You are on page 1of 84

SCADANOTES2013

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Definition

Level BL BL, SL S PL SL SL,BL,PL

Functions Protection C Control Measurement Monitoring g Data Communication

Sequence 4 5 1 2 3

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Configuration

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Measurement
Measurementi M includes l d electrical l i lmeasurementslike lik V, V I, I Power, P Powerfactor&harmonics,aswellasanalogvaluesliketemperature, vibration&humidity. Realtimeinformationaboutsubstationorswitchgearisobtained.

Allmeasurements t oncecollected ll t dh helps l in i the th f following ll i : Loadflowanalysis Protectionplanning Preventionofdisturbances&disturbancefaultrecording(DFR) Stateestimation Electricitybilling,etc.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Monitoring
Monitoring M i i refers f toinformation i f i such hasswitchgear i h status,trip i circuit i i status,tripoperationcounter,conditionmonitoringinformation, maintenanceinformation,etc. Theinformationprovidedbythemonitoringsystemisgenerallyused foralarmprocessing,SER(sequenceofeventrecording),etc.Which inturnisusedfortheprotectionandcontrolschemes.

AllmonitoringfunctionsarenowtakencarebydigitalrelaysandIEDs whichcanevenrecordandcommunicatethedatathroughSCADA SCADA, thusnoseparatemonitoringsystemistobeused

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Protection
P Protection i is i the h mosti importantcomponentof fPSA Aimofprotectionistoprotectequipmentsandpersonnelto limitthedamageincaseofafault. Protectionfunctionswastraditionallyprovidedby electromechanicalrelays(onerelayforonefunction).Now Th numerical The i l&di digital it lrelays l (M (Multi ltifunction f ti relays) l )along l withIEDsprovideProtectionfunctionstogetherwithcontrol, measurement,monitoring&communications. Localfunctions: ShouldbeabletofunctionindependentlyofPSA FunctionsofprotectionshouldneverbecompromisedorrestrictedinanyPSA

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Control
Controlfunctionsaredividedintotwopartslocalcontrol&remote control. Localcontrolisexecutedonthelowercommunicationlevels(between bay&processlevels)whereasremotecontrolisdependentonthe hi h communication higher i i l levels l (between (b b bay&station i l levels). l)

Local lcontrol l:
Consistsofactionthecontroldevicecanlogicallytakebyitself. Humaninterventionislimitedhence,lessriskofhumanerror Examples interlocking,switchingsequences,synchronizationchecketc.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Control
Remotecontrol:
TocontrolsubstationfromSCADAsystem. Commandslikeopen/closeetc etc.canbegivendirectlythroughremotecontrolleddevices devices. Relaysettingscanalsobechangedviathesystem RequestforcertaininformationfromthesubstationorSCADAsystembecomessimple. Eliminatestheneedforpersonaltogotosubstationtoperformswitchingaction. Canbeusedinrealtimethusquick&effectivecontrolispossible.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Communicationrequirements
Tasks Response time H M H H Data throughput H H L L Data integrity H H M H Time sync. H M H H

Measurement Monitoring Protection Control

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

Function of the SCADA master station


1. Display p y real-time data received from the IEDs, relays, y bay controllers, RTUs or PLCs connected in the power system 2. Keep historical records of data received and retrieve these records when required 3. Provide an active operator interface for supervisory control and remote configuration of IEDs and other devices 4. Activate Alarms 5. Perform Communication over the network.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

10

CommunicatingComputersandProtectionDevices,with associated i t dC Cubicles bi l and dConfiguration C fi ti Database D t b


Master M t clock l k (GPS)

Operator Interface

HMI & Maintenance WEB access

C264C SCADA Interface DNP3 & IEC 60870-5-101

C264

Fast Ethernet UCA2- IEC 61850

HV FEEDER BAY

C264C C264C Main protection EHV FEEDER BAY


I/Os

C264
I/Os

COMMON BAY

MV FEEDER BAYS S MV FEEDER BAYS

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

11

OverallSystemArchitecture

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

12

Five Task of SCADA SYSTEM


Input/output task Thi program i This is th the i interface t f b between t th the control t l and d monitoring it i system t and the plant floor. Alarm task This manages all alarms by detecting digital alarm points and comparing the th values of analog alarm points to alarm thresholds. Trends task The trends task collects data to be monitored over time. Reports task Reports are produced from plant data. These reports can be periodic, event triggered or activated by the operator. Display task This manages all data to be monitored by the operator and all control actions requested by the operator.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

13

Possiblefunctionalscope
MONITORING
Alarm & Archives Disturbance Condition monitoring

CONTROL

Auto-reclose & Synch-check

Interlock & sequences

Load shedding & Volt reg.

PROTECTION

Line & Transformer

Busbar & Circuit breaker

Generator & Motor

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

14

Main Modules of SCADA System S f Software


Data acquisition Control A hi i /d b Archiving/database storage The humanmachine interface (HMI)

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

15

Data acquisition
Data acquisition refers to reception, analyzing and processing of all data from the field. Real-time data is normally be graphically p y according g to the user defined displayed, configuration. Data will be compared p to p pre-set limits, and alarms raised when these limits are exceeded.
4/17/2013 SCADANOTES 16

Control
Control commands from the SCADA master station to the field devices Control commands are initiated by operator or automatically as per Predefined parameters. parameters

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

17

Archiving/databasestorage
StorageofHistoricalData. Data Donetoassessfortrendinformation,fault finding andreporting. finding, reporting

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

18

Thehumanmachineinterface
HMIconsistofinput&outputdevicefor interactionb/woperatorandsoftware. Inputdevice(Keyboardandmouse) mouse),Output device(GraphicaldisplayscreenandPrinter forrealtimedateandreportsandrecords) SCADAdisplayshouldexhibitDifferentlevels todiplay di l real ltime i situation i i of fplant. l

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

19

FirstLevel: OverviewofthePlanttobe monitored. i d

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

20

SecondLevel: DetailsofrelevantStn.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

21

Thirdlevel: Requireddetailsofthefeeder(Electrical values, l Al Alarmcondition, diti eqpposition iti etc) t ) FouthLevel: Singledevicestatus.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

22

PowerSystemAutomation Architecture

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

23

Contents
Introduction DifferentTypesOfPowerSystemArchitectures Advantages&DisadvantagesOfDifferentSystems C Comparison i OfAll4S Systems t A According di T ToTh Their i Ad Advantages t & Disadvantages

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

24

Introduction
Consistsoflocalintelligence,acommunicationnetworkandat leastoneSCADAstation. FourmaintypesofArchitectureSystems NamelyType1, 1 Type2, 2 Type3&Type4Systems DifferonlyinBaylevel Samepropertiesamongotherlevelsasprocesslevel, Communicationnetwork&SCADAlevel

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

25

Type1Systems
Mostadvancedsystemavailabletoday OneIEDhandlingallthepowersystemautomation applications DirectcommunicationofIEDtothenetwork

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

26

Type1Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

27

Type1Systems Advantages
Simplifiedcircuitryandwiring AllI/Osroutedtoonedevice Installation&Commissioningofonlyonedeviceperbay Integrateddisturbancerecording&sequenceofeventreporting Selfsupervision Easiercommunication Easierfaultidentification SpaceSaving Peertopeercommunicationpossible

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

28

Type1Systems Disadvantages
AllbayapplicationswillbreakdownincaseofIEDfailure Alldatalostincaseofcommunicationfailuretothedevice Microprocessortimemaymarginallyslowdowntheexecution ofprotectionfunctions

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

29

Type2Systems
Protection&ControlareseparatedintwoIndependent devices TheBayControllerdirectlycommunicatestotheSCADA network Protectiondevicemayormaynotcommunicatedirectlyto SCADAnetwork Exchange E h of fI Information f ti possible ibl b between t P Protection t ti relay l & Baycontroller

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

30

Type2Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

31

Type2Systems Advantages
DedicatedControl&Protectiondevice NoInfluenceoffailureoneachothersApplications Microprocessortimewillnotaffecttheexecutionof protectionfunctions Peertopeercommunicationpossible

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

32

Type2Systems Disadvantages
MoreComplexcircuitry&wiring SeparateProtection&Controlapplications Installation&Commissioningoftwodevicesperbay Di t b Disturbance recording di &sequenceof fevent treporting ti arenot t integrated Moreloadingonthecommunication&complexconfiguration onthenetwork Morephysicalspacerequired

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

33

Type3Systems
Consistsofanintelligentrelay WhichdoesnotdirectlycommunicatetotheSCADAmaster NottermedasanIEDinpowersystemautomationcontext CommunicationsprocessorforcommunicationstotheSCADAmaster Specificallydesignedforruggedsubstationenvironment VeryversatileandpowerfulCommsprocessorfordatacommunications Supportsvarioustypesofdevicesinsubstations

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

34

Type3Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

35

Type3Systems Advantages
Simplifiedcircuitryandwiring AllI/Osroutedtoonedevice Installation&Commissioningofonlyonedeviceperbay Integrateddisturbancerecording&sequenceofevent reporting Selfsupervision Easiercommunication Easierfaultidentification SpaceSaving

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

36

Type3Systems Disadvantages
AllbayapplicationswillbreakdownincaseofIEDfailure Alldatalostincaseofcommunicationfailuretothedevice Microprocessortimemaymarginallyslowdowntheexecutionof protectionfunctions Morecomplexcircuitry&wiringcomparetoType1systems Peertopeercommunicationsnotpossible Directpointtopointcommunicationsbetweentworelaysmaybepossible

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

37

Type4Systems
SimilartoType2systems Protectionoriented,traditionalrelayswithoutcontrol applications BayRTUorPLChandleslocalbaycontrolapplications StationRTUforhigherlevelcommunications

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

38

Type4Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

39

Type4Systems Advantages
DedicatedControl&Protectiondevice NoInfluenceoffailureoneachothersApplications Microprocessortimewillnotaffecttheexecutionof protectionfunctions Peertopeercommunicationpossible dependingon communicationtopologyandprotocolused

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

40

Type4Systems Disadvantages
MoreComplexcircuitry&wiring SeparateProtection&Controlapplications Installation&Commissioningoftwodevicesperbay Disturbancerecording&sequenceofeventreportingarenotintegrated Moreloadingonthecommunication&complexconfigurationonthe network Morephysicalspacerequired Alldatalostincaseofcommunicationfailuretothedevice

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

41

Comparison
ComparisonOfPowerSystemArchitectures Type2/BayController Type3/Comms Processor T Type 1/IEDB Based dSSA T Type 4/RTU/PLC Based B dSSA BasedSSA BasedSSA MostAdvancedSystem Twoseparatedevicesfor Twoseparatedevicesfor OneIEDhandlingallthe protection& protection& powersystems communication communication Protectionoriented traditionalrelays

Technology

Communication

IEDcommunicatesdirectly tocommunicationnetwork Simple Easier Onedeviceperbay Possible Possible Possible Easier LesserSpaceRequired Possible ABB,GE,Siemens,Alstom

Baycontroller communicatestothe network Complex Notintegrated Atleasttwodevicesper bay Notintegratedinone device Notintegratedinone device NotPossible MoreComplex MoreSpaceNeeded Possible ABB GE ABB, GE,Siemens, Si Alstom

SeparateCommsProcessor StationRTUfor forcommunicationtothe communicationtomaster network SCADAnetwork Simple Easier Onedeviceperbay Possible Possible Possible Easier LesserSpaceRequired NotPossible SEL Complex Notintegrated Atleasttwodevicesperbay Notintegratedinonedevice Notintegratedinonedevice NotPossible MoreComplex MoreSpaceNeeded Possible Siemens,Various Si V i RTU/PLC Suppliers

Circuitry&Wiring Integration Installation&Commissioning IntegratedDisturbance Recording Sequenceofeventreporting p SelfSupervision FaultLocation PhysicalSpace PeertopeerCommunication Manufacturers

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

42

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

43

DataCommunication

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

44

RoleofDataCommunicationinPSA
FormsthecoreofanyPSA VirtuallyholdsallcomponentsofPSA Without i h communication, i i Functions i of felectrical l i l protection&localcontrolwillcontinue PSAcannotfunctionwithoutcommunication

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

45

BasicRequirements ofDatacommunication q

Physical y Link Agreed g Medium SameLanguage CommonContext ReceiverIdentified


4/17/2013 SCADANOTES 46

CommunicationTechnology

StarTopology:MultipleStationsornodesare connectedtoacentralcomponentknownas Master(Logical)orHub(Physical) Master / Hub

Remote Substations

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

47

CommunicationTechnology
Advantages: Straightforwardandeasytomaintain Easytroubleshooting Easyadditionorremovalofnodes Failureofasinglenodedoesnotinfluencethenetwork Easymonitoringnodedoesnotinfluencethenetwork Easymonitoringofdatatrafficformanagementpurposes. Disadvantages: Theentirenetworkisdependentonthehub(master).Ifitfails,thewhole networkisdown.Oftenaredundantcentralisdown. Directcommunicationsbetweennodesarenotsupported,everything mustgothroughthehub

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

48

CommunicationTechnology
RingTopology:Messagespacketsaretransmittedsequentiallyfromnode tonodeinapredefinedsequence. sequence Aclosedloopisformedwith informationtravelingoneway.

4/17/2013

AnyStationmaybeaMaster or Administrator SCADA NOTES

49

CommunicationTechnology
Advantages: Thenetworkisnotnecessarilydependantonamaster,dependingonthe techniqueused,althoughanadministratormayberequiredwithcertain techniques. Eachnodecanfunctionasasignal g amplifier p Automaticmessageacknowledgementisinherenttothetopology. Directnodetonodecommunicationissupported. Disadvantages: Ifanynodegoesdowntheentireringgoesdown. Troubleshootingandfaultisolationaredifficult. Adding dd orremovingnodes d d disruptsthe h network. k Configurationandprogrammingofthesystembecomemorecomplex

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

50

CommunicationTechnology
BusTopology:Singlebusnetworks,double(redundant)busnetworks,and complexcombinationsareusedinpractice.Busreferstothemain communicationchanneltowhicheachnodeisconnected. Mostflexibleofthedifferenttopologies.

Master (Optional)

RemoteStations
4/17/2013 SCADANOTES 51

CommunicationTechnology
Advantages: Thebusisnotdependentonasinglecentralstation Anyonenodemayfailwithoutaffectingthebus Highflexibilityofconfigurations. Nodescanbeaddedorremovedfromthebuseasily. easily Directnodetonodecommunicationissupported. Disadvantages: Securitymaybecomprised comprised,asanynodecanseethemessage message. Troubleshootingandfaultisolationcanbedifficult Noinherentautomaticacknowledgementofmessages,sincemessages areabsorbedattheendofthebusanddonotreturntothesender. Heavydatatrafficonthebusmaycauseproblems,asnodesmayfindit difficulttoaccessthebustosendamessage.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

52

CommunicationTechniques
MasterSlaveCommunication : Simplest,Mostcommon,Flexiblecommunicationtechnique. CentralizedcontrolbymasterSCADA PeertopeerCommunication: Devicesonthenetworktoinitiatecommunicationswithanydevicesonthe networktoinitiatecommunicationswithanyotherdeviceonthenetwork. Althoughitisnotfunctioningasamaster,aSCADAsystemwillnormally receivethemajorityofthenetworkdata,andremotecontrolcommandswill usuallybeinitiatedbytheSCADAsystem. SCADAsystemwillgodownthennetworkcommunicationcanstillbe retained. Inthesameleveli.e.withinthesamelevelthedeviceswillcommunicatewith eachother.
4/17/2013 SCADANOTES 53

ConventionalPolling
Mostcommonandsimplestformofdatacommunication AMasterstationrequestsdatafromeachslavestationinapredetermined sequence. Prioritiesmaybeassignedtoslaves,meaningthesestationswillbepolledata higherratethanthenormalstations. Polling gcanbeusedonvirtually yallphysical p y mediaandany ytopology. p gy Pollingratedependentonthemasteranddeterministicresponsetimesare obtained. Pollingresultsininefficientuseofbandwidthandrelativelyslowresponse timearecharacteristicofpollingtechniques Master M t
4/17/2013

Slave

SCADANOTES

54

ConventionalPolling
Advantages: Easeprogramming Reliabilityduetothesimplicity. Failurecommunication,eitherattheslaveorduetolinkfailure,is detectedrelativelyquickly. quickly Nodatacollisions Efficient Disadvantages: LightlyLoaded Slavescannotcommunicatedirectlywitheachotherduetoadding complexity l tothe h masterprogrammingand dresulting l inslow l communicationsbetweenslaves. Variationsinthedatatransferrequirementsofslavescannotbehandled

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

55

Pollingbyexception
Thistechnique q consistsofthemasterrequesting q gonly y eventchangesfromtheslavestations. Ifnochangeshaveoccurredduringthepollingcycle, nodatawillereturnedtothemaster. Protocolusedincommunicatingbetweenmasterand slavestationsmustsupportpollingbyexception. exception

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

56

Time divisionmultiplexmediaaccess
Eachstationhasitsowntimeslot, ,during gwhichthestation maysendandreceivedata. Deterministicresponsetimesareachievedastherecanbe collisions lli i onthe th network. t k ABusadministratorisrequiredtoensurethatallstations comply p ywiththenetworkrulesalsocalledtransport p media arbitration. TDMcanbeusedonaringorbustopology

Node1
4/17/2013

Node2
SCADANOTES

Node3
57

Time divisionmultiplexmediaaccess
Advantages: Nodatacollisions Efficient Directpeertopeercommunicationspossible Disadvantages: LightlyLoaded Variationsindatatransferrequirementscannotbehandled. Communicationsfailuretoaspecific p devicemay ynotbedetected immediatelyexceptinprotocols. Networkstilldependentonacentralcommunicationscontroller. Configurationofthenetworkiscomplex

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

58

PerformanceCriteria
Transmission: CommunicationLinkisameasureofhowmanytimesthephysicalsignal changespersecondandisexpressedasthebaudrate. rate Importantcharacteristicofalink isitsbitratespeedswillbeexpressedinbpsinthistext. Bandwidth:
Itis I i generally ll expressed donhertz h ,earning i cycles l persecond. d I Itrepresentsthe h maximumfrequencyatwhichchangescanbehandledbeforeattenuation.ItsCloselyrelated tothetransmissionmedium,rangingfromaround3000Hzforthepublictelephonesystemto theGHzrangeforopticalfibercable.

Signaltonoiseratio: Themaximumpracticaldatatransferrateforalinkismathematically relatedtothebandwidth,S/Nratioandthenumberoflevelsencodedineachsignaling element.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

59

PerformanceCriteria
Data D t th throughput h t::Data D t is i always l carried i dwithin ithi aprotocol t lenvelope, l ranging i from f acharacterframetosophisticatedmessageschemes,thereaddatatransferwillbe lessthanthebitrate.Theamountofredundantdataaroundamessagepacket increasesasitpassesdowntheprotocolstackinanetwork.Thismeansthatthe ratioofnonmessagedatatoreal real informationmaybesignificantfactorin determiningtheeffectivetransmissionrate,sometimesreferredtoasthe throughput. ErrorRate:ItisrelatedtofactorssuchasS/Nratio, ratio noiseandinterference. interference Thereis generallyacompromisebetweentransmissionspeedandallowableerrorrate, dependingonthetypeofapplication. Responsetime:Ittakesastheperiodittakesfromtheinstantacommandor requestisinitiatedfromonestationtoanotheruntiltheinstantreceivingstation respondtothatcommandorrequest.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

60

SCADAlevelsDefinition

Level BL BL, SL PL SL
4/17/2013 SCADANOTES

Functions Protection Control Measurement Monitoring Data Communication

Sequence 4 5 1 2
61 3

SL,BL,PL

SCADAPossiblefunctionalscope
MONITORING
Alarm & Archives Disturbance Condition monitoring

CONTROL

Auto-reclose & Synch-check

Interlock & sequences

Load shedding & Volt reg.

PROTECTION

Line & Transformer

Busbar & Circuit breaker

Generator & Motor

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

62

SCADAConfiguration

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

63

FirstLevel: OverviewofthePlanttobemonitored.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

64

SecondLevel: DetailsofrelevantStn.

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

65

Type1Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

66

Type2Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

67

Type3Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

68

Type4Systems

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

69

4/17/2013

SCADANOTES

70

SCADAhardware
Fivelevelsof SCADAhardware
Fieldlevelinstrumentationandcontroldevices
analoganddigitalsensorssituatedateachremotesite

MarshallingterminalsandRTUs
providesaninterfacetothefielddevices

Communications C i ti system t
wire,fiberoptic,radio,telephoneline,microwaveandpossiblyeven satellite Specificprotocolsanderrordetectiontechniquesareusedforefficientand optimumtransferofdata pathwayforcommunicationsbetweenthemasterstationandtheremote sites

Themasterstation(s)
gather gat e datafrom o the t evarious a ousRTUs Us provideanoperatorinterfacefordisplayofinformationandcontrolofthe remotesites

Thecommercialinformationtechnology(IT)ordataprocessing departmentcomputersystem
DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 71 IITMChennai 600036

17April2013

SCADA HardwareARCHITECTURE

Figure1:TypicalHardwareArchitecture

SCADAsoftware
Proprietarysoftware
Companiesdevelopproprietarysoftwaretocommunicate totheirhardware mainproblemwiththesesystemsistheoverwhelming relianceonthesupplier pp ofthesystem y

Opensoftwaresystems
Interoperability Abilitytomixdifferentmanufacturersequipmentonthe samesystem opensoftwarepackagesavailableonthemarketforSCADA systems Citect andWonderWare
DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 73 IITMChennai 600036

17April2013

SCADA SOFTWAREArchitecture

ISOopen p systems y interconnectionmodel( (OSI) )

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 75 IITMChennai 600036

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 76 IITMChennai 600036

OSIReferenceModel
Thesevenlayers
Thep provisionofnetworkservicestotheusersapplication pp programs p g
Note:theactualapplicationprogramsdoNOTresidehere

Primarilytakescareofdatarepresentation(includingencryption) (sessions) )betweentheusers Controlofthecommunications( Themanagementofthecommunicationsbetweenthetwoendsystems Primarily Pi il responsible ibl for f the th routing ti of fmessages Responsibleforassemblingandsendingaframeofdatafromone systemtoanother Definestheelectricalsignalsandmechanicalconnectionsatthe physicallevel

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 77 IITMChennai 600036

SubstationAutomationwithDNP3

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 78 IITMChennai 600036

SubstationAutomationwithIEC61850

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 79 IITMChennai 600036

KeyfeaturesofSCADAsoftware
Userinterfaces Graphics p displays p y Alarms Trends RTU(and ( dPLC) )i interface f Scalability Accesstodata Database Networking Faulttoleranceandredundancy Client/serverdistributedprocessing
17April2013 DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 80 IITMChennai 600036

Basicstandards:RS232
TheRS232CinterfacestandardforserialdatacommunicationInterface definestheInterfacebetweenDataTerminalEquipment(DTE)andData C Communications i i E Equipment i (DCE)Employing E l i Serial S i lBinary Bi Data D interchange ThecurrentrevisionisEIA232E(1991) 3majorpartsRS232standard:
Theelectricalsignalcharacteristicssuchasthevoltagelevelsandgrounding characteristicsoftheinterchangesignalsandassociatedcircuitry Theinterfacemechanicalcharacteristicsofthemechanicalinterfacebetween DTEandDCE,and circuits,suchasthefunctionofthe Thefunctionaldescriptionoftheinterchangecircuits data,timingandcontrolsignalsusedattheinterfacebetweenDTEandDCE

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 81 IITMChennai 600036

Basicstandards:RS485
Multipointinterfacestandard

RS485permitsmultidropnetworkconnectionontwowiresandprovides forreliableserialdatacommunicationfor:
Distancesofupto1200m Dataratesofupto10Mbps

Up pto32linedriverspermitted p onthesameline upto32linereceiversarepermittedonthesameline Thelinevoltagesrangebetween1.5Vto6Vforlogic1and+1.5Vto +6VforLogic0 0 . Forfullduplexsystems,fivewiresarerequired. Forahalfduplexsystem,onlythreewiresarerequired.

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 82 IITMChennai 600036

Basicstandards:RS232
Electricalsignalcharacteristics DTEDataterminalequipment
(e.g.acomputerorprinter).ADTEdevice communicates i t with ithaDCEdevice d i and dtransmits t it data d t onpin2andreceivesdataonpin3ona25pinD typeconnector

DCEDatacommunicationsequipment
ADCEdevicetransmitsdatabetweentheDTEanda physicaldatacommunicationslink(e.g.telephone system).Ittransmitsdataonpin3andreceivesdata onpin2ona25pinDtypeconnector
17April2013 DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 83 IITMChennai 600036

Basicstandards:RS232
TheconnectionsbetweentheDTEandDCE

17April2013

DepartmentofElectricalEngineering 84 IITMChennai 600036