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//DEFAULT ARGUMENTS

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

void main()
{
int a;
clrscr();
void fib(int c,int a=0,int b=1);
cout<<"Enter a no.:";
cin>>a;
fib(a);
getch();
}

void fib(int c,int a,int b)
{
cout<<"The fibonacci series is:";
int d=0;
for(;c>0;c--)
{
d=d+a;
cout<<endl<<d;
a=b;
b=d;
}
}
//DEFAULT ARGUMENTS

OUTPUT:
Enter a no.:8
The fibonacci series is:
0
1
1
2
3
5
8
13
//CALL BY VALUE

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

void swap(int,int);

void main()
{
int iVar1,iVar2;
clrscr();
cout<<"enter two no.s:"<<endl;
cin>>iVar1>>iVar2;
swap(iVar1,iVar2);
cout<<"In main: "<<iVar1<<" "<<iVar2<<endl;
getch();
}

void swap(int iNum1,int iNum2)
{
int iTemp;
iTemp=iNum1;
iNum1=iNum2;
iNum2=iTemp;
cout<<"In swap: "<<iNum1<<" "<<iNum2<<endl;
}
//CALL BY VALUE

OUTPUT:
enter two no.s:
2
5
In swap: 5 2
In main: 2 5
//CALL BY REFERENCE

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

void swap(int &inum1,int &inum2);

void main()
{
int ivar1,ivar2;
clrscr();
cout<<"enter two no.s"<<endl;
cin>>ivar1>>ivar2;
swap(ivar1,ivar2);
cout<<"in main: "<<ivar1<<" "<<ivar2<<endl;
getch();
}

void swap(int &inum1,int &inum2)
{
int itemp;
itemp=inum1;
inum1=inum2;
inum2=itemp;
cout<<"in swap: "<<inum1<<" "<<inum2<<endl;
}
//CALL BY REFERENCE

OUTPUT:
enter two no.s
5
8
in swap: 8 5
in main: 8 5
//CLASSES WITH ARRAY AS DATA MEMBERS

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

class sum
{
int num[6],total;
public:
void getdata()
{
cout<<"enter the numbers:"<<endl;
for(int i=0;i<=5;i++)
cin>>num[i];
}
void putdata()
{
total=0;
for(int i=0;i<=5;i++)
total+=num[i];
cout<<"\nTotal="<<total<<endl;
}
};

void main()
{
sum t;
clrscr();
t.getdata();
t.putdata();
getch();
}
//CLASSES WITH ARRAY AS DATA MEMBERS

OUTPUT:
enter the numbers:
4
6
7
45
66
3

Total=131
//CLASSES WITH STATIC DATA MEMBERS

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
class test
{
int code;
static int count;
public:
void setcode()
{
code=++count;
}
void showcode()
{
cout<<"object number:"<<code<<endl;
}
static void showcount()
{
cout<<"count:"<<count<<endl;
}
};
int test::count;

void main()
{
clrscr();
test t1,t2;
t1.setcode();
t2.setcode();
test::showcount();
test t3;
t3.setcode();
test::showcount();
t1.showcode();
t2.showcode();
t3.showcode();
getch();
}
//CLASSES WITH STATIC DATA MEMBERS

OUTPUT:
count:2
count:3
object number:1
object number:2
object number:3
//CLASSES WITH CONSTRUCTORS

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

class crectangle
{
int width,height;
public:
crectangle(int,int);
int area()
{
return (width*height);
}
};

crectangle::crectangle(int a,int b)
{
width=a;
height=b;
}

void main()
{
clrscr();
crectangle rect(3,4);
crectangle rectb(5,6);
cout<<"rect area "<<rect.area()<<endl;
cout<<"rectb area"<<rectb.area()<<endl;
getch();
}
//CLASSES WITH CONSTRUCTORS

OUTPUT:
rect area 12
rectb area30

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

class space
{
int x,y,z;
public:
void getdata(int,int,int);
void display();
void operator-();
};

void space::getdata(int a,int b,int c)
{
x=a;
y=b;
z=c;
}

void space::display()
{
cout<<"\n"<<x<<"\n"<<y<<"\n"<<z<<endl;
}

void space::operator-()
{
x=-x;
y=-y;
z=-z;
}

void main()
{
space s;
clrscr();
s.getdata(10,-20,30);
cout<<"\nbefore unary operation s:";
s.display();
-s;
cout<<"\nafter unary operation s:";
s.display();
getch();
}

OUTPUT:
before unary operation s:
10
-20
30

after unary operation s:
-10
20
-30

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
class complex
{
float x,y;
public:
complex()
{}
complex(float real,float img)
{
x=real;
y=img;
}
complex operator+(complex);
void display();
};

complex complex::operator+(complex c)
{
complex temp;
temp.x=x+c.x;
temp.y=y+c.y;
return temp;
}
void complex::display()
{
cout<<x<<"+i"<<y<<"\n";
}

void main()
{
clrscr();
complex c1,c2,c3;
c1=complex(2.5,3.5);
c2=complex(1.6,2.7);
c3=c1+c2;
cout<<"c1=";
c1.display();
cout<<"c2=";
c2.display();
cout<<"c3=";
c3.display();
getch();
}

OUTPUT:
c1=2.5+i3.5
c2=1.6+i2.7
c3=4.1+i6.2

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

int volume(int);
double volume(double,int);
long volume(long,int,int);

void main()
{
clrscr();
cout<<"volume of cube:"<<volume(10)<<"\n";
cout<<"volume of cuboid:"<<volume(100,75,15)<<"\n";
cout<<"volume of sphere:"<<volume(2.18,8)<<"\n";
getch();
}

int volume(int s)
{
return(s*s*s);
}

double volume(double r,int h)
{
return(3.14*r*r*h);
}

long volume(long l,int b,int h)
{
return(l*b*h);
}

OUTPUT:
volume of cube:1000
volume of cuboid:112500
volume of sphere:119.380288
//MULTILEVEL INHERITENCE

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

class student
{
protected:
int roll;
public:
void getnumber(int);
void putnumber();
};

void student::getnumber(int a)
{
roll=a;
}

void student::putnumber()
{
cout<<"\nroll no. "<<roll;
}

class test:public student
{
protected:
float sub1,sub2;
public:
void getmarks(float,float);
void putmarks();
};

void test::getmarks(float x,float y)
{
sub1=x;
sub2=y;
}

void test::putmarks()
{
cout<<"\nsub1 marks:"<<sub1;
cout<<"\nsub2 marks:"<<sub2;
}
class result:public test
{
float total;
public:
void display();
};

void result::display()
{
total=sub1+sub2;
putnumber();
putmarks();
cout<<"\ntotal:"<<total;
}

void main()
{
clrscr();
result r;
r.getnumber(100);
r.getmarks(75.9,59.6);
r.display();
getch();
}
//MULTILEVEL INHERITENCE

OUTPUT:

roll no. 100
sub1 marks:75.900002
sub2 marks:59.599998
total:135.5
//VIRTUAL BASE CLASS

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>

class student
{
protected:
int roll_number;
public:
void get_number(int a)
{
roll_number=a;
}
void put_number()
{
cout<<"ROLL NO IS:"<<roll_number<<"\n";
}
};

class test:virtual public student
{
protected:
float part1,part2;
public:
void get_marks(float x,float y)
{
part1=x;part2=y;
}
void put_marks()
{
cout<<"MARKS OBTAINED:"<<"\n";
cout<<"PART1:"<<part1<<"\n";
cout<<"PART2:"<<part2<<"\n";
}
};

class sports:public virtual student
{
protected:
float score;
public:
void get_score(float s)
{
score=s;
}
void put_score()
{
cout<<"sports wt.:"<<score<<"\n";
}
};

class result:public test,public sports
{
float total;
public:
void display();
};

void result::display()
{
total=part1+part2+score;
put_number();
put_marks();
put_score();
cout<<"total score:"<<total<<"\n";
}

void main()
{
clrscr();
result student_1;
student_1.get_number(678);
student_1.get_marks(30.5,25.5);
student_1.get_score(7.0);
student_1.display();
getch();
}
//VIRTUAL BASE CLASS

OUTPUT:
ROLL NO IS:678
MARKS OBTAINED:
PART1:30.5
PART2:25.5
sports wt.:7
total score:63
//FILE HANDLING

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<fstream.h>
#include<iomanip.h>

class inventory
{
char name[10];
int code;
float cost;
public:
void getdata()
{
cout<<"enter name ";cin>>name;
cout<<"enter code ";cin>>code;
cout<<"enter cost ";cin>>cost;
}
void putdata()
{
cout<<setw(10)<<name
<<setw(10)<<code
<<setprecision(2)<<setw(10)<<cost<<endl;
}
};

int main()
{
clrscr();
inventory item;
fstream inoutfile;
inoutfile.open("stock.dat",ios::ate|ios::out|ios::binary);
inoutfile.seekg(0,ios::beg);
cout<<"current contents of stock "<<"\n";
{
item.putdata();
}
inoutfile.clear();

//ADD ONE MORE ITEM

item.getdata();
char ch;
cin.get(ch);
inoutfile.write((char*)&item,sizeof item);

//display the appended file

inoutfile.seekg(0);
cout<<"contents of appended file\n";
{
item.putdata();
}

//find no of objects in the file

int last=inoutfile.tellg();
int n=last/sizeof(item);
cout<<"number of objects="<<n<<"\n";
cout<<"total bytes in the file="<<last<<"\n";

//MODIFY THE DETAILS OF AN ITEM

cout<<"enter the object number to be updated\n";
int object;
cin>>object;
cin.get(ch);
int location=(object-1)*sizeof(item);
if(inoutfile.eof())
inoutfile.clear();
inoutfile.seekp(location);
cout<<"enter new values of the objects\n";
item.getdata();
cin.get(ch);
inoutfile.write((char*)&item,sizeof item)<<flush;

//SHOW UPDATED FILE

inoutfile.seekg(0);
cout<<"contents of updated file\n";
{
item.putdata();
}
inoutfile.close();
getch();
return(0);
}
//FILE HANDLING

OUTPUT:
current contents of stock