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Reciprocating engine dynamic properties

1. Combustion engines main principles and definitions 2. Reciprocating combustion engines architecture 3. Reciprocating engines dynamic properties 4. Engine components and systems 5. The engine management system for gasoline and Diesel engines 6. The emission Requirements & Technology 7. Engine vehicle integration
7.1 Engine layout and mounting 7.2 Engine-vehicle cooling system 7.3 Intake system 7.4 Exhaust system

Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca 2010 - Road vehicle and engine engineering science

Reciprocating engine dynamic properties

Reciprocating engines dynamic properties 1. Engine operation forces 2. Engine Excitation Mechanisms (Single Cylinder Engine) 3. Key issue on masses balancing
In line 4 cylinder engine balance Flat 4 cylinder engine balance In line 5 cylinder engine balance In line 6 cylinder engine balance V60 6 cylinder engine balance V90- 30crank offset 6 cylinder engine balance V90 8 cylinder engine balance V90 - flat crankshaft 8 cylinder engine balance
John Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals / McGraw-Hill Charles F. Taylor, The internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice /The M.I.T. Press Automotive Handbook R. Bosch/SAE Advanced engine technology (Heinz Heisler) Butterworth/Heinemann Light and Heavy Vehicle Technology (M.J. Nunney) - CGIA, MSAE, MIMI Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca 2010 - Road vehicle and engine engineering science

Reciprocating engine dynamic properties Engine operation forces


The purpose of the piston-connecting rod-crankshaft assembly in the reciprocating piston-engines is to transform the gas forces generated during combustion within the working cylinder into a piston stroke, which the crankshafts converts into useful torque available at the flywheel. The cyclic operation leads to unequal gas forces, and the acceleration and deceleration of the reciprocating power-transfer components generate inertia forces.

The mass inertia properties of the piston-connecting rod-crankshaft assembly are a composite of the rotating mass of the crankshaft about their axis and the reciprocating masses in the cylinder direction.

The inertial properties of a single cylinder engine are determined by the piston mass, exclusively oscillating mass, the crankshaft mass, exclusively rotating mass, and the corresponding connecting-rod mass components, usually assumed to amount to 1/3 for rotating and to 2/3 for oscillating mass.

The inertia force components are identified as inertial forces of the 1st, 2nd, 4th order, depending upon their rotational frequencies, relative to engine speed: in general only the 1st and 2ndorder components are significant.

In the case of multi-cylinder engines, free moments of inertia are present when all the complete crankshaft assemblys inertial forces combine to generate a force couple at the crankshaft.
Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca 2010 - Road vehicle and engine engineering science

Reciprocating engine dynamic properties Inertia or mass forces

Eccitanti alterne di inerzia in un motore alternativo monocilindro Eccitanti alterne di inerzia in un motore alternativo monocilindro

Massa alterna ma

acc = r * * [cos + cos( 2)] = d / dt Force = m a * acc = FI + FII

Il Motore come sorgente di con vibrazioni e rumore The alternate motion of the rod - crank system Fig. 1. 1

Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca 2010 - Road vehicle and engine engineering science

Reciprocating engine dynamic properties Considerations on gas forces


The gas forces are generated by the fuel combustion acting on the piston to be transferred to the crankshaft by connecting- rod through the expansion stroke: therefore during the complete cycle they depend on the crankshaft position. When multiplied by the crank radius, the gas forces produce a periodically variable torque value.
Leffetto dellecom bu stioniiin un m o tore alternativo m onocilindrico Leffetto delleco m bustion in un m oto re alternativo m o nocilindrico

F gas = P* A F tot = F gas +F rec

The diagram shows the curve of the engine torque as a function of crankshaft position: this is one of the most important characteristics in assessing the dynamic engine behavior.
G as pressure Inertial effect R esulting pressure

F n =F tot * sin Te =Fn* x

C oppia m edia erogata

Il M otore com esorgente di vibrazionie rum ore

Fig. 1.3

Scuola di Dottorato di Ricerca 2010 - Road vehicle and engine engineering science