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Computers & Education 56 (2011) 839846

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Computers & Education


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compedu

Learning science via animated movies: Its effect on students thinking and motivation
Miri Barak*, Tamar Ashkar, Yehudit J. Dori
The Department of Education in Science and Technology and The Division of Continuing Education and External Studies, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 31 January 2010 Received in revised form 20 October 2010 Accepted 21 October 2010 Keywords: Elementary education Evaluation of CAL systems Interactive learning environments Multimedia/hypermedia system

a b s t r a c t
Some researchers claim that animations may hinder students meaningful learning or evoke misunderstandings. In order to examine these assertions, our study investigated the effect of animated movies on students learning outcomes and motivation to learn. Applying the quantitative methodology, two pre- and post-questionnaires were administered: Science thinking skills and Motivation to learn science. Students overall achievement in science was examined by their report card scores. The research population (N 1335) was divided into experimental (N 926) and control (N 409) groups from 11 elementary schools. Findings indicated that the use of animated movies promoted students explanation ability and their understanding of scientic concepts. Findings also indicated that students who studied science with the use of animated movies developed higher motivation to learn science, in terms of: selfefcacy, interest and enjoyment, connection to daily life, and importance to their future, compared to the control students. Following the denition of multimedia, the students who study with the use of animated movies, applied all three learning styles: visual, auditory and kinesthetic. The use of multimedia and the fact that the students were engaged in exploring new concepts, that were relevant to their daily life experiences, can explain the positive results. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction The development of Java, Flash, and other web-based applications allow teachers and educators, nowadays, to present complex animations. In science education, computerized modeling and animations are used for describing, explaining, and predicting scientic processes. Abstract scientic phenomena occurring in the macroscopic level (such as the movement of planets) or in the microscopic level (such as molecules and atoms) can be attractively illustrated by animated movies. Animations are employed for enhancing the transitions from abstract to concrete mental operations and vice versa (Barak & Dori, 2005; Barak, 2007; Dori & Belcher, 2005). These transitions may promote higher order thinking skill. Among the various higher order thinking skills, reasoning and explanation abilities are fundamental for the development of learners critical thinking, and thus, for meaningful learning of science (Barak & Dori, 2009). Studies that investigated the use of animations in the science classroom found that animated movies had a positive effect on students learning process (Najjar, 1998; Rieber, 1990; Williamson & Abraham, 1995) and thinking skills (Rosen, 2009). However, other researchers claim that since animations are in most cases a simplied version of a phenomenon, they carry potential for misconceptions (Mayer, Heiser, & Lonn, 2001) and may harm learning by preventing students from using their imagination in creating their own mental models (Schnotz & Rasch, 2005). In order to examine the conicting claims, our study investigated the effect of learning via animated movies on elementary students understanding of scientic concepts and their explanation ability. We also investigated the effect of animated movies on students motivation to learn science. 2. Literature review Science teaching deals with abstract phenomenon and processes that very often cant be seen or felt. Many studies indicated difculties in learning and teaching science among students as well as teachers (Barak & Dori, 2005; Barnea & Dori, 2000; Williamson & Abraham,
* Corresponding author. Tel.: 972 4 8295173; fax: 972 4 8295634. E-mail addresses: bmiriam@technion.ac.il (M. Barak), ashkar@technion.ac.il (T. Ashkar), yjdori@technion.ac.il (Y.J. Dori). 0360-1315/$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.10.025

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1995). These difculties are even more acute among young students in elementary schools. In order to reveal the hidden, science education researchers recommend the use of visualization (Barak & Dori, 2005; Williamson & Abraham, 1995). In recent years, dynamic visualizations like animations have become a ubiquitous component of computer-based learning environments. Computerized visualization and animations are promising methods to promote science education (Dori, Barak, & Adir, 2003; Williamson & Abraham, 1995). They are used in research and teaching for describing, explaining, and predicting scientic phenomena (Dori & Belcher, 2005; Kaberman & Dori, 2009). Animation is conceptualized as the act, process, or result of imparting life. It relates to the art or process of preparing animated movies that involves the illusion of movement on a screen. Throughout the years, animated movies were presented in cinema and television. Today, many educational animations can be found on the Internet. In the context of learning, animation is effective especially in visualizing processes that cannot be seen or that are difcult to explain in class (Barnea & Dori, 2000; Williamson & Abraham, 1995). Animation can contribute to a better understanding of the learning material in two ways. First, it enables the creation of mental representations of concepts, phenomenon, and processes. Second, it can be used to replace challenging cognitive processes (such as abstraction, imagination, or creativity) that some learners are short of. A research that examined the use of animation among learners found that the more visualized means are used, the better the learning process become (Najjar, 1998). The study showed that the best method for teaching dynamic processes is through the use of computerized animation. Other studies show that the use of animations and visualizations contributes to students conceptual understanding (Barak & Dori, 2005), learning achievements (Dori et al., 2003), spatial abilities (Barnea & Dori, 2000), and motivation to learn science (Rosen, 2009). These positive results can be explained due to the animations ability to construct mental pictures among students that are similar to the mental model of scientists. A survey of empirical studies on the use of visualization and animations in teaching and learning indicated the following recommendations:  Use animation when complicated spatial structures and dynamic processes are involved (Dori & Barak, 2001; Najjar, 1998).  Integrate visual representations together with verbal explanations (Kaberman & Dori, 2009; Najjar, 1998).  Use animation only when they are directly connected to the curriculum and in condition that they have additional signicant contribution (Hofer & Leutner, 2007; Mayer et al., 2001).  Do not use animations when the learners have the ability to imagine the phenomenon or the process independently (Schnotz & Rasch, 2005).  Encourage active learning and collaboration among students while learning with animations (Barak, Harward, Kocur, & Lerman, 2007; Betrancourt, 2005). Furthermore, due to the animations dynamic and vibrant traits, the information displayed is constantly changing and might vanish before learners had the chance to assimilate it. Consequently, if the animation is ill-designed, and too much information is displayed in a short time, it may be cognitively overwhelming for students. At the same time, animations may also be underwhelming in that they may lead to overly passive information processing and prevent learners from performing effortful cognitive processes required for a deeper understanding (Schnotz & Rasch, 2005). The animations promises and drawbacks in education and science education yield ambiguous thoughts concerning their instructional effectiveness. A picture is worth a thousand words, is a known phrase, but can we also say that an animation is worth a thousand pictures? The following study attempts to contribute to the growing body of knowledge on the use of animations in science education among elementary school students. 3. Research goal and question Our research was based on an innovative program in Israel that integrated web-based animated movies into the science curriculum of 4th and 5th grade students. Our goal was to investigate the effect of animated movies on students learning outcomes and motivation to learn science. This goal raised the following research question: Can, and if so in what way, learning via animated movies effect students: a) understanding of science concepts and phenomena, b) explanation ability, c) motivation to learn science and d) scores in science as reected in their report card? 4. Research methodology and tools The research was based on the quantitative methodology using the pre- and post-experimental design (Campbell & Stanley 1963; Kerlinger, 1973). The teaching/learning method (the integration of animations) was the independent variable, and the dependant variables were: 1. Students understanding of scientic concepts and phenomenon examined by eight closed-ended questions (based on national science standards) and four true/false questions. 2. Students explanation ability examined by analyzing students written explanations. 3. Students motivation to learn science examined by a 1-to-5 Likert-type questionnaire adapted from SMQ Science Motivation Questionnaire (Glynn & Koballa, 2006). 4. Students overall achievement in science examined by their grades in their report cards. Other variables such as: gender, parents occupation, and extracurricular activities in science education (after school hours), were also analyzed for controlling their effect. Our study included two questionnaires: a. Science thinking skills and b. Motivation to learn science. The Science thinking skills questionnaire (Appendix A) included two versions one for 4th and one for 5th grade students, according to the national standards and topics. Both questionnaires included two parts. The rst part examined students understanding of science

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concepts through eight multiple choice questions. The second part examined students explanation ability through four true/false questions that require explanations. Each of the 4th and 5th grade questionnaires had two versions (A and B) that included the same questions but in a different order. Students receiving version A for their pre-questionnaire, were given version B for their post-questionnaire, and vice versa. The Motivation to learn science questionnaire (Appendix B), included 20 1-to-5 Likert-type items, divided into four categories: a. b. c. d. Self-efcacy (statements: 4, 10, 14, 15, 19*) Interest and enjoyment (statements: 1, 7, 8*, 11, 17) Connection to daily life (statements: 2, 3, 12, 16, 20*) Importance to the student (statements: 5*, 6, 9, 13, 18)

One statement in each category (marked with *) was a negative statement that was recoded for statistical analysis. The Motivation to learn science questionnaire was based on SMQ Science Motivation Questionnaire (Glynn & Koballa, 2006). It was adapted to t elementary school students since the original version targeted college students. Both questionnaires were validated by four experts in science education and three elementary school teachers, reaching 100% consent. Cronbachs Alpha coefcient for Internal Consistency was 0.88 for the Motivation to learn science questionnaire. Kuder Richardson KR-20 for determining the reliability of dichotomy scales indicated 0.72 for 4th grade Science thinking skills questionnaire, and 0.68 for 5th grade Science thinking skills questionnaire. As part of our study, both the Science thinking skills and the Motivation to learn science questionnaires were administered before and after learning with animated movies at the beginning and at the end of the school year. 5. Research settings The research included two stages: a) pilot study conducted in order to establish the research tools reliability and validity, b) main study conducted in order to answer the research questions. The main study included elementary schools in one municipality, in the central part of Israel. The schools were divided into experimental and control groups according to the school principle and the science teachers preferences. Since there were more than 2000 students participating in the program, the stratied sampling technique was employed (Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991) to ensure that students from different cohorts and age groups will be well represented. The experimental classes were sampled based on the criterion that all the students studied science while using BrainPop animated movies and supplementary activities at least once a week. The control classes were sampled based on the fact that the students used only textbooks and still-pictures for learning science. Our sample included 67% of the population that participated in this program. BrainPop website (http://www.brainpop.com) provided three to ve minutes animated movies that explain hundreds of scientic concepts in an entertaining way. Each movie included animated characters who lead the students through educational activities, including interactive quizzes and experiments (Fig. 1). The animated movies provide curriculum-based content that is aligned with the Israeli national science education standards. The teachers section contains lesson plans and ideas for using BrainPop animated movies in the classroom. At the beginning of the study, the experimental teachers received a two-hour workshop, focusing on pedagogical principles and teaching strategies for integrating the web-based animations. In addition, the experimental teachers received guidance throughout the year by BrainPop experts.

Fig. 1. A screenshot of the BrainPop website.

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M. Barak et al. / Computers & Education 56 (2011) 839846 Table 1 The research population distributed by research groups. Research groups Gender Class Parents occupation Extracurricular activities Boys Girls 4th grade 5th grade Science Other Science Other Experimental (%) 47.00 53.00 49.50 50.50 10.90 89.10 13.00 87.00 Control (%) 50.40 49.60 50.30 49.70 12.00 88.00 11.00 89.00

The animated movies were presented to the students at least once a week, about one animation for each topic taught in class. Each movie started with a question that was sent by an imaginary young student to Tim (an animated boy) and Moby (an animated robot). All the questions were about scientic phenomena that are connected to students daily life (motion and forces, the life on earth, environmental issues, and more). Following the question, an answer is provided through an animation that illustrates the phenomenon together with simple, clear and entertaining scientic explanations. In our study, the experimental teachers presented the animated movies to their students in the classroom and encouraged students to work on their own or in pairs in computer clusters. The teachers used the animations to explain complicated organ structures such as human lungs or dynamic processes such as electrical energy. They used them to provoke class discussions or to summarize a topic by carrying out short assignments. The teachers added verbal explanations while presenting the animated movies. They used the animations only when they were directly connected to the curriculum and added group or individual assignments such as solving riddles, crosswords, and puzzles to encourage active learning and collaboration among their students. In the control group classes, the teachers used traditional methods for teaching. They followed the sequence of a textbook, teaching one chapter after the other, covering the topics suggested by the Israeli national standards. The textbook included colorful pictures and photos of scientic topics such as: animals in their natural habitat, the human body, geological materials, and more. Most classes started with teachers explanations following students responding to questions or working on assignments, either individually or in pairs. Toward the end of the lesson, students were asked to participate in a class discussion. The teaching and learning methods of both the experimental and control groups were similar, except for the integration of animated movies. The exploration of the animated movies (individually or in small groups), together with class discussions and written assignments encouraged students to exchange ideas in a verbal or written way. Our assumption was that the animated movies will enhance students explanation abilities, resulting in conceptual understanding and meaningful learning.

6. Research population The research population included 1335 students. The experimental group included 926 students from ve elementary schools (4th graders: N 435 and 5th graders: N 491). The control group included 409 students from two elementary schools (4th graders: N 206 and 5th graders: N 203). Gender distribution was close to even (50.3% girls), 11.3% declared that their parents occupation involves a scientic eld (medical doctors, scientists, engineers etc.), and 12.8% declared that they participate in extracurricular activities in science education. Table 1 presents the research population distribution by research groups. Pearson Chi-Square test indicated no statistically signicant differences between the research groups in respect to gender, class, parents occupation, and extracurricular activities distribution.

7. Results The following section includes four parts. Each part provides an answer to one of the research questions. First section details students understanding of scientic concepts and phenomenon. Second section describes students explanation ability. The data presented in the rst two sections were collected from the science thinking skills questionnaire. The third section presents students motivation to learn science as retrieved from the motivation to learn science questionnaire. The fourth section details students science scores as reported in their report cards, before and after carrying out the research.
Table 2 Students mean scores, standard deviations and ANCOVA test comparing pre- and post-thinking questionnaires results. Research group N Pre-questionnaire Mean (0100) Program Gender Parents occupation Extracurricular activities NS-Non Signicant. Experiment Control Girls Boys Science Other Science Other 926 409 663 655 137 1077 156 1052 55.76 49.24 53.16 54.84 56.67 53.32 56.00 53.21 SD 17.70 18.81 18.18 18.22 15.21 18.57 18.94 18.14 Post-questionnaire Mean (0100) 70.34 55.17 66.31 65.54 66.08 65.95 69.07 65.36 SD 21.78 19.54 22.26 22.36 23.50 22.18 21.87 22.33 127.50 0.76 0.06 2.80 0.001 NS NS NS F p<

M. Barak et al. / Computers & Education 56 (2011) 839846 Table 3 Examples for students explanations, divided by three explanation levels. Scientic concept Wind A seed Gold Correct explanation Its inanimate since it cannot reproduce, grow, or breathe. Its a living organism since it needs water, can breathe and reproduce. Although it has relative high conductivity, this metal is not good for producing electrical wires since it is too expensive. Partial explanation Its inanimate since the wind does not grow. Its a living organism because it can reproduce. This metal is not good for producing electrical wires since they are made from copper. Incorrect explanation Its a living organism since it moves.

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Its inanimate because it does not move. Gold is good for producing electrical wires since it is made from metal.

7.1. Students understanding of scientic concepts and phenomenon Table 2 presents the mean scores and standard deviations of students answers in the pre- and post-thinking questionnaires of the whole population (grades 4 and 5 together). Table 2 also presents the results of ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance test used for equating the prequestionnaire results when testing for statistical signicant difference in the post-questionnaire results. The number of students (N) do not sum up to 1335 in all categories because some of the students did not respond to several parts in the personal information section. The only statistical signicant difference indicated in Table 2 was found between experimental and control group students. This means that the only difference in students gain in science thinking skills is explained by their participation in the BrainPop animated movies program, and not by gender, class, parents occupation or participation in extracurricular activities. In other words, students who experienced the use of animated movies as part of their science learning, improved their understanding and implementation of science concepts and phenomenon, compared to students who used only textbooks and still-pictures. Eta Squared analysis indicated that 9.3% of the growth in students science thinking skills can be explained by their use of animated movies. 7.2. Students explanation ability Students explanations to the true/false questions were analyzed and categorized into four explanation levels: a. b. c. d. Correct explanation providing scientic data and a solid rational. Partial explanation providing incomplete or partial scientic data. Incorrect explanation providing an incorrect answer or irrelevant details. Missing explanation providing no explanation at all.

Table 3 provides examples of students explanations sorted by levels. The percentages of the students that provided correct, partial, incorrect, or missing explanations are presented in Fig. 2. Comparing students levels of explanations (Fig. 2), ANCOVA test indicated that the experimental group students provided signicantly higher percentage of correct explanations compared to their control group peers (F(1,623) 7.10 p < 0.05). Eta Squared analysis indicated that 22.0% of the growth in students explanation skills can be explained by their use of animated movies. The percentage of the experimental students that presented partial, incorrect, or no explanations was lower than that of the control students. However, no statistical signicant difference was found between the research groups. 7.3. Students motivation to learn science The comparison between experimental and control groups in their motivation to learn science is presented in Table 4. The ANCOVA test presented in Table 4 indicated that the experimental group students asserted signicantly higher motivation in all categories, compared to the control group students. This result suggests that the use of BrainPop animated movies enhances students motivation to learn science, compared to just using textbooks and still-pictures.

Fig. 2. The percentage of students that provided correct, partial, incorrect, or missing explanations.

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Table 4 Students motivation to learn science, comparing between experimental and control groups. Category Research group Pre-questionnaire Mean (1-to-5) Self-efcacy Interest and enjoyment Connection to daily life Importance to the student General motivation Experimental Control Experimental Control Experimental Control Experimental Control Experimental Control 3.20 3.07 3.76 3.45 3.17 2.92 3.65 3.27 3.44 3.18 Std. deviation 1.04 0.88 1.29 1.06 1.04 0.87 1.10 1.01 0.99 0.76 Post-questionnaire Mean (1-to-5) 3.67 3.40 4.15 3.69 3.79 3.39 4.14 3.60 3.94 3.52 Std. deviation 0.97 0.95 0.98 1.08 0.90 0.94 0.86 0.91 0.78 0.78 18.16 38.03 35.50 73.87 53.48 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 F p<

Table 5 Correlations between students motivation to learn science and their thinking skills. Research group Experimental Control
a b

Variable Motivation Thinking skills Motivation Thinking skills

N 920 887 377 373

Mean net gain 0.56a 14.82b 0.37a 5.57b

Std. deviation 1.13 26.46 0.94 25.80

r 0.21 0.13

p< 0.001 0.05

On a scale of 1-to-5. On a scale of 0-to-100.

The net gains (post minus pre scores) of students motivation to learn science and their thinking skills were calculated among those that provided answers to all the questions in both parts of the pre- and post-questionnaires. Pearson correlations between students net gains are presented in Table 5. Table 5 shows that for both research groups (experimental and control), students increase in motivation to learn science and their thinking skills were statistically signicant correlated. This result suggests that throughout the academic year all the students developed scientic understanding, parallel to developing positive motivation toward science learning. However, it is important to note that the correlation between the two variables (motivation and thinking skills) among the experimental group students was almost twice as high compared to the same correlation among the control group. 7.4. Students scores in science as reported in their report cards At the end of every academic year, students in Israel receive report cards that summarize their overall achievements based on their examinations and accomplishments. They receive numeric grades, from 55-to-100, for each subject they study. In our study, we examined students overall achievements in science as reported in their report cards at the end of the research period. We found that the experimental students mean scores were higher than the mean scores of the control students, and that their standard deviations were lower (MeanExp 80.57, SDExp 11.12; MeanCon 78.52, SDCon 13.03, respectively). When controlling students science scores in their report cards prior to the study, the differences between the research groups, subsequent to the study, was statistically signicant in 90% (F(1,314) 2.74, p 0.09). This suggests that the assimilation of animated movies into science courses may enhance students achievements in science and reduce the gap between high and low-achievers. 8. Summary and recommendations Research addressing whether animations help learners understand dynamic phenomena has produced positive as well as negative results (Ainsworth, 2008; Schnotz & Rasch, 2005). One reason for this variety of results is that animation is a general term that refers to different forms of representation. This study examined the use of short animated movies that start with a question addressed to Tom and Moby (animated characters), with simple, clear and entertaining explanations. In our study we found that the use of this type of animation, followed by individual or group assignments and class discussions enhanced students understanding of scientic concepts and explanation ability. Our study also indicated that students who studied science with the use of animated movies developed higher motivation to learn science, in terms of: self-efcacy, interest and enjoyment, connection to daily life, and importance to the students future, in comparison to students who studied science in a traditional way, using only textbooks with still-pictures. Mayers cognitive theory (2002) maintains that knowledge is represented and manipulated through two cognitive channels: visualpictorial and auditory-verbal. The animated movies, presented in our study, were a combination of the two channels. The written text and the animated characters created the visual-pictorial channel. The music and the characters voice formed the auditory-verbal cannel. Following the denition of multimedia, the students who studied with the use of animations, applied three learning styles: visual, auditory and kinesthetic, and used three senses: seeing, hearing, and touching. Similar to other studies on multimedia (Dori, Hult, Breslow, & Belcher, 2007; Garcia, Quiros, Gallego, Martin, & Fernanz, 2007), our research showed that the usage of multi-senses for the construction of knowledge, promotes meaningful learning. The success of the experimental group students in answering questions and providing correct explanations can be explained by their engagement in three important cognitive processes: selecting, organizing, and integrating (Mayer, 1997). While viewing the animated

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movies the students were paying attention to the presented material, cognitively selecting images and text (visual sensations) and words (auditory sensations). While carrying out the learning assignments and participating in class discussions, the students were engaged in organizing the newly introduced scientic concepts and integrating them into a coherent structure of knowledge. The use of multimedia and the fact that the students were engaged in exploring new concepts, that were relevant to their daily life experiences, can explain the positive and high correlation between their thinking skills and motivation to learn science. It can also explain their high scores in science as reected in their report cards, in comparison to students who studied in a traditional way. In light of the positive results described in this research, we recommend to encourage teachers from both science and other disciplines (such as: English, Bible, Literature etc.) to integrate the use of animated movies, along with educational activities as suggested in the website. We recommend that more animated movies be created for secondary, high school, and even university students. We also recommend using the website as a platform for creating communities of learners among both teachers and students in Israel and around the world. The current study has both practical and theoretical implications. The practical implications lie in the integration of animated movies within science courses for primary school students. The use of animated movies in this study encouraged students to explore new concepts, provide possible answers to daily life questions, and participate in class discourse. The exploration of the animated movies encouraged students to exchange ideas in a verbal and written way. The animated movies were the trigger for the enhancement of students conceptual understanding, explanation ability, and motivation to learn science. This study holds theoretical implications as well. It contributes to the growing body of knowledge on the use of animations for teaching and learning by pointing out the importance and benets of integrating animated movies at the elementary school level and by providing a tested setting and an instructional framework. It also contributes to the knowledge on primary school students conceptual understanding and their motivation to learn science. This study was based on the classical experimental design for research (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). While experiments are quite useful for demonstrating cause and effect relationships, they might suffer from some disadvantages if they are conducted within a similar socialcultural environment. In our study, we examined more than one thousand and three hundred primary school students; however they were all from the same city and religion. This raise a question regarding the generalization of the ndings to other contexts. In order to establish external validity and generalization, further research should be conducted among students from different cultures, religions, and countries. Appendix A. Example questions from the science thinking skills questionnaire Understanding and implementation of scientic concepts:  In the Galilee there are industrial factories that dispense their sewage into groundwater. The people who live in the area use the water for drinking and might become sick. Which of the following solutions can be the best solution for this problem? a. To close all the industrial factories that pollutes the area. b. To treat the sewage and remove the waste. c. To move the polluting factories to the Negev. d. To look for substitute sources for drinking water.  Tami boiled water in a kettle and placed an empty and cold glass near it. A few minutes later the glass was covered with drops of water. Where did the drops of water come from? a. The water was in the glass from the beginning. b. The glass perspired and discharged water. c. The water that evaporated from the kettle to the air condensed on the glass. d. There is no connection between the water drops on the glass and the water in the kettle.  A certain lung disease damages the Alveolus (tiny air sacs in the lungs that help to absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide). What action can reduce the disease damages? a. To supply the patient with less oxygen because there arent enough Alveolus to deliver oxygen to the body. b. To supply the patient with less oxygen because there is a larger space in the lungs. c. To supply the patient with more oxygen to compensate for the absence of the Alveolus. d. To supply the patient with a normal quantity of oxygen, similar to a healthy person.  During a soccer game, Rami fell and broke his leg. In the hospital the doctors decided to put a cast. What would have happened to the broken bone if Rami did not wear a cast? a. The bone would not have healed without the cast. b. The bone would have healed but it would have taken longer and could have healed wrongly. c. The bone would have healed because Rami is young and only elders need casts. d. The bone wouldnt have healed at all because of lack of new tissue. Explanation ability: In the right column in the table below, indicate whether the object is a living organism or an inanimate object and explain your choice.

Living Wind A ower Avocado seed Milk , , , ,

Inanimate , , , ,

Explanation

Appendix B. Motivation to learn science questionnaire Please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements by marking the appropriate box.

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Statement 1. I think that science is a very interesting subject. 2. In science lessons I can get answers to questions that intrigue me. 3. In science lessons I can express my own ideas. 4. I can succeed in science even without the teachers help. 5. Science shouldnt be an obligatory subject in schools. 6. The number of hours per-week for science lessons should be increased. 7. Science lessons fascinate me. 8. Science lessons bore me. 9. It is important for me to understand the topics taught in science lessons. 10. Science lessons are easy for me to study. 11. I enjoy learning science. 12. In the future I would like to be a scientist. 13. Science studies enable me to understand daily phenomenon. 14. I have condence in my ability to succeed in science studies. 15. I help others in science lessons. 16. I read articles and watch TV broadcasts that present science topics. 17. I am very interested in explanations of scientic phenomenon. 18. I think that understanding science is important to everyone. 19. It is difcult for me to learn science. 20. Science has no connection to my life.

Agree strongly , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Agree , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Agree partially , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Disagree , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Disagree strongly , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

References
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