
is

in the

contexts of a race in the

Rgveda as

for instance, in

the songs of Gauraviti

Ssktya (X.74),
circumstance

Ekadyu Naudhas
which to

(VIII. 80)

and
It

others.

another
that

me

has

significance.

may

granted

indicate a war as well as a race; but then 'mudgalah pradhane jigzya' may in the context of the words 'bhare krtam vyacedinthis view cannot be taken war and race there occur the words 'bhare of In the
drasentf
(2).

hymns

collected. It krtam' and 'bhare hitdnf obviously referring to the prize context of races while 'bhare hitem' occur in the that the words
1

is

seen

'bhare

krtam

occur in the context of wars.


'arm

Thus
at

in a clear 'race' context (VI!I,8S,8)

we have

katfha hitam dhanam';


at yet

another place (IX. 53,2)


place (VI. 45.13)

we have

'rathasange dhane hits';


hite bhare'
is
(I,

another

we

have 'dhane
where a war
at

and

'je$i

hitam dhanam.'
the

contemplated
132.1)

we have
'vi

As against this in places words 'bhare krtam\ Thus

one

place

we have

place (IX. 97.58)

we have
is

cayema bhare krtam, vljayanto bhare krtam'; at another and, finally another 'bhare krtam vicinuynma'
that Indra, the
I

supporting circumstance

most successful

in

war

is

called
fact
vi

as 'jyetiharaja bhare krlnu'. (VEIL 6.3).


that phrase for collecting the spoils in

might further refer


to

to the

as

is

to be seen here.

(IX. 97.58;

I.

war appears and 132.1)


distinction

be 'bhare krtam
very

d'

this

pharse occurs

in the

hymn

before us in

'bhare krtam vyacedindrasenfi' (2).


a subtle

To

me,

the
a

Vedic poets appear to

make

between
distinct

a race

and

war and

are therefore deliberately using these


is

two

phrases.

In the

race the prize


'dhane
hite'

fixed,

placed and so

we have
in a

'bhare

hitam'

dlianam' or

and so

on,

On

the other

hand

war the spoils are uncertain

The

Hymn

of Mudgala

Bhfnmyalw

(X. 102)

and really are to be 'made' and then collected. Hence we have 'bhare krtam vi ci\ It Is for these reasons that one cannot accept the suggestions There is yet another supposition that we are dealing here with a 'race'. in Velanker's exposition which makes his view somewhat difficult for our
acceptance. According to Velanker, the car had wooden dummy with small wheels on the other,

on one

side the bull

and
the

to serve as another bull as

and so

it

was

the

companion

of

the

bull,

vrsabhasya yunjam
feels

drughana is described (9). Further Velanker drove the bull while Mudgalani did the more

that

Mudgala himself
of driving the
the

difficult part

dummy.
serving

It

is

clear

from the hymn


were

itself

that the bull

and

dummy

as the bull

the circumstance of

yoked to the car and they sped to victory. But two drivers at one and the same time driving two

animals
the

yoked
nor
It
is

to

a car

Veda

the
for

is something very rare as well as strange. Neither Epics show a supporting illustration for such an

incident.

these

reasons

that

the

'race'

theory

has

to

be

discarded.
In this

manner we come
with here,
others.

to the

conclusion

that

it

is

war that we

are dealing
Pargiter

a view that

and

Yet the

has been put forth by Bloomfield and Pargiter cannot be views of Bloomfield

According to Bloomfield it is a mythological accepted in their entirety. According to him the theme of the hymn fight and not a human one.
it a hammer, drughana, plays an important The coupling of the forces of Sens and Vajra as forces h the rock-bed upon which the legend has grown up. In Indrasens he sees the embodiment of the female forces and the drughana stands for the male forces. In combination, This is, as a matter of fact going too far. The chathese two forces win.

is

battle

and in the course of

part, a singular role.

male and female embodiments of Indra's

racters that
difficult to

participate are clearly treated as

human

individuals

and

it

is

think that symbolism is here resorted to. The Mahabharata and Puranas as well as the earlier versions of the incident, though divergent in historical persons and themselves, are yet uniform in making the characters
the
It
is

the incident a real happening.

in this context that the view of Bloo-

mfield becomes difficult to be accepted.


historical event

Pargiter also

is

inclined to read

and

in this personalities as involved

hymn

but he introduces

more

characters in the incident than

the

hymn

warrants. Pargiter

(JRAS.

Indrasena and Mudgalani as two different persons;

the Puranas regards 1910, p. .1328) in the light of the information supplied by for Mudgalani is not
in the Purscnic geneology but, as the
is

mentioned

name

clearly indicates, she

must be the wife of Mudgala. Indrasena


daughter-in-law
of Mudgala.

given in

the

geneology as the
(12) in the
Is

Further the

word

<va<ihri'

hymn
who

who in according to him refers to Vadhryasva Tndrasens. Kesi is according to him a proper
Samboclhi 4.2

the geneology

the son of

noun of

the

person

JQ

T. G, Mainkar

drove the chariot and Mudgalani simply accompanied


riot.

Mudgala
is

in the cha.
in

He

thinks that Indrasena's


for he

husband

Brahmistha
1

not

mentioned

the

hymn

had taken
it

to

'brahmanhood

and had forsaken


Mudgalani
the
Is

possibly

his wife

Indrasena and

Is

therefore she and not

'parivrktn'.

All these suggestions conflict


It

with the

account of

hymn
the

violently; for

is

clear that

Indrasena and

Mudgalsm

are one and


it

same.

Even

if

<indrasenn' Ss taken in

an

adjectival

manner,

is

qualifying

Mudgalani and

so these are not


to

two

be the driver

The hymn clearly suggests Mudgatenj and also a cause of the success and hence she is not a
distinct persons.
It is

passive spectator.

too

much

to think that 'vadhri' refers to

Vadhryasva

who

no part but also has no possible place in the incident plays not only a war described but assigns in the hymn. Ludwig rightly thinks that here is
a different role to the 'drughana' which

mace was thrown

when
and
it.
it

victory

is a mace according to him. The showed the way the thieves bad gone and was achieved the king threw the mace upon the field of battle

in front for

it

lay there 'kasfhnys

madhye drughanam

baynnam' as
in this

the

The

club or the

mace helped King Mudgala


is

manner.

hymn One

puts
feels

that the correct significance of the phrase,


here.

'vrjabhasya yufijam' is being loss

The
it

internal
it

evidence

clear that the

mace was yoked

to the chariot

and

drew

helping'the bull.

In view of these various opinions about the

hymn a

fresh look

at

it

would appear to have some justification. The obscurities in the Rgveda are a constant challenge to its students. Sayana prefaces the hymn with two
earlier references to the

hymn. He goes on

mudgalasya hrta gnvah coralh


sa

tyaktoft

jaradgavam
[
[

M$am

sdka\e kityTi gatvaika rjurdhavam

drughanam yuyuje'nyatra coranargtinusffirakah


tathft nirukte' piyam

kaihn sUcits-

'mtidgalo bhtirmyasva f$ih vrfabham ca


yuktvfi

drughanam ca
iti'.

samgrame vyavahrtya yjim jignya

(IX.23.)
9)
its

The Nirukta
of this

(IX. 23,24) practically


in the process

comments on two rks (X.102. 5 and


account
as

hymn and

regards this

'itihtsc? in

Durga's commentary further helps us to understand certain points about which confusion appears to have made in the

'tatra itihzsam acaksate.'

different
in

interpret. Thus
cattle-lifting

the central

theme
cattle.

is

a war

which Mudgala wins his stolen

In the

'3/7, pmdhana, aamgrama' Rgveda we have references

to

and cattle-raiding, not only on the mythological plane but on the human one too. Mudgala has all his cattle stolen and is left with only one strong bull as the hymn describes the bull drinking a tank of water
Attacking
in
a

dashing manner

the

opponent

and

being

The Hymn of Mudgala Bhnrmyaiva


(4).

(A'.

102}

U
an old
bull,

So

the traditional version of


is

'jaradgau'

being left with not in keeping with the account of the hymn.

Mudgala

King Mudgala drove the chariot to which were yoked on one side the strong bull and on the other the drughana the wooden dummy or mace. The hymn and the traditional account agrees In these details. Being an occasion of war it is natural for Mudgala to invoke Indra for help for protection (1) for attack on and a warding off of the enemies (3), to have a feeling that Indra has protected him and the bull (7) and finally to thank Indra for the
protection
as

far a neglected wife, parhrfctn, of the

Mudgalani,

so

given

(12).

It is

absolutely unnecessary to regard


later additions.
It is

these

verses

being

interpolations

or
the

also perfectly natural to have a

description

of

Mudgalani (2,6), of the treatment given to the bull and to the 'drughana- before and after the war (4-10). The hymn is concluded with the desctiption of the good luck and fortune of MudgalaDj and Mudgala (II, 12), If Mudgalani was the driver whose skill in driving was responsible;
for the success,

driver

King Mudgala was the warrior with the goad in his hand and fought with a heroic spirit once he had a view of the cows (8). It was indeed the victory of Mudgala, the hero with the goad and so the hymn
Isni,

is

asserting the fact twice (5,9). The wind flowing the garment of the dung of the bull flying towards her, and her shouting are

Mudgaall gra-

phic and poetic

descriptions in the

hymn

(2, 6).

In this

describes in a cogent manner the wonderful victory that for the world, many people or followers of his to see (8). This then appears to me to be a perfect Rgvedic ballad and I to translate

way the hymn Mudgala achieved


and

proceed

explain the hymn which has been regarded as Bloomfield regards as belonging to the final Veda.

difficult

one

and which

irresolvable

remnant of the

IV. X. 102
Rsi
:

Text, Translation, Notes


t

Mudgala Bhsrmyasva; Deity


;

Drughana or Indra.

Metre
pro
te

Tritupj

1,

3,

12 Brhati
indraft

ratham mithukrtam

avatu dhffluytt

asminrfBjau. puruhuta travtiyye

dhanabhak^u nah ava

// (1)

May Indra boldly


(The
for
first line is

protect thy chariot uniquely paired.


this

invoked one, protect us in

much and widely fame-securing struggle amidst wealth-eaters.

Oh

the second

line also

spoken by Mudgala and addressed to Mudgalani while spoken by him is addressed to Indra. Hence 'te ratham

Mudgalani is the ssrathi. In the second line he invokes Indra to protect them both and hence 'nah aua\ By 'dhanabhak$a' are to be understood the cattle-lifters, the wealth-eaters. Being a plural it ill-agrees with sjau hichw
is a singular.

Ssyana's second way

Is

better.

Nor can

it

refer to

Mudgala and

12
as desiring the
It

T. G.

Malnkar

Mudgalsm
Sayana

takes

enjoyment of wealth, 'mithukrtam' is a problem. Wtrathah krtam asahnyam krtam' and adds 'athava mithuriti
there

mithysntima'

since

are

no

horses

etc.

'asvndibhih

sunyam

krtam'.

Velankar translates

'imposing'

and understands 'mithu' as

connected with

fraud, Griffith regards the


either side',

meaning uncertain and renders 'that works on Geldner understands the words as meaning 'false'. It is possible

that the

binding involved

word has some connection with 'mithuna' 'mithah' 'mtth--ra' pairing or rather tlian with 'withy's or mithu' connected with fraud.
is

For here

no fraud but there

is

indeed

a unique

pairing.

Mudgala and

Mudgnlam, a male warrior and mace, the drughana and finally


Mudgala.
Indra
is

a female driver, a strong bull the all-powerful Indra


(9)

and the wooden and the weak vadhri


yuja' (\2). Hence

We
sma

have 'vr$abhasya yunjam'

and

'yadhrinn.

to protect 'boldly' dhrsnuyn'.


vnto vahati vTiso

uta

asyU adhiratham yadajayat sahaxram


bhare

/
//

rathirabhwmudgalnnt

gavislnu

kr(am

vyacedindrasenTi

(2)

And
chariot

the

wind made her garment flow


a thousand. In
this

(flutter)

when she

through the

won

search of the cows the

wife of

Mudgala

was the chief in the chariot; Indrasena collected the spoils in the war. a beautiful description of the female driver. (vS/o vahati vaso asya' is
This
is

obviously due to the speed of the chariot, as

Sayana observes

'sighea-

ralhadhsvanajanito vayuh

amsukam
where

speed
31.

this is

but natural. In the


situation

we have a

clilayati'. When a woman moves in some Mahabhgrata Virataparvan, Goharana 38. Arjuna as Brhannala, a female drives the

chariot

of Uttara and in

the context

we

get

<dir gharri
etc.

vetflm

vidhunvlmah

sltdhu rakte ca vtisaa, vidhuya

veiflm dhtivantam'

In the Mrcchakatikara
pavanalol-

Sudraka describes Vasantasena


ada'sam vahanti.

moving

about

as 'raktam'sukam

This graphic description therefore cannot with justification be taken to suggest the lady to be 'scantily' clad or 'quasi-naked' for the
agricultural ritual as

Dange understands. Whatever


"bhare krtam'
in
is

is

casual

is

Dange
and

as the

central fact,

to be contrasted

regarded by with 'bhare

torn'; uncertain

booty

collected
is

war

as

against the prize announced

fixed for a race.

Indrasena

the proper

name

of Mudgalani.

Griffith

translates 'Indra's dart', the lady being

sped swiftly on her

way by Indra

Bio-

omfield understands as
forces.

'Indra's wife',. a female

personification

of Indra's

shown Indrasena in the Pursnic genelogy is a daughter-in-law of Mudgala. Here the grammatical construction clearly indicates that Mudgalani and Indrasena are one and the same and the word
Pargiter has

As

mudgalrtm
wife
is

suggests

her

relation
in

with

Mudgala.

Similar

to

be seen

help

by

the

Dataratha-KaJkeyi episode where she put n place of the axis broken. The cattellifting occurs in the Mahabbarata where the Kauravas ,ry to take away the cattle-wealth of the Matsya King Virata, ^iratham salmram gm am would mean a thousand
her hand
'

later

the

The
cows
in

Hymn

of Mudgala Bhamiya'sva (X, 102}

13

addition to a chariot; but in the

hymn

there

is

no reference

to

an

additional chariot being

won

(5,9).

It

would therefore be

better to underst-

and

as suggesting the instruaisntality of the chariot in the victory and this is as a matter of fact suggested in the preceeding verse 'rathlrabhut' must be understood in agreement with 'sarathimsya kesi' She is 'rctthf
it

(9)

for she plays

an important part through her

skillful driving.)
/

antaryaccha jighamsato vajramindrabhidnsatah


dasasya va maghavannatyasya va sanutaryavaya

vadham

//

(3),

Oh
attack.

Indra, hurl thy bolt amidst those that seek to

kill

and those

that

Oh Bounteous

one, keep away

the secrcetly used

weapon whether of

Dnsa or of an Aryu.

first verse this third one is spoken by (Like the Mudgala being a 'do not allow to oome out, prayer to Indra. Some take 'antaryaccha' as

keep it within, and connect it with the 'weapon of the enemey who seeks to case 'vajra' is kill and attack'. In this taken in a secondary sense of a
deadly weapon'; would be better
'abhidtjsatah'
its

to

primary meaning connect 'antati

is

the

deadly

with the

forms

weapon of Indra. It 'jighZmsatah' and


seeks to
kill

and understand

as 'amidst the
its

attack.
sense..
'dels'

'Fa/V' then can be taken in

enemy who so well known and


away
is

and

familiar primary
'abhi'

This way would also better agree with the request to Indra,
to attack, 'yaaaya' separate, keep
it

with

is

the 'vadha'

weapon of one

who

uses

secretly going with 'dysasyci or 'aiyasya'.


is

The

contrast in 'vajra'

and 'vadha'

intended deliberately, one

inclined to think)

udno hrdamapibajjarhrsnnah ku(am sina trmhadabhim'ntitneti j pra mu$kabh1irah srava icchamanah ajiram bahu abhat'at sifasan
Delighting, he drank a lake of
water.

jj

(4)

He

attacked the" enemy with a


in

With massive testicles, desiring fame tearing horn. capture, he brought into play his arms, forelegs,
(The bull
to here,
is

no

time, wishing to

spoken

of as

the

agent of

the various

action referred
all

drinking water, attacking enemy, desiring fame and running on


apibat' obviously has
its

.fours.

Udno hrdam

agent the bull for this fact has

a relation with 'amehayan' in the next verse. VcSfa' appears to be a problem;


its

meanings are horn, peak, a point


Drugana, the Wilson

etc.

Velaakar thinks that

'kuta'
it

here

refers to the

dummy
is

while

Dange thinks
in

that

refers to
cleft

the 'plough-shore'.

following Ssyana

rendering 'he

the

mountain peak, he went against the enemy.' Griffith observes that Reeling the ground with his horns/ Velankar uneasy he hung his head and struck
renders 'the 'Ku\a,
rival'.

the

dummy,
it

To me,

we have,

that the bull

after delightfully drinking a lake


his

goes forward dashing down the proud in which we are told appears, a 'syabhavokti' of water attacked the enemy

with his horn flourishing, meaning

hora

in

a slanting

position

with a

14
view to fearing
'Irmhat'

T. G. Mainkar
in front.

the object

Thus

'kufa' is

the

horn

of the

bull.

would be a present
massive
bull ran

participle

qualifying

the 'ku(a\

The

forefeet

of an animal are figuatively described as the


'muskabhnralf;
the bull.

'bahu'

arms of the
vigorous

creatrue

uncastrated testicles indicate


all

strength of

The

on

fours

'srava icchamanah' is a link with the


is

'sravsyye' in the

very

first

verse,

'ablrimati'

the thieves

who had

taken

away

the

the harvest

cows of Mudgala. Dange takes it as the symbolic evil that thwarts it without any justification and so does Griffith refer to
chief opponent.

Mudgalam's

The

bull

contemplated here

is

the bull yoked


as is clear

to the chariot

and through

which Mudgala

became victorious
two
rks
sisasan, the bull

from the next verse. As


and the next go

a matter of fact,

these

the present one

together,

'wishing to win',
forelegs,

extended
is

his

arms, brought into

play his

ran

very swiftly.

It

difficult to

understand why
himself. There
is

Velankar

thinks

that
this

this bull

was driven

by

Mudgala

no Indication of

being the case so far.)

nyakrandayannupayanta enamamehayan vrsabham madliya njeh / tena subharvam sataval sahasram gavnm mudgalah pradhane jigfya

//

(5)

him in the midst of the battle, to Approaching the bull, they caused thunder and to urinate. Through him, Mudgala won in the battle well-fed
cattle in. hundreds

and thousands,
is

(According to Velankar here the gala to slacken the speed of


piss'

given the activity of the rivals of

Mudto

bull.

They cause

the bull to 'cry

and

in the

middle of the

race so that

Mudgala

may

not win.

We

have

here a battle and not a

race.

So

approaching,

'upayantah' are Mudgala's


bull to further
is

men and
the battle.

not his rivals.

The animal

is

They are encouraging the being fondly treated and


That the

action

in

made
to

to relieve

itself,

which
in the

is

perhaps very natural after the drinking of a tank of water described


previous
verse.
bull

was

made

thunder

is

also

natural for mighty bulls do


others. This bull
is
is

a 'mufkabharah'

thunder and inspire fear in the minds of the and hence thunders. Sayana is a safe

guide

when

he

observing

'amehayan

mulrapunsotsargarri

viSramartham

ksritavantah' Durga while

>3va

dayam

sakrnmulram

commenting on the Nirukta IX. 23. rightly observes karoti tato laghu sukham bhavtiyati iti'. 'sa hi
animal behaviour when
If
it

gominnm
to

ajisrtsm svabhavah' This is

is

in

a mood

undertake some vigorous activity.


at

this

activity

were

an obstruction

contemplated, then 'tena'

the

beginning of the next line

would be

irreh

evant and would perhaps carry an unwarraned sense of 'in spite of and not the one of 'through that bull so treated'. Velankar is naturally required to add 'yet' in his rendering there is though nothing in the text to

support
'tena',

its

addition, 'subharvam'

'through this vr^abha'

is well-fed and goes with the cattle won. Mudgala won a thousand and hundred well-fed

cattle in the battle, 'pradhane jigtya'.

Dange thinks of 'consacrated


reference

water'
'a ritual

in <udno hrdam apibaf while in 'amehayan" seeks a

to

The
practice', a

Hymn

of Mudgala Bhtirmyaha
general

(X.

102)

25

way which may not win

approval,

'subhanam'

may

indicate the reason

why

the cattle were stolen.)


ke'sl
I

kakardave vr$abho yukta dsidavnvaat sarathirasya dudheryukiasya dravatah sahanasa rcchanti sma

mspado mudgalanlm

//

(6\

For crushing the enemy was yoked the


shouted.

bull, his driver with

long hair

Of

the irresistable yoked,

while

running

swiftly

with the chariots

the dust raised,

moved towards Mudagalgni.


is

('kakardave'
it

problem.

The word occurs

only here,

Sayana takes
part of the

as

'himsataya

satruiflm\

Ludwig

thinks 'kakarda'

to be a

chariot, farther

end of

the chariot pole. Griffith renders the

hope of victory'. to get over the


either dative

Von Bradke
difficulty,

thinks the

word
is

to

word as 'in the be 'kapardave' and thus tries


the view that 'kakardave'
is

Velankar
is

of
that

or locative and

the

and Velankar further, thinks that

sound made by the

dummy. He
It

in charge of Mudgalani might be suggestive of the cracking also adds that this same dummy is called
it

dummy

was

refractory, 'dudhi' since


entirely

was

mechanical
It is

and

its

movements had
in

to

be

guided by
takes the

the driver,

difficult

to accept these suggestions.

Dange
narrative

word

to suitably

indicate

the dig
to

which has

no

suitable

context

here.

Looking

the

ploughing, trend of the

the

and of the line, the straightforward way of the lines would be to regard them as parallel constructions and telling us something about the bull and the driver. The first line tells us about the very purpose for
which the
bull

the 'vftabha'

was yoked, hence we have 'kakardave and in the second line we have of
all

yukta' in the context of


the bull stated

'dudheh
is

yuktasya dravatah'~

the genetives going together and this 'yukta'


first

obvio-

usly identical with the 'yukta' in the

line.

Thus 'kakardave'
bull.

gives the
!s

purpose while

'dudheh' a genetive

speaks of the

'Dudheh' also

problem for
rally

it

occurs only here. In 'avnvacit sVrathih asya


preceeding
like her

Ke'sf, 'asya' natu-

stands

for the 'vrsahha' in the

part. 'Kelt? is

Mudgalsni,
in the

the

lady

with long tresses.

Her

hair

garment

fluttered

breeze and to indicate this fact the word 'keh' has been deliberately used.

The words 'vffabhah yukta nsif and

'ssrathih asya kesf

clearly

repudiates

'vrsabha'

Velankar's suggestion that Mudgalam drove the dmghana, (he dummy and it was Mudgala himself who drove the bull. The entire verse speaks of the and the 'ke'sl sarathi Mudgalnnl' and of nothing else. In the

circumstances 'dudhi'

appears to be the adjectve


to

of the bull running with

the cart, saha anasn, going with 'dravatah', Griffith


in his

seems to drop the word

rendering.

Velankar takes

it

mean
all

'refractory'

and going with


it

the

dummy,
fits

the drughana. Considering

these factors I prefer

to follow

Sayana who
(his

in

meaning 'of the irresistable' and described as well with the mighty 'titfabha* which is already
renders
it

as 'durdharasya'

]6
'tnuskabhnrafi' (4).

T. G.
1

Mainkar
l

In 'kakardave the base appears to be

karda

with an

inten-

sifying reduplication.

The nearest

classical

'nispadc?

is

dung according to Geldner,

'kadana' a war of slaughter. paricles of dust flying from the


is

hoofs according to Velankar, lifted heels according to Griffith and Schroeder, The tone of the line suggests 'nirgacchanto yoddhfirah'' according to Sayana. the animal, dung as the likely meaning. That the driver so near
inciting
to
it

to

move on with speed by


with the

shouting, 'avSvacLt'

is

very

naturally liked

be besmeared

dung and the dust of the bull. The construction 'dravatah nispado rcchanti sma mudgalarilm' should leave no doubt about the iHeaning intended. It is to be noted that here we are dealing with a verse
!n

which three important words, 'kakardave, dudheh, nispadah' vital for a in the whole of the proper elucidation of the entire verse occur here only

Rgveda,

Any

rendering therefore must appear as conjectural.)

uta pradhimudahannasya

vidvnnupayunagvamsagamatra sik$an

indra udavat patimaghnyan'amaramhata padyfibhili

kakudmSn

// (7)

The knower
the one in

raised

up the

whom

speed was desired, yoked

yoking-place of this cart. Here controlling it. Indra in an excellent manner


a

protected the lord of the cows.

The one with

prominent

hump

sped with

mighty

steps.
is

(Here

the account

of the yoking
is

of the choriot as

completed

by

the knower,

who

obviously

Mudgala
is

himself.

yoked

for

we

get 'vrsabha yukta asit'

in

'vrjabha' was already the preceding verse, 'asya' stands

The

for the chariot

and the

construction

'asya

vidvnn, raised

up the pradhi of the chariot.


that
it

'Pradlii' is

pradhim uclahatf the knower, a problem. Ludwig's

conjecture

is

Lexicon
the

it

is

the

According to the St. Petersburg 'periphery of the wheel.' To Wilson it is the frame of
car-pole.

means

the

wagon and
it

make

the linchpin

Sayana's explanation, though not of the chariot. To Velankar


wheels.

quite clear, appears


it

to
to

appears

to refer

the spokes of the


first,
it

the circumstance that this part 'udahan' before the the yoking of the animal as indicated in
is

From

was

raised

'upayunak'

appears to be the front part of the chariot where the animal


natural that this part
it

yoked.

It

is

is

required to be raised to the height of the animal


its

so

neck as soon as the animal gets into its line, 'vamsaga* here as well as atX, 106.5, X. 144. 3. is understood by Sayana as 'vananiyaganicma' one in whom movement and speed are desired. Velanthat

could be placed properly on

kar, Griffith take

it

to refer
is

to

the bull

and Dange takes


refers to the

it

to

mean

the
Is

lord of the herd.

It

likely that the

word
in

Drughana which
incapable

now

being yoked.

It is

of

wood and
refers

itself this

and by
it

itself it is
Is

of
as

any movement,

activity

and speed. In
it

sense

'vanantyagamana'
is is

Sayana

explains.

But Sayana
of the
bull,

to the bull.

The dwghana
therefore

to be to be

the companion

'vr$abhasya yunja (9)

and

yoked on

the other side so that the two

together

could draw the

chariot,

The

Hymn

of Mudgala BhTtrmya'sva (X, 102)


(10).
It

1?
appears

We

also get

drughana, inherently and the 'kakudmnr? the vigomos mighty bull. In one" was speed to be desired while in the other it was a natural possession. 'Klqart refers the controlling and putting on the reins etc. treatment natural to a
motionless

that a

'yam yuf/janti" later in the following verse contrast is intended in 'vamsamaga' the dummy, the

animal. Thus the line would mean that knower, raised aloft the yoking point of the car
living
as
it

Mudgala, the mdvan, the and treating the drughana


to the
chariot. In the next

were a

bull, desiring

speed in

it

yoked

it

line
its

we

are told

how

the bull having a


all

wooden mace on
excellent

the other side. as

companion

ran on

fours

and received

protection

from
feet.

Indra.

'aramhata'

'vegena agamat\ 'padyabhilf with the

activity

of the

The two words


starts
Is

'aglmyanTim

pail'

and 'kakudman' bring out the might and


description of the drughana

the vigour of the bull.

Sayana

thinks that the


(9);
is

from 'imam

the

tarn pasya e(c.' yoking of the drughana that

but

am

inclined to

think that

it

referred to
after

in the first line

and

later

we battle is over. The drughana second line refers to the excellent protection from Indra and the speed of the bull for it ran in spite of the fact that it had a wooden companion
get the

description of

the

the

on

the other side.

The

animal

was

to

run under

odd conditions and

it

did the expected job in

a very remarkable manner.)


/

sunamasiravyacarat kapardi varatrfiyfim dSrv3nahyamana(i

nrmnUni krnvan bahave janZya gah

paspaianastavistradhatta

// (8)

The one with malted


binding the

hair, having the goad,

moved on

happily, firmly,

wood

in the leather-strap.

Performing -mighty deeds for many

people on seeing the cows, put on

strength.

Mudgala, the hero of the episode. The (Here is obvioiisly described Vedic poet with a superb economy of expressions has given two fine similes iu this verse. Mudgala in the chariot with the 'a^ra and himself a 'kapardf
invites a natural

comparison

with

the

god

Pusan.

Another

point of

interest relevant in this context is

the association of Pussan with the cattle, the


cattle that

pasu,

and Mudgala too is on this occasion after stolen. Pusan is a 'kapard? and 'rattntama' (VI.
which
'

have been
'fltfra'

55. 2j

and has an

(VI. 53. 9)

is

pa'susadhani

'.

In 'nrmnnni kfwan, bahave

janvya' he

is

to Indra. The binding of wood in 'varatrthought of in terms applicable of the 'drughafia' which is as a matter of fact, nynm" refers to the yoking ' no reference to the' ' has it in all and tlnru probability but nothing Velankar understands. Nor is the bull the yoking of the bull as has no doubts about to Dange understand. seems subject here as Griffith of the Bull's being identified with the epithets here being of the bull and sees the 'touching of Indra In 'gah paspakmaP and 'taviftradJmtta' Dange in them by the bull', an idea that the cows and 'the depositing of the seed

Sambodhi

4-2

lg
face of

T. G. Mainkar

on the very
fk

it

seems to be foreign
is

to the

hymn

in general and the

in particular.

Geldner

right

in so far as

he takes

Mudgala

to

be

appears to have been the Mudgala's proper was required to play the part of a bull and so firmly drughana, but that The weapon, therefore he used b^und in the leather-strap, the 'varatra'. Thus in spite of the fact was the goad, the 'aslrtf, hence he was 'as^nvi
the subject here.

weapon

that

the
side

charioteer

was
chariot

his

wife, a

wooden

dummy was

one

of

the

to play

the

part of an animal,

yoked on an associate

animal of the only bull that he was left with, Mudgala moved on happily, When he saw his cows he gained strength, put on a manly and heroic
attitude

and mixing
for

the roles

of the gods

Pusan

and

Indra,

worked
from

wondrous deed

many

people, the deed of recovering of

cows

his

enemies. In three verses we see Mudgala as offering prayers (1.


in the

present

one we see him as the


is

victor

and indeed
is

it

is

3. 12) and his victory

that the

hymn

seen asserting twice

(5,9).

There

propriety in thinking

of the hero in terms of Indra and Pasan for here


cattle,

we

have

fight

for the

'palu')

imam

tarn pa'sya vrjabhasya yuhjam k3s(hayn madhye drughan.am 'saynnam\ yena jig&ya satavat sahasram gavSm mudgalah prtanajyejulf (9)

Look

at this

companion of

the bull, the drughana, the

wooden

lying in the middle of the battlefield, through

which Mudgala

won

mace, a hund-

red and thousand

more

in the battles.

the (According to Sayana from this verse onwards begins description of the 'drughana', 'purvam vr^abho varnitahj atra drughano varnyate/Fatther, Ssyana thinks that this verse is addressed to one who is ridiculing the
victory of

King Mudgala when he had army and the


it

like.

<V^abhasya yuRjam'
context

conveys the sense that


is

accomplished

whatever the bull

therefore that

we

get

'yena jigUya, sahasram' In the

accomplished. It of the bull

as well as in the context of the 'drughana'. After the battle


'drughana' was allowed to
lie

was

over

the

on the
1
.

battlefield

itself,

practically neglected

madhye sayanam 'Prtanajyesu' is rendered by Sayana as l sttrhgrme^\ The idea appears to be that after the event, the bull as well as tne 'drughana' were released from the chariot and the bull only was
'katfheiya

hence

taken to the resting place and looked after in a


tor, the

manner

animal that brought victory. In contrast


itself,

on

befitting the viethe 'drughana' was lying

that battlefield

though

it

also

was equally
threw

the the

know

Ludwig has conjectured that the King that the mace was yoked to the
ire aghv ko nmtlhu dadarsa

down

cause of victory mace but we


'

chariot.)

yam yMjanti tamva

sthapayanti

trnamnodakamabharantyuttaro dfmro vahati pradedi'sat // (10)

The Hymn of Mudgala Bhtinnyasva


Far be the
to
lie

(X. 102}

19

evil.

Who

has seen thus


they

Whom

they yoke,
grass,

down, be dumped. To him

do not bring

him they allow nor water. The

superior one carried the

yoke guiding properly.

(Griffith regards this verse as unintelligible. Velankar thinks that the 'dmghana' is placed on the chariot and is being taken home in a triumpIn 'yam yuftjanti' hant manner. perhaps after Sayana 'yam' and 'tarn' are

taken to refer to the chariot whereas these expressions


hana' itself. Further this the

way of fnnouring

ths

refer to the 'dmg'dmghana' would go against


it

gross neglect

as indicated in

not offering

either

grass or

water
that

is

which reveal the affection and esteem. The verse speaks of ingratitude as seen in this neglect, 'pradediiat' is

the

evil

'directing

the

move-

raent or

showing the
'dhuro

direction.'

The drughana as
therefore
these

the companion, not only


It,

kept pace with the bull


the

but also guided the


pradeditsat';

movement.
it

hence, carried

yoke,

vahati

is

superior,

excellent,

'utlara'

having
of

all

shades.

regarded as better, Velankar rightly


to

takes 'are aghtf

in the

sense
is

'tentam

pSpam'.
It
is

It is

be

remem-

bered that 'the


that
is

dmghana
it

the deity, devata'.

the expression 'pradedi'sat*

responsible for the

version that the


the

mace was thrown


indication
is

In front of

the chariot

and

showed

way

but such an

not availa.

We

in

the hymn.)
/
//

parivrkteva patividyam'f/nat plpylmTi kucakretya. siRcan


e$aifyei

ddrathyti jayema sumahgalam sinavadastu s&tam

(11)

Like a neglected wife swelling with milk she obtained her husband, she prospering through bad wheels. May we conquer with her as the
driver eagerly seeking the desired wealth

and

cattle.

May

our gains be

auspicious

and

rich in food.
is

(Mudgalani's good fortune

here described.

She was upto

this

time

a neglected wife, a 'parivrkta', perhaps because of her barrenness. the King's wives 'parivfkta' is one who is avoided. But now

Among

Victory which she gained for

Mudgala by her

driving,

through this she found favours


place, in this sense

with

him and she


found her

is

restored to her proper and lawful

she has

husband.
tliis

rendered by her in

battle.

Mudgala did recognise The main idea appears


sincan'

the
to

signal service

be expressed in

the clause 'pipyann kucakreya

ha

which appears

to

mean she pro-

spered as if sprinkling prosperity through the 'kucakra'. 'kucakretid is a problem. Velankar understands by it an endlessly moving water wheel and
so 'kucakrena sincan'
thirsty
is

one

pouring

water

through

a water-wheel to a

person perhaps referring to the the hour of his need. It is possible

fact that

that

we

she did oblige Mudgala in have here a simile with a

pun, HiftopamS', 'kucakra' suggesting a bad wheeled chariot and 'an illorganised mechanism for sprinkling' a water-wheel as Velankar would like

2Q
to take
it.

T. G. Mainkar

In that case the

word

'sincan'

also

would

give

two

meanings-

with the sense of chariot with a bad one of showering prosperity agreeing
water, a life-giving thing to any needy, wheel, and the other of sprinkling means 'sprinkling as It obviously The word 'silicon' is a tricky one.

and connected with water espciaily'


the earlh, kucakra

this

must have led Sayana to think

of

and the showers from a cloud. His idea that Mudgalani no support from the hymn which sho wered' arrows on the enemy has Sayana's explanation nothing more. indicates that she was driver and
based on

hh idsa of Mudgalani as a warrior is therefore unsatisfactory, led Geldner to think of ideas connecThis same word 'sincan' has perhaps the sense in classical usage of 'sprinkling ted with sex. The root 'sine' has 'nisincan wadhanmetam of semen' as in the word 'niseka' or in Kalidasa's
latSm kaundim ca nartayan' where 'nisincan'
this

has

this sense.

Geldner
by

with
the

idea in his

mind and perhaps

with

the suggestions

conveyed

word

thinks that 'parivrktri


sincan' therefore

'kucakrena

the sexual puoap' indicating

Mudgala was an old impotent person and would mean 'being sprinkled with a bad weakness of the husband. Geldner thinks this
is

verse to be spoken by the spectators of the race and it ess their desire for a ride with the fair young wife in

they

who

expr-

'e^alsyd.

cidrathyti
is

j&vema'.

It is

difficult to

accept these

suggestions

for

which there

no

support from the hymn.

masculine gender in 'sincan' also might have been responsible for this idea for on that count one is likely to think

The

of Mudgala here. In yelankar's way of understanding things here 'kucakra' means an endlessly moving water-wheel and 'siftcati' irrespectve of the
gender would refer to Mudgalani. Mudgalanj's victory was

achieved

with
the
first

an ill-equipped chariot,
simile the water-feeding
line has

artificially

repaired
also

*mithukrta'

and

so

in the

mechanism

would

be

'bad'.

Thus

two similes for Mudgalani: as a parivrkta she did find a husband

giver

and she showered prosperity on him with a bad wheeled chariot as waterwould shower water to a thirsty through an imperfect mechanism,
would go with both
the similes, in

'plpytiritf

one case

it

with milk and in another

swelling

with

prosperity,

meaning swelling and success. In the


back
to 'rathi

second
(2)

line 'rathyS' is instrumental singular

and hearkens

this Mudgalani, Mudgala expresses his desire that with charioteer, the most desired e$a-esya, - now that Mudgalsni had won his favours - may

we
it

win, jayema, in times to come.


is

Satam

means

gains

iu a

battle and

prayed that

may

these be sinauat, possessed of nourishing food

and

auspicious 'sumafrgalam,'

tvam

visvasya

jagatah

caksurindr'asi

caksusah

/ //

vr|S yadvjim man's

sisT/sasi

codayan vadhrinti
entire

yujZi

(12)
fact, the

Oh
the eye,

Indra, thou

art the

eye of the

world,

in

eye

of

Thou

seekest to win the

war with only one mighty

bull,

impelling

The

Hymn

of Mudgala

Bharmyaha

(X. 102)

21

him

forth,

though accompanied by a weakling companion.


last verse is the expression of gratitude

(The
a clever

by Mudgala,
success was
the deadly

as

well as

resume of

Indra's

exploit
(1),

here.

This

woo because
weapon
of
Indra
three
vrf'a
is

Indra protected the chariot


the

Indra kept

away

inspired

enemy (3), Indra gave excellent protection to the bull (7) and Mudgala to accomplish something Indralike (8). There are
where in each case there
'vadhri.'
is

pairs participating here

one who
the
first

is

strong

while the other

is

a weak person,

Thus in

indra
gala
bull

who is a vrsa and MJ Jgila who is a vadhri. Secondly there is Mudwho is a vrsa and Mudgalani who is a vadhri. Thirdly there is the who is a vrsa and the drughana which is the vadhri. Thus 'mattn vadhas a triple application. Mudgala
refers to himself as

place there

hrirfa yujn'.

'vadhri

in

a spirit of devotion and submission. The

word has

certainly

not that

significance

which Geldner reads into

it,

the one of impotence of Mudgala.

The

first line

in particular as the eye of the world, for Indra

need of

liis

weak

describes in the usual Vedic manner the greatness of Indra, here saw with his eye the dire friend Mudgala and helped him.)
Griffith

the

The hymn has been a dispair of the scholars. hymn is fragmentary, and it seems impossible
Schroeder regards the
in

declared
it

that

to

interpret

full

and

satisfactorily.

hymn

to be

mime (Mysterium und


Geldner
without payof

Mimus im Rgveda) and


ing

interpretation

accepts

any attention to

Bloomfield's

criticism.

Keith

regards the views

Bloomfield to be weighty and no satisfactory interpretation being possible unless these views are refuted. effectively Dange is of the view that no
satisfactory explanation of the

hymn
it

respect of each of the verses in


that this

as a whole which will hold good in has been accomplished. Bloomfield asserts

hymn
new

will

figure

in

the final irresolvable remnant of the Veda,

unless a
its

reconstruction.

accession of materials should enrich our present apparatus for These remarks are in themselves a justification for a fresh

attempt at the reconstruction of the

hymn

in question.
utilise motifs that are to be

The hymn

is

a war ballad and seems to

seen in the later epic poetry.

Thus
hour

cattle-lifting

forms the

very

centre

of the Viratparvan of the Mahabhsrata.


or helping the

King

in

his

Again a queen driving a chariot of need and then receiving favours in


episode in the Rsmayana.
the

return

is

to be seen in the Kaikeyi-Dasaratha

In the task of
interpreting
crucial

interpreting

hymn

principle enunciated by Roth of

only time here. Nor is Sayana every time helpful for there are places where he obviously bestdes the point. But with all that in mind, his value cannot be overestimated.
first

Rgveda Rgveda words like kakardu, dudhi for the

in terms of

does not

help us

for

we

get

and

Indian tradition

when

it

exists, is

not sufficiently uniform and harmonious

22
to

T. G. Mainkar
at

form the basis of interpretation but it ected altogether. When it does not exist
against a particular

the

at all, exist,

same time cannot be neglcould be an argument it


it

hty authority which

it

way and when would be unwise


it

does
to

has a limited but weig.

disregard.

The Nirukta and


all

the

commentary of Durga, the Brhaddevata, the much this hymn and I believe, it would be
than to grope in sheer darkness.

Puranas
safer
to

throw
in

light

on

walk

this light

BHASA'S TREATMENT OF THE KRSNA LEGEND


G. K. Bhat
plays,' we have the Balacarita which dramatizes the childhood-life of Krsna, beginning with his divine birth and with the of closing killing Kamsa. The dramatic form

Among

the 'cycle of

Bhasa

selection

and presentation of chosen

necessarily imposes material; so that certain incidents may


details

be omitted or

merely narrated, certain

may

be modified or changed,
All this
is

and characters or incidents


a literary

may be

newly

added.

natural in

endeavour and

and purpose.

nearly always justifiable by dramatic necessity But Bhasa's treatment of the Krsna legend shows some

is

significant deviations.
plot

They need
is

to

be investigated,
readers

will

assume

that the

of the Balacarita

known

to Sanskrit

and

draw

attention

only to
i

some

significant deviations in the

story.

the

such deviation is about Visrm-Krsna ( ) being the seventh or child of Devaki. Bhasa eighth child as the clearly regards this seventh 1 The evidence, on the contrary, from the Harivamla and the Bhngavata points out that this was the eighth child. In the Harivamia
-.

One

narrative,

Nsrada informs Kamsa


is

that Devaki's eighth child

shall

be

his

through the speech of Visnu to Nidra that seventh foetus of Devaki 'shall be transferred to her co-wife, Kamsa
think that Devaki
her

deaths.

It

also

stated

the
will

had a miscarriage due


killed six children

womb
that

as the eighth child, which

Kamsa

states

Kamsa

and then Visnu will enter The BhSgavata of Devaki, the seventh foetus was the
to fear, will try to kill 3 .

transfer

divine Ananta, a portion of Visnu Himself; Visau instructed Yogamaya to it to Rohini who lived in Nanda-gokula along with other women out of fear of

Kamsa; with
wife 4
.

the

other

divine

portion

Visnu
be

will

permit
as the
child as

Himself to be born as Devaki's son and Yogamaya


child of

will

born

Nanda's
.

People were expected


therefore Visnu

to

take the seventh

a miscarriage 5

Apparently

becomes

the eighth child.

he

was the seventh or


this deviation
it

In the dramatic presentation of Krsna's childhood-life, the point whether the eighth issue of Davaki is indeed a minor one.

Yet

from the pursnjc version

exists

in the dramatic version.

Had Bhasa used


pted incident in
truction,
it

new dramatic
deliberate
it

as a significant motive of introducing an already accecontext or for some purpose of plotcons-

it

would have
But

been easy to explain

it

as

such.

In

that case
for a

would have been a

dramatic purpose.
whatsoever.

is

departure from the not so. In Bhasa's play


to

source
it

made

serves

no purpose

He

could easily have allowed Krsna

be the eighth child, The

24
In deviation therefore points to,

G. K. Bhat
to a different source

my opinion, either to an early phase of the than the two pursnas, or rather
I

Krsna

legend.
as the
existing

am

looked inclined to think that the early phase

upon Krsna
in the

seventh child

and some

traces of

it

can be

discovered

purana version.
1

The purana story


before the turn
similar'.

clearly states that


for
.

Karhsa

killed six issues of

Devaki

came

But the legend


it

Krsna 8 The statements in the Bhrtsa play are now takes a turn. The seventh foetus is no doubt
in the Harivam'sa

divine; but

is

treated as a part of

of Krsna by

name Sankarsana
is

Visnu called agraja or the elder brother and Ananta or Sesa in the
to

Bhtigavaia*. This foetus

transferred
.

Rohini

and

at the

same

time

Visnu enters the

womb

of Devaki

As a matter of
since
it

fact,

this

could well be
and

treated as the seventh

conception,

is

a case of

transference

substitution. It seems, therefore,

the

purana
is

legend

treats

Krsna
child

as the

eighth child, (although

it

is

the seventh conception) in

order to accommothough

date the

new idea

that

Rama

or Balaracna
is

also Devakj's

born of Rohini and


the

that

he too

a divine incarnation.

The
fit

punning on
the

name

Sankarsana appears to be a poetic ingenuity

to

myth

of

transference of foetus",

That Krsna could have


eighth in order to

been the seventh child but was

treated as the
is

accommodate Sankargana or Bala-rama


by another

as the seventh

indirectly supported

legend which the Harivarhsa narrates and


:

This legend is of demons, dwelling in the nether world, who were the sons of Kslanemi and known by the name
mixes up with the birth of

Krsna

Sad-garbha"
rities

(lit.

six foetuses).

and begged from

Him

They worshipped Brahma with severe austeboon that they would not be killed by gods,

semi-divine beings or men, or by the curse of sages or by

weapons.

This

boon was granted.


these

It

demons

that

enraged Hiranyakasipu as he was bypassed. He cursed will be true to their names they Tney will remain
:

merely as foetuses and

will

be killed in the

womb

by

their

father

the
as

demons

are six; Devaki will

have

six foetuses;

and Kamsa

will kill

them

they lay in the

womb. Visau on

his visit to

Patala saw the great demons,


the spell of deathto arrange
It

adgarbhas, being asleep in water in the


sleep.

womb, under

He

entered their bodies, revived them,


will

and asked Nidra

that the
is

Sadgarbha demons

be put in Devakfs

womb

in

due order.

further said that

Nidra

will receive Vi:iu's favour for this

work and

she
the

will

be 'regarded as the

goddess of

the

world11

This legend enables

linking of the issues of Devaki and Yasoda, because Nidra or Yogamaya will be born as Yasodg's child and the exchange easily facilitated: And it also underlines the original detail of six issues. The therefore, that in the earlier

only supposition phase Krsna was looked upon as the seventh child

Bhssa's Treatment of
of Devaki

the

Kr$na Legend

25

on Balarama-Sarikarsana number of order appears to be plausible. It then follows that Bhasa was drawing his material from the early phase of ihe Krsna legend, in which neither Sankarsana nor
necessitated the change in the

and the

later attempt to bestow divinity

YogamayS

figured.

dramatic story the exchange of children is ( ) neither preplanned nor mooted. Vasudeva's idea in the Bzlacarita is only to take the child to a place of safety away from the clutches of Kamsa. He
ii

In the

crosses

Yamuna, comes

to the

cowherd

village
is

and meets Nandagopa by coincidethe


child
in his

nee. His request to

Nandagopa

only to accept

safe-

keeping and act as his custodian and guardian".


to

Nanda's wife Yasoda was

still-born.

rily

buried. It was only because the deva decided to take her away and
It

The girl that was born The babs would have been ordinababe suddenly came to life that Vasuuse her as a substitute.

not possible to say whether this is a deviation from the original legend or a calculated change effected for dramatic purposes. If the simultaneous births of Krsna as Devaki's child and of Yogamayaor Nidra as 3 and the substitution, were a later Yasoda , development of the
is

legend,

Bhasa's treatmant would not


utilization

appear to be quite a deviation.

It

will

be

of the known legend. At the same time it must be remembered that Bhssa's presentation is full of dramatic interest. It creates an atmosof phere anxiety and suspense so far as Vasudeva's effort is

concerned.

justified

His meeting with Nanda is a coincidence in the drama, but a coincidence by dramatic necessity. The meeting creates further a tension of

human emotions and Nanda's

acceptance of Vasudeva's child elevates his character to the level of nobility. It is true that Bhasa retains in the story a number of supernatural factors which attend this incident. Yet the tense

drama of

conflicting

human

emotions

is

the dramatist's creation

and

that

would never have been possible with


that

the

present

legend
It is

of preplanned

exchange and mutual substitution of the two babes.

therefore possible

is

Bhasa may have changed the details of this incident to achieve his dramatic purpose. The simultaneous birth and exchange of the two children a factor which is really unconnected with the one whether the children

were the seventh or the eighth issue. And so, it may have been a part of the legend, considering also the fact that the smashed girl is transformed
into a divinity

and Bhssa presents this miracle in the play. In that case, the only significant departure (hat Bhasa made would be to show that

Yasoda's child was still-born and that the exchange of babies took place not secretly- as in the present legsnd but in the meeting between Vasudeva

and Nandagopa. The dead child would provide


bringing

the

necessary

ground
arrange

for

Nandagopa out

to the outskirts of

the village
I

and

the

dramatic meeting between him and Vasudeva, However Sambodhi 4.2

have a suspicion

26
that the

G. K. Bhat
the dramatist

details

that

has

presented,

namely,

Vasudeva's
it

simple attempt to carry

away the

child to a safe place,

leaving

in the

custody of Nandagopa and then carrying away the girl, available by a lucky the features of the coincidence, to use as a substitute, may have been
early legend before
( iii ) it

was wrapped wilh mystery and miracle,

Vasudeva and Nandagopa are not precisely defined. The Harivariisa describes Karhsa as the and of the cows as a cowherd lord under his sway 1 *. Nanda's Nandagopa
In the present legend the relations between
wife

Yasoda was apparently

liked

by

Karhsa 15

The

Bhagavata
living

tells

us

that Vasudeva's wives including


18 village out of fear of Karhsa
.

Robin!
Later,

were secretly

in

Nanda's

when Nanda had come


to

to

Kamsa

to

pay his annual taxes Vasudeva went out

meet him.

Nanda

embraced
stay

him

as a brother

and was sorry to find

that

loving friends

cannot

together". The Bhagavata thus assures of a close,


tie

affectionate and

friendly

between the two.

Bhasa on the other hand, shows Nandagopa to be a serf of Vasudeva Karhsa, as the king, is the supreme lord over the entire land of his king! dom. But Vasudeva is Nandagopa's 'master' and the latter calls

him

as

such.

inflict

also learn that Vasudeva, at the order of Kamsa, had to punishment on Nandagopa for some offence that he had committed Nandagopa was whipped with lashes and

We

fettered.

Nanda
full

enters

the

stage dragging his


the

fettered

foot". .This
(he

picture

of the relations
meeting

between

two enables Bhasa to

make

Impending

of dramatic

tension

and

also to create a fine

human

personality out of

Nandagopa.

Is this

a departure from the


it

legend in order to

dramatic motive or does

introduce a touching
legend
5

reflect

The point
that

is

of course

difficult to

phase of a simple be decided. But it is


story of

an earlier

teGHate Jmaka which


refers to

interesting to see

recounts the

Karhsa and

his

sister

Devagabbha

Nandagops

ffbbha"
ten

with

who.

as the serving woman or the latter exchanged her ten sons for

maid of Del
her ten dau
.

order to escape their slaughter at the


,s

vemon

quite likely to be a later one. It

indicates

hand of Karhsa. The on , y a

Make

have iooked

agopa
actua, vision of Vi au' ?
.

vehicl

and

'==

B/i3sa's Treatment

of

the

Kfsna Legend
it

27
also

emphasises the divine descent of Vi?nu in human form; which will have a thrilling impact at spectacular episode
of the audience.

presents a

least

on a section
the

The

personification of the divine eagle

and

weapons

serves, therefore, a dramatic purpose

and

this is

its

only justification.

The only point worth-considering is that here, as also in the Dutavskya, Bhasa introduces five weapons the discus Sudarsana, the bow Sarnga, the mace Kaumodaki, the sword Nandaka and the conch Paficajanya. The
:

usually
discus,

known accompaniments
mace,
lotus).
Is

are Sankha, Gakra,


again, a

Gads and Padma


matter

(conch,

the
1

difference,

of chronological

modification
(v)

and

evolution
at the

The miracle

dramatic story. But the

details vary

smashing of the girl by Kamsa occurs in the from the puranic account. Kariisa, in

the Bslacarita notices that a part of the

smashed

girl falls

to the
all

ground,
blazing

but another part rises up in the sky.

It

reveals multiple

arms

with

weapons and seems


feels that the

to have manifested itself to strike Kariisa


his

down.

Karhsa

death has come; the apparition looks like the Night of Death (Kalaratn) weilding a spike of sharp edge and grows in 20 size in terrifying robes The vision is called Kartyayani. She is accompa,

time of

Kupdodara, Sanfcukarna, Mahsnila and Manojava who form her She describes herself as having killed Sumbha, Nisuriibha, Mahisa and other enemies of gods and as now taking birth in the family of Vasudeva
retinue.
for

nied by

the purpose of destroying the

Kamsa
is

family2'.

In the Harivam'sa account she


tance by Visnu, She
is

to transfer the

Devakj so that they


child

will be

is called upon for assisSadgarbha demons to the womb of born as Devakj's children. She is also to transfer

Nidra who

the seventh foetus to Rohini and permit herself to be born as Yasoda's and thereby she will be the ninth incarnated issue in the Visnu family^, Krsna being the eighth. Visnu promises her personal favour for this service. When Kamsa would hold her bj one leg and smash her on the stone she would rise up in the sky She will have the same dark complexion as that of Vi^nu, but the facial features of Sahkarsana: massive arms holding three-pronged spike, a sword with gold handle, a pot of sweet wine and a lotus. She will wear a blue garment and a yellow cove.

ring garment, a necklece shining like moonrays, heavenly ear-rings. She circular piles with a crown. Her long arms will wear her hair in three
will

ornament and

be as smooth as serpant-slough and she will have a natural shoulderalso a raised banner of peacock feathers. She will be surro-

unded by the host of goblins. Indra will coronate her as a goddess and she will be installed on the Vindhya mountain as Kausiki. She will kill Sumbha, Nisurhbha and other hill-dwelling demons. On the nineth day she will be
offered worship and food of meat and will
fulfil

the desires of her devotees.


also occurs 25
.

She

is

given various names,

among which Kalaratn

G. K. Bhat
as

This description
event. Later,

is

presented

Visnu's

prediction
she

of

the

when Kamsa
girl,

actually smashes the babe,


in

rises

coming up as a

very beautiful divine

laughing and dancing

sky and promising that

she will tear Kmiisa's body and drink his hot

blood".

The Bhugavata account h much similar. Here she is Yogarnays whom. the Divine Lord orders for assistance. She is promiser* worship and offerings from men. She will be known in many places and by many names like

Candika Krsna, Madhavi, Durgs, Bhadrakah, Vijaya, Vaisnavj, Kurnuda, 23 In the actual miracle Kanyaka, Maya, Nurayani, Isanj, Sarada, Ambika
.

she

is

described as the younger sister of Visuu, eight-armed, weilding eight

weapons (bow, spike, arrow, skin or armour, sword, conch, discus, mace) and heavenly garments, garlands, unguents, jewels and ornaments 20
.

The
apparent

significant
t

variations present in the dramatic

story will

now

be

babe's body
present in

detail that on smashing a portion of the ground and another portion rises up in sky is not the purana versions (ii) The dramatist calls this Vision by the
(i)

The dramatic

falls to the

name Ksitysyaru.
mber
that
it

This
is

name does
found

not occur in

the
it

purana
is

list.

One

of

tbe names, Kalaratri,

in the

drama. But

significant to

remeuses

occurs not as a

before the Vision rises up.

name but in an imagery which The puraaa accounts refer to (iii)

Kariisa
the

accompaspecific

nying host with a vague term 'Bhutagana'. names which are not found elsewhere,

The drama gives four (iv) The personal

appearance,

in the dramatic

number of arms, weapons etc, connected with the Vision are again different and purinic accounts, (v) The connection of this Vision
is

with Visnu's pre-planned arrangement


story.

naturally absent

in the dramatic

I am not attempting here a study of the Krsna phases of growth and evolution. It is a subject that

legend

in

its

gradual

treatment. I
legend.
(1)

And

of the the comparative study so far indicates the following conclusions:


details in the

am

must take a separate

concerned for the

moment with Bhasa's treatment

like the relation version, between Vasudeva and Nandagopa, the visions of Visnu's weapons and of Kartyayanj

Some

dramatic

may

have been introduced for

dramatic

purpose and for a

stage effect.
(2)

spectacular

Some

variations,

Sankar^a as well as of the nre arranged plan of the exchange of babes, and iu that case Nandagopa being a s tte serf of Vasudeva, cannot be completely justified by ncceanty. There is a possibility that some such details may re fe t of the K early phase mi a legend which was known to the dramaS
shown

Devaki, absence of

however, the mention of

like

Krsna bring the

seventh child of

Lm

Bh3sa's Treatment of the


(3)

Kr$w Legend

29

not minimize the miraculous and supernatural elements in the story. He even uses some of them for a dramatic and spectacular effect. Yet the vision of Ksrtyayam contains a iittle puzzle. details in it, like the associates of the goddess, may possibly go back to a period anterior to that of the pursnic account.' The mention of

The dramatist does

Some

and

Sumbha
Kali or

Nisumbha, however,

seems

to be

definitely

associated

with

Durga with whom the Vision is ding to many critics is a later


interpolation in the dramatic

identfied in the puratia

story. This accor-

development.

If so,

we must

suspect an

story, not in the

entire

the

episode but only in

verse put in the

mouth
is

of

Kar
to be decided,
the state of accuracy

The

point, of course,

difficult

of

relative

may
been
play

chronology in Ancient Indian History being what it is. But we admit the possibility that some passages, verses
especially

may have

later

introduced in the play


It
is

k>

tion was an anachronism


is

make it up-to-date, though such insernot necessary to assume that the entire
one
because
a few passages
are

spurious;

it

cannot

become

of

doubtful chronology. Besides, we know that Krsaa worship, which is connected with the Bhagavata religion is quite old. Megasthenes (300 B. C_) knew Mathura as the centre of Krnsa worship's Dr. Bhandarkar

be

points out that Vasudeva-Krsua is an old personality and his identification with the cowherd Krsaa (which latter is the subject of the drama) may dated from about the beginning of the Christian era 2 ", The present
ffarivamsa
is

supposed
it

to

be

composed
'the

at

Vaidya

believes that
oral

contains

oldest

The Some
fact

tradition

must

naturally

go

400 A. D. Dr. P. L. phase of the Krsaa myth' 80 back quite a few centuries.
about
.

of the divergences found in


it

the
beliefs

that

drew

material

from

dramatic story may be due to the which belong to a floating period

between the old based on bardic

oral tradition
variations.

and the new

purana phase of

,the

legend

Note
1.

Of. Balacarita 1.10

1.19.11.71-72,

to crg^cT speaking

Nandagopa

11.12

n.17
2,.
'ffartvam'sa

(HV)

(Cr.

Ed

BORI)

46 15

G. K. B'haf

HV.

47.10

3.

Harivatiia, 43.32

4.

An aerial voice announces to Kamsa, as he 34 BhSgwela (Bh.) X that her Sth son will hill him ntwly wed DevaM to her bwne,
: : :

is

driving

the

!TO

|^T i

Aal

lih. X.ii

n<i!l

1 1

Ml

ifa

^tr

X.ii,

7.

Se

footnote (1) above.


47.31; flh. X.ii.5;8.

S.

H.V.

9. or.
10.

Hv.48.8:
47:

SwH.V.

^ 3
^trar

fR

Also 48.6

The Bh,

has

the same explanation,

it

also explains

the

XiU3s

name Rama and

Bala See

Bhssa's Treatment of the Kj$na Legend


11.
12.

31

HV.
Cf.

47.11

to 29.
ff.

Balacarita, 1.10. 5

3
Later he says to

fai

Nandagopa
3^15

(1.19.
I

74-75)

^rrf^r

TR

*nrn
(I.

^
:

Nanda also

says in fear

19. 76-78)

FT

c;r

13,

Cf.

HV. 47

Visnu

directs

Nidra as follows

'Tt't

Also 48.11

nrflr

m
14.
15.

a^ri

Cf.

Cf.

HV. 47.33 quoted HV. 48.12 b


: :

above.

q^JifaFT
16.

sirtf

^wfrq'Fr ^TCIT

li

Bhagavata

X.ii.7

*iprtssw

17.
18.

Bh. X. v. 19

ff.

Read, Balacarita

1.19. 22-25.

ar^

aft

*m

IV? London. Trubner &

Co., 1887; pp. 79

ff.

for

Gha^a'aka. The ongma!

--

wo

q^rm

=nn' 3

^f

20. Balacarita, II, 18, 19'

simultaneously with Kr|na.

32
23. 24. 25. 26.
Ibid., 47.

G
38-55.

Bltat

Ibid,, 48. 28-35.

Bhagavata, X,
Ibid.,

ii.

6-12-

X.

iv.

9-11.

27.
28.

Balacarita, 11,20.

See Rapson, Cambridge History of India, Vol. I,


Vaisnavism, Saivism
1928; pp. 49-54.

p.

167.

29.

and Minor Religious Systems, Bhandarkar O. R.


Bhandarkar O.R.
Institute,

Institute, Poona

30.

Harivafn'sa, Critical edition.

Poona,

1969. Introduction

pp.

XV

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CONTENTS
A
of Knowledge Study of the Jaina Theory

On

Tattvarthasutra Matijnana in the Sabhasya

Yensho Kanakura
*

On
S,

the

Etymology of

'

Puggala or Poggala

M, Shaha

of Siddhas Jaimt Concept

5uzuko Ohira

Au Old Version j, C, Jam

of the Jaina

Ramayana

On

the Eighteen Desi

Languages

B. K,

Khadabadi
in the

Apabhramsa Forms K, R, Chandra


DhfUuparayana
J,

Vasudevahindi

Review Note

M, Shukla
Prakrit Text Restored

Bhoja's S'rngaraprakasa

V, M, Kulkarni

About

a forgotten

Grammarian Dhanapala

Smt, Neelanfana S. Shah


The
'
'

Nagabandha

and the

'

'

Pancarigavlra

Ceiling

M, A, Dhaky
Nagada's Ancient Jaina Temple

M. A. Dhaky
Cont. Title

'
,'

\
'.\:

-"'

",-'
'''

A STUDY OF THE JAIN A THEORY^


LN

THE SABHASYA
Yensho Kanakura

The Tattvnrthadhigamamtra (the rest abbreviated which has just been translated into Japanese with
outline chapter gives a general
translated text
sutra

as T.S.) of

Umjsvati
previjus

notes In

the

of

the
to

doctrines

of

Jainism.

From

the

alone

it

is

difficult

grasp

its

meaning

as the style of

aims

at

the tersest

possible

expression,
for

thus

the explanatory notes


purport. So

were attached to the individual sutras

clarifying the

much
or

but for the exposition of the individual sutras,

we have
many

not yet questioned

about the construction


the doctrinal

of the
this

text.

The

logical construction

of

this text

system of

work

involves with
like to take

problems yet to bs

investigated.

Among

them we would

up the theme of the theory

of knowiedge, out of
is

which a critical inquiry into matijwsna in particular are classified and synthesized its contents attempted below as to how and his auto-commentary. The number in the by the author in his T.S. wherein the sequence of the sntru in the 1st chapter parenthesises indicates
falls

the subject in
It

question.

word

reads, 'samyag-darsana-iffina-caritrdni end-in-view of the Jainas the


religious

mksa-mrgah
is

(1)'.

In another

samyag-dariana. samyag-jmna
in

accomplished by attaining to stand and samyag-cnritra, which are said


these three
Is

the

relation

of

jewels constituting the

'ekatarTibh^py-asTidhanmi.' Amongst for moksa, samyag-danana necessary condition

denned as

taittMWvWama*
(4)'.

samyag-darsanam
i.

(2)'

and

tattva

denotes

the sevenfold principles

of reality,

jwfivma-bandha-samvara-nirjis

arT,~moksm-tattvam

Tattvnnha-'sraddlrana
e,a

b^ato

nisci tm -i t y-ar^...ta

determined faith, so the equivalent of Rentes Glauben or right to the

^. MtaHW ^^7'!" m samyas-darsana


th

"

'

te

"T"
sense

Closest

belief as

so

translated

b
said as

original* Jecobi and J. L.

Jaini.

In that

consisting of sumyag-'sraddhnna,

a case Jaina moksa ,mrg cUntra, jnr,na and

must be

^H

S*W-***
two, nisarg a
refers

is

tau ^ ht ' the

^-nisar^-adUu
wherein

to

case

m-

(3)'

Out of

the

of good innately as the result


Kanakura's 'Indo-Seishin

Bunka no

by Sazuko Ohira. Sawbodhi 4,3-4


is

2
not directly
connected
text

Tetisho

Kanakura

with our

Knowledge
the

at present,

and

it

is

only
the

proper that the


essentials as
it

which
is

has

acquisition

of
it.

knowledge

of

its

purpose

not further involved with


I.e.,

On

the other hand,

as to the latter, 'goes into details


(5)\

'rmina-sthnpma-dravya-bhnvatas<ni r deSa-svamltva-sndhan-

tan-i&tMli

adhikarana-sthiti-vidhRnatah

'pramVm-naynir-atlMgamah (6)', tm& 'sat-saAkhjtB-ksetra-spartana-kVlJmtera(1)'


(8)'.

bhmlpnbahutvat^ca

The description

of the

text

does

not go beyond

the enumeration of these 20


requisites for having right

the categorical concepts, i.e. 4+2+6+8=20, as seven tattvas or as the means of in the faith

Closer perusal of them cannot deny, howetheir study and ascertainment. redundancy existing in ver in spite of the commentators' explanations,
these items,
e.g.,

adhikarana

cum
these

kfetra

and

sthiti
it

cum Ma. The term


due
to the author's

hhnva occurs twice.

This cannot
of

but

suggest that

is

mechanical

juxtaposition

concepl

clusters

which

must

have

independently treatment of critdsm and


the

existed for long as the set

formulae, without giving sufficient

readjustment.

Furthermore,

author

considers

numerous

conceptual

items as

with pmm&na. and n&ya, howeformulating the means of adhlgaiaa together nature of these three categories Is the ver it cannot be overlooked that
distinctly different.
It is

installed,

what kind of dravya


its

For ascertaining an object as to what its name is, how has and how it exists at present in it
properties, or
etc.

the context possessed of


cause,

making a study of
never be
is,

its

ownership,
sensory
all-inclu-

number and enduring time


judgment
as

can

the simple
is

knowledge or inferential knowledge, that


sive

pramana, but

an

synthetic

conducted oa
the
different

the

these

must be regarded
than
the

ground of pramana. And kinds of categorical concepts


peculiar
to

other

fivefold

(or sevenfold)

nayas

the

Jainas.

etc. as Glasenapp ca " s these 8 rou P s f concept such as natna, sthnpans a kind of viewpoint in his Der Jainismus. He considers it as the method

stereotypically

applied,

in
it

brief

form or

otherwise,

in
its

describing the

dogma

:,

and summarizes

under the head of "Truth and

transmission."

He naya under the category of "Ontology and dialectics," and pramTlna under "The source of knowledge", thus discussing the Jaina theory of
treats

knowledge

in general by
:

taking

all

these three

Glasenapp

Dcr Jainismus,
is

pp.

142ff.)

With

kinds together, (see H. v. Jalna regard to how the

theory of knowledge

to be classified

and discussed, the other standpoints

can be also accepted, but the

reason

why

pramana,

naya and

the other

concept clusters are to be investigated separately must have become clear by the above work. Then, the dialectics of conditional such as syHdv&da

has to be also covered by the Jaina theory


in addition to
the

above concept

clusters

of knowledge in broad sense, and nayassda. However if trie

A Study
is

of the Jaina Theory of Knowledge-on MatijMna


in
its

by what means the direct cogniluestion sufficient, So we would like ion is possible, a study of pramana alone is

posed

narrow

sense,

i.e.,

make, an inquiry into pramana below,

specifically

on matijMna, on

the

lasis

of the T.S. together with the autocommentary.


S. enumerates five kinds of knowledge,

The T.

'mati-srumvadhi-man-

to the those svopajftabhnsya, 'hparyTtya-kevalani jfianam (9)'. According irior to the sutra 8 constitute the exposition of samyag-darbana and those
ifter
if

9 of samyag-jKana,

Knowledge
it

finds

its

mention already

as

a means

attaining samyag-'sraddhana, but

was not the discussion of knowledge


is

tself.

The gate

for

an inquiry
that is,

into samyag-jnt/na, the second jewel,

opened

>y

the 9th sutra for the first time.

The

five jnsnas therein are

expounded,

tat-pramtine (10)',
.e.,

these are to

be
(11)'

divided

into two pramUnas,


(12).'

parokta and pratyak$a, 'adye parok$am

and 'pratyak$nm-anyat

divided into pratyaksa and parok$a is explained as follows. iVhy these are which is said to be 'matiti MatljKand, the first kind of paroksa pramana,
imrlft samjfifi
cintin

'bhinibodha ity-anarth'ontaram

(13)',

is

divided

into two,

tad-indriyanindriya-nimittam (14)'. Indriyas are the five sense organs, i.e., the organs of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, and anlndriya denotes
of fivefold sense percepmanas, the internal sense organ. Matijfiana consisting that is, tion derived by the eye and other sense organs and of manovrtti,

oghajnnna or
ates

common

knowledge before individuation (mano-vijWna),


of or depending
Sruta, the

originit

through the

medium

on the senses.

Therefore
is

is

called

parok$a or

indirect.

second

paroksa pramsna

said,

'smtam

mati-purvam..., (20),' for sruta

transmitted by the

ahgapravitfa and

of mati through the medium of the teaching angabahya arises on the ground as parokfa like matiof preceptors. For this reason, sruta is also regarded
jnnna.
sense organs, the other hand, the rest of the three jmnas transcend After Siddhasena pratyaksa or direct knowledge. in the sense of used became conventionally Divskara this term partyaksa was current in the other schools sense perception amongst the Jainas as sense of amuiana and labda. Thus the of thought, and parokta In the reversed in both, and it is to be are and pratyaksa contents of paro^a of the Jainas. The usage of these noted that the T. S. retains its old theory Siddhasena Divakara is found in his Nyayavattira 4, -aparoksataytfterms

On

therefore they are called

by

rthasya grtihakam
shall

jMnam
work

tirsam

pratyakfam itamjjneyam grahanekwyn


in the later chapter.

//,'

take up

this

separately
is

Amongst

devas through birth,

avadhi pratyakfas, but by human


is

said to be

beings

and possessed by nnrakas through ^yopalama of the


beings

karmas. Manahparyny*
the samyatas alone,

possessed by

human
arises,

but

confined

to

and kevala-jnma

according to

X :,

by
|.

the

th

In dartentvarana and antMya karnm destruction of mohamya, jmnnvarana, that of the ordinary method differ by nature from s way these pratyk^

Tenslio

Kanakura
direct perception

of cognition which

is

established

by the

of the

external

world through sense organs.


iwroA-fo,

We

shall confine ourselves

within the theme of


is

and leave the

rest aside at present.

Smta

which

no

other than

Jaina the testimony of the

canon
matt

is,

according to Umasvati, 'tri-knla-vlta.


'matijimnlin-maha-vifayam.' However,
disquisition
is

Yam" 'rihddhatiua'
this aiso arises

than

and

on the ground

of mati. So our

below

is

narr-

owed down
as

to the subject of

which matijnSna alone

commented

upon

'svmprata-Ma-vifayam',

*inclriy7intndriya-nimittam'

and

'Titmano jna-son*

Now,
uk

the sUtra divides matijffina into four kinds,

(15)'.

and
its

"affirm

synonyms
is

'aoagrahehapaya-dhameans to perceive According to the autocommeutary, avagraha an object vaguely as it is by the respective sense organ?, and It is in another word and avadhr/rana. alocana are
grahana,

a bare sensation
that here
to the
a

devoid of

discriminative
it.

judgment,
Next, ihn
the

which

apprehends

white thing, but not beyond


to

from

positive inquiry,

same commentary it was apprehended. It is part when and its equivalents listed are uhn, tarka, panksn, vicnranH and jijfiBsa. Jacobi translates this term ihn as Erkennen wollen and explaits
it

know

the

rest

of

according portions of the object commented upon as a kind of

means

ins ihat a flag or


its

a crane.

meaning of

means to think whether the white object as so apprehended is According to Umasvati, ihn should also connote, beside know the object in more details, a mental the desire to

operation to build

up

more concrete

idea

or image

of the object upon


of .an object
called as a kind

having examined

its

apprehension.

When
it

the apprehension

formulates a definite mental image,

can

be

certainly

of judgment (apnya]. However when a mental operation associates the image of a flag, for instance, with existing concept of a flag, then forms
its

context as
the
it

good,

from

analysis
is

bad, false etc., of the former

the latter
in

operation can be inferred


series

the ihn

of

its

mental

process.

Therefore
'

better to

understand that
of the

covers

the

entire process

of the apprehension (avagraha)

object

through

L the third stage of

judgment

(apsj/a).

Thirdly,

mean

to aspire for virtue

apZya is commented upon by the author to and eschew vice, upon scrutinizing the object
is

as right or wrong

when

it

apprehended, Apagama, apanoda, apavyadha,

apeta, apagata, apaviddha, and apanutla are Jacobi understands it to mean, "As it flies
it

enumerated

-as its

synonyms.
flaps
its

up and

down

and

a crane but not a flag". wings, it to mean Similarly Jaini considers the judgment or ascertainment of an object as the idea of a mental image.
is

But from the autocommentary

it

is

understood that

this

mental

operation
having
it

means

to discriminate the object as

reflected, to resolve for

samjak or asamyak, and guna and to keep away from dofa.

upon

Therefore

A Study
does not signify a

of the Jaina Theory of Knowledge-on MatiJMna

mere judgement or ascertainment of an idea, but denotes valuation of good cum bad and right cum wrong, which is performed upon

And this simple judgment or determination of a concept should rather be regarded as the province of ~iha of the 2nd stage, which is defined as 'niscaya-vuesa-jijnasa.' The explanation given by Jacobi and Jalni which is based on that of the commentators in tradition cannot
the ground of the former.
1

certainly be criticized as incorrect

as

a whole. Rather

it

is

thought

to be

proper to follw them as the traditional understanding of the Jainas. I also gave a conventional explanation in the note to the sutra 15 in the previous

What I chapter of the Japanese translation the sutra should be comprehended as above if

am
it

proposing
is

here

is

that

understood in

accord-

ance with the Svopajnabhusya. The word apUya primarily signifies 'to leave sense cannot be sufficiently expressed by the word off', of which original

and option judgment. As the synonyms listed suggest, the sense of adoption should not be forgotten, implied in it. Is, it Furthermore, the BhUsya describes as if both operations of lha and apaya immediately succeed avagraha, somehow occurring synchronically. Most probably this impression was created by the indiscreet description of him ought to be considered that the author, and the fact maintained by
avagraha
the fourth stage of dharanZ
ing
is succeeded by by apUya, Lastly, ikn, which is then succeeded mean the understandis commented upon to of the respective object, retention of and ascertainment of matijiiana. and avabodha are reckPmtipatti, avadhnrana, avasthUna, m'scaya, avagama What strikes us here is that the word avadharana oned as its

equivalents.
as a

which was

listed

synonym of avagraha again appears


difficult to

here as
is
it

an equnot nece-

ivalent of dtmrara..

It is

say

if

this

redundancy

due to the

mere inattentiveness of the author


ssarily Impossible to

of to a scribal error.
its

Oc

is is

understand

meaning,

if the

former

taken in
the latter

the sense

of bare ascertainment of
the

the

apprehended

object

and
also

of

its

establishment. Jacobi takes dhvraria


is

in the sense of recognition that

the object

same crane
the object,
in his

that I

saw
not

yesterday.

He

notes the
brings

existence of another explanation

that it

denotes a

memory which
itself.

one

to

recognize
it

but

recognition

Nevertheless,

Umssvsti means

object in mind, mind ing object in

in another word, he

commentary means
it.

to hold an image of the ascertained


it

as

an operation of impress-

and remembering

The
jnsna
is

text proceeds further to

above four kinds of matisay that by the


'bahu-bahuridha-k$iprnnisrltmnkta-dhmv-

attained the cognition of


(16)'

annm setamnam
divisions
that is

and

'arthaya (H)\

According to

the

BhUya, four
rest

of'the four

apply each
processes

to bahu etc, as well as to their contrary cases,

above

occur

to bahu

and

the

of

the

ft

Tensho Kanakura

subdivisions as toavagraha,
kjipra,

i.e.,

cirena, nisrita, antirita,

avagraha ofbahu, alpa, batiu-vidha, eka-vidha, anukta, ukta, dhruva and adhruva. The same

twelve cases are set

posited ths respective sense organs, but are cussing the peculiar functions of

i. e. iha, apUya instances. and dharans, so the total amounts to forty-eight items were these categorical forty-eight what then, criteria, On not those derived by digabove are ? The four mental processes

up

as

to the rest of three processes,

those
i.e.,

derived by analysing the coagnitive


five

process

common

to the six senses,

indryas and manas.

In that

case,

these

forty-eight
to the six

items should be

naturally regarded as the categories

senses. Otherwise, like the apprehension the visual sense can theoretically have other categories
categories, of red colour, so on and so forth up to innumerable can hardly be confined within forty-eight kinds, So these have to

common

which
be the

when we reexamine these categories shared by the six senses. However, whether or not they are sufficiently convincing to us, fotty-eight categories are difficult to unfortunately we have to admit that there are some which
be

For instance, how the concept such as kfipra was fully convincing. considered to be apprehended and judged by the tongue of which province
is taste ?

From

the empirical ground of the contrasting idea


bitter,
it

such as slowly

sweet and quickly

to taste also, la that case, the antithetical idea of strong

must have probaly been thought to be applicable cum weak must

this

be also added to the above forty-eight kinds for the same reason. Thus uiean the dete enumeration of forty-eight items does not necessarily
rminate number.

The next

sutra, 'arthasya (17)',

is

briefly

'avagrahfidayo matijK'ana-vikal p3 arthasya bhavanti'.

commented upon by Umasvati, At a glance artha seems


previous sutra.
It

stand

in parallel

with the twelve categories of the

should

not be so taken, of course, from the

commentary on the sutra 12 and from

the logical context also, but should be understood in the sense, 'with regard to the object' or 'with regard to the distinct object' which stands against the
indistinct object

of the

next

sutra.

Now
must
these

taking

it

in the sense of

'with

regard to the object', the world


as the nominative case governing
it

artha
all

refer to

both sutras 15 and 16

subdivisions. In

another word,

is

understood to attain the formulae of such

hends the object as

many,"

"It

ascertains

proposition as, "It apprethe object as quick," etc.

Jacobi notes that this term artha denotes dravya

Pajyapada. Now, the word dravya


sutras,
i.

is

in the SarvWhaslddhi of employed in the T. S, in the following


(1:5)',

e,,

'nsmas.thspata-dravya-bhsvatas-tan-ny^sah
(1:27)',
'

'mati-smtayor-

nibandhah sana-dravyew-asana-paryayesu
lasya (1:33),

'sarva-drasya-paryayefu keva-

'drauyani jwai-ca which extends to the succeeding

mrguw
Which

(V:4Q)'. Dravya is consideredered there as the substance upon qualities and modes depend, which sums at the same time the

Sum

swa-paryVyawd-dravyam (V:37)' auras, 'kvla's-cety-eke (V:38) and 'dravynsrajrt


(vsS)',

up

Study af the

Jama Theory

of the Knowledge- on MatijMna

totality of souls and non-souls; therefore there may be no trouble in understanding the sutra 17 as 'dravyasya in the place of 'arihasya'. Nevertheless is used in the text in the definite this term dravya sense as observed above, and the author preferred (he word artha in particular in the aura it is more natural for us to 11, then take it in the sense referring to the knowledge of an object in general,
1

Then the
bhynm
(19).'

The

text reads, 'vyaKjanasytivagraha/i (18)' and cakturamndriy*. sutratora explains that as to vyanjana, avagra h a alone
.

occurs, but not.ifta and the rest of the related to both vyahjana and artha, but

mental operations.

So avganha

is

ifta and the rest to artha alone Vyafijanavagraha does not take place by the eye and mind, but does take place by the rest of the sense organs i.e., the ear, and

nose,

tongue
168
the

skin.

It

is

said therefore that matijftana

is

classified into 2, 4. 28, to

and

336

object of unascertainable, for instace, whether it was the sound of a gun or a firecracker when it sounded bang. When avagraha as such remains as avagraha, why the visual sense has to be excluded from having it, then ? According to Umasvati, the object apprehended by the eye and

kinds.

Vyanjana or indistinct
is

object here seems

mean

perception which

mind
as

is

necessarily distinct, and

is

limited to the

image retained

in

mind

an idea upon having gone through the fourfold mental processes. But he does not indicate to us the reasons why auditory and tacticle senses etc. alone allow the disapperance of unascertainable as it is, but perception visual sense refuses it. At any rate, the author maintains that the subdivisions of

matijmna amount

to 2 to 336 kinds.

This

is

explained
:

by the
indriya

commentaries of Haribhadrasuri

anindriya

and Siddhasenagani as follows apaya

2;

avagraha

+ ihn +

dharana

(4

x 6 senses)
categorical

4-4 vyanjannvagrahas=*2S; 28x6 categorical items =.168; items=.336. This can be briefly tabulated as below
;

28x12

Tensho Kanakura
appears as
if

At a glance,

it

they

are

logically

arranged as a whole,

touch apprehends vyanjana in which the sense of but for instance, the case the criticism of logically contraand concludes it as to**, cannot escape here are difficult for us some points discussed, dictorv conclusion. As already was lacking in setting up these categorical to comprehend as sufficient inquiry five senses and mind that fact the in defect lies however items Us

functions

primary without careful discrimination of their were regarded as the coordinates is looked at from that mattjMna as a whole It is understood strata. Let us leave aside for a while the .he temporal point of view or by and logical elements created in the four confusion of the mental elements but as it did not classify them dhnrana, processes of awgraha through mind and five senses, it merely ensued of divisions under the two separate In addition combination of six senses and four processes.
the mechanhal
to
it,

six

which or twelve categorical concepts

should rather be considered

combined with each one of are uncritically as the varieties of judgment, kinds of matijnana thus establishing 336 the four processes of cognition,
for contentment, regardless

of producing some meaningless combinations.


of

The inquiry and


T. S. The chapter
I

classification

matijnnna

itself

end here

in the

discusses then snita, avadhl

and
the

manahparyaya,

and

distinguishes the similarity

and

difference

of

five jfflnas in general.

The

relevant

sulras

to

mati
(27)',

therein

are,

mati-'srutayor-nibandhah satva-

dravyefti-asana-parynyesu

'ekvdui

bhajyani

yugapad-ekasminnn
(32),'

catur-

hhyah

(31)',

and 'mati-'srutnvadhayo viparyciyasa-ca


to

thus teaching the

in case going occurence of wrong cognition The description of jMnas other than mati seems
their mechanical classification

against

samyag~dar$ana. be also satisfied with

more
its

and content of knowledge

as

of probing the nature major object. Their account is very brief


or less, instead

compared with the intricacy of that of matijnana.


If

we

place

Umasvati
is

somewhere
difficult

in

the

5th-6th

although his exact date


previous chapter,
the
in

to ascertain as his

we have

century A. D,, studied In the


in

we can never underestimate

philosophical insight

ontext of the stage of development of Indian philosophy, particularly He is certainly comparison with that in Buddhism in those days. an outstanding systematizer of the dogmatics and is one of the eminent

philosophers

in

India.

His

merit

in

composing
that his

the

compendium
feature
to the

out

of the complexity of the tenets without losing points should be


in

well borne
as a

mind.

It

became

evident

however

distinctive

systematizer was displayed in giving an


theories to which he

organic

coherence

Agamic
That he

was

faithful,

rather than in
its

establishing

a new and

unique system of thought upon digesting

dogmatic
fact

essentials.

was

faithful to the

Agama

is

testified

by

the

that

the T. S, withpuj

A
vsya has

Study of tkeJaina Theory of Knowledge-on MalijMna


been accepted by
both the

>
sects.

Digambara and Svetambara

From

this

doctrines

point of view, we can presume that the most of the and technical terms embodied in the T. S. and its bhSfya must
already taught

have been those


niryuktis.

and employed in the canonical works or


of
the

The

major

portions

doctrinal

constructions

and

the

concept clusters of categorical items 'must have been already evolved into with which materials perthe readily available form to a certain extent,

haps Umasvati

composed

the T, S.,

upon making some improvement upon

them. This assumption was made by

me

about

ten

years

before,

which

has been proved by the recent study of Schubring as almost is not at all an easy task to trace up the source of the T. S.
in the

infallible. It

and bhVtfa

Siddhanta as to

its

entire problems,

and even
satisfied

the
it.

laborious
I

work
like to

of Schubring cannot be

said to

have

fully

would

add therefore below

some

materials

justifying

the

above assumption in

further reference. relation with the theory of knowledge for Among the canonical works, the Nandt and Anuogadnra etc., refer to the classification

of

knowledge.

According

to

Weber, knowledge

is

discussed in the JVanrfl


is

after giving the

genealogy of

thernvall,

'Knowledge

of

five

kinds

(ntnam

pamcaviham},
or
is

i.e.,

nblnnibodhika,

sntta, avadhi,

manahparyaya

and kavala

(abhinivohiya-nsnam sua-nZnam ohi-nZnam


it

manapajjava-nZnam

kevala-rifinarrt)

of two kinds

i.

e., direct

(paccakkham)

and

indirect (parokkham).

The

latler consists

ca suanftna-parokkham ca),

of Tibhmibodhika and sruta (abhinivohiya parokkha-nanam Abhinibodhika is divided into srutanihsrta and
is

four

a'mitaniksrta (suanisslam ca asuanissiam ca), each of which and a'snitanihsria is divided into four, kinds,
(uppattiiya),
nTimiyn)
Its

subdivided into
i.

e.,

autpattiki
(pari-

and (vainayikl venaiya), karmaju (kammiys)

paritfamikl

(See A,

Weber

Indische Studien,

vol.

17

S,

8.)

comparison with
adopted
is

the T. S. of classification of knowledge


in its 1
:

makes

it

clear

that the latter


as
it

9 the division of the Svejffinas of the

JVawrff

is.

AbhintoaMya

mean

the

same

thing

them called matt in the T. S. but the fact that both of from the sutra 13 in which these- are evident
is

that the specific enumementioned as synonymous. It should be understood I may call the attention of ration of these synonyms in the T. S. implies,

of their usage existing in the canonical the readers, the author's indication same fact applies likewise to his autocommliterature such as Nandi. The

and parokyt in the Nandl Furthermore, the division of pratyaksa subdivision of ^iro^lnto the T. 'S. 1 10, and the corresponds to that of in its 1 11. Nandi classiis also adopted by the latter and smia nbtdnibodhlka was dropped by into irutanlfota and a'snUanih^ta fication of nbhinibodhika and amndriya-mmitla. Here it into indnya-mmitta which instead divided made by the T. S., which however we can recognize a slight improvement combination of the categor.es due to the could not go beyond the mechanical
entary
: :

TS

Sambodhi 4,3-4

jy

Tansho Kanakura of

the function insufficient inquiry into

mams

The four

divisions of asrutanifata

such

have already discussed. must be the old as uppattiiya


as

we

classification,

which

are

according to Ardhamtgadtokosa

mentioned

in the

Rayapassnaijja and Bhesavan, tfnyadhammakatao, ^ivasasuya,

Nimyavaliyao ArdhamTigadtako'sa, s. v. uppattya}. These etc.'" (see Rotnacandraji Maharaja; do with the four subdivisions of matijxom four subdivisions have nothing to
S.,

such as (migrate in the T.

of

which source
Schubring
;

should

be sought in the

other canonical literature, (see

W.

Die Lahre der


outline in the

Jamas,

72).

The general

classification of

knowledge and
testifies

its

with those in the Nandl, which of the originality of Umasvati.

that the

former

is

T. S. agree not the product

The Jaina theory of knowledge round abaut the T. S. is not covered have questioned here matijnana alone ignoring the by the above study. We as we made it clear at the beginning. rest of the four kinds of knowledge
Moreover
in order to confine the subject matter, attempt

was made

to explicate

these several sutras on mati by


himself, minding not to go
is

the

original

commentary of the sutrakara


problem
the
inter-

bsyond
the

this extent in question. If the

to be

widened
:

to

cover

theory

of

sensation in this text,


It

auira&.l'a II

15 onwards must be also dealt with.

would be very

esting in the study of Uaiasvati's epistemology, if

pramanas of the two kinds of pratnana other schools are discussed in relation with his it is However not and concerned with paroksa. directly !..., pratyaksa our problem at present. The T, S, has been translated and explained by
the
Jaeofoi

and

Jaini, but their exposition is

based on the commentaries written

by those other than the author himself.

They have done

it

right in their
its traditional

OWB

position by trying to clarify the purport of the text

and

exposition.

However,

the original

meaning of the

text,

we must
This

say, is

most

pfopeily understood through the


Is

commentary

of the sutraknra himself. This

mainly how.

was motivated

to write this chapter.

OMHtot be evaluated as a very lucid exposition, as

autocommentary Jacobi also notes, and is


have yet turned
on the
also, but
out.

not quite free from imperfection in assisting the understanding of the text.

This

is

why

neither

its

translation

nor

its

study

My

description above which

was
free

made
from

exclusively

basis
it

autocomraentary

may

not bs

mistakes
the
,

of the would be
would be

rewarding if, upon accepting of use for the future studies*

corrections of

scholars, this

ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF 'PUGGALA OR


S,

POGGALA'*

M. Shaha
Buddhism
is

The
the

origins of the systems of Jaintsm and


it

are traced

to

'Sramauic culture' of ancient India and


to be

supposed that

they are
is

constituted of elements and ideas not


styled as

usually

met within what

-Brahmanic

culture'.

These two streams of

culture,

contemporary

and running parallel to each other, are also supposed to bear close conn* ection with the distinction of Vedic and the Non-Vedjc, as also the Aryan and the Non-Aryan sections of the society. It is, therefore, that we many
times corne across a
the religion
the

number of common

technical terms and


It is

concepts in
interesting at

and philosophy of Jainism and Buddhism.


to note that

same time

many such

terms and concepts are

missing in

Brahmanical systems of thought. At other times, they undergo change in their significance or retain the same. A comparative study of such terms and concepts is bound to be fruitful and interesting for a student of
thought-traditions in India.
take

As a

part of such study of selected

terms, I
it

up here

the etymology of the term Puggala or Poggala since

is

one
yet

of the philosophical

terms

common

to Jain

and Buddhist philosophies

conspicuously absent in Brahmanical philosphies.

In Jainism, Puggala
'matter';

originally
it

meant

both 'an individual


'an

soul"

and
on,

whereas In Buddhism

meant only

individual'. Later
to

meaning 'Individual soul' which came near and meaning, became gradually absolete in Jainism also
however, the
ing, viz. 'matter'

the

Buddhist

the other

mean-

alone was retained.

Now, so

far as the traditional etymologies

are concerned, there are two

main

currents

and meanings of 'Puggala' - the Jain and the Buddhist.


Svetsmbara and Digambaras,
etc.,

The Jain authors

and

commentators,

both

such as Siddhasena, AkalaAka,


original Prakrit

Abhayadeva

instead of
its

treating

the

word Poggala or Puggata

refer to
:~

Sanskritised

form

Pudgala and

offer the following etymologies

~ (Siddhasena

TatmrihaMtm Tm,cb.

5, sutra 1,

pp. 316)

of the AlHndta Oriental . "Paper presented at the 27th Session Conference, section on December 27, at the Prakrit and Jainism
hetra,

Kuruk,

S,

M,

S/iaha

3^
-(Akalanka
4,
:

lf?r 'j

Tattvttrthti RajavTirtlikam.,

Sanittana Jain Granthamala,

vol.

pp. 190, Benares, 1915)

(\)

gfiaigr

II^M

-(Ibid)
iS'

t% -jirons^r5*? JJKkicfRt 3^155:1"


:

-(Abhayadeva
I

Bhagavatisulra Vrtti,

Vol.

Ill,

Agamodaya Samiti Praka-

shana, pp. 776).

may add

here the etymology of Poggala offered by Yativrsabha in Prakrit.

II

(Yativysabha

Tiloyapanatti

Part

I,

Ch.

I,

verse 99).
I

But
Poggala

must observe
(he hands

that

he also has

followed
e. g.

the

Sanskritization

of

at

of earlier authors,

Siddhasena

who

certainly

preceded him.

From

these citations,

it

appears that the Jaia authors derived the word

Puggda
to

in

two ways

first (1) place, the word Pudgala (Sanskrit-Pupate) Is supposed be formed of two tetms-put or pud and gala. These terms are sugges-

In the

tive

respectively of
Jissjalfa
it

integration
i').

and

disintegration
or

(Lexicographers
the

say

<<^ois?^

*r<5:

Though put

pud indicates

same meaning
and formed
is

ai'/wraip

is

nevertheless not clear,

how

it

is

related with

very populor
(2)

from the root pur (to fill) (causal of pr). This etymology of Puggala and common in Jain tradition;
Secondly,

Puggda

is

said to be

Siddhasena and Akalanka have presented


iaftka says,
'

formed of two terms purhs and


this

;/

additional etymology
(i.

Akala-'

"Pudgalas are those that are

swallowed

e.

form of sa nra, Ahara, Visaya, karana, and ufakarana by the individual souls". Siddhasena offers two meanings of the root e

received) in the

to swallow or to wrap or to envelope. According to him, Pudga las are o called because they swallow or envelope an individual soul or because they are be.ng received or taken up by an individual soul in the form of karmans etc.
1

and

ga

(i.

to receive

We

ay

tna

(to rool or the

basis of this

atamatlve

etymology of

On

the Etymology of 'Puggala or Poggala'

375^'

q^Rf,
i.

rg<JT?!WHr
e.

or'

In this passage, gahana


racteristic

'receiving'

is

said to be the inherent

cha-

of Poggala.

Now, gahana
err

implies an active
received'.
fle
I

as well as a passive

sense,
g^r'

i, e.

'receiving' as well as

'being ffa

When Siddhsena
has
clearly

says,

3T fitter

jp^T

'il^Rt

S^fW:

both

these

meanings in mind. Here also, both Akalaiilca and Siddliasena appear to be uncertain about the origin of the word puggala. How 'puggala' is phonetically

formed from 'puns' and


logy of Puggala offered

'gil' is

by Buddhagliosa
'Puih

not explained by them. The Buddhist etymoruns thus Punti Vuccali nirayo
.-

tasmim galanti
that

ti

paggala.

means a
i.

hell,

therefore

piKgalm mean those

drop

i.

e.

fall

down

into that

e.

(niraya)^

As
is

against these explanations, Prof. P.

TEDESCO
I

observes that Puggalo


is

essentially a Jain

and Buddhist

word.

believe he

right.

According

him, Pudgala is a sanskritization of Middle Indie Puggala. which represents an early Middle Indie Puthakala, a derivative of Sanskrit Prthak, 3 He
to

points out the agreement of meaning between Pali 'Putlm' 'individual' (Putthu a-'individual self) and Puggala 'the individual (as opossed to a
3

group)
Sanskrit

and

Buddhistic

tries to combine them phonetically also. He assumes that, while had only the neuteradverbs Prthak, the pre-stage of the protoand Proto-Jaina-languages had besides the adverb Prthak

And this (Puthak] 'separately' an adjective Prthak (Puthaka) 'separate'. puthaka, he holds, was further enlarged by -la- into Puthaka-la; Here the final -la- is the secondary suffix which appears as an enlargement of adjectives since Rgvedic times and more frequently later on-(e. g, bhuala (Rv)
Pmgala (AV) etc;-La-derivatives are frequent
majjhilla 'middle' &a/nV/-exterior etc.;)
in

Ardhamagadhi

also,

e; g;

Prof.

TEDESCO

further

investigates as

to

how

Piithakala

became

hence putakala. From here on, puggala. Apparently, first -th was deaspirated, two ways are supposed (a) either putakala became pudagala by sonorization intervocalics and then by syncope Pudgala and Puggala or fb) of the Putakala was first syncopated into putkala, pukkala, and this became
:

puggala by sonorization of

the geminate.
]

are : de-aspiration sonorisation of interprocesses assumed above of geminate. vocalics, syncope, and sonorization 1 so far as the Prof. Franklin EDGERTON' agrees with Prof, TEDESCO

The

Jaina or the Buddhistic origin of the term puggala is concerned; but he differs from him so far as its etymology is concerned. Prof. Edgerton, like Professors T W. DAVIDS and William STEDE 5 connects puggala with /wmsand

Rhys

holds that pungava a Sanskrit

word,

may have

influenced the form

with

j4

S.

M. Shaha

nasal

have originated. But in the Purn^la, from which Pali puggala might this etymclogy is unsatisfactory, both as regards opinion of' Prof. TEDESCO, how pums ('man, male.) see not does one its form and meaning; because
is

could yield pudSt and pums

essentially not 'individual,


to

but 'male."

These etymologies lead one


(1)

following conclusions :-

Both

of the Jaina traditional etymologies

Puggala

are

somewhat

the satisfactory as regards

meaning of
is
e.

the term, but they are quite unsafeIt

form factory so far as the


first

concerned.

appears

that in the case of the

etymology of Puggala

(i.

put or pud+gala

pudgala Puggala or poggala)


'Pud gala;

from a Sanskrit to be derived they postulated a Prakrit puggala while in the case of the second etymology of 'puggala (i. e; g^f

Wto V Ti>H f% gw'l)

in

addition to

frraf^ assuming Sanskrit origin

of Puggala as offered by the of the term, they try to follow the definition II seems that they were i' BhagavattsSlra i. e. 'n^t^Sf '*<'

^fW

aware of the form Poggala 'an irregular and awkward form' as Mrs. Rhvs DAVIDS calls it. But instead of tracing its Prakrit etymology; they kept in the two view its Sanskrit equivalent pudgala and tried somehow to impose
activities or functions of parana
(2)

and galana on

it,

Buddhaghosa's

explanation of Puggala loo


restricts
it's

is

fantastic

and

far

from

convincing. His definition of puggala

meaning

to 'hellish-beings'

and hence

suffers

from the

fault avyapti

'narrowness'.

TEDESCO 8 etymologies offered by the lexi(3) As pointed out by Prof; cographer such as professor Rhys DAVIDS, Williams STEADE and Franklin are not also EDGERTON convincing; 'Pugg' cannot be derived from pums. Besides, pums means 'male' and not 'individual'. This derivation too suffers
from aoy&pti 'narrowness.'
(4) Prof.

TEDESCO,

while deriving Puggala

from Puthakala, a

derivative

from Sanskrit Prthak rather


has, I
(esp.

am

afraid, not given

over-emphasises its Buddhistic tradition. He due consideration to the meaning and form

meaning) of Puggala as preserved in the Jaina tradition.


Since Puggala
is

originally a Prakrit

word and Pudgala


is
it

Sanskritization of the same, the etymological investigation

is merely a concerned only

is possible the Buddhist proto-canon was (probably) in a kind of old Ardhamagadhi,- closely connected with the original language of the Jaina sutra (before this language

with the latter form. As Pointed out by Prof.

TEDESCO

was transformed into later Middle Indie and underwent western influence), and therefore, both currents of Puggala the Buddhistic and Jaina, spring from the same dialectic source - old Ardhamagadhi. And, therefore, I feel that
it is

not correct to

treat

hypothetical Sanskrit word.

Puggala or Poggala as a Prakritization from some It could be a loan from non-Ary an or some

Dravidian language. There are three roots with

which prakrit

Puggala or

On

the

Etymology of 'Pvggala or Poggl1 ,a

Poggala appears to be connected, (1) Tam,I kalai 'to d ls -integrate ( to (2)


Telgu

Tamils
We

to

swelr
(3)

1(o

ncreas

Pongu
(I)

'to
if

dissociate"', swell, to increase' n.

and

Tamil

Potto or

Now,

we combine

indicate mtegrat.on and dis-integration. It integrates or d.smtegrates, that is Fugga]a


in this respect
(1)

and &*,,

get

PataMa> which

my further suggest something that


.

raay

Tfle

p honetic processes

are

Putakal a

>pudagala>pudgala>p ugga la

or

poggala

PiH<ikala>putakal a> p U dagala>p U dga l a and p gaa / fl O (TI) If we take the Tamil root ponku or the Telgu pong, we have their derivatives Ponakam and Poi,g respectively. So Pohka or Pon^kala " may
or
(2)

,.

also give
(III)

Pohgala
it

Poggala.
is

But here
is
:

presumed

that the

word

is

from two

roots.

And

the

the

it necessary that this should be so ? Could it not be that derived from just one root ? The third alternative, therefore raay be to derive poggala from the derivative poAgala of pahku or pon'z

question

Is

word

is

itself.

Here pohgala may mean


poggala

'swelling' or 'increasing' only.

It

may

also

indirectly suggest

'matter'.

can investigatate Prakrit dictionaries such

We

the

meanings

of the word

puggala or poggala.

as 'prda-sadda-mahannaiio'

and Ardhanttgedhi Dic-

tionary of Ratnacandra, give the following meanings referring to the Jain Canons or sutras (such as Bhagavai, ThanZhga, Ayaranga etc.) (1) matter. (2) soul, (c) flesh, (4) a kind of tree, and (5) a kind of fruit,
If

we compare
Jain

with

the

traditional

the avove etymology of piiggala,i.s..putakala or pongala etymology, and definition of Puggala say,

'^TI^SHIW gi5r:'j we ma y conclude that the basic meaning of puggala was obviously 'the substance that integrates and disintegrates, that is, matter'.
Later on, Puggala

assumed the

meaning

of

Poggali

'an empirical being'

material
of
its

receiving matter in various forms as body,i2 food, etc, body of a sentient bejng Puggala may mean

In the context
'flesh'

of

which

is

one

chief constituents.

Now

commentators of
canons
tried
13

the Jain canolcal literature,

like

(hose

of

the

Buddhist

to interpret

some

-words

and

phrases, e.g.

Bahu atfhtyam puggalam.

.etc.

as a kind of fruit or vegetable

which probably originally meant flesh etc. Thus puggala is one of such words having a primary meaning 'flesh' and (be secondary, rather imposed meaning, a fruit or a tree.

dictionary.

Then we may take up the meanings of puggala as Puggala in Buddism means (1) individual

given in the Pali


as

opposed to a
literature,

group, (2) person, (3)

man

in

later

philosophical

(abhidhamma)

and

(4)

soul or

Atman.

Iff

S,

M.

Shafia

Out of the two


have adopted the
I

original

meanings

of

Puggala
the

prevalent in the Jain

tradition, viz. 'malter'


later

and 'empirical

being'

meaning

alongwith the term itself.


says,

Buddhist tradition might In this respect,


for matter
is

may

quote Dr. A.N.


in

UPADHYE, who
its

"The Jain term

Pudgala which

Atman.
import
Dr.
in

From

the individual, character, being and meaning, the word appears to be a later Buddhism alongwith Ja!n terms like 'asrava'.* 1 In a foot-note,^ the shifting of

Buddhism means

UPADHYE
this

know when

quotes Mrs. C.A.F. Rhys DAVlDS-who says, "we do not oddly ugly word ptidgala came to be substituted for the
pitlisa,

older purisa, or
I

or puritfa,
:

etc."

may conclude
has attracted

saying

No

doubt the word

is

'oddly ugly'. Neverthein

less,

it

many

scholars

and

it

still

remains a riddle staring

our

face.

Foot-notes
1

Sidcihasena

on

Tattvaftha-sTitra 5,1. quoted above.

2
3

Yisuddhiiuagga 310.
P. Tt'dcsco, Sanskrit Pudgala,

body;

soul:

Journal of American

Oriental Society,

Vol. 67, pp. 172-77,

4
5

Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit


Pali-English Dictionary

Grammar

am! Dictionary Vol.

IT,

Delhi,

1970, p. 347.

6
7

Tedesco, op.

cit.

Buddhaghosa
Tedesco, op.

op,
cit.

cit.

T, Burrow and M.B.

Emencau
word No.

'Drnvadian Etymological Dictionary, Oxford,


1102, p. 93.
p. 295.

1961,

10
11

word No, 3494, p. T. Burrow etc. op.


7",

283.
cit. cit.

Burrow

etc.

op.

word No. 3658,


'body'

12

Apart from

the

meaning

-cintamant give entirely different

The
and
13

lexicons base this

etc. some lexicons like Hemacandra's AbMdhanameaning of 'Pudgala viz. 'beautiful'-fsundarSkSra). meaning on a single literary passage of doubtful authenticity
1

from Markandeya
also doubtful.

Pin-ana.

The meaning

therefore,

appears to be of quite late origin

Dasaveygllyam
Prof. A. N.

5,1. 73.

etc.

14

UpMhye's introduction

to PravacanasSra

of

Kundakunda,

Rajachadra

15

Ibid, foot note

Jain GranthamSla, ARBS, 1964, p. 68 No. 2.

JAINA CONCEPT OF SIDDHAS


Suzuko Ohira

The

states of siddhas

is

postulated

variously by different

systems
is

thought each according


established

to their

concept of liberation,

which

ultimateb

their ontological ground. Jainism stands on the dual princimatter which :are the eternal substances, eacl ples of the soul and the

by

plural in

number. Jaina school of realism which

does not subscribe


principles as

to the

existence of the creator


fact that

God

accepts

these

swo

a matter

they have been in the *state of bondage from


is

times eternal. Soul;

whose nature

characterised by that

of the emancipated

ones are const

dered to be embodied in samsara as the earthly personalities due to theii association with material karmas which are of 8 divisions and 148 sub
divisions.

Moksa dawns

to

them

when

they are

freed

from

these

entin

karmas, then they remain


In the

in the eternal

siddhahood.

Agamic

literature,

Aupapfitika 42-43, Prajnapaffii 3.2 and UttarZ

1 dhyayana 36.49-68 give a lengthy account of siddhas as to their nature abode and abiding mode. The Aupapffiika reads, 'te nam tattha siddhs havamti sadiya apajjavasiya asarira jivaghana damsana-nanovautta nitthiya Uha nireyana" niraya nimmala vitimira visuddbs sasayam-anSgayaddhai

kalam ciuhamti. 2 Thus a siddha remains


without end, invisible, in the form of
darsana,
life,

in

siddhahood with beginning bu


jfiana

endowed with kevala


eternal

am

and so on. Isatprsg immovable, pure, abode of siddhas is described as umbrella-shapec one yojana below th and situated 45,00,000 yojanas long. 8 yojanas thick, end of the universe. Above Isatapragbhara up to the end of the loka, th
accomplished,
is

bhara which

the

liberated beings are

nnasamogadha),

invisible

said to be abiding interpenetrating each other (aniic having (he physical extent of 2/3 o
(asarira)

the last bodies, in the form of virya (jiva-ghana), kevala jftana

and dariana
;

avvabaham suham), havin enjoying unparalleled everlasting bliss (sasayam transcended the misery of the bondage of birth, old age and death (jai-jara
of this subject in the Prajffipari -marana-barpdha-vimukka). The treatment the latter adds and Uttarndhyayana is more or less similar, to which the standpoints of Mga, darsans from of siddhas lives the of topic previous
sarira,

kala,

sankhya and

so on.

to be distinguished b Tattvarthasutra X. 7 enunciates that siddhas are

the application of twelve anuyogadvaras,


caiitra,

i.

e.,

ksetra, kala, gati, linga, tirth?

antara, sankhys an pratyekabuddha-bodhita, jnana, avagahana, of two nayi alpabahutva. Its bhasya explains their application by way

Sambodhs 4.3-4

18
called

Suzuko Ohira

prajuapaniya (by present


arid
to

purva-bhava-prajiiapamya (by past life) and pratyutpanna-bhavalife of siddhahood). Nandl 21, Prajnapana 1. 7.7~}0

classify the emancipated souls according anantara siddha and parampara siddha by tjrtha, pratyekabuddha-bodhita, liriga and sankhya. Siddha pr'ab'hrta* which is quoted by Malayagiri in his commentary on Nandlsutra enumerates fifteen anuyo-

Jivzjivabhigama 1.7 likewise


i.

two standpoints,

e.,

gadvaras for the investigation of siddhas in the sequence of the twelve list of Umasvati with the addition of veda, utkrsta and anusamaya which are
included in liAga, alpabahutva and kala in the

Umasvati
Svetiirnbara
the

utilized these

fifteen

tradition, although

Tattvarthasutra. Obviously anuyogadvsras which had existed in the complete list of them are not traceable in

Agamic resources, and replaced the old terms of anantara siddha parampara siddha by the new terminologies of two nayas.
Logically speaking, jivas

and

who

are absolutely released


as

from the

entire

karmas should become vlbhu

in the loka skssa

whom

ananta

jfiana,

ananta darsana, ananta

vjrya

they have no sariras, to and ananta sukha are

attributed. Earthly, personalities arise to the souls in their stage of

samsara

alone when they are bound with karmas,, Upon separation from karmas, the individualities of souls should disappear once for all, and they remain in
the form of pure energy, omnipresent in the loka akssa, endowed with pure upayogas. In another word, all the emancipated ones should dissolve in a single universal soul as so conceived by the monistic system of Brahma-

vada, because their physical dimension is all pervading and because they have attained the universal qualities of siddhahood by losing their earthly
individualities. Logical

remain

in.

2/3 of the

ground does not tolerate to surmise that the siddhas size of their former bodies 4 and that they are
;

distinguishable

from

their

past individualities.
realistic

Here

the

premise of the
stands suffers

pluralisQ of souls

upon which

system of the Jainas

ontologica!

contradiction,
7/2.1. 7/gatha

DhavaU
!,e,,

ananta ananta sukha, ks.syika samyaktva, aka^syatvaropa caritra, janma-maranarahitata, asariratva, nica-ufica rahitats

4-11/14-15 juana, ananta darsana,

lists

ninefold characteristics of siddhas,

and
61

paflca

etc.

ksayika labdhi". Drdvyasahgraha 2, Gommatasara jivakGnfa mention eight gunas of siddhas, which are enumerated in the
8,
i.e.,

Laghu
darsana,

siddhabhakti

ksayika

samyaktva,

ananta

jftana,

ananta

ananta

virya, iuksmatva,

badhatvaof
the

These

eightfold

gunas

avagahanatva, aguruiaghutva and avyaseem to have become the standard

characteristics

of

siddas

in

both
is,

traditions.

They are
eight

treated

in relation with karmic destrucion, that

each one of these

gunas

are
i.e.,

in relation with the annihilation explained

of the respective mula karmas,

samyaktva

vjrya

mohanjya, antarsya, snVsmatva

jnsna

jflanavarana,

darsanadarsanavarana,
syus, agurulaghutva-gotr.a,

n5ma s avagahanatva

Jaina concept of

SMdhas

/p

avyabidhatvavedaniya; and akajsyatvarapa cariira in the Dhavala which is dropped from the list of eight is derived from the eradication of mohansya karma. These ninefold or eightfold do riot
gunas

and

appear in Che
likely

Agamic
later

literature as the categorical items,

therefore they
specialists.

are

the

products systematized by the karma

All these eight qualities minus agurulaghu

arc

mentioned

with slight
as

difference in expression in the Aupapatik-i and the two oilier

texts

"we

have noted previously. Njca-rmca rahitata in the list of nine punas is neither found therein. The inclusion of agurulaghu guya which i-T said to be manifest to siddhas from the eradication of got ra karma is because
peculiar,

gotra

karma determines 'the


is

social status in samsara, of

which

absence in
other
list

siddhahood
of eight
it

too self-evident to be reckoned in -the content of the

characteristics.

Even
is

if

we

allow

it

to be logical to be

included in the

which

is

still

theoretically formulated in relation with eight irmla karmas strange to name it agurulaghu in place of mea-tiftearabifala as
list

so called in the ninefold

of Dhaealn.

Paramulmaprakajia-tikii

1.61.62,1

explains

agurulaghu

as

follows,

'siddhavasthayogyavisistagurulaghuEvarp

nsraa-karmodayena pracchsditam, gumtva-sabdenocca-gotra-janitarn mahattvain

bhanyate,
7

laghutva-sabdena

nica-gotra-janitam

tucchatvamiti,

tad-

ubhaya-karana-bhatena gotra-karmodayena visistagunilaghutvaqi pracchsdyata


is
iti.

Its

alternative

explanation

of agurulaghu

is

fantastic

that

It

derived

thrown

by back

the
to

of agurulaghu-name-karma, then siddhas are rise samsara once again. It seems that the commentator
the
traditional

was
sense
it

satisfied

with

exposition

of

agurulaghu

in

the

of
is

mca-oficarahitata,

which

and offered an alternative explanation to utterly out of sense. Confusion here seems to have been derived

the correct meaning attached to agurulagnu. Agurulaghu is the quality of individuatioti which distinguishes one substance from the other, either it is the Jiva or the ajjva*. It is the quality due to which similar jivas are able to be distinguished from one another, If we fake the

due to the lack of grasping

siddha's guna of agurulaghu in this sense, namely, the quality of individuthe annihilation of ation, but not in the sense of the quality derived by

gotra karma,
confronting.

it It

perfectly solves
it

the

ontological contradiction

we

are

now

as follows.

the

Jaina metaphysicians were well aware of their ontological problem that siddbas freed from karmas are reduced to the state of oneness as
as the concept of rnoksa upheld by
theoretical basis of the pluralism of

much
their

Brahmavada,
souls,

which

Jainistn

endangers meets here the


adopted the

same

problem

that beset the classical

Sankhya school which

of souls. According to the Ssfikhyas, individual personalities in samsara are determined by the degrees of three gitnas
realistic position of the plurality

2Q
of

Suzuko Ohira

attain kalvalyahood, although in reality pradhgaa, but once purusas those who attain rnokja, the appearance of the individualities prakrtis are for all, which enforced them once in reflected disappears purusas of prakrtis that soul, they have done the theory of the universal to accept be prevented by the Jainas. so in later time. The same danger had to

Being

fully

conscious of this problem, the authors of the Agaraa


tried to

including

Umasvati

present in the

maintain that the individualities of liberated souls are siddhahood from the standpoint of their past lives, but are and the physical size of absent from the standpoint of their present state, their invisible bodies is 2/3 of their former bodies to which the application
of the standpoint of past
is

not adopted.

The Jainas

persistently

insisted

on

this point that

siddhas have

individual physical
i.

dimentions which are

even classified into three kinds,

e.,

maximum, medium and

minimum.

They avoided carefully to let them reduce to the state of omnipresence which is exactly so maintained by the Nyaya-Vaisesikas. The Nyaya-VaJsesikas of realism also take the stand of the plurality

of souls. Sis categories


samaiiya,
visesa

are enumerated by them,

i.

e,,

dravya, guna, karma,


the

and

samavsya, by the
are
explained.

total

operation of which
visesa therein
to this

phenomena

of samsara

The category of

operates to

distinguish one

substance
either

from the other.

Due
are held

category of

individuation, things,
is,

souls or matters,

ultimately

distinguishable, that

for

instance,

two similar atoms are

distinctly different,

and two similar


its

souls

have different individualities. Siddhas are not excluded from


thus their possession of distinct individualities
is

application,

logically

maintained,

It appears that Jaina metaphysicians got hold of this concept of viae^a which enables them to save their ontological danger. For this very reason

the quality of individuation called agurulaghu

was introduced

in the

con-

text of the other qualities of siddhas which are arranged in parallel with mula karmas. Agurulaghu guna has no place in this context, therefore it was forced to take the place of nica-uflca rahitata which is derived by the

destruction of the gotra


in the
list

karma.

Agurulaghu guna
This explains

is

thus

the

anomaly
correct

of the

eightfold gunas,

pretty

well the

meaning of agurulaghu in the

ontological

context of the state of

siddhas.

Then

meaning attached to agurulaghu ia the sense of mcaQfica rahitats derived by the extinction of gotra karma is required to be corrected. Once the quality of agurulaghu is introduced, there is no need to maintain that siddhas' of their former bodies. It physical extent is
2/3
to

the traditional

seems

have been so maintained


in too late,

because the introduction of

agurulaghu

guaa came
its

by the time of which the abode


total

of

siddhas with
firmly

definite

dimension in the

structure of loka

had

become

established,

which

size of siddhas' bodies

compelled them to uphold the without alteration.

traditional idea

of the

Jaina concept of Siddhas

21

Foot notes
1.

The Agama

texts arc all based on Suttaganic,


31
virtues of suidhus.

2.

Schubring notes that Samavaya 55b enumerates

His Dactrine

of Jainas, p, 329,
3. 4.

ft,

2,

Abhidhanarajendra, under siddha.

Schubring suggests that the concept of the


Jainendra siddhanta
ibid.
ibid.

size

of

a siJdlia's

boJy

is

derived from

5.

observing the corpse having shrunk. His Doctiine of ths Jainas, ko'sa, under moksa.

p. 329,

6. 7.

8.

For

its

full

meaning
ff.

refer to Pt. Snkhalalji's


ft,

commentary OH Tathnrtha&tra af

}"S;\'ika

UmSsvati, p. 196

1.

AN OLD VERSION OF THE JAINA RAMAYANA*


J.

C. Jain

Introduction

The narration of the well-known


Vasadevahindi (FJ/)
1

Rama

story

which

is

given

ia

the

the Kathasaritsngara (KSS}*,


tale

(BKMf

shows that the

was also included

in the original

and the Brhatkathamaftjan BrhatAatha of

Gunsdh -^
was used

a which unfortunately no longer exists as an extant work but which as source and model for much of ancient Indian literature. Since

the Brhatkathu'slakasangraha
references 4 to the episode 5
.

the oldest Jaina version of the

(BKSS) is incomplete it contains only a few stray The Vasudevahindl which it is argued here contains Ramayana, raveals some interesting transfor-

mations of the popular Vnlmitd Rarasyaaa,

The Role of Vidyadharas

Gunadhya chose

vidysdharas, masters of

magic

art, as

heroes

of

his

popular narration, "Tales of vidyadharas are, even more interesting tales of the gods," says Siva to Psrvati when she asks him to tell her
extraordinary story,
influencing
ancient

than

some

The imaginative tales later forma part of the Brhathatha, Brahmanic and Jaina literature as well. "Divine

beings are always happy, whereas

humans are continuously sad and

grieve,"

proclaims Somadeva, author of the KSS,


life

"And

therefore, I

want

to

narrate the

of the vidyndharas,

who

are

full

of mirth and variety."

Somadeva's comp-

osition only summerizes the most essential parts of the Brhatkatha. Vidyadharas are also mentioned in the well-known versions of the Ramayana and

Mahabharata and
works (KSS and

later in

Buddhist works,

not appear as real heroes the

way

they

do

in the

but in these narrations they do BKSS, the Kashmirian

BKM)

and Jaina

narratives.

particular Jain contribution to the popular

their version displays the


*

Raksasas not as meat-eating


13,

Ramayana tale is that damons but rather


conference
held

This paper was read in

School of Oriental

London on March and African Studies,

1974 at the

by the
the

University

of London, to

celebrate

Quanercentenary of Tulsi Das'a Ramacaritamanasa.


1

Ramayanam

in the Mayanavegalambfta, 240-45,


is

2
3

107-12-26; PrabhavatI

telling the story of

Ramayanav r ttanta

to

Naravahanaclatta

Ramakhyayika

(15. 1-51).

4
5

IV.52; XVI1I.503.

A comparative
KSS and

MM

study based on different narrations of the has been presented by the author ia
his

Vasudevahindi

the

BKSS
'

soon to be published.
6

work on the 'vasudevahindi


see

The

earliest reference

is

found in

the

Milindapanho

(267).

H.

Ltiders,

Klein

An
as

old version of the Jaina Rsmsyana


the vanaras

23

vidytidharas,

and
,

in general,

the

Wtew
Bounce

are

Ktfa,j

"

To

Pious tradUion they

the World

can cost him hi. divine dignity as well moat not show disrespect or do
or to a
*

their own kings laws, cities and law court, But the represented as licentious, jealous, and an abductor of the Jamas emphasize, a breech of the moral code on

^ C JS
v/^

am aWe b^

women
'a

the part of
art

as his

Jama
aD

injury

couple,

otherwise the

"
most

magic

'A
t
'

to the
wiil

JaL ales,
aba ndon
'

In the

KSS we

are told that the vtdyadharas have two

umn,

yardha) in the Himalayan


assJ gned to the

mountains,

propiated

God

distinguished vidyadharas. Siva with such powerful

forming two major But once a certain


tha^he was

austerities

raignty over both the regions,

nhh" ralfso
The

and

therefore over all vldyMharas*

description tallies with the description offered by the Jainas ; the similarity between R.abha, the first emperor of the i haras and Usabha (Rsabh") the f,rst Tjrthankara of the Jainas, is al so noteworthy here his mo probable that the Brhatkatha of was the Gunadhya common source fo both versions. 8

KK

^m

The Jaina Ramayana Presented

in the Vasudevahindi

story contained in the Vasudevahindi seems to be the oldest version of the Jain Ramsyana and it is based more or less on Vslmikl's popular version. The followiog are some of the main features of the tale:
(1)

The

Rama

by the vidyndhara lords and

After accomplishing the magic art pannatti, Ravana, !s attended upon by them in Lanka.

is

honoured

The magic art Pannatti seems to have been quite popular among vidyadharas. Dharana bestowed this magic art along with many others Nami and Vinami (VH 164). Pradyumna son of Krsna (the his
t

the
to

by

queen

Satyabhsma) obtained

mna

gave it to bestowed ic on her husband Vasudeva so that he could


(308). PrajfiaptikauiHka
is

from Kanakamala, a vidyadhan girl (92;. Pradyu. Samba (son of Krsna by Jambavati, lOSj, and
it

Prabhavati

defeat

his

enemy
(25,

mentioned

in

the

JBSS

(XX.304), the

KSS

258,289) and the


in the

KSS

of the vidyndharas. We are told (111.52) that prince Naravahanadatta concentrated on the science

BKM,

(5.160) as a

gum

of PraRapti, who thereupon her about his parents.


Sc/triften,
7

presented

herself

to

him,

and

he asked

"Die Vidyadharas

in der buddhistischcn

Literaturund Kunst," pp, 1Q4-119

Vasudevahindi, 264, 20-21; Trtsasjisalakapurusacarita 1.3,213.

8 9

KSS

109. 61-74; 110.18.

L- Aisdorf,

ZDMG,

(1938) Vol. 92, p, 479.

24
vidyadhara called

J.

C. Jain

A Maya approaches Havana with a proposal of (2) The experts in reading marks predict marriage to his daughter Mandodarj. the destruction of the family. that the first product of her womb will cause she was married But thinking that her first child could be abandoned,
Mandodan gave birth to a girl who was anyway. In the course of time, art and tirakkharam, enclosed in a casket and concealed by the magic then placed under the ground of king Janaka's garden. But while the ground was being ploughed the casket was caught in the ploughshare and was handed over to the king, who entrusted the live child to his queen Dharini and had
it

brought up like a daughter.


since

There are various versions regarding the birth of Sitas a)

she

is

n said to have sprung from a furrow (slta}


ing the.ground, she
is

called ayonijs,

i.e.

not

made by Janaka while ploughwomb-born, (b) According


way.
(c)

to the MahabhTirata, Valmiki's


is

Ramayana, and Vimalasuri's Paumacariya, she


natural

the daughter of
is

Janaka, born in a

In the wife of

Dasaratha
her

Jstaka. she

the daughter of king Dasaratha


(d)

and

the

own

brother

Rama,

In the

Vasudevahindi,

Gunabhadra's

Uttarapurana (9th
llth

Century A.D.) and the Mahabhagavata Devlpurana (10th or


she
is

the daughter of

Rsvana by

his

dition can be found in the Tibetan

Century A.D.), queen Mandodari. An echo of this traand Khotanese versions of the Ramayana
versions

dating from about the 8th or 9th Century A.D. as well as in the

of Indonesia and
vessel

Thailand. In the
floated

Tibetan

version Sits is

enclosed in a

on the water, where she is found and adopted copper 12 In by an Indian peasant who names her Rol-rned-ma i. e. Lilavati ). a the Khotanese version sage living on the bank of a river opens the box and rescues the girl out of compassion for her plight. 18 Sita's leading to the annihilation of Rsvana's; family and her discovery in front of Janaka's
and
(

it

plough must be older than the composition of the Vasudevahind], However, seems that the Tibetan version of the Ramayana was influenced the

by

Brhatkathti of

Gunadhya."
:

achievement of the two boons by Kekai (3) The (1) King Dasaratha, pleased with his queen Kekai for her expertise in the art of "serving in
10
Also tirikkhanni (84) and tirikkhamani (16*). Tiraskariv ika is used in the sense of a
curtain in the

SKSS (XVII

81; also the

Ramayana,

ii.

15.20)

and

in the sense of a

rod (XVII, 157).


11

invoked as presiding over agriculture (Rgveda, IV, 57,6). Sit'kara is counted as one of the 18 taxes (Avasyaka Wrytikti 1078); Brhatkalpa Bhasyy (1.3647) has mentioned Stfajanna (SVayajnO), a festival when cooked rice was distributed to the

She

is

monks.
12 See Jan

De Jong, "Three Notes on


Bailey,

the Vasudevahindi, "Samjfiavyakarana, Stadia IndoBulc'ke,

logica, Internationalia, 1954; Rev. Father C.

Ram'a-kaiha, 1962, p, 261ff,

13
14.

H.

W.

BSOAS, Vol. X,

p. 564.

G. Bulcke,

Ibid., p. 262.

An
bed",

old version of the Jaina


is

RSmZyaw
boon.
(2)

25

(sayanovayaraviyakkhand)

g ran ted her a

Kekai

led

an

army and got her husband released from she was granted another boon.

the enemy's

custody,

for whfch

A
and the

kind of "service
^

in

bed" has been described

in

the Vasudevahindfl*
a'sso-

BKSS^ when

Buddhisena (Gomukha

in the BfCtlS), a close

Samba (Naravahanadatta in the BK&S) is entertained by a young prostitute named Bhogamalini (PadmadevikS in the BKSS) by employing a technique of massaging known as stanapiditaka (pressing the breasts). As
ciata of Prince
the original

Brhatkatha was

full

of passionate love

stories,

have

contained such

episodes, which were later


this

utilised

it might well by other writers.


1

Jong and Bulke have called


his

form of legend "primitive. 18 (4) After becoming infatuated by the beauty of Sits, Ravana directs minister Maiica to assume the form of an illusory deer studded with
'

gems

(rayanacitta)

10

in order to

tempt the young

warriors

living in the
it

forest as hermits.

As soon

as Sjta beholds the deer she asks for

as a pet.

Rsma
that

follows the animal with a

bow and arrow

in hand.

First

the deer

it swiftly moves off. goes along slowly, but after it is not an ordinary deer but an illusory one.

Rsma

begins to suspect

Earlier in the Nilajasalambha (181, 15-20) of the Vasttdevahindl a very similar description is given when Nilajasa asks Vasudeva to catch a baby

peacock as a plaything
the

for her.

Vasudeva

later

remarks that as

Rama

was

deceived by a deer, so was he by a peacock. Ultimately Nilakamha assumes form of a peacock and abducts Nilajass while Vasudeva remains helpless. In similar circumstances Ajinavati, the prototype of Nilajass, is kidna-

pped by a vidhyadhara named

Vikacika who

flies

through the sky

like a

carrying off a cuckoo (EKSS, by a demon Vegavatj is

hawk
the

XX.
(

202.-226). In the

BKM

(13.45-47)

kidnapped

raksasa) called

Manimat who assumes

form of
This
all

a peacock.

kidnapping of women by vidjtBdharas or in early Indian literature, at least at the time of the rak$asas was common take Sita's author of the Brhatkathn. Under the circumstances we can easily
indicates
that the

moreover we abduction as ar> important part of the Bfhatkathn narration; based on the is should not Forget that the whole theme of the Brhatkathn abduction of Madanamafijuka by the vidliyzdhara Manasavega.

lTBh^e"c^led
16
17
;

paviyarasukha. 133,3. in the Kama'sastra (1-3.14, Jayaraangala commentary).


102, 17-21.

The

16 arts of 'sayanopacara' are

mentioned

X. 140-152.
See Jong's above-mentioned article; Bulcke, Ibid., p. The KSS, BKM, and H a ri?e ?a S Br hat. Manininnita in the Uttarapmam (68.197). a golden deer. However, Vimalasuri has ommitted this kathako'sa have all referred to that since Rama was obaerving a his Paumacariya with the explanation in episode
'

402.

18

19

vow

(vratastha)

he could not

kill

a deer.

Sambdhi 4.3-4

26

J. C. Jain

Ravana, the ruler of Larika, his brother Vibhjsana, his sister's sons Khara and DOsana as well as the characters of Hanuraan, Sugrjva, Vali and
(5)

Jatayu are

all

vidhysdharas.

Here, as in the Rimopakhyana in the MahabhSrata the story of Rama (Ramsyana) begins with a long genealogy of Ravana, which is supported

by Gunabhadra's UttarapurSna. Though not


never
in
tries to

specifically
is is

mentioned, Ravana
kept in his
custody
to

violate Stta's virtue while she

being
that

Lanka. The reason given by Gunabhradra


would
have been
air.

had Ravana dared

even touch Sits he


through the
carrying her
car

deprived

According to the author


but by

of his magic art of flying Ravana did not touch Sits while
art

off,

means of

his

magic

he transformed his divine


it

Puspaka

into a palanquin,

making

Sita get into

by

herself.

20

Similarly, the charactar of Vibhisana has been elevated. After preparing

a bridge when Rama's army (accompanied by Sugrjva and protected by the


vidhyfidharas) reached Latika, Vibhisana approaches
:

Ravana and requests him

as follows "Although unpleasant to hear, beneficial advice must be spoken by the teacher, a servant or a relative, by abducting Sits, the wife of Rama you have not done any good. It may be that the error has already been

committed, but you should now return


use destroying the
family.

her back to her husband. It

Is

no

Rgma

Dusana and Vali without

effort,

is so powerful that he killed Khara, even though, they possessed the magic art!

The master should not


the wife of a person
restraint

desire even the wife


Is

of his
real

own

servant,

much

less

who

powerful.

The
and

victory

of his [senses.

You

are wise

Intelligent,

of a king is his and so somehow


to stop.

or other you must succeed in

your
is

endeavors,
I

but

nevertheless

devoted to an

evil
is

deed. That
easily

why

am

requesting you

you are That

properly after eaten, proves wholesome after being digested, should be eaten. Take
advice
j

morsel

which

eaten,

digested

and which

my

friendly

return Sita to

Rama. Let your family members be happy.'ai


is

Also Hanuman, Vslmiki Ramayana,

who
is

a vidytidhara and not a

a well-wisher of

Rama.

It

is

monkey he who

king as in the
for

the first

time brings news about Site's presence in Lanka. mana are wondering about grieved in the
forest,

and learns of

When Rama and LaksaHanuman approaches them

their sorrow.

He introduces

himself as one of the vidhyadharas

20

Uttorapurt?. (68, 213. 207); Compare the abduction of an earth-dwellmg woman Somasic. (Madanamailjuks in the BKSS) by the vidyadhara Manasavega. He could not v-olate her by force because of a dangerous curse which would bring him (227 14 " 15)i " K (XIV> 89 ~90) ' Kss (105
'
-

"

xac y

same a vice

is

offered

by Ravana's minister Marica in the Uttarapurana

An

old version of the Jaina

Ramnyana

27

under the leadership of Sugnva.

Then Hanuman

proposes friendship with

Rama, and
Jatayu
is

fire is

a witness to their pact.


fine character.

is

another

He

fights with

Ravana while the

latter

carrying Slta off.

Ravana overpowers Jatayu and

kindhi mountain,^ he reaches Lanka. But


to pass the
(6)

after crossing the Kikbefore his death Jatayu is able

news

to

Rsma,

that Sits was kidnapped by Ravana. 23


listen to the advice given

When Ravana
family

does not

him by Vibbisana
vidhysdkar'as

accompanied by
in

his four ministers, he approaches

Rama. The
battle

Vibhisana's

join the

army of
began,

Rama
also

and the
a

between the
of the

vidhyadharas
Bfhatkatha
(1)

and

earth-dwellers

common

feature

After Rsma's army enters the

city

of Lanka,

Laksmana marches
disc, but

forward.

Ravana intends to kill Laksmana aad releases his weapon does not work. Laksmana casts the same disc back
and succeeds to chop
(8)

the

at

his

enemy
Then

off
Js

Rsvana's head.

After the war


is

over, Vibhisana brings Sits back from Lanka.

Vibhisana

coronated

King

of Arifijayapura.

and

city in the vidhyadhara

territory (vijjsharasedhi).

Rama

Sugnva of a certain and Sita are taken

to the city

of Ayodhya in a heavenly car brought by Vibhisana and Sugnva.


the oldest version of the Jain

The Vasudevahindi,

Ramayana
estimating the

The following
devahinttvs. real

points are worth considering when


:

Fasu-

period of composition

(1) It is

the oldest

version of the Brkatkathn

of

Gunadhya among
of

the

or Prakrit works. presently available Sanskrit


(2) Its

mention

In

the

Vise^a^avan

(610 A. D.)

Jinabhadragani

K&amasramana only
(3)

indicates that the'

work was
a study

available to

him

in his time.

Some

years ago, after

making

of archaic pecularitles

and
out-

the use of the old vedha metre unknown taking into the consideration
22

The mountain's
laya

locality to

is

not known, but

it

According
is

Hemacaudra,

Mount Kiskindha

seems to be somewhere .in the Hima. was .situated on Vanaradvipa,

KiBkindhi

said to have founded Kiskindhapura

on Mount Madhu where he

tattled

VII, Jain Ramawith his followers like diva on Kailak (Tn^ti'^kSpumiacanta.

23

24

the Ramayana, Ravana, wh.le In'the Khotauese version of force, the of tin rod with blood and gather, lumps and died. Bailey, Ibid, p. 'As a result Jatayu, became heavy and Ravana has been

yana, Vol. IV. p. 109, 113.)

fighting w,th b.rd

the

Inrd

to swallow

them.

Jatayu,

565

The battle
for

b.twL

Rftna

hy

Han? e,a
84,56-57)

as a

the sake of a

women coring many

lives

condone (BfhMakosa,
.

baH , Ttm has


for a

SstTat
woman's

"upported
sake.

talking

ff.) (Ibid., PP by the Khotanese Ramayana who decoyed the !and ^out the kings of Jambudvlpa,

568

where

wo semor

28

J.

C. Jain

work must have Alsdrof showed that this side of Jain canonical literature, canomcal trt.2, closer to the date of the been of great antiquity and
of the mutilated and corrupted Vasudevahindi After making a study 12 manuscripts and making a note which was edited after consulting * it seems that the text already east* at the time a variant (ettha ,*to) In that case he its final shape who put it into

text,

of

of

S8A.hadnm.ni,

just

quite be pushed original text's date should by Jaina versions of the BrhatkathV represented

back

a bit. In this

regard the
of Jina-

Hamamsapurana

Hemaoandra and others sena and Tn^iMnpuru.acanta by


be taken into account.

should also

one has the composition date of the VasudevahW (5) While considering and Krsua lagends of the Jaina cosmoto also consider whether the Rama existed whether or already they the from BthotkathV, were borrowed

graphy

before the Brhatkaths's composition.2'


(6)

in his

Paumacariya

(end of

the 3rd century

attacks

Valmjki's

Ramayana by
and the

saying that the

28 Vimalasari A.D.), Raksasas should not be

meat-eating demons
their tails
lise'

and uprooting

mountains.

vanaras portrayed He has tried,

as

lower animals lashing


in effect, to
'rationa-

the tale in the Jaina version of Rama's story.


the Vasudevahindl,

On

the other

hand San-

of simply accepts the popular ghadssagani, the author or protest. tale as it existed in his day, without any conscious editorialising well be that since Most likely he follows a different tradition. It may very his Ramayana based on the ancient ballads prevalent at

Valmiki composed

his time, the author

different version arising out of

of the Vasudevahindl likewise based his tale on a slightly some different ballads. Perhaps he followed

the

same

version offered in the Brhatkatho.

Whatever the case

may
its

be, the

explanatory and critical

tone of the

Paumacariya as well as

entire language strongly suggests that the

work

25

See "The Vasudevahindl,

Specimen of Archaic Jain Maharashtri,"


author's

in

the

3SOS,
to be

VIII, 1935-37, pp. 319-333.

26

The

Vasudevahindi, 306-

See

introduction

to

the

Vasudevahindl,

published shortly,

27

See Alsdorf, "Introduction to the Harivam&purana - MahSpurana Tisatthimahapurisagunalankam


1st or

by Puspadanta, p. 121, Hamburg 1936- Here criticising the date proposd by Buhler, he formulates that Gunadhya must have fiaurished at least in the

2nd Century B.C.


Kulkarni, Introduction to Paumacariya, ed.
Lacfite, the

2tl

V.M.

22

According to

author

of
his

the

by Jacobi, PTS, 1962. Bphatkatha draws inspiratian


national legends
to the

from

the

RSrnayana, but VShniki drew whereas Uuna4hya used accounts

heroes from
fairy
travels

and

old myths,

of

country of enchanters

"Essay on Guniidhya and the Brhattatha,"

Ft. Ill,

Ch. IV,

An old

version of the Jaina

RumZyana

29

was composed after the Vasudesahindi. We can therefore assert (hal the Vasudevahindi must have been composed before the end of the 3rd Century A. D., the date fixed for the composition of the Paumacariya. Certainly the
contents of the
tradition,

Rama
is

story contained in the VasudevahinJi reflect a very old

There

no

mention of an ordeal
is

by

fire

imposed

on

Situ in

the Vasudevahindi, but this episode

also absent even in the

R-jmopakhyana

of the Mahnbh-arata, the Uttarapurana of Gunabhadra and the Tibetan and Khotanese versions of the Raoiayana, Without adding too many Jaina religious touches to the story, the Rainayana as presented in the yasuJcKahin!. is an extant version of one of the oldest traditions of the popular tale.

ON THE EIGHTEEN
B. K,

DESI

LANGUAGES*

Khadabadi
Anga of the Ardhamagadhi Canon, than once : (I) ^n a* of
1

The Nayndhammakahao, the


refers to the

sixth

Eighteen

Deh Laaguages aure


kinds

ftTI*

^irraR^qirrcMwSTfoercq:
Eighteen
TiPrar

Stem

Prince
(2)

Megha was
^qa
.

well versed in the


?reflq
city

of

Den Languages

oj-

j^-.
the

S^Ttr qra

qfara?

sffr

.gi^#tamT%rcqr
who was
De'si

in

of

Campa
well

there lived a harlot


in

named Devadatta
Languages,

rich

(and)

versed

the

Eighteen

Similaraly

we

find

references to the Eighteen De'si

Languages

in Vivtigasutta, Omifaiyasutta and

Rtyapaseiiiya
3

3fr
In
in
>*

EfTlWFFr

W^F
there

TUT

ifaqr,

ftf^Tf

3TSR*r%et-

flraifireiWr

Vaniyagama
the

was a

harlot

named

Kamajjhays
^q^jnt

who was

skilled

Eighteen

Deh

Languages.
1

oj

3jgR9^*iraift^q

The boy
<fr

D 3 ^ 3 ? 3 !" ? 4
^ r? q

^m
boy

was well

versed in Eighteen
B
|

Deb

Languages,

gq

^gq^

3TT^^1TIR:flrar^t^

The

Dadbapainna was

well versed .in the in his

Eighteen kinds of De'si Languages.


Curni (7th -century A.D.) also refers
|

The Jinadasagani
to the Eighteen
De'si

Nisitha
:

languages

the
De'ii

Ardhamagadhi
Languages.

language

or 3TlTCe^ftaKT[f%R qr g^Tff^ which has the characteristics of the Eighteen

Further Udyotanasari,
only refers to the Eighteen

the author of the


De'si.

KuvalayamBla (778 A.D.) not

illustrating in brief the colloquial

Languages, but also enumerates them by format of each of them as observed

by

prince Siridatta in the narrative


5T-

3TRe ^tolBfS
ijssqt

g55|OT

fsR<^

arming

^j-qTO-sricrri'ftq

Having observed these Eighteen


other ones like Khasa, Pnrasa,
*

Languages, Siridatta observed a few Babbara etc. The following are the names

Deh

All India Oriental Conference, Paper accepted by Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, December 27, 1974.

the

XXVII

session,

held

at the

1. 2.
3.

Nayadhammakahao
Ibid,
1,3,

I.

i,

Suttagame
987.
I. p,

I,

Gudgaxjn 1953, p. 957.

Suttagame

I, p.

Vivagasutta 1.2, Suttagame

1249.

4.

Ovavaiyasutta, Suttagame II.

Gudgaun

1954, p, 32.

5.
6.

Rayapaseniya, Suttasame

II, p, 102.

Vide

Intro, to

Paia-Sadda-Mahannavo,, Varanasi 1963. p


I,

34,

7.

Kuvalayamala

Singhi Jain Series 45,

Bombay,

1959, p. 153.

On

the Eighteen

Deb

Languages

3l
in the

Majjhadese, Magahe, Antavee, K,re, Dhakke, Sendhave Marue Gujjare. Lade, Malave, KannEdae, Taie, Kosalae, " rahauhe A ^d e the author illustrates only sixteen iangua es and A. Master, the two miss.ng j>* Languages are possibly O

Gollae

Thus

Moreover Camundaraya,
not call them

Tvr

A DO>
z> ft.

refers to

the

author

of

Eihteen
reference
is

The

contextual

to
,

the

like consistmg Trimgadha, L S(a, Vatsa Gauda Karduka wherem hved people speaking eighteen Ffl to Gauda Mahar^ra Kurdaka lak languages 3{fl
:

of countries

mamappam
on

panvrta ScHkhanda-Bhamtamam ......... "io


Lastly Bhattskalankadeva,
while

commenting
Languages
here
(great)

of ins

Karnnta/ca
refers
dialects.

the opening
in Sanskrit

verse

Sabdnnutisanam,
to the
It is

a grammatical

work

A.D)"
hundred
call
tells

/1604
seven

Eighteen

Great

together

with

interesting to note

that the author

the eighteen, languages -Del, but

does not

Mahn
Great

and

at the

us that they are well

known

in

(Jaina) scriptures.

In
in
is

fact

same time he we do not

find

any reference

to the 'Eighteen

Languages'

canonical works.

The opening

any of the Jaina


as follows
:

verse of the said

work

TO

*ft

The author's own commentary runs

as follows

mm:

guages

mean

si4;

All

lan-

those that are spoken in the various countries like KarnStak


etc.. ..They

Andhra, Magadha, Malavs


well

known

are those Eighteen Great Languages


dialects.
to the

in

Agamas and Seven hundred


of
all

A
Deh or
8.
9.

close

scrutiny

these

references

Eighteen
.

languages,

otherwise, would yield us the following points

Ibid, pp. 152-153.


(i)

For this and other details on the subject vide Dr. Upadhye's Notes, Kuvalayamala II, Singhi Jaina Series 45, Bombay 1970,
pp. 144-145,
(ii)

may add

the Sanskrit Puranas.


p.

here that the Babbaras are the northerners, mentioned as Vanaras, in Vide Concordance of Purapa-Contents, Hoshiyarpur 1952'
p. 70.

29.

10.
11.

Cavunilaraya Parana, Bangalore, 1928,


char. Bangalore 1923.

KarnSfaka ^abdanusSsanarh (With commentary of the

author),

Ed R. Nvasimha-

3?

B. K. Khadabadi

(i)

AH
is

the

above

noted

works

which

contain

references

to

the

"Eighteen

Languages,
the

Deh

or

otherwise,

are Jaina

works.

The
one

earliest
is

work

NsjadhammakahVo

(400 B. C).

and

the latest

the

KarnZ\aka SabdanusZsanam (1604 A. D.).


(ii)

AH

the canonical works, the

exegetical

work

viz.,

Nttitha

Curni

and

the

Kuvalayamnln

contain

the

reference

as 'atth<arasadetibh(isa' t the

Eighteen
(iii)

Deb

Languages.
the author also

In the Kwdayamlala,

enumerates these languages.

sixteen which Actually he enumerates, of course by illustrating them, only Hence it is clear that the list !s arbitrary and include the Dravidian too.
the author
is

trying to adhere to the traditional

number Eighteen which by


importance
the

his time

had duly

acquired

or

conventional

ultimate

source of which seems to be the Ntiyndhammakahno.

Camundaraya does not call the Eighteen Languages of his reference Deft. The context of his reference is the narration of the "Adipur&na.
(iv)

And

hence

he

obviously

sticks

to

the

traditional

number

Eighteen

in

this respect.
(v)

Bhattskalanka

does

not

qualify the

Eighteen

reference by 'Deft but by

'Mate' calling them

Eighteen

Languages of his Great languages.


Agamas.
his

Yet he openly announces that they are well


he too adheres
tries to

known

in the

Thus

to the traditional

number Eighteen and,


dialects.

at the -.same time

provide rather a true linguistic picture of the country of


it

time

by adding to

the seven

hundred

To

conclude,

during

the period
C.), there

Nvyndhammakahzo (400 B.
onal languages.

Unfortunately

we

round about the composition of the must have existed some eighteen regihave no evidence to show which

De'sl

To be well versed in the Eighteen De'si actually they were. Languages was a matter of proud accomplishment in those days. The number of Languages and the context of accomplishment were taken as a
tradition

and were

Ovavtiyasutta
De'sl

up repeated in later canonical works like Vivagasutta, and Rayapaseniya. Jinadssagani however refers to the Eighteen
in the

Languages linguistic context i.e., while discussing the nature of the Ardhamagadhi language. Cgmundaraiya obviously adhers to the same number of traditional Importance. So also does Bhatiakalanka, but he tries to give a realistic touch to his statement by adding to 'it Seven

hundred

dialects.is

it is

Udyotana who not only


but
also
illustrates

the Eighteen

Deh

Languages
as wholly

attempts to enumerate them. But we cannot


the

take Uyotana's

list

and

truly reflecting

linguistic

picture of

12.
13.

have taken here the approximate date of the First Redaction of the Oanon. This number too might have an importance of some
I

tradition,

On
the

the Eighteen Deil Languages

33

contemporary society. Because the number of the regional languages ' making allowance for the inclusion of the Dravidian too, tn 87S A D could not be the same as it was in the days of the MayadhammakahKo It must have been a large one. Hence we can say with certainty that Udyotana too adhers to the same number of traditional importance. But the
'

true value of this dated author's list lies in its

illustrating

the

colloquial

rarely be

format of the Sixteen Languages, the galaxy of specimens found elsewhere.

of

which

aa

Thus the number Eigeteen which formerly denoted the Best languages in the early literature of the Ardhamggadhi Canon, has been adhered So by the later Jaina authors in Prakrit, Sanskrit and Kannada. And ibis number it appears was keeping for Jong its hold on the Kannada people to such an extent that there has come down in the Kannada language 'in
idiom

known

as Hadinentu J3tigalu,'li

eighteen castes,

possibly

indicating
the
that

at some juncture of the cultural of Karnatak history importance of this numerical group of languages has been replaced by of the same group of castes.

thereby that

14.

connected with the Agaatyt legend in According to Shri S.B. Joshi, this idiom is Dliwwai 1967, p. 6*. the Tamil tradition. Vide Karnat^a-Sanskftiyo PSrmpitblk* 'I,

APABHRAMSA FORMS

IN

THE VASUDEVAHINDI

K. R. Chandra
Dr. L. Alsdorf 2, in his study of the language of VH, corne to the conclusion that the language
(having many Sandesara while reproducing
rasuj
translation of
that

of
is

Vasudevahindi, has
Jain

archaic

Mahs-

archaic

Ardhaniagadhi and Pali


the

same

in

forms). Dr. B. J. Introduction to the Gujarat!

VH. 4 has noted an Apabhrariisa stanza From VH. Except from VH. have been noted by them. Ap. stanza no other Ap. forms on some Ap. or Ap. like Here an attempt has been made to throw light
forms which are available in the VH.
i.

Words

with

sruti

and gpaq (62.16). Pischel records these Amg. too (ujjoviya-246 and jusalaya-231).
g$3fa
(47.9, 11)

forms from

qs3lf39{
Js

(pravrsjita, 21.17, 24.4).

Pischel does not

record

it

though

it

common

in Aing.

Its

formation should be explained as

^pravraj ->pra-

(rfterrt,,

27,I2=a

nurse).

It is

not

noted

by

Pischel.

It

can be
sucfc,

explained

as

^Jdhe-^dhay

(dhq)>ati)=zto

suck,

dhnpay=to
(on
i, e,
5

give

dh'Spayitn^a

nurse =d/jaraj'r>dtol,
'!'

or

dhay=dh'ava

the

basis

of

S4-j'=e=so}'*5va) and then taking


gg-^j (utqja, 18.17).
It is

the agentive suffix,

dhaval-}- =xdhBW

not recorded by Pischel.


for suffix 'ka'

PSM

quotes

it

from
is

PaialacchWamamnia,
'udaca'
2.

It

has

'yci*

and

the

remaining word

which has

'va' sruti for

'ja'

of Skt. word

Use of original bases


Nora.
(a)

as

case-forms:

(!)

Sg.

forms

fflffein

(f%i%zi

fRwrr

3TraV38.17,

in

a verse) Masc.,

V,

ending stem.
(b)

TOT (Wfr
stem.

5?

^W

df^q(qr) -30.3, in

a verse) Neut.,

'a'

ending

1.

By the courtesy of the A.I.O. Conference held in Dec. 1974 at Kurukshetra. This paper was read there in the Prakrit and Jainism Section.
Bulletin of the

I.

School of Oriental Studies, Vol. VIII, pp. 319,

ff.

i.

VasudevahlmiT, Atmanand Jain Sabha, Bhavnagar. 1930.


Intro^Iuctjop, pp. 15-30.

!,

i,

,ESM

Paja-Sadda-Mahannavo.

Apabhramsa Forms
(c) f%55r5i3=1%55T3tg(cCT

in

Vamdevahindi
<u*

35
ending stem,

(d)

K^

(?H

^
:

v 1%srng qftwf%,6.iG)Neut.,
fgf-70.16) Fern.,
<ti'

ending stem.

Such forms are


(li)

traceable in

Amg. canon and Paumacariyam.

Ace. Sg. forms


(a)

There ate
feminine
fesTHTST
(36.9),

several

instances

of
-Ace.

'a'

and

ending original
5WK5t<Tf
(31.19),
i

stems
(61.5),
fieft

used

as

Sg.,

e.g.

(56.6),

sfoRTROTTfjbft
^tnofi

(16.2),

iflfftfl

(37,21),
ftcft

(56.6)

etc.

(b)

irf%WT
Neut.,
'a'

%
find

3*%<W7

$mm

(?)

ending stem.
also

In the
3.

PCV1

we

such feminine forms,

Shortening of ending long vowel of Fern, stems, Nam. Sg:


(cf?t

Stffsf

sfrT

3^
form of

"S^
for
'a'

wn^T^r
lffr.

^l^-I0.2l).

The

editor has

vrongly suggested ^?ft


4,

original

Nom.

Sg.

'' ending Masc. base, changing in

be sure

qTq^S^I^Tf^cf: (fq^oi'lI'Tt...^^^ f^Hl|-19.15]. of this form because there is probability of the


as
3.

We

can

npt

scribe's error in

svrlting aft

5
(i)

Use of long vowel


ftfsm flfl (3 f '' ending stem.

in place of a nasalised short vowel in Ace. Sg

(H)
(iii)

^^ft

(^fifs^oi

3%$ f^% qtfi55^^-19.17).

Masc..'/' ending stem.


(....qfwtq

^
(

(jETSKsft

(^....3^5551

^?IT
srfgsg!

3tRSt-33.I4),

i?pl

I?|^

qft$fol-I5.14),

(^
as

cir?T

arfla^

^^S-48.38), Fem.

f ending

stem.
short
'na'
Inst. sg.

6.

Appending of

termination

(though

after

short vowel lengthening the preceding

of the base,

which

is

again metr!-*

causa)
?TfiDT

(iftx^t

Jf

fttr^r,

THI T
are
in

STR^II
in

-35.8

in

a verse),

Masc.

ending^ stem.
Pischel (379)

Such forms
notes

traceable

PCV.

and

DhUrtskhySnam.

an^T,

g^H

Amg. but

either before enclitic or in


1

the end. Pischel (405) quotes


7.

from-Zw.
sg.

Erzahlungen iRflN metri-causa.

Inst. Appending of 'e' as as or to say that use of Loc. sg.

inflexion in
sg,
:

ending Masc. bases

Inst.

1.

PCV=Paumacariyam

of Vimalasuri.

K. R. Chandra

l$
-29.6),
(

(t
....

^gq-jftqr^-70.14);
sftaft-60.il).

1SI?

tr fa^T)

<H~t

PT%^t

Jftafsft

%
tT3T<l,

IJ55q

la

PCV. we

have

one such instance

OT^f

Sfl^f

Some more
though
they

instances

from
e.g.

VH.
*tt
Jf

can

be
1

interpreted

as

Inst.

Sg.

are in

Loc. Sg.,

JToS ^

4feui

%5r4cl'

stJi^f-29.27,

8.

Appending of oblique

inflexion

'e'

without

lengthening

the ending

short vowel of Fern, bases.

(35?F
9.

IJ& ^SJCJ %^3PI-61.5),

Inst. Sg,,

''

ending.

Similarly use of Inst. plu. for Loc. plu.

at

155Iit-55.23).

There

is

pure

Locative

form

too,

e.g.

In the

Amg.

canon,

PCV.

and

Dhurtzkhyvnam we can

trace similar

forms.
10,

Use of
' |

inflexion
:

'i'

in the

Loc. Sg. of
old

'a'

ending base
silfo

.:

IJ Ht|5i"rrfft I=?!rffr5!5 traty (v.l.

in the

Ms. of

(cTf^T

JfifSfoir^fSui

wsjwsirret ?t s^asur
11,

^ffSr^r

3ti *?wv5$w\-5l A),

Appending of

the

termination f| as Present

Indicative of II sg

q% (ift P" q%-63.l4) and %f| qq gw* ^%-57.S6, i.e. 'Where do you come from ?' and Why do you take away this cart ?' respectively). 12, of the Appending termination f| of the Imperative of II
sg.

(^

to the stems ending in short vowel

sr,

i.e.

without lengthening

short vowel (as in Ap.):


ftr-11.26)
is

the ending

form

for

showing

respect

to

the

concerned

nun

by

the

use of plural courtesan

Kuberasena.
13.

Elongation of Present and Past Passive participles


suffiXj

by
:

appending

a tendency, that

is

commoni

in

Ap.

I.

See Introduction to Sandefarfcaka by H.C. Bhayani

Apabhramsa Forms
In the

in

the

Vasudevahmdi

37
r

PCV.

also such forms are


the

available, e, g,

gp
if

-76.8.
participle

From

with

VH.
:

the instances of

elongation

of past

passive

suffix are

fo&r 55^-57.16, *M
more popular
in

I TO%*lrt-59.27.
and

14.

Forms

and

words

Apabhramsa

NIA

languages:
(i)

arwH=worthy,

faithful
!

(srom?, tfl
is

^feq? %, 65iS
?),

(OJ)

you) Unfaithful Voc. Sg.

where

your that (dear) Vasantatilaka

Masc'

Pischel does not record

it.

PSM

quotes

it

from BhaimyaUakahr,
for

as

an

Ap. form which stands for 'arya'srworthy, not


(ii)

'aryaka'= grand-father.

3Tf^?=s?fqer (gr....rf?arr f ^wKicr^Kf *Bf^gr-6Q.22)

Hem.
(196,

(4.39)

notes

STfe?

as the

ndesa

of
ffqi,

whereas

Pischel

485)

derives

aifeff
seems

from
to

foq;-

srr

+ feq;= ^fgTqft.
<RS.

Our
records

Prakrit
a

form
to

^q
f

be past passive of

MWSED'

root=^=

to cause, to
,

etc,
3fl55?

Therefore,

0, further explains as causal of ?S= move, throw, cast or to deliver, surrender, olfer, present there seems to be some possibility of the of

o reach and

aw%

origin

from the toot

3$,

and
is

etflossj

as

its

past passive form. give

In Gujarati there

str^i

from

sj53=to

and

then

=given.
(iii)

3ner=3JT

+ s=(tT),

from Ujjaytni-43.21). 419.3 under Ap.


This formation
Skt.
(iv)
is

(siRT->iflR)=to coine(355Hif^r 3TI^ Pischel (254) records it from He. 4,367.1

just
?t

on

the line of

%&,

the causal

of

snr,

from

P^, from the root

to suck.

3^?=3E33!=a
...^^55M
but

mortar
1-44.18), Pischel (66,148) records
Pkt.,

3W3

and

from Amg. and


5K^3! or
351551

PSM.

too

records

also 3fi?5l

and

OTt
and

are not noted by them,

We
(v)

have

35^55 in Gujarat* and

S^sl and

in Hindi.

Stfear=3rfer=loose, released, '(st^Rf ^ % <JS3W-61.9Pischel (238) records horse's) saddle was released).

it

His (the under

Ap.
1. 2.

and Dr. (Smt.) R. N,


Sanskrit-English Dictionary,

Shreyan^

puts

it

under pure

Monier Williams

Shreyan=A
p. 239.

Critical Study of

MahapurSna

of

Puspadanta (Desya and Rate words);

35

K. R. Chandra

Desya word.
Its variant

reading

is

phediya-%f%3f for which see


to sleep, rocks in

further,

(vi)

qf?4%?

11.28=lutls

a baby

a cradle, (s^r...
cradle,

ai^R
St3?T).
i.e.

I2.5=lullaby
It

or

rocking in a

is

recorded in the
not

PSM

but as qf*tf
calls
it

to praise.

Pischel

does

record

it.

Dr. Shreyan

a pure Desya word. 1

(vii)

Tj^HiirstrjW^, sons and daughters,

(cfFT

<|

Pjschel
..

and

PSM

do not

record

it.

Dr.

Shreyan

records

it

under pure Desva words. 2


%l%q=$>feer

(viii)

(f^=to
Dr.

hurt,
3

MWSED). Here
I
1831^-67.9).
it

it

is'

used

in

the

sense of removing (%ffq

=3

Pischel

does

not
In

record

it.

Shreyan

records

under

Desya

words. 4

Maratht 'phedane' means


(ix)

'to loosen'.

*{%53j3?t=5irf|

5
Jr,

brother's son (12.1).

Pischel

does

not record
it

it.

PSM

records

it

from

later

literature.

In the

ARK. 5

is

not

available.

Compare

Gujarati

tfsfM and Hindi

(x)

tHfsi^fea, mixed
(206)

combined with, (?^si%zff5[f).6.10). Pischel records ffalxH from the Sthaaanga (512) and explains it, 'bhil
with,
is

bhedane' which
include.

not

correct.

Its
it

meaning
in

there

is

to mix, to

The

ARK

also
(p.

explains

the

same

way

quoting

from the Sthanaiiga

365).

Compare Gujarati ^aqg=to mix.


(xi) foTSSteftEjrss,

to

wash

off,

(!^q -%sf3TTV35.9,
water).

with

her body
records
In

(limbs)

washed off with

pure

qifJrsPEglsrWflai

fERstfosr^ \-ffa (vide PSM).

Pischel does

not record
off.

'fq-'tsss.

Rajastham there
(xii)

is

the

word

fwg=to

wash

%ifgq=^rf|^

relations by marriage,

70.10. (father-,mother-,brother-

and sister-in-law)

1.

Ibid. p. 254. Ibid. p. 266.

2.
3.

This

is

a variant reading for gfflrzf which

is

already mentioned earlier.

4.
5.

Ibid. p. 269.

AbtudhSnarajendrakoBS.

ApabhraMa Forms
Pischel does not record

in the

Vanidevahiifi

39

it.

word 331$
(xiii)

Compare GujarsU *nd Rajasthani

KT (v.l. <&B)=W. became, I stands for the root * and


other roots and

W|[
its

^^^
f

past passive form

prefixes such as

found in earher

qgpr,

Prakrits..

But the use of the


in

^
eg

pf along
etc
_

with

independent

become

popular

the

A p.

language,

The above study of


g*rert

the language

of

Vasudevahirdi
part,
i.e.
I

covers
to 76

only

the

and

*fotf&l

portions of

its

first

The data analysed here proves aid words (i) which are
(ii)

pages only

clearly that the text has not only the forms

tentatively

Ap.,

i.e.
i.e.

more popular
traceable

in

which positively belong

Ap

or

to old strata also,

in older

Pkt

literature but (Hi) positively

there are a

number

of

forms

whtch

can be called as

to bring to

Apabhramsa, Study of the remaining portion of our notice some more Ap. material.

VH

is

expected

1,

See He,

4.

61-.

(Hemcandra's Prakrit (Jramroei)

1.

See He.

4.

351 and Pischel, 476,

*DHATUPARAYANAM-A REVIEW NOTE


J.

M. Shukla

i Sanskrit Ancient works on instruction on

Grammar were
latter

divided under

two heads,

viz.

The Satrapatha and Khilapathaa.


Dhatupatha available
to us in

included Dhatupatha,

Ganapstha, UnadipHtha and Lingsnusasana.

The

earliest

complete

form
of

is

that of

discussion regarding Panini. Before Panini scholarly


ning of roots was already

enumeration and meadivision


the
parts of

well-developed.

Yaska's

speech

into
all

regarding

Small manuals and


study.

and nama, akhyata, upasarga and nipata nouns being root-based testify to a detailed lists of nouns and verbs were prepared

discussion

study of roots.
for

They were named books of enumeration (Parayana). nouns were called Nsmaparayana and those on roc's were called Dhatupalike Bbaguri, Kasakrtsna, Apisali and rsyana. It is likely that grammarians These have not come down to Sskatayana had prepared such manuals. them. but grammatical tradition has preserved some references from
us,

purposes of Booklets on

number of

references to the root-lists of

grammars

earlier

than that of
Maitre-

Panini are found in Ksirasvamis Ksirataranginl (1050 A.


yarakska's Dhatupradipa
siderable help from these

D.

circa),
8

and other works.


earlier lists
i.

Panini probably

accepte con-

e.

Dhatuparayauas.
understood as

Psnim's
constitutes

Dhatupstha

which,

can

be

Dhatupatha

i. e.

list

of roots and

Dhstusutrapatha Dhatvarthapatha, a list of

meanings. Both these are combined into one. From cross-references between the sBtras of Paaini and the satras of Dhatupatha, we understand that
*

DhStupirSyanam, Kalikalasarvajfia 3ri HemacaadrasBriviracitam, prathamo bhagah edited by Muni Yagovijaya and Muni municandiavijayaji, Ahmedabad; price Rs
15-00; 1973.

1.

Uapdesa

and

SfistravSkya

are

the

two words

used

for

grammatical

instruction;

2.

Khilacf. Vamana-Jayaditya "Upadiayatenenetyupadesah Sastravakyani siitrapathah pathaka. Katika on P. Sn. 'Upadesejammasika it', 1-3-2. (a) Jinendrabuddhi understands khilpatha as Dhatupatha and accepts the suggestion
1

that 'ca

of KhilpSthasca of KSsika suggests prfitipadikapafha or

(b> Haradatta,

however, understands DhatupSJha,


cf.

the ietm khilapatha;


3.

The word seems


p.5; (b)
1.1;

to have

Ganapatha. Ganapafha and VSrtikapStha by Padmanjan on Ksik on Pa. Su. 1.3.2. had a fairly old currency (a) Patanjali uses the word

ijabdaparSyana in SabdapiSrayanam provaca

nantam jag3ma.

Mahabhasya

(Keilhor

'Ruejhisabdoyam kasyacid

granlhasya
like

(c)

Vamana-Jayaditya

refer to works

vacakah'-Mahabhasya Dlpika, p. 17, Dhatupargyana and NSmaparayana-

Kaiikfi; intro, verse no. 1 a.

Dhstup-arnyanam-A Review Note

41

Panini did compose a Dhstupatha himself*, although reputed commentators like Jmendrabuddhi do not accept this facts. A later
tradition ascribes
the
list

of meanings (Dhatvarthapatha)
It

A. D. about),
over the
earlier

seems

plausible that

Dhstupathas and Arthapathas known before him and over the discussion in Patafljali, edited the Dhstupatha and Dhatvarthapatha
into one so that

to a scholar called Bhimasena (750 Bhimasena took considerable pains

and

combined both
all

we have a complete Psniniya Dhs-

tupatha fixed for

time.

tupath'a

In confiirmity with the system of his grammar, Panini divided the Dhsmaterial into ten classes (ganas), gave further sub-classes to them,

the three

padas

viz.

Parasmai, Atmane and Ubhaya were

classified,

made

the

arrangement of roots with their sub-groups according to and accent-determination and gave a special treatment
PSnini's

the final
to

consonant

the tenth class,

Dbstupstha had

brilliant

commentaries from Ksirasvami, Maitreya,

Sayana and others.

The Katantra system had probably an


been called

original

Dhatupstha

which has

Kalapadhatusutra by Leibisch". It was remodelled by Durgarecent Dhgtupatha simha, the famous commentator of Katantra grammar. work called Kasakrtsna Dhatupatha is claimed as older and fathered on

Kasakrtsna

whom

Panini has quoted. The internal evidence from the work

does not support the claim.

Of the Dhatupathas belonging to systems other than that of Psnin! Candra Dhatupatha has made simpler and more systematic innovations. It gives only one meaning to each root, removes accent and specifically terms
particular

roots as

taking the

vowel

*
i

'

before an

Ardhadhstuka

affix.

Among

the

represents the

order of

Dhatupatha system found among them. It retains the older class-division (gana), removes accent, gives different anubandhas,
general

Dhatupathas of Jain

Grammarians,

Jalnendra's

omits vedic roots and offers simpler


raksane', 'sankane' for

meanings

to

roots (e.g.

'guptau' for so on,

'saAksysm',
follows the

'saithilye' for

'daurbalye' and

Sakatayana's Dhatupatha

Dhatupatha of Jalnendra.

review-note
4.

are not relevant 5n a Although the general remarks presented above on the phatuparayana .of Hemacandra part 1 they will be
Slisa Aiingane (Pa, Sn 3.1.46) glisa Aiingane (Dhatapafha (1V.77) TanQltarane taksah (Pa. Sn. 3.1.76)

(a)

(b)

Taken tanttkaratte (Dhatupatha


(c)

1.685)
1,685)

Lubho Vimohane (DhatHpatha Lubha Vimohane (Dliatupajha

VI.12)

5.

6.

hi ganakSro anyaka sOttakaia ityukEtad ganakarah prasfavyah na sutra/tarah anyo tarn prak. Nyasa pn kasika on IE. p. 373 (Rajaaahi) Zr Einfahrung 1.7 Anhang II, Brealau and

Kslratarangini,

Samb'odhJ4.3-'4

42

J.

M,

Shukla

the importance of Hemacandra's work. Hemacanhelpful in understanding the name is in condra names his work Dhstupsrayana not only because
firmity with the old

works

viz.

by

Patafijali, accepted by Bhartrhari but also because in the strict sense of the term the

Dhatuparayana and Namaparayana suggested and mentioned by Vamana-Jayaditya,

work has a
in

system of

enumeration
works.

Pnrayana

which
is

is

better

than

other

Dhstupatha

The

perfection of order

carried to

various

sub-classes of roots

and to

the tenth class


.

He
to

treats the third

second (Adadi) 7

He

divides his

1980 roots
class

(Hvadi) as a sub-class of the into nine classes (ganas). He


of root,
'

employs e.g. 'V for


ludadi',

anubandhas
'adjjdi'

denote each
f

except
'

the first
'

class,
'

and

'hvadi',

c'

'p'

for 'rudhlidi'/'y' for

curadi' class.

He

denotes the 'anit'

t for 'svadf, s' for kryadi and roots by using anusvara. In the bhvadi

for

'divadi',

for

'tansdi',

<s' for

class he maintains
set

and

vet roots,
to earlier
is

an order of alphabetical arrangement regarding the anit, Hemacandra's Dhstuparayana is a mine of roots little
classical Sanskrit literature.

known
stics
it

and

For the student of

lingui-

invaluable.

Hemacandra's enumeration of roots


to each root or a cluster of
roots.

entary which

is

called Vivrti.

accompanied by meanings given To these he has added his own commThe commentry is greatly indebted to Ksjrais

tarangini of Ksirasvsmi so far as general remarks are concerned. This kind


of writing

remarks common

method was prevalent with scholarly writers. We have many general to each other in the commentaries of Ksirasvgmi, Maitreya,
others.

Ssyana and

Hemacandra

refers to his

own

satras of
at

sabda-nusasana and discusses particular forms arrived

Siddbahemaby him from roots.

In adding these illustrations he has an eye on their use in literature,

The

earliest edition

of Dhatupsrayana was

published by Job.

Kirste

in 1899 at
this

Vienna under the


to the

name Haima-Dhatuparayana.
testimony of two

He

has given

name

work

against the

Deccan College mss.

work is named as Dhatupsrayana. Muni Yasovijaya and Muni Municandravijaya have edited Dhstuparayanam Part 1 seventy three years after Kirste's complete edition.
consulted by him, and where the

The
Hence

editors have probably accepted as a basis of their edition fourteen

printed forms of Dhatuparayana, prepared ealler


the

by Munisri Harsavijayaji.

present

work which

is called first

part ends with

commentary

on

'Iks!

darsane', uo. 882 of the bh a vdi class.

The

editors claim

some

im-

provements

upon

the

earlier

complete work of Kirste.

They have

given

numbers
have

commentary. In the foot notes they have occasionally explained the formation of a word here and there. They
sometimes
given
references to the remarks quoted

to the sntras

quoted in the

by

Hemacandra.

7,

Atliadatlyantargano hvSdayah, P.162, Haima-cjhatnparayana (Kirste)

Dfl " tu

P(trTiyanam~A Review Mote


remarks
in

43

Some comparisons and


this

parallels with

Madhaviys Dhatuvrtti and


for

Maitieya's Dbatupradipa are offered. The editors should deserve praise kind of enthusiastic endevour.

The
cripts

The
given.

references to the
I

editors claim that they have made use of eight palm-leaf manusobtained form Pstan. They do not give details about the manuscripts. readings found in those manuscripts are sparingly

may be

permitted to say that they


Kirste's

have
It

allowed
is

themselves to
that they

accept

considerable help from

edition.

likely

have

consulted

Deccao college manuscripts. However they do not refer to the Kirste has mainly followed the Deccan College readings from them.
manuscripts.
1.

Against a combined testimony of the mss.

Sam
nyam
2.

pa

1,

Vs, Pra; Sam

1,

Sam
is

2,

Taps and Kirste

in 'avayavairanyo-

dha-vatiti Sarah', the editors read 'avayavairanyonyam sarati Dbavatjtj


'sarati'

ssrah (P. 12, L. 25). Here

unnecessary.
iti

The

editors read

'sankocitah'

tu

kuca sabde

tare' (P. 19 L.

19)

'Sam 1; 'Sam 2; 'Pra'; 'Taps'; and Kirste which read against the mss. 'Khe; that "sankocafc ititu...' (V,L. sankocika ititu...acc. to ms. 'Vs')- K seems

Hemacandra might have


the participle
3.

in mind 'sarhkocaka' an form 'samkocita' has been noted.

agent noun, because already

The
I

editors read <daci

patadbhavati

patapatabhavati' (P.

6.

1:

12).
to

Perhaps the reading,


mss. 'Sam
1

'patadbhavati

patadbhavati patapatabhavati'

ace.

'khe',

'Sampg

1',

'taps'

and Kirste

is

better.

We
tion

for congratulate the editors

this publication

and await

the publica-

of the remaining portion of the work with

useful indexes.

BHOJA'S SRNGJ^RAPRAKASA
(Chapter

XXXI-XXXVI)

PRAKRIT TEXT RESTORED


V.

M.

Kulkarni
(SP)

(1)

These

last

six

chapters

of Bhoja's Sriigfirapraka'sa
illustrations.

quote

round about 400 Prakrit verses as


verses cited by

The

total

number

of Prakrit
course,

the

SP

as a

whole, exceeds the

figure 1800.

Of

considerable

number of
it

these verses
still

are repetitions.
that

Making allowance
the various

for

these repetitions

the fact
is

remains

among

works on
Prakrit

Sanskrit poetics

the

SP which

quotes the largest

number of

verses as examples.

In this

paper

propose
the

to

present

occurring in the

last six

chapters

space
Sn the

discuss in

main

body of
I

verses my study of the SP. With a view to economising the paper such verses only as are
refer readers to

of the Prakrit

highly corrupt.

As

regards the rest


at the

the sources indicated

end of this paper. A glance at this Index (as well as the earlier ones) would show that it has not been possible for me to restore a very large number of the Prakrit verses, as the text of the Prakrit verses is highly corrupt and as some of the Prakrit sources from
Index given

where Bhoja has quoted such as Harivijaya, Ravanavijaya,

Madhu-mathana,

Abdhimathana, Mgricavadha,
(1)

etc. are

now

lost.

Utsaha-viparyayo yatba (Vol IV.

p.

1071)

-Setu. V.7
(2)

Hetu-viparjto yaths (Vol IV. p.

1091)-

(3)

Sva-patrahara-krto yaths (Vol IV. p. 1098)

Bhoja's fSrngaraprakclsa

45
fagft

%%

This gatha
(4)

is

included in Weber's edition (No. 841).


p.

Nediyasi (avadbi-praljksa) yatha (Vol IV.


ft

1099)
afi

TKsf OR*

rf^ aft

f|3?si H

u)

This gatha is not found to be quoted in any other work on poetics. have tentatively rewritten it and given its Sanskrit chaya.
(5)

Manasa-pratyaksena

priya-janvalokah
IV. p. 1103)

susvapna-darsanam,..tesu

aparyapta-rupo yatha (Vol

?t:}

\\

This quotation
Prakrit passage in

is

highly important

in that

it

helps

us to restore one
is

the Abhinavabharafl (Vol. I,

p. 307) which

extremely

corrupt,
all

these years.

and has baffled the editors, commentators and The context in which Ihe Prakrit passage

research scholars

has been quoted

is

by Abhinavagupta supports its identification with the present gwhn. There another Prakrit gatha which opens with the letters "sivina" and could
with Abhinavagupta's
quotation.

be identified

The
:

gr/thv is

included

by

Weber

in his edition (No. 835), It runs as follows

I!)

(6)

Tatra manorathopagamo yatha (Vol. IV

p,

1103)

agrees
with,

This

gmhs, with
(II.

slight

correction,

when

rewritten

the

Guiha-saptasaR

37):
3":,

o;ft?

H?

ftaft ai

lit

II)

(7)

Pravgsato grhagaraanam
'

priyapratyggamali

sa

dhira-nimitto yatha

(Vol.

IV

p.

1105)

4 (i

V.

M.

Kulkarni

4
ir
cf

ft}

II

tf&ef

fewieftfTzit
This gtithS
is

a^R^n,

II)

cited in the Sarasvatikanthabharava

(SK, p. 627) as

well,

In the second half the


(8)

SK

reads q^ffqar in place of

Madhys-nimitto yatha (Vol.

IV

p.

1105)

r:

II)

(9)

Krtrimo yatha (Vol. IV


<r?

p.

1114)'I

3^3701113;

^'ir

q^irr qr^^fsl'j;

II)

This gsthfi
(10)

is

included by
(Vol.

Weber
p.

in his edition

(No. 873).

Atma-ninda yatbg

IV

1127)

The

text
it

of these

twe Prakrit

verses, as

corrupt but

also has got

mixed

up The

text

presented here, is not only should read as follows :-

Setu. XI.74

A
would

comparison

of this

original text
in

with the
,

printed text

reveal the error

In the

<?P

of the scribe

leaving out

the words that immediately follow

3f

and copying

instead

"^

words which

really belong to the next verse but

which also follow

Bhoja't Sriigsrapraknia
(11)

(Pratikopo) yatfaa vg ft tffaft

^..(Vol. IV
is

p.

The editor informs us


The
first

that this verse


is

drawn from the Setubmdha


should, following the source' '

half of this verse


:

very corrupt.

It

be read as follows

f% v

sfafcftar an; (g

Setu. XI.

117

(12)

...tadupajnam caisa laukikah pravadah, yaduta ^fofs^s


(Vol.

sr?i

IV

p. 1147)

it

This line
thus
:

is

corrupt,
srir

but on a closer look

it

is

easy to reconstruct

ci^

*f5ra-q!; 1%

ws$*t

Now

this

line

forms
:

the second

half of the following verse from the

Gathgsaptasati (IV.4)
5f? 5jf

crrcr,?

fqart

3%

^
f7

(w
3$$
sTo^zff

^WER^I

fl

II)

(13) Pratinayika yathg (Vol. IV. p. 1174)

arrfef

^
II)

This

Prakrit

verse

is

cited

In the

SK

(p.
[

453) as

an instance of
(sk)]

nirudbheda-samndhi. The
(14) ...jo kahavi

SK

reads

sr^fgfwr
(Vol.

^^ictPFf=3T5rr^rn^

maha

sahibitri

IV

p. 1175)

The dots
three letters

at the

commencement of
But, in fact, the

the gatba would seem to

show that

are lost.

gaths begins with

'jo

kahavi". If

at all the three

dots might be
is

taken to stand

for "yaths vs".

The ggtha

under consideration

found in the

GS

(IF,

44).

(q:

mfif

ssftfifc

s^

JfS

II).

48

V.

M.

Kulkarni
the printed

The two
text are

letters

"vima"
gathfi

in following the term "sahihim"

no part of the

and should be dropped.


pari-

(15)

Rtumaljnamanuragalisaya-sarhsinab Cesta-Visesa-vesadayah hgra-vilasah yatbs (Vol. IV p. 1182)

sri%

II)

These two gmhas are


illustrates

cited in the

SK

(p.

620) as well.
is

The

first

Ma,

the secondj hsva.

The second gsthg


readinings
!!?,

found in the Gathaprinted


text viz,

saptasatj

(V.81),

The
%fr,

wrong

in

the

T^, qf%^l, ^^,


with

"gaTSTl^^
in

Rife
the

and i%Fftf% are corrected

the help of the passages

the

SK,

GS

and

Hemacandra's

grammar.
(16)

Candratapo jyotsna yatha (Vol. IV


etc.

p.

1186);:-

JTtijraaW^'nt

This passage
(p.

is

corrupt

but

it

is

restored

with the

help of the

SK

374) where

it is

cited as

an example of the figure of speech called Tadguna,

II)

Minor misreadings apart, the words fti|;?ti%3^T^^3a^;p5 which, immediately follow fliJjgsJF^tj
(11)

appear to be altogether out of place.


sunimilita-

Kusuma-nirbharam Sahnali-vrk^amasritya kadibhih khelana(m) knda yatha (Vol. IV p. 1191)


...Ekameva
fir
'

fq ?
is)

Bhoja's Smgnraprakssa

49
It is

The second
rewritten with
(jsnati,

half of this gUthti

is

somewhat corrupt.

corrected and

the help

of the

Gmhasapta'satt V.

38, which

reads

'Snai

SK)

in place of 'pucchai' (prcchali,

SK)

in the first quarter.

...Krtrima-vivabadi-krids

nava-patrika,

Tatra ca varana-vidhsnadau
p,

tesam evarhvidhah parihisa bhavanti, yatha (Vol. IV,

1192)

IT

JIT

This gatha has been already cited in Vol. Ill p. 629. evarhvidhah parihasS bhavanti, yatha(Vol. (18) ...tesam

IV

p.

1193}-

f^f

Ptfelf^TT

^
(

II

II)

This gatha

is

included
in place

by Weber

in his

edition

(Saptasataka

885).

Weber reads

'puttali'

o {' put lie' and

'tattha vi' in place


?

of

'vanjuta'.

(19) Varsasu

kadamba-nipa-haridrumsdi

haridrakadi)

kusumaih

prahara(na)-bhutaif
'

dvidha balam ( ? dalam) vibhajya kaDjJnarh dhanno'si re....(Vol. IV p. 1193) kridah kadamba-yudhani yatha-

ft

53^ ^ q^
Weber
(

'0

This gEtha

is

included by
?

in his edition fSapta^ataka

863)

(20)Etena

natyQsa

yatha (Vol.

IV

p.

1194)

abhyusa) -

kbadike'ksubhaksika

ca
:

f%

S"ft

The SK

i?69)

quoted

this

ffOtt

in

the

same
for

context

bu t

th w,th

sHghUy .diLeat

rea dl ?, 8S

reads

*.

^aanaggn^
(Vol.

and

II)

Sambodhi 4.3-4

V.

M.

Ktilkarni

ft

^
nr
s

?M:

qsFTj

ii)

The
Prakrit

editor

has given
Sanskrit

the

Sanskrit

chnyn

of

this

gwhn
first

below

the

'text.

His

chayli

corresponds with the

quarter only.
Sanskrit
(II.

has reproduced the He, being misled by the opening quarter different gaihn fiom the Gmhnsapta-satl chiiyii of an altogether

94)

It

different

that the SK (p. 636) cites quite a n\ay be noted in this connection same words, to illustrate "slnghayrt gatha, opening with the

3?

Traf?i(?f*rafci)

^i^Rfter nrqcf^wt:

II)

(22)

Sakhyiidinam karmani sahaya-vyaparah,:yalba (Vol.


irift (?

IV

p. 1197)

pff) ffft

s;f5

TfHfq im\:

w
FOTai

lf.HkiVffTRnfl

^fSlsqiiTf

II)

This gsihd

is

cited in the
called
vi

Kavyaprakasa (X)

as

an

illustration of the

figure of speech

kasa
it

text

reads "Kle

(vaks}amaaa-visaya) Aksepa. The Kavyaprakaena" in place of 'tissfi kaena\ Iiicidently,


the
:

may

be noted here that

Gathasaptaati (VII-2) reads the

first

half of this gaiha diB'erenily


rff

i^'37

f^Sf

^trj

TJOITfJr

$3?

f^ ^TJfff

(23)

Dvyartha-pada-prayogo yatha (Vol. IV


)f f%4

p.

H99)

-.'

^ ntjirur

Bhoja's SmgnraprakTisa

j;

This gstha
reading
(24)

is

found
in

in the

vajjalagga (538) where we have a variant

suparinamam

place of suparin'ahnm. yatha (Vol. IV


p.

Manasyanusmaranam msnanucintanam

121?)

this gains
(p.

is

found

in

the

GS

(IV. 68}
:

It

is

also quoted in the

SK

639)

with

the

introductory

remark

Man s nantare

striyah

Kaitava-

smaranena yatua".
(25)

Mana-bhango mana-pradhvariisah

yatha (Vol. [V

p,

1217)

ii)

This gatha
(26)

is

found

in the

GS

(VII. 99).

Tesu
p.

priyagamo.ighosanam priyagamana-vartg

yatha

(Vol.
.

IV

1219)

fcf

^^
Possibly this
Prakrit verse

^W-sioJFcfRcf-i^ZTr ^ Sf:
is

||)

drawn

from

Sarvasena's Harivijaya, a

poem, now

lost.
p.'

IV (27) Snebatirekali prema-pustih yatha (Vol.


'

1222)-

fqsqfiFf

r'

fsw

sfsi

Possibly this

Prakrit verse

q^^r^^i ^fif STI^ is drawn from

ftw

II)

(Sarvansea's) Harivijaya, a

poem now

lost.

yatba (Vol. (28) Rati-prakarsodayah Srngara-Vrddhih

IV p.,1224)

i^l
This Prakrit
vyapini nayika.
verse
is

II)

cited in

the

SK

(p

678)

to illustrate

Katha-

52

V.

M.

Kiilkarm
p.

IV visrambhotpattih yatha (Vol. (29) Vlsvasopajano

1227)

rrofMfa

3T3TtT.

qigiFWI^W
very

7*5

II

This Prakrit

passage

is

corrupt.

The

presence

of the

words
in

clue and [ could trace the verse <ttads' gave me the jmaataotat and text reads as follows :the Setu-bandha (XI. 135). Its
TO; w*.
:

* ^IT
^HfJTRl

am-soons-^
)

<nrt
*r?T

(TnsRfH^s
=3

f^^Hte^a?-^^
I

tife

Til

^FR-B^r?-^

A
how

glance

at

the

two

II) t^rsi^t-?:^) Praz^srg'fPT-'^^w texts of Hie Prakrit verse would at once reveal

^
IV

as printed in corrupt the text,

the SrngTiraprakZlsa,

is.

yatha (Vol. (30) Pura-stri-sambhramo nagarika-ksobhah, w Tft 3t ft <T


fq

p.

1229)-

Ji'ii

igrfct ^Icffifq

?r

^
This gmhs, with
slight

^twra

^^
is

g^ra^:

II)

corrections,

only

rewritten

and

its

Sanskrit

chsya

given.

(31)

IV Adyantayo 'rasvadu picumanda-pakam yatha (Vol.

p. 1241)

(HI

Ift?)

aTl

(?

1$)
is

flT

5p|

|if
Weber

II)

This

^Sf/ia,

with slight variation,

included by

in his Saptasi

taka (No. 844).


(32)

Anavarata-pakam kapittha-pakarn yatha (Voi. IV

p.

1241)

This

gmh'a

is

included

by

Weber

in

his

edition

of

Saptasataka

(Nos

910).

(=37'srn
ffi

i.

%,

s.

M<)
?

n
))

')

?%

U.

3H

,,

nf-rrr'-i^T
15

)'

))

(4i)

(Mo:

J?

"^
SJ555

F.

M.

Kulkarni

qoi*f

fq

g.

IO^Y

,,

nrnr (5)

ir

ra...
?)

3J5 5? (g
Sff

K^Sf

37

537

(tg.

?o,
J3

Bhoja's

55

1.
>>

)!

m
55

(?=f%

fer

3)

5)

,,.

))

')

:>

5)

ff

F. A/. Xulkarni

3ft

1.
)

qffarr

ffra IH-51

9
)

\ \

" ^3
.

^iT *fl^H!H-*ir<

....

..

gait

g.

"

^^^

(g^-iT

?pR^r

i.

%.^^)

A
)>

U.

~\lli\i-</

"HH4

^
J

)J

))

&?
f%

Bhoja's Srngarapraka'sa

57
I.

JTTS1T

*.Y\
" *

^3j

01

31...

5>

3^3T^

%g
'

f%

<n<i

^c

(?3Tcj3irg) qtt ? -a c

?u^

^o;

T'

4-3-4

58

V.

M.

Kulkarni

55

55

5)

5)

5)

at
JJ

JJ

at

))

JJ

1%\ 5 Rr 3?

J)

JJ

JJ

ja's

Srkgarafiraknia

fqsr

fq

3TP-1T

fl

jj

i -\

M^.

59

jj

S <

',

fl

S
JJ

rrTT / 9rr-rT

JJ

>!

nrrr

^.^

^o

(g-^r

wR'ft

i,

"jr.

V.

M.

Kulkarni

)>

)'

5>

J)

<o<i

V.V

>i

?.
>j

""
'

'

"

" j """"~ """ ,>,-._

s.

vu)
ft
01

Bhoja's Smgarapraka'sa

til

,,

5.W)

_l_L^ r

s.

!)

s.

(I

F.

M.

Kulkarni
irr'-ir

'.t

v<

,,

fief

?.

? -,<i

ABOUT A FORGOTTEN GRAMMARIAN DHANAP^LA


Smt. Neelanjana
0.0.
It is

S,

Shah

well-established since very ancient times but almost forgotten that a study of the Dhstupsthas formed an essential
in the

a fact

now
part

process of mastering Sanskrit

language and

literature

through that
of"

of a traditional system of Sanskrit grammar

The very
language by

basis
a

the Pitni-

nian School of
iysis

Grammar

was

to explain the

progressive ana>

of words into stems and terminations, doctrine of (he verbal origin of all words was

and

ultimately the

.Ysskian

iropliciily

accepted by the Pani-

nians.
It
is s

Thus Dhgturaihas formed

the very backbone of the language-study.

therefore, not surprising that

numerous

classical authors

en Sanskrit

Grammar commented

on, and often condensed, the Dhatupathas in the was light of semantic changes the language underwent. The condensation often effected ns sliorf-cut to the attainment of mastery by comparison and

contrast as in ihe case of Daiva and various Dhatuksvyas, Profound scholarship in the field was the prime

condition

for those

who attempted

to

write

on the Dhatupathas.

0.1.

Among

the
is

medieval authors on

this

aspect of the Sanskrit

Gra-

mmar, Dhanapala

historians of Sanskrit

one of the few who have been simply ignored by the Grammar, His name has hardly been mentioned in

the so-far-written histories of Sanskrit

Grammar. But no one

interested in

the history of the developments in Sanskrit Grammatical traditions, pa.-tican afford to ignore him in cularly pertaining to the Sanskrit Dhatupathas, has been quoted not less than thirty times view of the fact that his

opinion
in

as

that

of an

authority

two

of the

most

notable

treatises

on the

Dhatupathas.
0.2.
It is

not certain

whether

this

Dhanapgla

was a follower of the

Paninian or some other school

of Sanskrit

Madhavjya
and
in

Dharuvrtti have been identifying

Grammar, But the editors of the him as Sakaiayana Vyakhyakara.


on Ddiva,
with the

Any how from

Madhaviya

his opinions cited in Puru?aksra, the commentary more Dhatuvrtti, it is clear that he agree?

views of Sakatayana than with those of others.


0.3.

When and where Dhanapala


that his

lived,

nobody knows. But one thing is


cannot
he

certain 'about his date

lower

limit

lowered than the

the commentary on Daiva (l3thCendate of the author of the Purusakara, is not higher than the 1 who quotes him; and his upper limit tury A.

D)

1.

Pandit Yuclhisfhira Mimaihsaka, Intro. Daiva,

p. 6.

64

Smt. Neelcmjana

S.

Shah

date of Ksira^wami (1050 A. D.), 2 the author of Ksiratarangini, a commen(.try

on the Dhatup-jtha. Ksiraswami

quotes the

opinions of others,

but
date

not even once has he quoted Dhanapala. Therefore, Dhanapala's might have been somewhere between elevjntb and thirteenth century.
It

is

proposed in

this

article to resurrect

the

opinions of Dhanapala

on the strength of the citations from his work, quoted by later authors. The present collected and classified data on Dhanapala's views regarding some of the controversial points about a few Sanskrit roots serve as a
might
source material for further research on
allied

material

and

incidentally,

it

might help to reinstate Dhanapala in his proper place in the Sanskrit Grammar. Further, it is also possible that our
turn out to be identical with
the

history of

Dhanapala

might

one

referred to

introductory verse of
1.1.

his

Brhad-Vrtti on his

by Hemacandra in the own Abiiidhana-cintamani. 8

Krsna Lilasuka,
as

the author of the Purusakara, quotes

forty-seven times citing his

opinion

either

about the

Dhanapala meaning or about

anubandhas of

many

as sixty-one roots.

Sayanacarya, the author of the Ma. Dha. Vr. quotes in connection with the discussion of forty-five roots.
1.2.

him

thirty

times

Dhanapala has discussed various aspects of the following Toots


i-i,

:-

Gana 7-Ati-adi, am,

ita-kha-kau, u^h-ruth luth,

rj,

kuth, ghusir, cak,

din, raks, dr, dhvan, macuh (or maci), mut, yabh-jabh, yam, lad, varh-valh (denoting 'prsdbanya'), barh-balh (denoting' 'paribhssana'
etc),

vanu, sikr, sulh, sam, subh, hudr-hudr-hodr;

Gana

II

prci (or prci),

Gana-IH~\islr,

Gana-lV~sah,
'

sub,

Gat}a-VI~lis,', kun, sadlr,

Gona-VIl-~vrji,

Gana-IX

dr,

^-krp,
1.3
It

vid,

cat-sphut-ghat, ch r di (or cbrda), tanu, pat-etc, pis, vaj, (and vraj), sniha, (or sniha) and svad.*

bha,

yam,

may

be noted that Dhanapala agrees

case of following roots.

with Sakatayana in
'

the

2.
3.

Of.

Shri S. K. Belvallar, Systems of Sanskrit Grammar, p


'

52
,,

and the introducto y verse rf h{g ^


'

thereof:I

"

n>
pat...etc, pad, pis

p yam{G

and yam ^Gana X).

dr.

About a Forgotten
i-l,

Gwnmtim

DhanapUJa
vaj,

65
varh-Vafh

ri,

(denoting

dhvan, macuft, yabh-jabh, lad, pradhanya), varh-valh (denoting paribhssana


vrji,

din, taks,

etc), ftai,

M*,

hudr-hadr-hodr, sah-suh, ku6,

dr, krp, tana, pis,


'

bho, vid, sn$,-*iid

1.4.

Another point of

interest is that

Dhanapsla
is

differs

from Panto!

considerably. His

difference from Ps.


roots:-

Dhatupstha

with

regards to the

meaning of the following

Gana-I*}, ghuslr, Gana-VIIIvrli,

subh,

Gana-Xtiwu, pat... etc, pad, pis, vid, vaj and svad. He notices the forms of the following roots different from those given by Psnini:maci
(macuft),

tnuta

(pud! or

pudu),

barh-balh in the meaning of

pradhanya (varh-valh),

gjkr (sjkr)
'lis'

sniha (sniha)'. B

PSnini does not read


thinks that
it

almbhsve,' in tudadi class, while Dhanapala should be read there alongwlth 'lis' gatau'.
'sah'

PaninS reads
Sakysrtfaa'), but

and

'?uh'

both in the meaning of 'oakygrtha'


'?ah'

{or

Dhanapala omits
(

and
1

retains

only

sun' in this sense,

He

discards 'hody' in the sense of

'gati

as read in Dhatupatha.

He

adds

jabh' along with


1.5.

yabh' in the sense of 'rnatthuna'.


the author of Dhatupra-

Dhanapala agrees with Maitreyaraksita, dipa in the case of following roots


:

GhusSr, din, taks, dhvan, sphut-ghat, and pat. ..etc,


1.6.

yam

(bhvsdi),

lad,

v4rh-valh,

itaa,

cat

are
etc.

Dhanapala agrees with Ksirasvami so far as the following roots concerned ha-kita-katt, uth, .rj, ghusir, dr, dhavan, saw, sah-?uh, pat

and svad. Dhanapala and Ma. Dha.


Ita

1.7.

Vp. agree as

regards the

following roots :*

- kita - kati, diA, dhvan,

yam

(bhvadi), lad, s'am,

?ah- |Uh

and

sadlr.
1.8.

Dhanapala agrees with Hemacandra


rj,

in the

case of following roots :-

varh-valh (denoting 'prsdhmya'), macurt, mut, yabh-jabh, lad, - ghat, pat-etc. and pis. kuA, cat - sphut or Daurgas in the case of following 1.9. Dhanapala agrees with Durga
roots ;-

and vaj. taks, yabh, j'abh, ^ubh, prei, vrjj


1.10
5.

From

this

comparison

it

is

evident that Dhanapala has deeply studied

The formT^TTiTthe

brackets indicate those noticed

by DbanapSla,

0g

Smt. Neelanjana S. Shah


is

It various traditions about Dbatupathas. He rather seems of them blindly.

noteworty that he never follows

any

usage of his age,

which

fact

to be guided by the prevalent to his difference might also have contributed

successors. of opinion from his predecessors and


2.!.

First of

all

let us

discuss Ganawise the

roots

in the case of which

since more than half of the he gives his opinion as regards their meaning, with the meanings of the roots. quotations are concerned
2.2.1

Gana

I :-

The commentators differ Pa. Dhatupatha reads <ama gatyadisu'. Ksiraswami' as regards the exact meaning of 'gatyadisu'. Maitreyaraksjta," of senses takes s ai' in this sntra as suggesting the inclusion

am

and Sayaaa bhakti' and

'sabda,' along
to

with

'gat!'.

Dhanapsla
1

cites the
all

others,

according

whom

'gatyadisu
'av'.

indicates

opinion of nineteen meanings

mentioned as the meanings of


2.2.2
:

Uth-ruth-luth

and Ma. Dha.

Vr, in the case

Dhanapala's views as cited by the author of Purusaksra of these roots are contradictory. 10 According
Purusaksra,

to the citations quoted in

Dhanapala
Vr.,

would
is

seem

to have

accepted only <uth' as meaning 'upaghata'.-.Ksirasvami

of the same opinion.

According to the citations quoted !n


to have accepted only 'ruth'

Ma.Dha.

and

'lu^h' as

Dhanapala would seem meaning 'upaghata'. Pa. Dhatupatha,


give
all

Sakaisyana Dhatupatha and


as

Raima Dhatuparayana

the three roots

meaning 'upaghata'.

Now
pala
1

It

seems

to have

which of the two contradictory views really belongs to Dhanawould, therefore be safe to conclude that the author of Puruaakara misread Dhanapala, who seems to have accepted 'ruth' and

trend throughout the 'huh' only as meaning 'upaghata.' In view of his his is easily noticed that opinion generally tallys with the quotations, it and root is common. followers the his whenever of KsiraDurga opinion

svgmi has noted that the followers in the meaning of 'upaghata.'


2.2.3.

of Durga take

only 'ruth' and

'lu^h'

Rj

Pa. Dhatupatha,

Purusakara." and
for this

Ma.

Dha. Vri2

give the
substitutes

meaning 'gatisthansrjanorparjanesu'
6. 7. 8.
9.

root.

Dhanapala 18

Dhatupradjpa, p. 38.
Kstrotarangh.it (abridged as Kflrat.), p. 71.
"Dhatuvftii (abridged as
:

Madhavjya

Ma.

"Dha.

Vf.) p. 15.

Purtifakfira, p, 92

10.

Ibid, p. 62

33

^
:

^qfH:

,;'

MS, Dha.

Vr., p.

115

SRqTa^RKEiqifl'

g>

11.

p. 53.

12. p. 87.
13. Purusakarq, p. 53

About a Forgotten Grammarian Dhanapsla

5?

urjana' in place of, 'uparjana'. Sakaiayana and Ksirasvami notice the same

meaning.
2.2.4.

Kuth-Dhanapala
'gati'

restricts

meaning of

this root to

'pratigbifta' rather

and MailDhatupatha gives only 'pratighata' as the meaning of this root. Some Msdhava seems to have accepted this restriction of
reyaraksita. Pa.

than

and

'pratighata' as given by Sakatayana, Ksirasvami

Dhanapala,

as Vssudeva** notes while illustrating and discussing this root.


2.2.5.

Suth-Accoring
c

to

Dhanapsla'",

suth

also

denotes only 'pratighata

and not
2.2.6.

gati'.

Ghusir-Pa. Dhatupatha, Ma.Dha.Vr."

and Dasapgdyunadi

vrttl,"

assign the meaning 'avisabdane' to this root while Dhanapsla' 8 thinks that this root denotes 'sabdartha'. Ksirasvami' 9 and Bhagavrttikara2o assign the

same meaning

to this root. Sakatayana, Durgasi

and

Hemacandra22

state

'sabda* as the meaning of this root.


2.2.7.

Cak

Pa. Dhatupatha reads


it

cak' twice in

Gana

I.

First

it

occurs in

the Sokadt sub-class where


it

is

given as
it

'caka trptau pratighate ca'


in Ghaisdi

and

is

declared Atmanepadi.
"trpti'

Again

occurs

sub-class where

it

means only
to
'cafc'

and
in

is

Parasmaipadi.

Dhanapsla
allots

assigns the

'trpti'

read

Sokadi group

and

the

meaning

'trpti

meaning and

pratighgta' to Ghatsdi 'oak'.

In the case of this root he again differs from


to

Pa, Dhatupatha in that he declares Ghatadi 'cak'


all

be Atmanepadi, while

other Dhatupathas and commentators read

it

Parasmaipadi.
its

2.2.8.

Din

Pa. Dhstupstha furnishes 'vihayass gatau', as


accepts the

meaning.

Dhan

apala virtually
aksra.S'*

same

viz

and Hemacandra2s on

the other

iarh gatau'. Dhanapala2 rejects this used in the sense of flying to the sky
14. p. 141

8 'Akasagamana. Ksiraswamp . Purushand furnish the meaning 'vihsya. meaning. He seems to have found
ii

(in the case

of

human

or

celestial.

3T3J

15.
16. 17.
18.

Purusakara,
p. 169. p. 93.

p. 63 :-

Purusakara,

p. 102.

:-

19.

Ksirat., p. 92.

20. Bhagavrtti Sattikalanam. p. 36.


21.

Purusakara,

p.

102

:-

^5?
61,

22.

Haimadhatuparayana, p.
p. 26.

23. p. 149.
24.

25. p. 71.
26. Mii,

Dha.

Vr

.,

P.

269 :-

Stnt.

Neelanjana S, Shah

}.

Sa!fcatayana,Z7 Maitreyarakita2s

and

Sayana2

agree.

with

pala. In the case of assigning the

meaning to this root, Dhanapala seems to have followed the worthy tradition of Candra School of Sanskrit Grammar.
in giving 'tvacana' as

2.29 Taks-AH authors and commentators of various Dhatupsthas agree meaning of this root. There is dispute regarding the meaning of 'tvacaaaV whether to explain it as 'tyaggrahana' or 'sarhvarana' Out of these two, Dhanapgla prefers the latter,, perhaps, because Durga*>
favours
it.

The author of Purusaksra 8


His arguments run thus
:-

also

seems rob? in favour of


as

this

meaning.
is

'samvarana',

the

meaning

of

'tvacana'

aataranga, because Pa. Dhstupatha has stated 'tvaca samyarane.'

The other
as

meaning Hvaggrahanarflpa' 'is 'krdvrttisiddha' it is, derived; qn the basis of Ast 3-1-25.
2,2.10,

and therefore 'bahiranga'

Subb-Pa, Dhatupstha Furnishes the meaning 'bhasane, hirhsayanjityanye' for this root. Dhan a pala 3 2 alongwith Durga replaces 'bhasane' Instead Of 'bhasane,' As has been pointed out by Dr. Pulsule.*> 'bhasane' seems
to

be the correct reading

and due

to the confusion of sibilants, bhasane'

was

adopted by Ksirasvami, Hemacandra and others.

2v&k Cana VI
with
f>s.

:-

is read both in Ganas I and VI. Dhanapa1a3* agrees in noticing this root with the meanings 'visaranagatyavas&daoesu' in both Ganas. Sskatgyana^ and Hemacandrafl take tudadl 'sadlr' to mean 'avasSdana' only. While Maitreyaraksita"' attests the mean-

root

Dhaiupatha

iflg,

'vijsrana' to

t.his

root.

Gana VII and Sakatayana^ are


ftmtfsh the

the

meanmg

varana> for this


'vrji

root insted
varjane',

Maitreyarakstta and Sayana read


27.
28.

only Grammarians who of 'varjana'. Ks ir asv sm S


'

Dhatusatra, no, 174.

Dhatupradipa, p.

70,

29.

Ma. DM. Vr

..

p. 269 :-

30. KiVfat, p. 93 :31. 32.


33.

^^ffir%

gn:

p. 107.
Ibid, p. 90 :-

^
50
:-

ffir

3*:

The Sanskrit DhatupSthas,

p. 133.

34. Purusakara, p. 76 :35.

DhStusutra, no. 890.

36.

Haimadhataparayana,

b.

116.

37. "Ohatupradlpa, p. 116.


38.

Puruiakm

p,

Aboui a Forgotten Grammarian bhanapTila


2,4,1.

69

Gana IX
all

:this root also,

Dr.
from

In the case of

other grammarians, as they


4'

assign

Dhanapala and Sakatsyana 30 differ the meaning 'bhaya' to this


while stating 'drs' vidarane' notes

root Instead

of 'vidarana,' Hemacandra*

bhaye' Styanye'. 'Dasapsdyunadivrtti


2.5.1.

reads dr bhaye (krysdi).'

Ga n a X:-

PS. Dhatupatha gives the satras 'bhuvo avakalkane' and 'krpesca.' The question regarding the exact meaning of 'krp' has puzzled the grammarians. Dhanapsla*2 w hile trying to elucidate it states 'krpestadarthye' and 3 supplies 'avakalpayati' as the illustration. The author of Purusaksra* explains

Krp

it
i.

as follows:- here according to


e.

Dhanapala

krp', denotes the


'bhu'.

same meaning

'avakalpana' as denoted by the preceding root

Almost
to

all

commentators on various Dhstupathas

assign one

meaning

both these roots. 44 Only Ksirasvami 45 provides

different

illustrations for

bha' and *krp' and assigns separate meanings to the roots.


Maitteyaraksita, the author of Purusakara and Sgyana agree with the interpretation of
2.5.2.

Dhanapsla.
Dhanapala*
assigns the

Cat-sphut-ghat

meaning 'bhedane'

to 'cat

'sphut'

and sainghsta

to 'ghat'.

He

further states that these roots take causal,

when they denote


seems
the

the above

mentioned meanirns. Dhanapala does not con-

nect the succeeding Dhatusutra 'hantyarthasca' with these dhatusetras. to take


it

He

47 independently as Ksirasvami.

Of course Ksjrasvami
8

assigns

meaning 'bhedane'
Taau

to 'ghat' also.

Sakatayana*

does not assign separate

meanings to
2.5.3i

this roots, he simply states *cata-sphuta-ghata ca hantyarthsh,'

In the case of

this root,

10 Pandit Yudhistliira Mimatiisaka

Dhanapala's opinion Is inferred by on the analogy of S'akatayan's Dhatu-

39. 40.

Ibid, p. 37

Halmadhatuparayana,

p, 241.

41.
42.
43.

373,
11.

Purusak^ra, p.
Ibid
:-

?l^

&
gives

44.

Only Sakatayana

STcf^qf, as the

meaning

for this

root, while

others

read

47.

Karat, p. 299.
Dhatusutra, no. 1109, Purusakara, P
.

48.
49.

83,

footaota 3

:-

70

iSmt. Neelanjana S.

Shah
is

of the sentence sutra, because the first portion

missing.

Dhanapala and

while 'tanu sraddhopakaranayoh' Sakatayana read 'tanu sraddhopahimsayam,' Ma. Dha. Vr. found in Pa. Dhatupatha, Dhgtupradlpa, Purusakara and the meaning to this root, Dhanapala seems to have been While
is

assigning

influenced

by Candra

tradition of

Saaskrit

Grammar;

ai

is

clear

from a

remark by Hemacandra. 80
2.5.4.

Pis- Dhanapala 51 reads

this

root with other foots tuj,

pij-etc. which

mean
kara

'hirnsabaladsne'. According to Ksirasvami. Maitreyaraksita


this root denotes 'gad' only.
52

and PurusaSakat-

Dhanapala has perhaps followed and


others.

ayana , according to whom balgdananiketana' along with


2.5.5.

this root denotes the meanings such as 'himsatuj,

pij

Yam

Pa.

Dhatupatha

reads.

'Yama
83

ca parivesane' in
to

Gana X.
Curadi

But
also

as noted by Purusakara,

Dhanapala

seems

opine that

in

64 criticises this 'yam' denotes 'aparivesana.' Ma-Dha-Vr., Ail other commentators read 'yama ca parivesane.'

view as 'anara'.

2.5.6.

ing of 'vid

differs from Pa. Dhatupatha in assigning the meanPa. Dhatupatha gives 'vida cetanakhyananlvasesu'. Dhanapala 66 of 'nivasesu*. Sakatyana Dhatupatha gives 'Vida instead substitutes 'nipatanesu'

Vid- Dhanapala
1
.

nivasanesu.' Generally

Dhanapala

agrees with Sakatayana, therefore,

it

must

be'nivasanesu', rather than 'nipatanesu.'

No other Dhatupsthakara nor any commentator thereof has stated in 'nipatanesu' as the meaning denoted by e vid'.
It is

noteworthy that

Halayudha's

Kavirahasya

68

gives

'vida

cetana-

khyanavivasesu,'
2.5.7.

Vaj-(Vraj) Pa-Dhatupatha gives 'vraja niargasarhskgragatyoh'.

Dhana-

pala places'" margana' in place of 'marga'.


It
is

not

known whether Dhanapala read

'vaj or vraj'.

Maitreyaraksita

Ma-Dha-Vrttiksra read 'vraj' 5 Sakatayana, Ksirasvami and Krsna Lllssuka read only ( vaj" while Hemacandra reads both. Originally only 'vaj' seems to have been read, since it is common to almost all the
Dhstupathas.
50.

and

Haimadhatuparayana,

p.

51.
52.

Pumiakara,

p.

Ill

:-

DhStusQtra, no, 1041.


p.

53.

54. 55.
56. 57.

p
Purusakara, p. 78:-ftqfcf^fii:rfff

8 .p.

Purusakara,

50

:-

:-

About a Forgotten Grammarian Dhanaptila


<Vraj'

71
its

seems to have been smuggled

in later

Dhgtupathas on account of
68 by Dr. Pulsule
,

association with 'vaj' in

Gana

as observed

It

may

be

taken that originally 'vaj' alone appeared here.

The word
Dbgtupathas,

'gati',

found
It

in the

definition
to

here,
latter

is

absent
addition.

in

many

therefore,

may be taken

be a

Now we

have 'msrgasamsksra'

and 'msrganasamskara'

to deal with,
it

Between these

two 'marganasariisksra' seems preferable, because


usage of the language. or trim an arrow.'

conforms to the actual


it

Hemacandra 59
Is is

has explained

as

meaning

'perfect

From

this

discussion,
BO

it

clear, that

Dhanapala has chosen the


his

right

meaning for

'vaj'.

There

every

possibility of

being influenced by

has noted Durga, because Ksiraswami


2.5.8. Pat.
..

similar opinion of

Durga."

as 'bhasarthab'.

etc-Pa. Dhatupatha gives the group of roots which are described 3 to be bha!akatsyana2 and Saya n a also take these roots
64

sartbah. Ksjrasv s mi,


roots as bhasarthah.

Maitreyaraksita""*

and Hemacandra

describe

these

tbese According to Purua ? kara,, Dhanapala" also takes has suggested in his thesis that bhasarthah roots as bhasarthah. Dr. Puisules older in it is found Dhatupathas. because has a better claim to acceptance, that the Dhatusutra <Pata...etc. bhasarthah' means Moreover, he suggests that are current in the language, because none these roots have meanings which

or 'to shine'. of these roots either means 'to speak' Dhanapala interprets the After describing these roots as bha?arthah, with These roots 'pat etc.' form their present stem sutra in a queer way. roots also form their bhasartha Other used transitively. <nic' when they are Purusakara bitterly with <nic' under_ similar circumstances. present stem
criticises this
2.5 9.

view of Dhanapala.

Pad-Pa. Dhstupatha

but Dhanapa1a reads 'vada samdeSavacane',

gives

58

59 GO

Haimadhatuparayana,
scribal mistake. P.

P. 153. The Sanskrit phatupathas, P. 251 :- H^f

^tt

Tell

f
>

Anyhow, Dhanapala,
be a
Ksirat.,

as quoted

by

ML

Dha. Vr.

replaces 'marge

c..

It

seem to

61.

287 :-q^

62.
63.

MS, DAS.

Vr., p. 561. 'Dhatusutra, no. 1136.

64.

Kstrat. p. 304.

65.

Dhatupradipa,

p. 144.

68

Th
Purusaknra, P.
Yudhiathira

69.

.-

Mimamsaka

notes

here

mat

we

get

inmlmerable

auch a 9

72
<

Smt, Medanjana S. Shah

P 8da satiidFSavacane*.
i.e.

No

other

Grammarian has ascribed

this

meaning

to

this root

pad.

Anyhow Dhanapala must

have noted this meaning of the

root in the language current in his times.


2.5.10. Svad--Pa.

Ksuasviimi'

assign

while Dhanapsla and Dhstupntba reads 'svada ssvsdane this root. Hemacandra'2 the meaning 'samvarana' to

takes a note of this view.

In the case of following roots, Dhanapsla distinguishes - ati-adi, lad and vlslr. usages of Aryas and Dramidas All Dhatupathas read 'ati adi bandhane'. Ati-adi
2.6.1.

between

the

(Gana

1),

DhanaAryas

pala"

is

the

first

Grammarian who has


ati'

distinctly pointed

out that

use 'adi* and Dramidas use


2.6.2.

Lad {Gana I) Pa. Dhatupatba reads 'jihvonmathane ladih'. SakatsHemacandra and Saysana 74 give the meaning in the yana, Maitreyaraksita, same words. Ksiratarangini reads 'jihvonmathanayoh ladih'. Actually, If we
dissolve the

compound 'jihvonmathane'

as

Dvanda compound,

it
it

would give
as sasthi

the

same meaning
it

tatpurusa,

as 'jihvonmanthanayoh', but if we dissolve would be confined to the activity of th? tongue.


75

Dbanapala
the

has drawn our attention to the fact that A"ryas read

it

as

'jihvonmanthanyoh'.

He

himself has

given

'jihvonmathane

ladih',

which

Dramida tradition. Was Dhanapala a Grammarian, who leaned presents more towards Dramida tradition rather than the Aryan one ?
2.6.3. Vish; <,Gana JIL). -Dhanapala'
8

points out the difference

from the view


of this
root.

point of Aryas

and
1

Dramidas

as

regards

the

anubandha
it

Pa-Dbgtupatha reads 'vislr vyaptau'. Aryas read


reads
as
3.1.
it

as <udlt'

and Dramidas
rool

as 'Jrdit.'

'vislr

vjaptau'.

Sakatayana, Ksjrasvami and all others give this Are they all following the Dramidian tradition ?
frptau' (belonging to

The

following roots viz. 'cak


I)

Ghatadi

sub

class

of

Gana

and 'bhu, praptavatmanepadj' (Gana X) are read Parasmaipad;

by Dhanapala.

we have already noted that DhanapSla differs from others 3.2. Cak as regards the meaning of this root. He again differs as regards the padi of this root. The author of Pa-Dhatupatha, Kssirasvami, Kr?na Lilasuki
70.

Puru^akara,

p.

70.

71.
72.

Karat., p- 305.

HaimadhatuparSyaya, p

88 .-'

73. 74.
75.

Ma. Dha. Vr
p.

..

p. 73

:-gr=

25.

Puraiaksra, p. 66:-'
IbiJ, p.

76.

104

About a Forgotten Gwmmrian Dhanapzla


and Ssyana read Ms root, as Parasmaipadi. Dhanapala'' again read here for the sake of 'mitsamjna' and he
be Atmanepadi.
3.3

73
thinks that
it

is

therefore, Declares

it

to

Bhu Praptsvatmanepadi
forms
its
is

(Ga n a X).-This dhatusatra


-uic'

means

that

this

root

present stem with

when

it

denotes prspti and takfi&


'vs' in sutra,

Atmanepada. But there the commentators differ


problem
is,

an option expressed by
root

therefore,

videiy in the
this

interpretation

of
there

this
is

Sutra.

The
.

which

pada

would take when

<nicabhava !
<nic'.

Dbanapsla

favours Parasmaipada even in the absence of


the view

Purusa-

kara strongly supports

of 'bhu' in the absence of


1-7-7)', correct
3.4.

of Dhanapala by quoting Paribhasavrtti and Nyayasarhgraha of Hemahamsagani. Sudhakara" favours Parasm^ipada 'nic' and considers c sa rsstramabhavat (Tai. Bra,

from the grammatical ppint pf

view,

On

the other

the absence of 'nic',

hand Maitreyaraksitas" favours Atmanepada of bhu' in SSyana supports him and while favouring Atmanep^da,

lifiW

bg quotes Kaiyata's commentary explaining Mahghhasya on Asf 6-.4 T ^. Ajy Puruakgra strongly refutes this view and argues that iq this Dteluspjfrg
(ij}abapra.krta),

'bhu prgptau va' njc is the princjpaj topic optjpfl should be about Atmanepada which, js ^

therefore

tig

subsequent statement (anantara,

prkrta)8i
4.1

Dhanapala

differs

the following two ropts ^maciin'


^.\.\,

from Pa. Dhatupstha and 'chrdi'.

in the case of

anubandl)^ pf

M a Pu 4

(fiana} I)anci

pa DbstupathS
-

gives
it

mapt dharanpchrsyapiiiji;
f

qesu'.

But Dhapap^la

S'gkatayapa reaj

ps 'mappA' instesd pf
tlje

JPJfif'.

Hemapandrs
4.1.2.

agrees wjth Dhanapala as regards

form of

tbfs root,

Chrdi (Gana X) Pa.-Dhatupatha reads 'chrdi sandipane'. But Bhas 82 prefer the form 'chrda' instead of chrdi. pala and Sakatayana The author of Dhatukavya83 npfes ttjis view.
39

77.

Ibid,

p.

:-

78.
79.

Ibid, Ibid.

P. 11 :-

80.

Dhatupradipa,

p. l(J,6:-'Wf?Effl^ffl^ J^f?r

H^^ ^HI^

^fit

81.

Purusakara

p.

Ill

'

l?rfsd%H;
82.

Ibid, p. 79

83 r

P. 223 ;r'K

Rflmhrvlhi 4. 3-4

74
5.1.

Smt.
Prci

Neelanjana S, Shah
case
is

(Gana TI)-In
its

the
It

of

this root

Dhanapala"
others like

introduces

option as regards
patha. Dramidas
read
it

form.

given as 'prci samparcane' by


'prci',

Pa. Dhstu-

read the

root as

while

Nandisvgmi

as 'prci' or 'prci'.

Dhanapala agrees with Nandisvami.


also, the opinion of

5.1.1. In the case of

'prci'

MS-Dha-Vr.e
ding to

differs

from that

referred to
like

Dhanapala as quoted by by Purusakara. Dhanapala accor*


Durga,
reads
to

Ma. Dba. Vr. would

to read this root as 'udit' with

Kasyapa and Nandi. It will be interesting 'pijun', 'prjui'j' and 'prchain' in Gana II.
5.1.2

note that

Sakapyana

Anyhow

Sayana favours

'prcf,

because

Kasika, while
'prci'

on

Ast,

3-2-142 has given the verdict by the sentence

commenting samparke iti


, . .

rudhsdirgrhyate na tvadadih.'
6,1

Dhanapala
under

discusses the problems of

categorisation

of

the following
I)

two roots

one or

the

other

Gana,

'Dhvan' (Gana

and

'lis'

(Gana VI).
6.1.1.

Dhvan
I

Tne opinion of Dhanapala8 *

in the case

of

this

root

is

not

clear. It

Gana
6.1.2.

seems that Dhanapala reads this root under Ghatadi sub-class and he assigns the meaning 'sabda' to it.

of

Pa.-Dhatupatha reads 'lisa alpibhave' in in Gana VI. But Dhanapalas' thinks desirable that
lis

Gana IV and
'lisa

'lisa

gatau'

alpibhave' should

be read

!n

Gana VI

too.

Pandit Yudhisthira
given in Purusakara,
it

Mimamsakass has remarked


can be inferred that
both

that

Ksjrasvami

Lilasuka must have had a dual classification


fore

from the quotation and Kr?na

raflgini.

of the root be. them. However we do not get a double classification in the KslrataIt must be noted that no other Dhatupathakara or commentator reads 'lisa alpibhave under Tudadi.
(dvispstha)

7.1.

Dhanapala

interprets the
>

following

dhatusutras 'yarno' parivesane he point of view of


"

84.

85. 86.

P..

336:-'^
p.

&*

P^
;M
P. 99
:

87.

About a Forgotten Grammerian Dhanapala


7.1.1.

?5

Yamo'parivesane (Gana I). In this Dhatusutra, anuvrtti of the words 'na' amd 'mil' comes from the preceding dhatusutras, Therefore, would convey that 'yam' is not 'mit' when it is used in the sutra the
sense other than 'parivesana' as
also agrees

Maitreyaraksitas

has put

it.

Dhanapala
81

90

in with this interpretation. Ktsna Lilasuka aad Ssyana view of Dhanapala, quote from Kasika and Jinendra's support of this 82 Nyasa on Ast. 1-3-89, Ksirasvami holds quite an opposite view. Accor-

when used in the sense of 'aparivesaaa, ding to him, 'yam' gets 'mil sajna' Grammarians of Candra, Kaumara and Bhoja Schools interpret it similarly.

Sayanas

refutes this view in strong

words and

finds fault with

them

for ignoring 'na'.


7.1.2.
ca'.

Vanu (Gana l)-This 8 1 Dhanapala states in


'

root occurs in the Dhatusutra 'glasnavanuvamam'


the case of 'vanu' that
it

is

included in

Ghapdi
treat

by Dramidas. For them


it

this;rootis always 'mil samjnaka/ while

Xryas

as 'mit'

optionally.

7.1.3. 'iaarno darsane'

This Dhatusutra also

gets anuvrtti of 'na'

and

'mil'

from the preceeding sutras. Therefore Dhanapala 'mit samjflaka' in the meaning it thus. 'Sam' is not

05 is right in interpreting

of darsana. Ksirasvsmi

98

of 'na'. Therefore according to reads 'samo darsane', but ignores the anuvrtti of the dhattisutra is not different from that of Dhanapsla him, the meaning in Purusakara as regards found are views ' has noted. Dhanapala's
1

as s'ayana"

in Pa-Dhstupatha as, mut, barh-balh the forms of the following roots given - valh (in the sense of P anbha 9 ana, etc.) the sense of prsdhSnya), varh

(in

sikr, kun,

and

sniha.

811

Mut (Gana

I)-Accordirg

to the

quotation

given in Purusaksra"

Dhanapala
89.

instead of 'muta' in the sense of 'pramardana,' 'gives ''pudi'

Dhatttpradipa, p. 56

;-

90. 91.

Purupkdra,

p.

93

j.

MS. DhU.

Vr., P- 201.

92
93.

K*r,

P.

H3
Vr-,

:-

m.

Dha.

P- 201

94.

95.

ibid, P. 94

-w^
201

97.

mm' CPo^[^a
i

^n,

ipiRsi t

98. P. 57.

?6
the quotation in
ffi&A have

Smt. Neelanjana S. Shah

Ma

Dha. Vr09 reads 'muda.'


?

Which of these

two

forms

been intended by Dhanapala


is

'few

'ptidi'

more

probale.

On

Sakatayana reads 'pudu'. There'niuda' is not the other hand impossible,

Because Kslrasvami reads 'mudi pramardane'.

ll.l
"ut'e'S

Barh-balh and varh-valh (Gana I)- Dhanapaia'(> differs from p a Instead of barh-balh, he substitfibattlpfitha in the case of the first pair.
vatn-Valh
iri

the

meaning of 'pradhanya.' In this he seerns

to

follow

SSfeatayHna, but differs frorn Ksirasvami,

KrsQa Lilssuka and Sayana,


etc.),

As regards
pgla
1"1

the

form of c varh-valh' (meaning paribhasana


in

Dhana-

as quoted

by Sayana reads barh-balh

the sense of paribhasana etc.

8.1.3.
*$dcj.'
tfitfg

Ms., dha, Vj-.


tnis view.

Slkr (Gana I)-Dhanapala 1()2 here points out that Aryas read it as 11" names some Kasyapa along with Dhanapala as hoi-

Of

course,

all

authors

secane'. Bhattikavya

of Dhatupathas and commentators read has also used 'sisike (XIV, 76)'.

'sikr

Me

Ifith'e explaflatoty
-siicr'

only uipp'ort we get for this view of Dhanapala is that of Bhagavrtti. sentence of Mahgbhasya on Ast, 6-1-64, Bhagavrttikara"* before 'sekr'. But Purusakara considers this form as being un-

for usage.
8.1.4.

kun (Gana
is

VI).

Dhanapalaios
'Skatam'

refers to the

opinion of

Pa.-Dhatupatha reads 'kun 'sabde' in Gana VI. some who also read kaft, because

Ma -Dha. Vr."> while referring to this usage. Dhanapala, notices that Atreya, Maitreya, Kasyapa, Sudhakara and Sammalakara also read it as Not only that he quotes djtghanta. SStyata's l>rEidi P a on Mahabhaaya's explanation of Ast. i-2-9 arid points out fflttf Kafyata also favours dirghanta.
current: in

the

opinion of

8.1.6. Snih (Gana X)-Pa. Dhstupatha reads. < ?niha snebane' Dhanapslai" prefers sniha' as the form for this root'.'

while

8.1.7.

EJhahapalaios does not read

'i-i'.

99.

P. ill.

102.

R
,

103.
104.

P. 76.

BKgavrttisainkalal am

107.
,

P.

108.

W,

P,

22

About a Forgotten Gramnurian Dhanapnla


8.1.8

77

Dhanapala's opinion about these three roots is found only in Vla.Dha-.Vr.,i!> and not in Purusakara. Pa.Dhatupgtha reads 'jta-kita-kati' in the meaning of 'gati'. But Maitreyaraksita110 reads four roots here, Ha-kitakata-i.

But

Dhanapala reads only three

roots

ita-kita-kati', as

Ksirasvami

and Dhatuvrttikara.
8.1.9.

Yabh-Jabh (Gana
11
!

I).

Pa. Dhatupatha reads only 'yabh maithune 1 .

Dbanapala

takes 'jabh' also to indicate

Ms meaning,

Sukapyana1 ' 2 and


11
*1

Hemacandra 118

also read 'yabh-jabh maithune'.

Ksiratarangini

notes the

view of Daurgas as reading 'jabh' to denote 'maithune. 1 Of course Purusakara does not agree with this view of Dhanapala. He argues that NyasakSra, while commenting on Ast. 7-1-61 gives 'jabha, jrbhigatravinarne'. Kssika
also while

explaining

Ast. 7-2-10 gives 'rabhisei

bhantesvatha maithune

yabhih.'
8.1.10. hudr,

hsdr and hodr


'gati'.

roots in the

meaning of

(Gana I)-Pa. Dhatupatha reads all three But Dhanapala and Sakatayana 115 accept
'gati'.

only hudr and hodr in the meaning of

They opine

that

hodr' denotes

'anidare

gati'.

8.1.11.

different

Dhanapala I) from dr of Gana VI. Maitreyaraksita" 6


is

Dr (Gana
read

considers dr bhaye' of

Ga na

I,

quite

believes that 'dr vidarane'


but

of

Gana VI

here

for

the

sake

of

'mittva',
'that

Dhanapala'
it

17

illustrates

the

form

'darati'

which

indicates

he takes

to be a

different root
8.1.12.

altogether.

ah-suh (Gana IV)

Pa,

Dhatupatha
and

reads

both

'saha
as

suha

SakySrthe'. Dhanapglai" rejects 'sah'


this

accepts only 'suh'

denoting

meaning.

Ksirasvami and Sayana also read only

'suh' in this

meaning,

8.1.13. In Purusakara, we get Dhanapala's view about the interpretation of the Dbatusutra 'ssvada sakarmakat' as it is read in Pa. Dhatupatha.

There

are

two

problems

involved in this Sutra.

First

is

as regards

109.
110.

MS.

ha.

vr

.,

P.

iii
p. 29.

Vhstupradipa,
Purusakara

111.

p. 91

J-^ ^
p- 47.

ff%

112.
113.

VhatuSHtra no. 430.

Haimadhatuparsyana,
P.

114.
115.
116.

152 :- <;sif5T

ff%

Purusakara. p. 65:-|f

Dhatupradipa, p. 57

_%[^t m^-

cfW |f

ft^tf

PW

qf!3:

117.
118.

Purusakara, p. 37
ibid, P. 11

j-t

78
the interpretation of the
to be

Suit. Neelanjana S.

Shah
<%&'

word 'asvadab'. Some grammarians understand


Others take <%&> as indicating 'abhividhi'.
'asvgdayati

an upsarga

to 'svad'.

From Dhanapala's
kgra,
it

illustration

ksiram'

quoted

in Purusa-

is

clear that he
it

understands 'an' to be an upsarga, Krsna Lilgsuka


sense of
'abhividhi',
etc.

and Suyana take


Dliatusfitr;-.s 5
'a

in the

on

the

analogy of other

kusmad', adhrsgdva
is

The second point


makgt'.

regarding the
118

interpretation
it

of the word

'sakar-

Maitreyaraksita

has

explained

as
the

'sambhavikarmatva'.
roots

According to him, this Dhgtusutra means Form their present stem with <riic' if there

that
is

up

to 'svada'

the possibility of 'karma'.

The other view


that having

is

that of

Ksirasvgmi,

who

explains

'sakarmakgt'
to

as
this

karma.

It

can be inferred that Dhanapgla

seems

hold

view, because his illustration contains 'karma'.


9.1.

The above study of

these

stray

views

of Dhanapala as quoted

by his successors, shows that he was a grammarian of a high order.


His opinions about the roots are Jinendra etc.
roots

like Kaiyata, Jayaditya,


all

supported by veteran grammarians He seems to have thoroughly studied


accept
the

the facets of the

and

did not

Dhatupathas

rigidly.

The spoken language seems


did not accept

to have been the final

authority for him.

He
it

nor

reject

any

opinion
If

of his

predecessors,
as a

because

belonged to a particular

School.

we take Durga
to

commentator

in

Kstantra School, Dhanapala might seems

have

accepted
that

many
has

a point
carefully

from

this

school

too.

Finally,

it

is

noteworthy

he

noticed the differences in the speech of

Dramidas and Aryas.

119.

Dhstupracfjpa, p. 143

THE 'NAGABANDHA' AND THE 'PANCANGAVIRA' CEILING


M.
A. Dhaky

While writing 'The ceiling of the Temples in Gujarafi, j. M, Nanavati and I had to forego detailed discussion on two popular 'illustrative' types of ceilings met inside the halls of the fifteenth century Western Indian Jaina temples. That was because no helpful light then seemed earning from the raediaval manuals in Sanskrit on architecture, nor from other contem.
poraneous writings incidentally taking notice of such
depicts
the
ceilings. The first type Krsna trampling or humbling the serpant Kaliya in the River Yamuna; second shows a curious human figure possessing five bodies

commonly

sharing a head

and a

single pair of arms,


.

one of the arms usually earning

a dagger in striking posture 8

In the

first

case the illustration could be identified without

difficulty

on

the basis of the


rity

wellknown narration of the Krsna-ljla

legends, but the autho-

of the vtfstufastra-s behind the selfsame depiction was still wanting. In the second no identification could be attempted since no parallels of motif
traced

could be
motif.

and nothing seemed explaining

the

idea

underlying the
laie

As

for the kaliya-mardana scene, a

significant

reference has of

been traced in the wellknown Western


prcchn of

Bhuvanadeva8

(ca.
.

the Aparsjita3rd quarter of the 12th century) and has been

Indian Wstu

work,

discussed by
the

me

elsewhere 4

The present paper


trace.

is

intended to focus more on


it

second motif and to


which
I

identify if not quite explain

on

the basis

of the

literary evidence

of late could

The

fifteenth century temples


:

which

illustrate

one or both of

these two

types of ceilings are

one of the five Jaina

Dharana vibsra
Saurasua. 7

at

Ranakpur (1440 and


instance,

later),"

temples at Jesalmere 6 and the both in Rajasthana, and the


atop Mt. Girngr (1455) in
anterior to
these
all

so called Melak-vasahi (anc. Kharatara-vasahi)

And one more


is

which

is

since

datable to around 1320,


also

the beautiful though

known
The

as Vimala-vasi (anc.
illustrated

misnamed Bhulavani temple, 8 Kharatara-vasahi) on Mt, Satrufijaya, again


here.

in Saurasira,

and discussed
two

identification of these

illustrative

types

becomes possible

on

account of some pilgrims' psalms written in the fifteenth century a propos of Satrufijaya and Girnar temples mentioned in the foregoing para. Referto the plan and interior arrangement of the 'Kharatara-vasahi
ring briefly

thus

on Satrufijaya mentions

hills,
:

the

unknown author
inside,

of

the SatruRjaya caityafaripafi*

'There

is,

(the

ceiling depicting)

nsgahandlta,

and

the alluring pancBdga v1r:' again (the one showing)

80

M.
Taham nagaba bandha puna

A.

Dhaky

bhusana vira-paftcanga moha-i; 13,

The contemporaneous author Depala, a merited poet of his times, specharming song in old Gujnrati on Satrufljaya's selfsame Kharatara-vasahi, wherein he too takes note of the two aforenoted
cially wrote a short but
4

ceilings.

The poet remarks


jn

'[And

indeed] one forgets

hunger and
the

thirst

while

lost
:

intently

watching

the

pancnnga-vlra and

nagabandha

(ceilings)'

bhukha ana-i
Turning
fic

trisa visara-i-e

Pancsiiga-vjra nagabandha nihajatgn. 7

reference

now to the kharatara-vasahi at Girnsr, we encounter a specimade in [a hitberto unpublished] n Girnflr-caitya-parip'sft of

with putali~s (icons the nsgabandha and the paftcanga-Wa (ceilings) along of apsaras-nfiyikis-s in the rangamandapa (theatrical hall) of the selfsame

temple

Raiigamandapi

nagabandha nihala-u potalj-e

mandapi

mana

vsla-u

Paficanga-vi'ra vasekhi-i-e raala-khacla-i

mandapa
it

janu. 29

As

for the
earlier

nagabandha (snake-tangle) ceiling,

is

obviously derived
the
latter type, the

from the

Kdlija-damana

type.

In

instances of

2ga-s and the

nBgitfl-s are

shown

in half

human form,

generally three

on

either

side of the cenlral figure of

Krsna trampling Kaliya. But in the nngabandha


praying nfiga-s and nZgim-s
it

type, the hurnan-figural representation of the


is

subdued and reduced in significance, and

is

the 'coils' which

receive

prominence, forming in
tangle
:

many and
I,

multiple

folds,

mesh

or

a complex

(cf.

figs.

&

3).

at this point,

the mukhacatuski (entrance-porch) of the


at

mandapa

reproduce the exquisite ceiling in (hall) of the 6iva temple

Mula-Madhavapura
would demonstrate
in

(ca, early

llth century) for

comparison

(fig.

5),

and

this

how

inside

of two to

three centuries

the changes

took place

the details, even

when the

conception remained

unchanged.

As

could be,

for the significance of the Paflcanga-vjra ceiling, what its is hard to guess. Vjra is of course a 'warrior' or a

symbolism

'hero of the

signifies, just explains the ? Does it mean a hero possessing or revealing in battle the strength or prowess equivalent of five men ? Or is he one of the Fifty-two Vira-spirits of the folk tales ? Some explanation of this may be there in ancient but until it is literature, found, it must remain both curious and mysterious

battle field.'

The dagger

in the

hand so

as

it

motive. But what about the 'five bodies'

Notes and References


1.

Cf.

author's

Jong paper (written conjointly with J. "

MSe

y>

M. Nanava.i) covering Baroda D9roel y voi? '

the entire

>

CL,

..3
fe
be CN i_i .S CO

S
8

bo
in}

Nagadamana
and

or Kaliya-mardana

ceiling

rrmkhacatuski
century.
Society,

S'iva

temple, Mula-Madhavpur,

ca. early llth

(Copyright

courtesy, Archaeological

Research

Porbandar).

Alau Parsvanatha temple, Nagada, Mewar 3 Rajasthan, ca. 2nd


quarter of the llth
century.

(By courtesy and

assistance, The

American

Institute of Indian Studies,

Varanasi).

The 'Nigabanlha' and


1.

the

'Pancahgavira* Celling

81

We

then classed

it

under "Katituki

(curious) figures".

Ed. Popatbhai Arab ash ankar Mankad, Gaekwad's


1950, chap. 218/36

Oriental Series, No.

CXV,

Barcda,

4,

Cf.

'Nagadamana-n! Chata ane Vastusastra-vidhana'

(Guj.),

Puralana, 1'otbandara

1973. pp. 122-123


5.

&

fig.

contra p, 38,

Cf.

H. Bhisham

Pal, The

Temples of Raja.ithan, Alwar-Jaipur

1969,

fig,

91.

The

author docs not say in which temple at Jcsalmere does it occur. One of my older of notes, which however is unsupported by source-reference, mention? this type or otherwise, I am ceiling in the Laksnmna Vihara there. Whether this is the same,

unable to decide since never


6.

visited Jesalrnere.

Ft.

Ambalal Premchand Shah,


S. 2012 (A. D. 1956),
fig.

RSnakpuf-m
two

Paiicattnln (Gvj} First

Ed

.,

Bhavnagar

23; here see

figs.

3&4. These are located

in tiie central

bay of the lowermost

storey of the

storied (Western) balar.aka

(entry-hall),

and
ceil-

the selfsame balayaka. There is one the forebay of the second storey of in this temple, in the Southern Meghanada ing of the nagabandlia type

more

hall, in the

upper storey
7,

there.
in India

See Sarabhai Nawab, Jalna Tirthas


fig.

and Their Architecture, Ahmedabad 1944

195.

'

at some length (in collaboration with Shri Amritla! I am discussing that temple in the final stage. Mahatirtha-nan Jaina-mandiro (ft//.},now Trivedi) in Satruijjaya

Nawab, -Pandaima Saika-ni ^truqjaya Citj*-PW. Ed- Shriyut Sarabhai Maniial No. 3, Sr. No. 135, dt. 15-12-46, pp, Joia Satya Pr^to, Year 12,
96-97.
10. 11.

am

this in a special compilation at present editing

of hitherto unknown psalms,

and myself are Smt. Vidhatriben Vora

editing this psalm at present.

APPENDIX

ta

ceihn

,""^.
s

as mentioned earlier,
<

takes notice

of the

in

the

there

JttoaiB
y

sure^ oy u meets Visnu encirclea


ot

demons being

197) .

third cethng

more same theme. One

^ ^" .f2a.sagf^
ui

njWjJ B

^^ ^ ^^
the

Giraar

hills -

But the

instance
.t

^^
Madta

Nawab

the V aLanfon Satrunjaya also depicts near the older found

temple of M=dhav.taya

purport Museum to the Junagadh Jheand the writer the mgalandha, surely is not

mistook the motif

it

seems.

Sambodhi 4.3-4

82

M. A. Dhaky
LIST

OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Satrufijaya,
ca-

1.

Pahcahga-Ma

ceiling,

Kbaratara-vasahi,

1320

A. D.

(Copyright L, D. Institute of Indology, Ahniedabad)


2.

Pahcfthga-Vira ceiling, Dharana-vibara,

Rsnakpur, 1440 A. D.

(Copyright
3.

M. A. Dhaky.)

Ntigabandha ceiling, Kharatara-vasahi, Satrufijaj/a, ca. 1323 A. D.


(Copyright L. D. Institute of Indology,

Ahmedabad)
Rsnakpur, 1440. A. D.

4.

PancMga-vira
(Copyright

ceiling,

Dharana

vihara,

M.

A,

Dhaky)
ceiling,

5.

Nagadamana or Kaliya-mardana
Msdhavapura,
gical
ca.

mukhacatus/a, Siva temple, mula-

early llth century. (Copyright

and courtesy Archaeolo-

Research Society, Porbandar.)

NAGADA'S ANCIENT JAINA TEMPLE


M. A. Dhaky
Nagahrda, var. NSgadraha) was one of of the Guhila-s of Me war (anc. Medapsta), particularly

Nagada

(anc.

the capital-cities
in the later part

of the tenth century. The temple of Lakullsa (972) in the Ekaliftgajj group, 1
the Visnu temple in the gorge (ca, 972) close to Ekaliflgajj 2

and the famous

twin temples called Sas-bahu temples at the ancient site of Nagads3 bear witness to the foregone statement. Nagada was also known as a Jaina
centre of

Ja!na literature 4
to date

some consequence as gleaned from the later medieval Svetambara The Svetambara Jaina temple at Nagada, however, seem from the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries and although they
.

merit attention, the focus of discussion for the present paper

is

the solitory

Digambara Jaina

shrine, which,

being relatively earlier

in date, is

of some

significance from the standpoint of the earlier history of the local style. D. R. Bhandarkar has briefly noticed this temple. 5 But the present paper Is. intended to give fuller details of its structure and date.
I

will first describe the temple,


its

locally

known

as AlSu Pgrsvanstha,

and next analyse

elements.

The temple

(see plate) consists of

two

struc-

and the rangamandapa (theatrical hall), the tures, the prassda (temple proper) latter structure being rebuilt. at some later date, either in the fourteenth or as fifteenth in the judged from the nature of its great cencentury possibly tral ceiling: (not illustrated). The hall being unimportant for our study, I shall not enlarge upon its details. The temple is built of crude marble and
faces the east.
"

The
on the

prnsada

is

about

27

ft.

in

basal

width and

its

plan

is

organized

principle of bhadra

(central offset)

made up of subhadra (middle


sections),

proliferation) flanked by upa-bhadra-s (subsidiary

and pratiratha
the

(companion of the bhadra) and karna

(corner or angle) in

proportion

'Sadhafana' class is of the approximately of 4:ljl. Its pi(ha (base), which of the Western Indian vtistutnstm-s, e rests over a Z>fa'#a-plinth. Its moulda decoings in sequence are the jadyakumbha (inverted cyma recta) having at measured interration of (hakarikft-s (cai^a-dormers) evenly distributed the karnaka or the knife-edged arris, and a plain pa^ikn (band). The
vals,

moulded

as well as the

csdibandha (podium) of the wall, particularly its kumbha (pitcher) mouldings, has no figural or other kind of kala'sa
(torus)

for the kapotali (cyma-cornice) which carving excepting the usual (hakart-s The tall recessed jangfa (middle section of the wall) tops over the kala'sa. and its monotony is partly relieved by the presence likewise has no carving have a shallow of a medil gtfsapaftika-band. Each of the three bhadra-s

84

M.

A.

Dhaky
figure

khattaka (niche) harbouring a seated


janghs
case.
is

of Jina Parsvanatha. Above the

the customary bharana (echinus), unfluted though in this particular

(On the bhadra-peuts,

however, the bharana

is

replaced by a pattika
is folio-

bearing a small seated figure of Jina Pgrsva with

attendants. This

wed by a

kapotnli

and

the khuracchadya (ribbed

cyma-awning).
this

The sikhara

(spire) is

composed of thirty-seven andaka-s,

way
20

summed up

Srnga~s (spirelets)

1st

pahkti (row)

= =

Srnga-s
Urah'srnga-s (half leaning spires)

2nd pahkti

4x1=
3x4
Total

4
12
\

Mula'srhga (central or

main

spire)

37

The rathikn-s (framed niches) along the


nude
side.

bhadra-points

figures of

Parsvanatha with
udgama-pttlloient

fly-whisk-bearers flanking
(to

show standing him on either


.

The usual
is

top the niche)


i.e.

is

absent here 7

The

ttkhara
total

beautifully carved with the jala


fairly
its

the

caitya-mesh pattern. The

form of the sikhara seems


is

balanced and the shape of the muladelineated like the profile of


vaslusastra-s,

srhga

particularly

charming,

curvature
in

the lotus-bud, recalling the

famous

junction of the

namely

padmako'sam sam=3likhet

a
.

The hkanasa has been rendered

in receding stages

and

its

profile-ele-

ments show rather simply carved lozenges. The door-frame of the sanctum
is

partly

restored, the

left

side though

seeming older .and

original;
.

it

is

composed of bakulikz-padma, bnhya and patra type of sa/cha-j&mbs The dedication, by association of the images of Jina Parsva in
positions,

significant

undoubtedly must have been

to

Him, as
S.
1

Bhandarkar has also

noticed. There are

two inscriptions, one of

refer to the

ofS. 1391/A, D. 1335, referring to the temple as of Parsvanatha and the

356/A.D. 1 300, and the other renovation of an ulaka (niche) Both


first

(ca. 1000), but the structure as a whole seems at least a quarter of a century later than the latter temples The walls also remind of the Mahavjra at
earlier

the Digambara sect.* But the temple, as judged Its wall treatment recalls of the Sss-bahu

mentions Mulasangha of
style, Is

by

its

surely earlier

dated by

kimudam.
the

the base the

form of

a date sometime

temple Sewadi near Phalana' to after lOOO.io The presence of kanaka in lieu of makes it posterior to the tenth century temples While (ha !cm- S and the Jala over the Jttfow-fecoa would

me

favour
is

in the

second

quarter of

eleventh

Maru-Gurjara, somewhat

century;

the style

local in inflexion

though

it

seems.

At

a later date, possibly in the

fifteenth

a was

century, the 'interior of the

treated as though the temple were

aa Astapada shrine.

Nngada's Ancient Jaina Temple

85
in

The temple, though


almost intact and thus
earlier
is

largely inornate,

is

important
fewer

that

its

sikhara

is

one of the rather

Maru-Gurjara

temples in

examples of relatively Western India which have preserved that

feature. It also demonstrates, to a smaller extent though, the small advances

of the local style

made

after the

Sas-bahu temples.

Notes
1.

Cf.

R. C. Agrawal, "Khajuraho

of

Rajasthana
Paris 1964,
at

The Temple

of

Ambika

at

Jagat",

Arts Asiatiqttes,
2.

Tome X.

Fasicule

1,

See author's article, 'The MahSvira temple

Ahar and Vistm temple, nal of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, Vol.XIV, 1972. No, 1.

Eklingajl,' Jour-

3.

am

discussing the 'Sas-bahu' temples in detail elsewhere.

4.
5.

From

a few caitya-pziipati psalms.

Progress Report of the Archaeological

Survey of India, Western

circle

for the year

1904-05,
6.

p. 62.

Cf. Aparajitapyccha of Dhuvanadeva, G.O.S-

No.

CXV,

ed.

Popatbhai

Amfoashankar

Mankad, Baroda
7. 8.

1950. vss. 21-23.

The

urah'sffiga itself

here seems to be also a functional substitute of the ntlyama,


of Malaya (ca. 1035-1055) ,and the
this

The Samarahganasutradhara of BhBjadcva


the curvature of the sikftara.

Aparc-

jitaprccha (ca, third quarter of the 12th cent.) occasionally use

metaphor apropos

9.

Progress

Report of the Archaeological Survey of

India, Western

Circle for

the

year

190S-06,p. 63.
10.

"Some

Early Jaina temples in

Western India"

Sliri

Mahavir Jaina Vidyala Gulden

Jubilee Volume,

Bombay

1968, p. 340.

BACTERIA, ALGAE AND FUNGI AS FOUND IN THE JAINA LITERATURE


J.

C. Sikdar

Bacteria

Occurrence of Bacteria

The account of
Jaina

the types of

plants-subtile

and

gross as given in the


1

Agamas throws a welcome light upcn the plant kingdom, touching upon the life of both subtile and gross plants, and bacteria living^in plant's
2 They body, as there are not many places in the world devoid of bacteria are also mentioned as individual earth-lives, water-lives, fire-lives and wind.

lives".

These earth

quadrates of the
life
is

Jamas are

called bacteria in

modern

Biology and their

explained in the following

manner

"They have been found


in the top 6

as 16 feet deep in soil, they are

most numerous
are about

inches of

soi! 3

where

it

is

estimated

that there

100,000 per cubic centimeter. They are found in fresh and salt-water, and even in the ice of glacier. They are abundant in air, in liquids, such as, milk,

and

in

and on the bodies of animals and


is

plants both
well

living

and dead."*
as
it

The Jaina view on the earth quadrates


appears from the study of their
life.

supported by Biology

It

is

further stated in the Jaina

Agamas

that earth, roots, bulbs, stems,

branches,

twigs,

barks,

leaves,

flowers, fruits,

and seeds

of

plants

are

"So nunarh mQla mnlajivaphuda,.biyajivaphiicl5,"


"Slue mulae.,..java anamtnjiva vivibasatta,"
"Tiviha

Bliagavati sutra, 7.3.275.

Ibid,, 7.3.276.

rnkkha

paimatta, tarhjalia-sarhkhejjajrviya
e.g.

asarhkhejjajlviya

anamtajlviya',

Ibid. 8,3.324.

'Uttaraiihyayana sTitra 36,96,

aluka, mQlalta, etc. contain bacteria.

Pannavana

su/ra, I. 40. ff.

"Mala

vi

asamkhejjajlviya,.,.puppha anegajiviya 1"

Gommaf-

asara, (jivakaiicla), v. 189, p. 117.


2

Bhagavati

sTitra 33,

1.

S44. Uttaradhyayana 36.68,

the

earth

quadrates

and plant

bacteria are found throughout the world. Biology, p. 132, C. A. Villee.


3

"Pudhavl ya au agani ya vau," Sutrafytanga, Book


sutra, 33.1.

I,

Lecture

7.

I, p,

153. Bhagavati
1.

Uttaradhyayana sutra,

36.70, 8*. 92, 108, 117.

Pannavaya sutra

19.55,

Ekendriyajivapannaviina, pp. 13-27. Gommatasara, (Jivakanda) , v. 89, p. 68. Lokapra~ ka'sa, 4th Sorgo, v. 25, 5tli Sarga v, 1, ff,

Biology

p.

132

Sactreria, Algae and Fungi as Found

in

the Jaina Literature

87

they absorb sap or minerals from the soil by the combined action of the suction force which is connected with transpiration pull and root pressure." Roots, bulbs, barks, tendrils, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, when clean breaking, are host (individual' souled
plants
),

inhabited by bacteria". So

when not

clear breaking

they) are

non-host

individual,'

Cell Structure or Figure and Size of Earth Qaadrates.

The bodily

figures of

the earth

quadrates
(

( i.e.

earth-,
)

water-

fire-,

and air-bacteria), are

respectively speaking

circular

like

'masura' grain

(lentil), (round like) a

needles,

drop a bundle of water; ( cylindrical like ) and oblong like) a flag.s The bodies of plants and mobile bacteria

of

are of various sorts. 9

The

size of the

body of

earth-,

water-,

fire-,

and

air-bacteria is the innumerable

part of a cubic-finger. Therefore, these are not visible as separate entities but in mass 10 only.

The

Jaina views regarding the


less then

figure

and

size

of earth quadrates are


:

supported by modern Biology


very small, from
in
1

in the following

to 10

microns in lengh

manner "Bacteria cells are and from 0.2 to 1 micron


single celled forms, but
size

width,

The majority of

bacterial species exist as


cells.

some occur as filaments of loosely joined

Because of their small

and

Bhagavatj, sutra, 7.3,275. Pannavana sutra 1,40,

4-1.
/

"Kamdassa va

mfllassa va salakhamdhassa vavi bahulatari

Challi sanamtajiya patteyajiya tu tanukadari //"

Gommatasara, Jivakanda
6

v.

189, p. 117.

Bhagavatt sutra, 7.3.275

'MQlam

syat

bhumisambaddham
iti

tatra

kandah samasritah
5.107.

Tatra skandha

mitho bljSntah syuryuta same

'Atah prthvigatara9amaharanti..,,pha]asarrigatam,' 5.108,


Lokapraka'sa, 5.302-33; 5.107-108.
7

"Mole kaihde challipavalasaladalakusumabije I Samabhamge sadi nariita asame sadi homti patteya
Gommatasara, Jivakanda,

II.'

v, 188, p. 117
I

'Masuramvubimdusatkala'badhayasann.iho have deho

pudhavi adi caunham'. Gommatasara (Jivakanda),


9 10
Ibid.,

v.

201

'Tarutasakaya aneyaviha

1'

v.

201, p. 122.

Ibid. (Comin,), P- 122, Take a glass of a fresh water. Every

drop of

it is

a mass

of

water-bodied bacteria
of water
is

which are obviously


possess

invisible to us.

Under a microscope a drop

seen to

many

minute animalculae.

These are not water-bodied

bacteria.

Waterani-

bodied bacteria have water' and that alone as the matter of their bodies. These malculae are two or more sensed beings which live in water,

88

J. C. Sikdar

the classification of bacteria usually depends general similarity of structure, rather than morphologic ones. There on physiological or biochemical characters and spiral form, called cocci, are rodlike forms called bacilli, spherical or as in the bacillus causing rods as occur single bacilli

forms

The

may

anthrax

as long chains of rods joined together.

Diphtheria, typhoid fever,

tuberculosis and
occtiar singly in

leprosy

are all caused

some

of species; in groups
);

agent

causing

gonorrhea

in long

by bacilli. The spherical forms two ( e. g. the gonococcus, the chains spherical bacteria which exist
(
;

or in irregular clumps, resembling in long chains are called streptococci ) in such clumps are called bunches of grapes (spherical bacteria which occur which are are two types of spiral forms; the spirilla, staphylococci). There
less

coiled

and sometimes resemble a

comma

(the

one causing cholera looks

and resemble a and the spirochetes, which are highly coiled 1! latter is the one causing syphilis." corkscrew' The most widely known of the
like this );

Reproduction of Bacteria.
Bacteria-earth
(

quadrates
It is

and bacteria in
in

plants reproduce
that "

asexually

samarcchima"
their

).

stated

the Jaina

Agamas18
twigs,

Some

beings
forth
fruits

are born in trees and grow in trees that are originated by trees, as
roots,

come

bulbs,

stems,

branches,

leaves,

flowers,

and seeds.""
" Some beings are born in earths and grow in earth particles that are
the origin of various things

and come
water,

forth as

Kuhana." 15

" Some beings are born in


the origion of various things

grow

in particles of water that are

and come forth as

panaga

fungus

),

sevala

(algae), etc.""
It

has

already been

pointed out
the roots,

that

numerable,
steins,

innumerable
twigs,

and

infinite bacteria inhabit

bulbs,

branches,

leaves,

11

Biology, p. 132

12 13

Acarnhga

Sutra, 1 1.81, Sutfakftgfiga, 1.7.1.

'Satta riikklmjoniyarukkhasambhava.,.niH!hesu niulattae

kamdattae kharhdattSe
1'

taya-

ttae salattae pavalattae pattattac pupphattae phalattge biyattae viuttamti

Sutrakftauga
14

II. 3.46.

SBE. XLV.
one

II.3.5, p. 320.

soul, j;va,

(jivas),

pervades the whole tree; it is the soul of the tree, however, reside in the roots, etc. as bacteria.
etc.'
1

separate

souls

15
16

'Satta

pudhavijomya..kuhanattae

Sstrakrtafiga, H.3.54.
1,

'SattS iidagajoniya panagattae sevalattae, etc.'

Ibid.

Bacteria, Algae

and Fungi
of

as

Found

in

the Jaina Literature

89

flowers, fruits

and

seeds

some ssdharanaiarira vanaspatis


stated

including

kuhana, sevsla, etc. It is not clearly of the plant bacteria takes place.

how

the

asexual reproduction

"

Futher,

some

beings

are born
is is
It

in water,

grow

in water

and come
it

forth as

water-body,

which

produced hy wind,
an upward wind,

condensed by wind

goes upwards, when there there is a downward wind,


a horizontal wind;
its

it goes downwards, when goes in a horizontal direction, when there is

varieties are

hoar-frost,

snow,

mist,

hail-stones,

dew and

rain.'' 17

" Some

beings,

born tn water, come


1

forth

in

water bodies,

in the

water produced by other water bodies.

'1

" Some beings born

in

water come forth as movable creatures." 19


as fire-bodies in the manifold animate or

" Some beings come

forth

inanimate bodies of, movable or immovable creatures.""

" Some being are born as wind bodies, grow Sn wind bodies and come
21 forth in wind-bodies."

'

Some

beings are earth, grave), sand,

stones, rocks,

rock

salt, iron,

copper,
sasaka,

tin, lead, silver, gold,

antimony,

coral,

abhrapatala

and diamond, orpiment, vermilion, realgar, mica ), abhravaluka, hyacinth, (

natron,

bhujamokaka anka, crystal, lohitaksa, emaiald, masaragalla, and sulphur, candrasapphire, candana, red chalk, hamsagarbha, pulaka, add suryaksnta."22 ( a kind of gem ), prabha, lapis, lazuli, jalakanta
It is

duction
suggestive

not clearly explained by the. Jainacsryas how does the reproof bacteria-earth quadrates and plant bacteria take place. But it is from the reference to their birth and death with remarkable speed

at the rate

of

innumerable one-sensed

bacteria per instant

(or

moment)

(Samayaj, of
17
'

infinite bacteria in

common

plant body, e.g. those of sluka (white

'Satta nanavihajoniya...vayasaii>siddham...vayapanggahiyaih
bhavati", ahevaesu' ahebhagi bhavati, tiriyavSesu himae....suddhodae.' Sutrakft aiiga 11.3.59.

tiriyabhSgl

bhavati,

tamjahS

osi

18 19

'Satta udagajoniyanam.,.,.udagajpniesu udagattae viuftathti

1',

Ibid., 11,3.59.

Saita udgajopiyfinam....tasapfLmittae yiuj^mti',


'ThegatiyS salts,
.

Ibid,

20
21

aptanikayattae yiuttamti

1'
1'

Ibid IL3.60.
Ibid.

'Ihegativa salts
'Ihegatiya satta.
{bid., 11.3.61

vayukkSyattSe viuttamti.
puijhavittae sakka.rattae,

22

..

.jSva sqrakariitattSe viujfamti

QQ
etc.2 potato), surana,
3

J. C. Sikdar

and of

nigodas

(micro

organisms

viruses)2*

that

bacteria reproduce

asexually by simple fission

the cell simply divides into

two

cells, etc.

The Jaina view on

the reproduction of bacteria is supported by

modern

: "Bacteria generally reproduce asexually biology in the following manner in bacteria with remarkable speed, by simple fission, the cell division occurs

some

bacteria dividing once every twenty minutes. At this rate, if there were plenty of food and nothing to interfere, one bacteria could give bacteria within six hours. This explains why the rise to about 2,50,000 few pathegenic bacteria in a human being can quickly entrance of
relatively

resuit in disease

symptoms. Fortunately for


this rate for

all

other forms of

life,

bacteria

cannot reproduce at

a very long time, for they soon are che"2 &

cked by a lack of food, or by the accumulation of waste products.

BACTERIAL METABOLISM
Like other organisms bacteria have a host of enzymes that mediate and autotrophic 26 -they regulate their metabolic processes. A few bacteria are

can

synthesize their needed organic

compounds from simple inorganic

sub-

27 Most bacteria are either stances, present environment, through their pores, saprophytes*, getting their food from the dead bodies of plants or animals

or from organic substances


in or (aniisHya) living

produced by plants or animals or parasites on the living body of a dlant or animal 29


.

23

> 'Anusamayam-asaihkhijja, egirhdiya huihti ya cavamti CandrcuuH, Srhatsathgrahani, 1st edition. V. S. 1993, 274, p. 28.
|

'Vanakaio anaihta, ikkikkSo bijaih nigoyao,

Niccni masamkho bhago,


24
Ibid., v. 275, p. 28.

armriita jivo cayai, etc.

5 .

Ibid., v, 275, p. 28,

See also other editions of

Srfiatsangrahayi by Umedcand Raycand for Anusamayamasamkhijja egimdiya humti ya cavarhti' v. 436 p. 243, Vanakaio anariita, ikkikkSo-vijarh nigoyao /
ei //' Ibid., v.

this reference.

NiccSnimasariikho bhago anamta-jjvo cayai

436.

25 26

Biology, p. 135.

Autotrophs are self-nourishing, e. g. photosynthetic green plants and cheraosynthetic iron bacteria which oxidize ferrous to ferric iron.
'Lomshiira egirhdiya,' Brltatsamgrahani,
v. 200, p, 81.

27

Sanrenoyaharo, lays ya phase ya lomahara. Ibid.,


28
29

117, p. 124.

They absorb

their required organic

nutrients

directly

through the

cell

membrane-

'Ihegatiya sattS

rtanavihanarh tasathavaranath poggalanarh sariresu va, sacittea u v5

aiiusnyatSe viuftamti.'

'tejivS tesirh nan5vihariarh....p5n5nam sinehamaharetnti

|'

etc.

Sutrakftahga

II, 3-58,

Bacteria, Algae and Fungi as Found

in the

Jaina Literature

91

Other micro-organisms (Nigodas)

Much

smaller than bacteria (tarth quadrates

and plant

bacteria) are

30 other forms called Nigodas

(micro-organisms

or viruses). There ate two


Itara

kinds of Nigodas,

viz.

31 Nigodaks and Nigodjiva (Nitya Nigodas and

Nigodas)
rikettsias.

fine and gross. 32

They may be

identified with bacteriophages

and

With the

exception of the

last,

these are too

small to be seen

38 These Nigodas with ordinary microscopes and can be photographed only. can be classified as plant; their status in the world of living thing is clear.

But these
are born

forms

exhibit some,

but not

all

of the usual characteristics 3 * of


attain

living things, as

some Nigodas who do


and

not

change,

55

while

some 36

and die

87 again, return to the original state.

Types of Nigodas

There are stated to be two kinds of Nigodas from the point of their 38 Suksma Nigodas are of fine and gross (saksma and badara). size, viz,
two' kinds,
viz.

paryaptaka
also

(developed)

and

aparyaptaka

(undeveloped).

Badara

Nigodas

are of two kinds, viz. paryaptaka (developed)

and

aparyaptaka (undeveloped).
Nigodajivas are of two kinds,
viz,

and Badara Nigodajivas (Gross

Nigodajivas).

Suksma Nigodjivas (fine Nigodjivas) Suksma Nigodjivas are of two

and aparyaptakas (undeveloped). Badara types, viz, par>aptakas (developed) and aparyapNigodajivas also are of two types, viz, paryaptaka (developed)
taka (undeveloped).
88

30

Bhagavats

Sutra, 25, 5. 749.

Pan^avana

sutra, 1-55. 102


v.

Lokapraka'sa 14.

32

ff.

Ntgoda
31

Sattrim'stka

Gommafasara.

(Jtvakantfa 73.)

ya/ 'Duviha niuda pannattS, tamjahs-niuyaga ya muyajiva


Bhagavati sutra, 25.5.749.

32 33

'SuhamaniudS

ya.'

iMd.

Biology, p. 138.
Size, shape, metabolism,

34
35
;

movement,

irritability,

growth, reproduction,

etc.

Brfiatsafngrahani,

v.

277,
cayarhti puno
vi tnttheva

36

uppajjarhti, -Atthi anarhtajxva, jehte na patto tasaiparinamo,

tatheva

1,

Brfiatsamgratiani

v. 277.

37
38

Ibid.

JivabMgama Bhagavati sutra, 12.2.443.


Ibid.

sutra, p. 997.

39

j. C. Siicdar
the substantial point of view, and thus Nigodas are innumerable from Suksma Nigodas are innumeraalso paryiptaka and aparyaptaka nigodas thus Suksma paryaptaka and aparyaof view, ble from the substantial point
.

Badara Nigodas, Badara-paryaptakas-and Badara-aparysptakas also and be known. ptaka also" should
Nigodajivas
Sn number from the Nigodajivas are infinite
thus
substantial

point of view,
also,

paryaptakas
also,

and

aparysptakas

also,

thus

Suksmanigodajivas
also,

paryaptakas
also,

aparysptakas

aparyaptakas also, badaranigodajivas also* 3 should be regarded.


in miirber
also,

paryaptakas

Nigodas are paryaptakas and


aparyaptakas
bsdaranigodas

infinite

from

the

modal

point of view, thus

aparylptakas

thus saksmanigoda

paryaptakas and

also, thus also,

and aparyaptakas thus nigodaparysptakas should be known. paryaptakas and aparyaptakas also",
sukjma
all

are thus of seven classes and Nigodajivas also

are infinite in

number

from the model point of view."


discusses the comparative numbers (a'lpa'tvaNext the Jivabhigama sutta and Nigodajivas from the substantial and all types of Nigodas

bahutva) of

modal points of view,"


These ultramicroscopic
their

forms

of living

beings

(nigodas),
exists

which take
in infinite

name from
in

the very fact

that they

are tiny

enough

other living cells, present in

do not really reproduce themnigodsaraa." Nigodas number the enzymic machinery are reproduced in infinite number by selves, but they as it is suggested by the statement that in the

common

common body where one


40
'NiuditaatfiT!

soul dies there takes

place the

death of infinite

,.davvahayae

no samkhejja asamkhejja no anamta evam pajjattaggvi


_

998. appajjattagSvi/ Jivabhigama,. p.

41

'Suhttmaniudanam....davvdtiiayae...,.'no sawkhejjS appajjattagavL no sarhkhejja apajjattagSvi evam bayarSvi pajjattagSvi

no

anamta, evam pajjattagSvi asamkhejja no

anamta
42

|',

Ibid., p. 998,
. .

'Niuyajivanam davvatthavSe.

.anamtS evam pajjattagSvi appajjattagavi, ^vam-suba-

pajjattagavi appajjattagSvi', nianiuyajlv'avi pajjattagavi appajjattagavi badaraniuyajivavi


Ibid'., p.

999

..

43

'NiudS

naA

bhainte

'appajjattaBavi'paesatthayae

padesatjhayfie....aatfata savve anamta evam,

evam SutamanitiySvi
bayaraniuyavi

pajjattagavi

pajjattagavi

appaj-

jattagavi paesatthaySe savve

anamta

J',

Ibid.

44
45

'Evam

savve niudajivavi sattaviha paesatthayae

anamta

\'

Ibid,, p.

1000.

Ibid., pp. 1000-1007.

46

Ni=Niyatam, gam=bhatnim, kjetram, mvasamanantaaantajivanarfi Gommatatara (Jivakattfa), v, 191, (comm.), p. 118,

dadatiti nigodaml

Bacteria, Aigae and Fungi as Found


soiils

in thz

Jaina Literature

93

with

it,

when one

soul

is

born, there takes place the birth of infinite

souls

there. 47

Estimates

of the size of Nigodas have been made

in

several different

ways

The

size

of the body

of a fine bodied and


it

organism is an innumerable part of one


(bodily size).

in the third instant after

has

non-developable nigodataken birth in its nucleus (yoni)

The maximum

(cubic) finger (anguli). This is the minimum size is found in the fish born in the last and

the biggest ocean called Svayambharamana of the world. 18

The body of
oblong in the
in

fine bodied

non-developable Nigoda
its

in

plant body
instant

is

first instant
it

of

birth,

square in the second

and
In

the third instant

contracts

and
its

become

circular
at

(or spherical).

the circular state the dimensions of


third instant
it

body are
it

the

minimum,

after the

40 begins to grow,

i.

e,

varies widely in size.

logy to

The Jaina view about the size of Nigoda some extent in the following manner one of the largest The psittacosis virus, the

finds support in
:

modern Bio-

'Viruses vary widely in size; cause of a disease transmitted

by parrots and other birds is about 275 millimicrons in diameter, and one of the smallest, the one causing foot and mouth disease of cattle is 10 mlli-

microns

in diameter.

The

electron microscope reveals

that

some

viruses are

5" spherical and others are rod-shaped.

By the operation of the common (Sadharana) body making karma the are gross and fine. s! That is body of Nigod as become group-souled. They like huge colonies of viruses of to say, their bodies become group-souled
modern Biology, 02 Although
individual virus particles cannot be seen, virus
"infected cells frequently contain, "inclusion bodies"
(i.e. group-souled bodies These are believed of Nigodas), which are visible with ordinary microscope. 63 to be huge colonies of viruses.

47

'Jatlhekka

marai jivo tattha du maranam have anariitanarii


Gs.,
vi.,

ValAamai jattha ekko vakkamanam tattha anamtananY, 48 "Suhamanigoda apajjayassa jadassa tadiyasamayamhi
49
50
51

93.

macche" Gommatasara, angula asaiiikhagaih ahannamukkassayaih


Ibid.

v. 9t.

(Comm.),
p. 139.

p. 70

Biology

'Saharanodayena nigodasarira-havamti Te puna duviha jiva badarasuhumStti vinneya

samanna

II',

Gommatasara Jivakan$a,
52
Biology, P- 139.

v, 191, p.

118.

That which is the abode of infinite niva-samanantanantajlvanam dadatlti nigodarh, GS,. p. 118 is called nigoda in Jaiaa Biology, souls (viruses) in huge colonies
53 Biology, p. 139

ksetram' Ni=Niyataih, g5m=bhQraim,

94
It

J. C,

Sikdar

appears from the study of Jaina

viruses parasitize bacteria (earth quadrates

Biology that some Nigodas and becteria in plant): they

like
are

filtrable and will grow only in the presence of living cells in cultures of bacteria, which they cause to swell and dissolve. These Nigodas are found

in

nature wherever, bacteria

occur -"and

especially

abundant in

the inste-

stine of

man and

other animals' 5

(Kukikrmi).

They

may

be

compared

with Bacteriophages of modern Biology 54 . "Electron micrographs show that some are about 5 millimicrons in diameter (they vary considerably in size,)

and

that they

may

be

spherical,

comma-shaped, or
55 ".

they

may have a

tail

and resemble a ping pong modern Biology (resembling


Their cellular
structure
is

paddle
viruses)

Some Nigodas

like

Rickettsias of
cells.

will

multiply only within living


respects of that of

similar in

most

bacteria

as

already defined.

Some

are spherical, others


is

in length. This Jaina view


ttsias

are rod-shaped, and they vary supported by Biology in this way that Ricke-

resemble viruses in that with a single

exception

(a

non

pathogenic

parasite of the sheep tick], they will multiply only within living cells. Their cellular structure is similar in most respects to that of bacteria. Some are
spherical,

others

millimicrons.

They

rod-shaped, and they vary in length from 300 to 2000 are larger than viruses and hence are nonfiltrable and

just barely visible

under the microscope" 80 .

ALGAE (SEVALA)
According to the Jaina Agamas, the more primitive plants, which neither form embryos during development nor have vascular tissues, e.g.
sevala" (algae) and panaga^ (fungus) may be identical with Thallophytes of modern Biology *. The Thallophytes are classified into two kinds, viz. algae (sevala), 'those that have chlorophyll and can live independently' and fungi (panaga) (those that lack chlorophyll and must live as
1

sap.

rophytes or parasites) (anusuyattae).

54
55

Ibid.,

pp. 140-141,

Ibid., p. 141.

56
57

Ibid., p.

142.
I

'panagattfie sevalattae, elc.'

Sutrakftaaga

II. 3.55

Pati$avan3,

I.

51, p. 21.

PanagS

sevalabhOmi-phoda ya
58

I',

Jivavicarn 8,
1.51.,

tntaradhyayana sutra, 36, 103-104. 'Pannavana

p. 21, 'panagS sevala-bhamiphoda

ya
59 60

I'

Jjvavicara, v. 8.

Biology, p. 145.
Ibid, Sutrakftanga, 11.3.55.

Bacteria, Algae and Fungi as Found

in

the

Jaina Literature

95
or salt

Algae are

primarily

inhabitants of
few

water

water, but according to Biology, on the bark of tree. The ones

(Jalaruha)
live

r fresh

of them
in

on rock surfaces and

living
is

such

usually remain

dormant when water

comparatively dry places

absent""

Algae are important food producers by


bers, as all

virtue of their tremendous numof the photosynthesis in fresh water or in the sea !s carried on

Biology, there are many kinds of algae, such as, blue-green algae, green algae, brown algae, red algae, etc.

by algae.

According to

Fungi (panaga)

simple plants that lack chlorophyll are called fungi (panaga). The true fungi include rust, smuts, mushrooms, toad-stood, etc. They are of
five

The

colours-red, yellow, grey (or cloudy), blask and whites*.

as, the mushroom (kuhana), the mycelium is below ground; the mushroom cap that is eaten Is a fruiting body that grows out from the mycelium. According to modern Biology "Fungi are either saprophytic or parasitic and are found universally wherever organic material is

In a fungus, such

available; they

grow

best in dark, moist habitats 65 .

61

62
63

Pannavana, 1.51; Panaga also Biology p. 145


Ibid., pp. 147-152

is

jalaruha

64
65

Jivavteara. p. 133,

Biology, p. 155

THE PARAMARA EMPEROR BHOJA THE GREAT AND KAVI DHANAPALA A STUDY IN THEIR MUTUAL
:

RELATIONSHIP*
N. M. Kansara.
The Jaina
historical tradition

preserved in with the

the

chronicles

composed

by Prabbscandra and Merutunga

tallies

internal

evidence of the

TilakamaRajan in

testifying to the fact that the


title

Paramgra King Vakpatirgja


1

Munja

conferred the

"SarasWi" on Kavi Dbanapala.

But

it is

enjoyed the same favour from Muflja's successor Sindhurgja, who, as has been described by Padniagupta alias Parimala, ruled from Ujjayini, though Dbara also might have been continued as one
not certain whether he of the seats
of the
sovereign.

Otherwise,
to

why

should

Sindhmaja

ask

Parimal,

instead of

Dhanapgla,

compose an

epic on his history ? Or

been adjudged as sufficiently mature perhaps Dhanapala might But poetically, as compared to Parimala, to execute the task satisfactorily. Dhanapsla could not have been converted to Jainism by that time. It was
not have
after at least twelve years of

Bhoja's

rule

that

Dhanapala was won over

2 This might have been after llll A D. Before that, he was by Jainism. a staunch Brahmin well-versed in the Veda,. Smrfi, Stoma and sacrificial

ritual.

By

this

time Dhanapala must have been

at least

fifty-seven years

of age. 4 Till then his relations and he was considered as one

with Bhoja
of
the

must

indispensable

have been very cordial scholars of Bhoja's

famous assembly of
But,

five

hundred pundits.
Jaina
tradition
as

according to the

preserved in the Prabhnvathis

kacarita

(PRC)

and

Prabandhadnmmani
of
faith

(PC)

relation

steadily

deteriorated alter the change

by

the

well-versed staunch Brahmin

pundit like Dhanapala whom the Jainas seem to have considered a prize catch and a valuable asset, since he is said to have turned out to be a worthy defender of their faith rather worthferin that he was a
recognized superior to all other pundits of Bhoja's product of the Brahmanical faith in which they
inroads.

royally

court and

prized

were

trying to

make
The
to

This must have put Bhoja

himself on

the defensive in

favour of

the Brahmanaical religion, a staunch votary of which he himself was. anecdota about the dialogues between and

Bhoja

Dbanapala

seem

convincing power of Dhanapala who is ever shown to have defended Jainism and deprecated Brahmanical Hinduism. The dialogues generally concern such aspects pf the Brghmartical faith as the status of Siva as a Yogi par excellence
inspjte

emphasize

the

elocutionary

skill

and

superior

pf his having married with Parvati, the violence

involved in the

sacrificial

The Paramara Emperor


ritual, the

.Bhoja and

DhanapWa

Mutual Relationship

97

cow-worship, the practice of hunting, the ceremony Mata/cSia with sacred fibre-garland (pavitrsropana), the
Jaina faith

of investing

superiority of the

and of

its

founder Tirthankaras

to the

Brahmanical gods s and,

above

all this,

the bold outspokenness and


faith.

loyalty of

Dhanapala in favour

of his newly acquired Jaina

The following
ness in his faith.s

incidents

have

been

preserved

by

the

popular Jaina

tradition as a proof of his

having gradually

acquired considerable stanch-

Dhanapala accompanied Bhoja to the Mah'ak'ala temple (1) (probably at Ujjayinj), the poet would not come in front of the idol of When the latter asked Siva even though he was called thrice by the king.
the reason,

Once when

Dhanapala

replied that as the god


it.

was

in

company of
visit

his wife

he

felt

it

improper
as

to witness

Of course he
i.

used to

the temple

before he acquired the "true faith",

e.

Jainism, but that was because he


further

was

then

ignorant as

a child. 7

He

added

that

it

was

the

ancient sensuous people like the king who had, on the strength of their started such an absurd worship of male and famale organs,* regal power,

The

king,

however,

thought

that

the

poet

was

rather
it
!

joking, though,

according to Bhoja, the

joke had

grain of

truth in

This seems to

have occured very shortly after Dhanapala's conversion evident from the question of the king, who was clearly

to

Jainism as

is

surprised, as to
for

to the same MahzMa why the poet had been paying homage 9 Moreover, the poet also seems to be a time till that day.

so long

sufficiently

advanced in age
such equal terms.

at least

fifty-seven

to be able to talk with the

king on

have been in cotinuation of the above (2) The next incident might asked the poet why one when they came out of the temple. The king The though poetically, brought out the bluntly, poet Bhrngiriti looked lean.
at the incoherent conduct of his mental confusion on the part of Bhmgititi to remain unclad, why keep a bow ? If he lord Siva, viz.. if he intended the ashes ? Well, if he wanted to apply have a why bow, wanted to keep have anything to do with a woman ? And if

the ashes to

his body, why the sense in having the the company of a woman, what was worn by anxiety as to the real with Cupid ? Poor Bhmgi was, thus, enmity This incident has been noticed, but with scanty intentions of his master!

he wanted

background, by Merutunga.'
(3)

The

tunga in his

in the PRC, but preserved by Meruthird incident, not found seems to have followed in sequence to the above one.

PC,

Once

the courtiers of

Bhoja

reported

to

Dhanapala in Jina-worship. At and ordered him to pay homage

that the king

him about the concentration of gave him basket of flowers


the city.

to all the deities in

Dhanapalu

98

ff.

M. Kansara

did go round, but he worshipped only at the Jaina temples and returned. who had pursued him, reported the matter to the king who, later The
spy,

on enquired of the poet how he worshipped the deities. The poet replied that only where he had a scope, and added that he had no scope before Vi$nu due to the invariable presence of his bride, nor behe worshipped there
fore

Rudra due

to his

being perpetually embraced by his


ever

wife,

nor before

Brahnm due

to his

being

engrossed

in

meditation

that

one could
to

disturb only at

the risk of incurring a curse, nor

before Vinnyaka due

the necessity of avoiding a touch at the dish full of sweet-balls,

nor before

Candikn due to the fear of Mahisasura running towards him out of the pain consequent to an onslought of her trident and spear, nor before Hanumgn

who had no
eyes
poet, then

due to the fear of getting a slap as he is short-tempered. Moreover how can one offer a garland to one who had no head nor a head-dress, to one or how can one dance to one who had no sing forehead;
nor ears;

how can one

salute

to

one who had

no

feet

?"

The

added that he had a scope for worshipping only at the Jaina temples where the eyes of the deity were beautifully liquid like the nector the face was always smiling and cheerful, and the demeanour was ever
peaceful.
(4)

12

Another incident

is

connected with the investiture ceremony

pav i.

traropatia)

of Mahnkala (probably at UjjaySnj), when the king remarked about the lack of an investiture ceremony on the part of the Jaina deities who must, therefore, be without the sacred thread (a-pavitn), and hence impure. by oblique implication. Dhanapsla retorted that it was only the impure (a-pavitraka) ones who need a purifier (pavitmka); since the Jaina Tirthahkaras were ever pure, they did not stand in need of any purifier
like a thread."
(5)

The next one

also

is

connected with the above incident, as

it

seems

to have occured at

the

porch of the Mahgkala


a clap in

temple

where

pointed out to

the poet a sculpture

and asked the


the

reason
his

why

the king the Love-

sharply intelligent reply saying that Siva, though well as an ideal of abstinence, has been even now clasping to his body his beloved out of the fear of separation. And poor public believe that he has conquered the lust. It is for this reason that the Love-god is amused and enjoys a joke with his beloved

god The

depicted therein

was giving

palm of

beloved

Rati

poet gave

known

(6)

Another incident,
in no

omitted by Prabhscandra but

tufiga,

concerns the

cow-worship against

cow

is

way

superior to

to be worshipped inspite of the absence of any special quality in her, why should . buffalo be not e r utunga has connected worshipped ?u this dialogue with the occasion of a donation of cows to
;

noticed by Meruwhich Dhanapala remarks that a any other comparable animal. And Jf she Js

Dhanapgla

The Parmrtara Emperor Bhoja and Dhanapsla


(7)

Mutual Relationship
the

99

BrshmanJco-puranlc beliefs about the cow-worship, the tree-worship, the sacrificial killing of a goat for attainig to heaven, the Sraddha ceremony, the untrustworthlaess
of the gods, the belief in sacrificial oblations 16 fire, and the authority of the Sruti.
(8)

The next one

criticizes in

one

full

sweep

reaching

the

gods through

Another Incident censures

the violence at the sacrificial ritual.

The

poet believed that the poor grass-eating animals deserved to be pitied rather than killed. Further he remarked caustically that if it be argued that the sacarificed animal attains to heaven, why do the sacrificer not offer
their parents in

the

sacrificial

fire

and

pack

them

off

securely to the

heaven. 1
(9)

The next

incident has

its

roots in the caustic remarks against hun-

ting.

Bhoja seems
But

to have been enraged to the extent of thinking to get


as

him

secretly

murdered so

not to be liable to public censure and consequent

defamation. 17

the poet

was
to

accidently saved by his poetically skillful

answer to the king's question as

why

the old

woman,

passing

on

the road,

was shaking
(1.

her head.
the

The poet
famous

said that she was wondering whether he

e.,

Bhoja) was

Indra, the

Moon

or

Mandl, Muran, Cupid, Kubera, ^idyzdhara, Brahma; but at last she came to realise that he was
all

but king Bhoja himself, superior to


(10)

of
to

them

18

Another incident

is

intended

emphasize the

truthful prophetic

to authority of the Jaina Tirthaiikaras in general, according

Meruturiga,"

20 and of Dhanapala in particular, according to Prabhacandra. The poet was asked as to by which door the king would go out of the temple, which was safely secured In a sealed the answer wrote Dhanapala

the poet pointed out to the answer being envelope, Merutuuga holds that contained in the work entitled 'Arhac-cudamanF. According to Prabhacandra, it! the king then got a bole bored into the roof and went out through the underground passage Merutunga, however makes the king get out through

dug

the envelope was in the middle of the temple hall." Next morning answer which tallied with what he had done. opened and the king read the form of intelligence, in the man's eye Prabhacandra's version praises a wise

and hence trustworthiness,, while that of Meiutunga eulogizes the truthfulness,


83 of the Jaina works.

and next incident testifies to almost superhuman prophetic (11) The traveller from Setubandha arrived at the poetic genius of Dhanapala. of inscriptions! poetry and reported court of Bhoja with a few fragments uader the waters of the about the inscription on the temple submerged a resin dye of it which contained a had brought ocean The traveller

them and asserted that verses. Dhanapala completed couple of incomplete ones on the temple with the readings of the original it must needs tally

100

N. M. Kansara
their

walls." Merutunga adds that while the other courtpoets tried


unsuccessfully
at

hands
in.

completing the

verses,

Dhanapala

could

do

it

moment, 25
(12) Another one dwells upon Dhaaapala's typically Jainistic attitude public works of munificence, such as, building tanks and etc. Once the

to

king asked

him how

much

merit was earned by constructing huge tanks.

The poet unexpectedly


bility

of equally

huge

replied in a satirical tone pointing out to the possidemrit due to the death of the acquatic cretures in

the event of the tank getting dried up due to the lack of sufficient rains. 28
(13)

The next

incident seems to have occured at a very

advanced age

in the

life

of Dhanapala,

Malwa. When

voluntary exile from the king asked him about the condition of his long uninha.
called
his

who was

back from

bited house, the poet brought out, in a paronomasiaic

though

pathetically

poetic reply, the similarity between his

own

delapidated dusty

seivantless

house and the king's


vants and elephants. 27
(14)
ries

palace with

the golden utensils, highly

adorned

ser-

one incident the attitude of his contemporatowards Dhanapala, who once eulogized Bhoja in a verse which metapreserves in

The PC

phorically depicted the celestial Ganges as being but a

chalk-mark put by
28

Brahmn

as he started counting the best of

human

kings.

When

the

other

court-poets ridiculed his

metaphor

as unrealistic

paid them back in their own coin by citing the Rsntnyana and the Mahnbhnrata, adding
blindly praised those popular works. 29
It

and farfetched, Dhanapala similar unrealistic instances from


that

those

very court-poets

should be

noted

that

there

is

not the

slightest

indication of the
latter's

strained

relations

between

Bhoja

and

Dhanapala

in the

prose

romance, the Tilakamanjan <TM), the eulogistic tenor in verses of which does not warrant the above religious
^

introductory rivalry between a

the

staunch Saivite and an equally staunch Jaina,


the contents of the

TM
his

The introductory verses


that

and
his

definitely

indicate

Dhanapala composed

conversion to Jainism, which fact afforded ample scope for expression of such a relationship. But the poet might have thought it quite out of place-especially in view of his deep regard for the paternal patronage by Mufija and long-standing personal - to friendship with

prose-romance

after

Bhoja

give vent to his personal opinion

on such an occasion
i.

like the

commencement of
it
is

auspicious
properly,

his

life's

labour of love,

e.

the

the popular tradition


to

TM. More

and the Jaina one

in particuler

which would
details.

thankboth Prabhacandra and Merutunga for affording such a peep into the oblivions of the past. In view of the facts that some of the points of
ful to

have an interest enough If one would take them

preserve such minute,

at their

though minor, face value, one would have to be

The Paramnra Emperor Bhoja and Dhanapala


the

Mutual Relationship
in the

101

recounted above, have also been roade the target of their satirical salvoes by veteran Jaina authors like Haribhadrasuri ia his Dhuitakkhnna (i. e. Dhurmkhyzna), by Amitagati in his Dharmapanksa, and by Somadeva in his Tasastilaka-campu, one has to believe that at leastPrabhacandra, though not Merutunga, cannot possibly be charged with having fabricated the incidents with the sole intention of using Dhanapala and his prestige in favour of the propagation of the Jaina faith. In his thesis on Dr.

Brahmajico-Puranic

faith,

criticized

by Dhanapala

incidents

Magha

Manmohanlai

Sharma has up-held


the

the

reliability

Prabandhas. 3o

of some of the basic data supplied by

Historical data reveals that Bhoja was a impirial monarch whose writ the whole of North India, and who was an unrivalled men of letters in his days. Naturally he must have been very proud, almost to the extent of being jealous or impatient, of his Saivite

ran over almost

patron of

faith; of his power, patronage and unsurpassable scholarship of his assembly. Prabhacandra has noticed a few instances of Bhoja's anxiety to guard the honour of his assembly of scholars, even at the cost of the life of the

adversary. Thus

he almost decided to murder Dhanapala digs at the weak points of certain Hindu religious beliefs 3* he him. is said to have staked one lac coins for each enraged Again, of the five hundred scholars of his assembly to meet the challenge of Vad^ vetala Santisuri, who is said to have returned alive on the strength
it

is

said

that

whose

caustic

of Dhanapala's precautionary measures. 32 similar, (hough more serious incident has been recorded by Prabhacandra with reference to Suracarya
a Jaina

monk, who,

due to his haughty scholarship, severely

criticised the

introductory verse of Bhoja's Sarasvatl-kantfiabhamna, a work on Sanskrit Grammar, and obliquely abused the king to have committed a great poetic

crime

in

composing a
It

of one's nephew. 33

verse suggestive of conjugal relations with the wife was, again, due to Dhanapala's active assistance that

Suracarya could be safely smuggled out of the strong police ring clamped around the Jaina monastery and transported beyond the pale of Mslava
territory.

84 In his

ambitious zeal to
is

reconcile

all

the

systems of Indian

philosophy, Bhoja

recorded to have had

recource to dictatorial method

when he rounded up

various scholars of different faiths and confined them


only if they arrive at a
did

in a dungeon from which they were to be set free unanimous decision! 85 And the desired unanimity

come
!
!

off,

not with
the
credit

regard to the systems


for setting the

but about

how

to

save one's

life

And

king on the

right track by convincing

him of the impossi-

crude method is said to have bility of such a unanimity and abondoningthe gone to the above-mentioned Suracarya, If we take these traditional anecdotes at their face value, we have no ground to disbelieve the incident which how at the conclusion of the public recital of the Tilakamahjan-

narrates

102

JV.

M.

Kansara

the poet to introduce five kathn by the poet in the court, Bhoja asked of over and above refusing to vital changes in the story, and when the poet,

comply, denouned
literature, the

the

king for

trespassing

into

the

forbidden

field

of

into the fire of enraged royal patron threw the manuscript 3 him as a heater in the winter season. " Dr. D. C. the oven placed before the story of Bhoja Ganmily says that we have no evidence to corroborate 37 But the TM. we do have of having burnt the original first manuscript some lurking evidence in a couple of missing links'^ in the story of the

TM

which would

support the

Jaina

tradition that the original

work was

about twelve

thousand syllables

but that (gramthas) in extent,


(gramthas) in extent,

the portion

of about three
tunately not

thousand

syllables

which was unforsaid

read

out by the

poet to his young-aged daughter of extraor30 not be restored.

dinariy sharp

memory, could
ol

The poet, however,


It

is

to have harmonized the oldest

the missing

links

somehow.

is

also significant that


i.

Ms.

the work was written in

the V. Satn. 1130,

e.

about

nowhere ia Malwa. And there is nothing at Jesalniere and the imperial nature of the royal patin view of impossible in the incident mutual and their the rivalry in scholarship as well as in their ron uf poet
1073 A. D.,
religious beliefs

Another point worth noting


Sanskrit literature
the
is

a unique

one

in the

whole history of the

the composition of the.Sanskrit

prose-romance named

SriigSramanjar'i-kalhs (SMK) by Bhoja. It was composed most probably after the composition of the by Dhanapala, who composed his prose-

TM

romance probably after Bhoja composed the CampH-fflmtiyaqa. The SMK was composed probaly because Dhacapala refused to fall in line with the wish of Bhoja to have his name installed as the hero of theTM, in the same manner
as

Bana

obliged his patron,

definitely

a far greater scholar

King Harsa, compared to whom Bhoja was and a partron of the scholars. The apolo-

getic tone of
his

Bhoja
city

in the

beginning of the

SMK

with regard to describing

own

capital

Dhars and

resorting to

the device

of putting

the

description about
fountain-doll
is

his

own

self as the hero of the story in the


140

mouth of a

very remarkable.
this

And

Bhoja,

had

to indulge in

direct

literary action to get

unobliged by Dhanapala, himself immortalized


espections from the fore-

in view of the

imperial

patron's then justifiable

when there was such a glorious prececan easily gauge the degree of impatience on the part of Bhoja whose hopes were lost at the refusal by Dhanapala in the matter. It might also have been that none of the other court-poets possessed the quality and the talent requisite for composing such an inimihis court-poets, especially

most of

dent formed by

Bana, one

table
fair

work with Bhoja himself as the hero, a work which would


Bana's
Harsacaritam.
it

stand

comparision with

manship as revealed

in the

TM,

On the evidence of the workwould seem that Dhanapala was the only

The Paramvra Emperor Bhoja


poet Jn Bhoja's

arcl

Dhcvaftla

Mutval Belatitmhip

103

assembly

and tough commission.

availability poet Bhoja seems to h&Ve been constrained to compose a work which might <erve as an illustration of different types of love as (rz&a)

the brunt of such a responsible In the absence of the of this

who could bear

the Erotic

his

comply with Bhoja's request to put his name in the place of Meghavahana and that of Dhsra in that of Ayodhyg. This might also have nipped in the bud even a lurking hope of Bhoja about the now-converted Jaina poet ever composing another work, of the Akhynyika type, to commemmorate him. The difference of their
mutually hostile religious faiths seem to have
dgeably wide for the
in

cipal

most Favourite sentiment. And, possibly, cause behind Dhanapsla's refusal to

(j

R?3m)

was

this

might have been'the prin-

constituted a gulf too unbriimperial order made to the poet, who was a senior age and scholarship and favoured even by the present patron's

predece-

ssor like Muftja,

further who was too popular with the people to be disposed off easily, much less to be coarsed into composing a work of art to order. A sort of an inherent contempt of a Jaina poet for a fiavite royal, but junior, patron surely precluded the of
possibility
his

and

ever being

dazzled by the
natural eulogistic

king's

personality

so as to

command
like
its

an

instantaneous

inspiration.

Otherwise, a poet

Dhanapgla, who ad-

mired

Bana

for his Har$acaritam which fetched

author boundless fame"

could not
especially
ted.
It

have resisted

when

a similar temptation to such a fame for himselfthe opportunity for such an undertaking had come uninvil

sonal

is significant that Dhanapsla praises Bhoja handsomeness and valour only. As to his

elaborately for his

per-

scholarship, however, he
literature'

briefly calls

him

'acquainted

with

the

entire

(nih-'sesa-vm-

maya-vid) and nothing more. Bhoja's craving for literary fame must have been whetted by Dhanapsla's work, which far surpassed the former's

Campu-rUm'nyana
direct request
to oblige.
his

indirectly criticized

by the

latter in general

terms in the
in a

introductory verses of the

TM

and

ultimately seems to have resulted

by the emperor to

his favourite court-poet,

who
the

but refused
in view of

And

taking recourse to the rather justifiable grounds

seized talents, Bhoja opportunity of incidentally immortalizing himself and his capital city of Dhttrn rather with a vengeance, 42 while principally writing a work illustrating his main
thesis

own

considerable

seems

to

have

of RSga-srhgnra treated
is

This

in his magnum opus, the fyhgtirapraka'sa.^ a unique instance of the religious difference of opinion depriving

us another historical Sanskrit prose-romance

Bhoja

an 2/tfysyikS on the life of which could have successfully contended with Bana's Har$acaritam.
in view of his brilliant career,

And Bhoja amply deserved such an honour

profoundly extensive scholarship and munificient patronage, the qualities that are summed up in a verse 4* in the Udayapur Prasasti beautifully
inscripton,

104
References
.
:

N. M. Kansara

Based on a part of

TM,

page the readings are according to the Critical Text determined after collating more than is in press and not yet ten original Mss. of the TM. Since the Critical Edition
to published the referenoes are given 53cd Aksunno (N), Intro. Vs.

V of ray Ph. D. thesis on the Chapter I and that of Chapter submitted in 1970 to the M. 3. university, Barocla. The references are to the (N), while and line numbers of the Nirnaya Sagara Edition (2nd), 1938,

TM

TM

(N).

cf

TM

'pi

vivikta-sBkti-racane

yah

sarva-vidyab-

pura jyayan maharajas


sarasvatl//

ksoni-bhrta vyahrtah//; also, cf. dhuia/ &iri-nmnjena sarasvattti sadasi tvam utsangopnvesitatn/Praheti birudarh te 'stu

PRO,

17,271;

sn-kurcala-

According

to PRC, 17, 73, Bboja banned for 12 years, the entry of Svetambara Jaina brother in Malwa, consquent to the conversion of Dhanapala's younger Sobhana; DhanapSla was converted to Jainism after that period was over, Bhoja was the king when he ordered the ban.

monks

3.

cf.

PRC,

17,

53

Veda-snirtt-sruti-stoma-paragah

parulito

'grajah/Krtyakrtyesu

4.

The

nisnatah..//etc. concerning Dhanapala, be fixed tentatively year of Dhanapala's birth can


detal's

955 A. D. For coronated by about point see Chapter III of my thesis. Bhoja was Sobhana could not have met Dhanapala before the expiry of the period of twelve year ban, i- e., hefo-e 1011-12 A. D. Thus, Dhanapala must have attained the age of atleast fifty-seven before he was converted to Jainism.
at

about

on

this

999 A.

1J.

').

cf.

PRC,

17,

H9;Kramena
:

dhanapalas ca dharma-tatlva-vicaksanah/Drclha-samya-

ktva-nisthabhir dhvasta-mithya-matir babhau//


6. cf.

PRC.

17,122

Devo
;

'sti

sakti-sambaddho vridaya na vilokyate//

7. cf., ibid,, vs.

124

Raja

'ha divasesvetavatsu kira tvidrso 'rcitah/Bhavata

praha

so

harh ca balatvSl lajjito na hi//


8. cf., ibid., vs. 125ff.
:

KSma-seva-paraih

pracyair

api bhupair

bhavadtsaih/Balitvad

arcanarh iv asya pravartitarn ihedrsah//


3.

See supra,
cf.
cf,

ft.

nt. 7.

0.
1.

PC,

p.

39 (Singhi Jaina Granthamala Series Ecln.).

ibid., p. 40.

2.
3.
i.

cf- ibid.

cf.

PRC,

17, 157,

cf- ibid., vs. 163. cf.

5-

6. 7.

18.

PC (SJGM), p. 38PRC, 17, 134; also cf. PC (SJGM), p. 38 ffcf. PRC. 17. 151-155; PC (SJGM), p, 42. cf. PRC, 17, 139 ff. J-Sri-bhojah kupitas lasya 'pasavya-vacana-kramaili/DadhySv
:

amum
19.
cf.

hanisyami vibruvantarh dvija-bntvam//etc,


39.

20. cf.

PC(SJGM); p. PRC, 17, 163.


PC(SJGM),

21. cf-, ibid., vss. 166-168.

22

cf.

P. 39,
ff,!

23. cf. 24. cf.

PRC, PRC, PRC, PRC,

17,171
17,

also

cf.

PC

(SJGM),
p. 41.

p. 39.

177

ff.;

PC(SJGM),

25.

cf.

PC (SJGM),
17,

p. 40.
ff.;

26. cf.
27. cf,

177

17,185-190;

PC(SJGM), PC(SJGM),

40.
p. 39.

OTfie

Paramftra Emperor
17,

Btioja and Dhantipiila

Mutual Relationship

103

28 cf

Prthu-karta-svara-patram bhasita-nihsesapatijanam deva/Vilasatto the king'i karenu-gahanarh samprati samara avayoh sadanam//, With reference broad golden utensils', bliuiita-nijf* place it means pythu-kartasvara-pntram 'having

PRC,

285

29.
30.

adorned", vitasat-karepu-gahanam sesa-parijanam 'having the the sportive i'emale elephants ; with reference to the house of Dhanapala 'packed with the utensils that maie a loud jarring it means p r tliuka-artasvara-patram 'having and hence broken), bhu-sitanih'sesa-parijanam 'all the noise (due to being worn out lying on the ground (or with the reading bhusita, 'adorned servants wherein are with the heaps of dust'. with the lack of servants', vilasatka-renii-gahanam 'packed ~ = PP' 41 42 of.

servants all of

whom

are

PC(sJGM)

cf.

MahSkavi Magha,

{^orthern
31. cf.

pp. 83-90; also, Dr. G, India from Jaina Sources, pp. 3-4.

C. Choudhary. Political History of

PRC,
ihid..
ibid.,

17,139.
16,

32. cf.
33,'

53 cd. and 60.


ff.

of.

18, 153

195.

34, cf.,

ibid., 18.
18,

35, cf., ibid., 36, cf.

111

ff.

PRC.

17.
p,

37

History of Paramara Dynasty,


pp. 25

284
frit.

38. cf.

TilakamaBjari-sara of Pallipala DbanapSla,


ff.

Id. by N. M,

Karam.

Intro.,

39. cf.

PRO,

17,

221-222
7:
. .

PC

(SJGM),

p.

41

40 ' cf

SMK

ity

abhidhaya

're

yanlra-putraka,

yady
iva

apy

asmat-paHpd&h
raja-

....

sa'mmatarh tatha

'pi

nija-guna 'vifkaranam

avagitam

pratibhasate/Tad

varnanam bhavta
11'

bhanitum arable eva bhanatu" ity abhihitah. ..a

"'
^'
th

Tn

the'

delripdo'n

SMK
in the

PP

2-7- (2)

^0^'
U
43- cf.

rather lon g

-dLn description,
V
233-

7-12 with that of DhSra in Ayodhya in the TM(N), pp. ia the TM (N), pp. The description of King Meghavahana and her m other Vi ma l a . oi
'

S^ran^jari

SMK,
Intro,

SMK,

14-18 respectively. pp. 10-1* and pp. pp. 55-73 Chap.

4*

cf

tad yan

^ Eoisraphica tndica, Vol. I, PPkT-bhojasya prasasyate// kena-cit,Kiru anyat kavirajasya

-",

va

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Pal Narang
283,

Hemacatidra's Dvyasrayakavya-A Literary and cultural Study by Satya M. A., Ph. D. Published by Devavani Prakasana, DeIhi-32, pp. s. 30, A.D. 1972.
Dr. Satya Pal Narang for his Ph. D. thesis has studied Heraacandra's

Dvyasrayaksvya in various aspects


cal,

Mythological, Historical,

Grammati-

Geographical, Political, Sociological, Economical, Religious etc. Evalution of the book as a historical and a poetical work is alsoattempted and also in the beginning of the book life and works of Hemacandra are examined
ia detail.

Thus nothing

is left

out of the view of the author.

Vakpatirgja's Gaadavaho,

Edited and

translated by Prof.

N. G. Sura
pp.

Publised by Prakrit Text Society, P.T.S. No. 18, 178+340 : Price Rs, 25. A.D, 1975.
Prof. Suru has not only translated this

Ahmedabad,
text

100+

difficult

but has

supplied

and an introduction dtaling with the author and Gaudavaho. Dr. P. L, Vaidya has rightly observed in his Forword "Prof. Sum's English translation is at once faithful and fluent. His notes are scholarly and cover a wide range of his classical studies.
the text with copious notes
his

Hh

Introduc-

tion

is

a scholarly piece, judiciously touching almost

all

the aspects of the

author. His exposition of the choice topics from the poem on the stark realism of Vakpati's discriptions, and his sketch of the society, as revealed in the poem, have really raised Vakpati to a higher pedestal in the galaxy of our classical poets."
its

poem and

his observation

gramana Bhagavan Mahavlra : by K. C. Lahvani, Pub. Minerva Associates (Publications) PVT. Ltd, 7-B Lake place, Calcutta 700029 pa 206, Bs. 361-1 1975.
Herein Prof. Lalvani who is a social scientist has presented the life and doctrine of Mahavira that would appeal to the rational mind. Apart from a brief life-sketch and Mahavira's ideas the philosophy and
religious

author has discussed


physics
etc.

his

scientific

doctrines

such

as

cosmology, biology,

Dharmaratnakara of Jayasena
Jaina Sanskrit!
Sanaraksaka

Ed. Dr. A. N.

Upadhye; Published by
pp.

Sangha, Sholapur, 1974,

54+464; Price

Rs. 20.
Jayasena composed
this

work

in

A,D. 998

in Sanskrit

and Dr. Upadhye

has critically edited the text for the first time and it is translated into Hindi by Pt. Jinadas Parshvanath Phadakule. Subjects dealt with by the author are consequences of Punya and Pspa, Fruits of Abhayadjjna, Ahara

dana

etc., Sgdhupuja, Dana and its Fruits, Jflgaadana, Ausadha-dana, Rise of Samyaktva, Limits of Samyaktva, Pratimas etc.. As usual Dr. Upadhye has given an extenstive Introduction and various Appendices.

a?k ^aTFf-f^iNqi. aws-i^rf-,

^H,

3=5^ ftfjf r ^RF 1

%$

% wufe % mq % %m %

cj^rr

37^

% IRR W^f ^. % fsu;


ff

5t.

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gcffr

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^1 ^ff

% ^W %
mi
*r.

?^

nwra

PAfiCA-PARAMEStHI-STttTl
(

In

Apabhramsa

)
]

From Vilgsavai-Kaha
R.

of Ssharana

M. Shah
is

Siddhasenasmri alias 'Sabarana' Kavi (llth cent. A,D.)


bis
in

famous
offered

for

Vilssavai-Kahg, an Apabbraihsa Mahaksvya. llth Sandhi of the VK, as a prayer of five

The

piece selected occurs

Paramestbis

by

Sanatkumara, the hero of the Mahakavya.


In the Prasasti of the
his stotras

VK,

which are

cited by

people

the author says that 'he is wellknown for all over the country.' 2 Unfortunately

most of these stotras are lost. The stotra published herewith is, thus, the over stotra-composition, only example to show the learned poet's mastery

The
to

stotra consists of the prayer to

Panca

Pararuesthis.

Stanzas 2-5

are dedicated to Jinas, St. 6-9 to Siddhas, St. 10-13 to Acaryas, St. 14-18 St. 19-23 to Sadhus. St. 24-26 are general. The conclud-

Upsdhyayas,

Siddhasuri ing stanza 27 contains the naraamudras poet as was the custom with Apabhramsa writers.

and Snhftrana

of

the

The poet used four


(

different metres in the

Stuti

i;)
)

Chaddania

(St.

1);

(ii

Vadanaka
Lalataka

(Sts.

2-13)
14-23)
(Sts. 24-27),

(Hi)

(Sts.

and

( iv )

Madanavatara

Both Mss.

(fo

and go) used

for text-construction are photostat copies

of the palmleaf mss. of Jesalmer, 8

VitSsaval-Kaha with
shprtly

critical study edited by Dr. R. M. Shah by L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad.

is

to

be

published

VK,
3
jayji,

Prasasti.

Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Mas., Jesalmer Cellection, Ed. by Ahmedabad, 1972. pp. 111-112.

Muni

Punyavi.

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tf.
In the pages that follow a small work entitled Jain a ihsralitaka has been
edited on the basis of the ms. belonging to the Muni Ptmysvijaya Collection preserved in the L. D. Institute of (ndology, Ahraedabad. The mi. bears
the serial

No. 4969.

Its size

is

26 cms. x

11

cms.

It

has

five folios.

Each side
dots not

of the folio has 17 lines and each line has 58

letters.
c,

The

script if legible.
It

The condition of

the ms. is good. It belongs to

1550 A. D.
at the

contain the normal colophon which always occurs The name of the author is not given anywhere in

end of the ms.


ms. Only the
title

th

of the work occurs at the end of the ms. This


sent work, that I have

is

the o g.y ms. of the pre


to

come

across.

The ms. seems

have

been

written

by the author himself. In the ms. many quarters and phrasei have been rejected by putting yellow paint on them not because they are grammatiand better cally Incorrect or otherwise corrupt but because more poetical chiselled quarters and phrases have occurred to the mind of the composer,

And
The

script of these quarters

he has given these newly found quarters and phrases in the margin. and phrases given in the margin resembles

that of the usual writing of the text.

The subject-matter of The poet displays poem has become


that with these
his

this short

poem

Is

the Jalna temple in general.


in

luxuriant rhetorical
ornate.

skill

describing

It,

So, the

The poet refers to small caityas and iys highly main temple looks like a fully blown caityas around the
petals.
details.

a hundred golden lotus having

He

mentions candratVlB
of

and

ragall

M5

and

other

architectural
is

His description

totabhaHfltot

carved at the ends of tomna

very interesting.

He has composed

the

verses (102) in smgdhar'O metre.

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11

Bactaria, Algae
,n
I.

and Fungi

as

found

the Jaina Literature C.

Sikdar

Die Paramara Emperor Bhqja the Great and [Cavi Dhanapala A Study in their mutual Relationship
:

M,

M. Kansara

Panca-Paramesthi-Stuti of Saharana
R.

110

M. Shah

ST.

.3

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