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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Introduction [p.352]

In any situation involving measurement, some of the observed variability will be due

to product itself and some will be due to measurement error or gauge variability.

σ Total

2

= σ Pr2 oduct + σ Gauge

2

Where σ Total

2

is the total observed variance. σ Pr2 oduct is the variance that is due to the

2

is the variance that is due to the measurement error.

A control chart can be used to separate the components of variance identified above

and provide an assessment of how capable the gauge is for the intended purpose.

Example: [p.353]

Twenty units of product are obtained and numbered. The same operator measures

each unit twice with the gauge. A X and R control chart is then developed.

The X chart may exhibit many parts outside the limits as many of the units may have

had vastly different dimensions. The R chart directly shows the magnitude of the

measurement error. The R value shows the difference in measurements made on the

same units using the same instrument. Out-of-control points on the Range chart would

Institute of Technology Sligo

Unit x1 x2 X R

1 21 20 20.5 1

2 24 23 23.5 1

3 20 21 20.5 1

4 27 27 27.0 0

5 19 18 18.5 1

6 23 21 22.0 2

7 22 21 21.5 1

8 19 17 18.0 2

9 24 23 23.5 1

10 25 23 24.0 2

11 21 20 20.5 1

12 18 19 18.5 1

13 23 25 24.0 2

14 24 24 24.0 0

15 29 30 29.5 1

16 26 26 26.0 0

17 20 20 20.0 0

18 19 21 20.0 2

19 25 26 25.5 1

20 19 19 19.0 0

X = 22.3

R = 1.0

Xbar/R Chart

30 1

1

1 1 3.0SL=24.18

Means

25

X=22.30

20 1 1 -3.0SL=20.42

1 1 1

1

Subgroup 0 10 20

3.0SL=3.267

3

Ranges

1 R=1.000

0 -3.0SL=0.000

Institute of Technology Sligo

The standard deviation of the measurement error, σ Gauge can be estimated from the

Range chart.

R 1.0

σ Gauge = = = 0.887

d 2 1.128

This implies that individual measurements can vary by as much as ± 3σ Gauge (i.e. ±

It is useful to compare the gauge capability (of the instrument) to the total

specification (of the product). This is called the Precision to Tolerance Ratio (or P/T

P 6σ Gauge

=

T USL − LSL

If the part being inspected has an USL and LSL of 60 and 5 respectively, then the P/T

P 5.32

= = 0.097 (9.7%)

T 60 − 5

A general rule of thumb is that the P/T ratio should be ≤ 0.10 (i.e. 10%). P/T ratios

Institute of Technology Sligo

Others measures of gauge capability have been proposed such as the ratio of product

variability to total variability and also the ratio of measurement system variability to

total variability.

The total variability for the data presented earlier (i.e. 20 units, each measured twice)

of the total variability and includes both the product variability and gauge variability.

σ Total

2

= S 2 = (3.172) 2 = 10.06

σ Gauge

2

= (0.887) 2 = 0.79

As σ Total

2

= σ Pr2 oduct + σ Gauge

2

, it is now possible to calculate the variability due to the

product.

σ product

2

9.26

ρp = 2 = = 0.92.1

σ Total 10.05

variability.

σ Gauge

2

0.79

ρm = = = 0.079

σ Total 10.05

2

Note ρ p = 1 − ρ m

Institute of Technology Sligo

ρ p and ρ m are often expressed as percentages. This means that the measuring

more meaningful expression of gauge capability than the P/T ratio, as it does not

In the previous example we have considered the situation of a single operator. In most

cases, more than one operator will be involves in using the gauge. It is therefore

σ Measuremen

2

t Error = σ Gauge = σ Reproducability + σ Repeatability

2 2 2

Repeatability: Measurement error due to the inherent precision of the gauge (same

operator).

Example:

In the earlier example we consider only one operator. We now consider two additional

operators, (i.e. Operator 2 and Operator 3). Each of these operators also measure each

Institute of Technology Sligo

Operator 1 Operator 2 Operator 3

Unit x11 x12 X1 R1 x 21 x 22 X2 R2 x31 x32 X3 R3

1 21 20 20.5 1 20 20 20.0 0 19 21 20.0 2

2 24 23 23.5 1 24 24 24.0 0 23 24 23.5 1

3 20 21 20.5 1 19 21 20.0 2 20 22 21.0 2

4 27 27 27.0 0 28 26 27.0 2 27 28 27.5 1

5 19 18 18.5 1 19 18 18.5 1 18 21 19.5 3

6 23 21 22.0 2 24 21 22.5 3 23 22 22.5 1

7 22 21 21.5 1 22 24 23.0 2 22 20 21.0 2

8 19 17 18.0 2 18 20 19.0 2 19 18 18.5 1

9 24 23 23.5 1 25 23 24.0 2 24 24 24.0 0

10 25 23 24.0 2 26 25 25.5 1 24 25 24.5 1

11 21 20 20.5 1 20 20 20.0 0 21 20 20.5 1

12 18 19 18.5 1 17 19 18.0 2 18 19 18.5 1

13 23 25 24.0 2 25 25 25.0 0 25 25 25.0 0

14 24 24 24.0 0 23 25 24.0 2 24 25 24.5 1

15 29 30 29.5 1 30 28 29.0 2 21 20 20.5 1

16 26 26 26.0 0 25 26 25.5 1 25 27 26.0 2

17 20 20 20.0 0 19 20 19.5 1 20 20 20.0 0

18 19 21 20.0 2 19 19 19.0 0 21 23 22.0 2

19 25 26 25.5 1 25 24 24.5 1 25 25 25.0 0

20 19 19 19.0 0 18 17 17.5 1 19 17 18.0 2

X 1 = 22.3 R1 = 1.00 X 2 = 22.28 R2 = 1.25 X 3 = 22.10 R3 = 1.20

Institute of Technology Sligo

The gauge repeatability is obtained from the average of the three ranges.

R1 + R2 + R3

R = = 1.15

3

R 1.15

σ Repeatability = = = 1.02

d 2 1.128

d 2 is based on a sample size of n = 2, as each range value was based on the range

The gauge reproducability is based on the variability between the three operators. If

the X i values differ it is due to the difference between the operators since all measure

(

X Max = Max X 1 , X 2 , X 3 = 22.3 )

(

X Min = Min X 1 , X 2 , X 3 = 22.10)

R X = X Max − X Min = 22.3 − 22.10 = 0.20

RX 0.20

σ Reproducability = = = 0.12

d2 1.693

σ Gauge

2

= σ Reproducab

2

ility + σ Repeatability

2

2 2 2

P 6σ Gauge 6(1.03)

= = = 0.11

T USL − LSL 60 − 5

Institute of Technology Sligo

The conclusion drawn is that the gauge capability is not adequate.

As σ Repeatability >> σ Reproducability , training the operators will not solve the problem. The

problem lies with the gauge itself and we should look to another inspection device.

Institute of Technology Sligo

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