Internal Use Only

Objectives / Agenda

• • • •

Types of conventional Completions Completions Components (hardware) Completions Fluids Sandcontrol

Internal Use Only

Where do well completion and completion products “fit” into the over all well program?

Internal Use Only

and installation of equipment and the specifications of treatment and procedures necessary to bring the well into production and thereafter to produce in a manner which satisfies the company objectives for the field development Internal Use Only . selection.Well Completion Design Definition • The design.

Tubing Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve Tubing Landing Nipple SINGLE COMPLETION Wireline-Set Permanent Packer Mill-Out Extension Seal Bore Extension Wireline Entry Guide Landing Nipple Perforated Pup Joint Landing Nipple Muleshoe Guide Internal Use Only .

Multi-Zone Single String “Single Selective” Objective: Completion of more than one zone with one string • Advantages: – Packer provides downhole tubing/casing isolation – Permanent packers can withstand high differential pressures and temperatures – Zone changes are easily accomplished utilizing slickline 2 CN0 6 86 Internal Use Only .

Hydraulic Control Line Flow Coupling Safety Valve Landing Nipple Lock Mandrel Wireline-Retrievable Safety Valve Flow Coupling Sliding Sidedoor® Circulating Device Flow Coupling Dual Hydraulic Retrievable Packers Selective Landing Nipple Collet Catcher Sub No-go Landing Nipple Sliding Sidedoor® Circulating Device Blast Joints Polished Nipple Electric-line Set Permanent Packer Selective Landing Nipple Perforated Pup Joint No-Go Landing Nipple Wireline Re-Entry Guide Internal Use Only Dual String Retrievable Packer Installation .

Horizontal Completion Unconsolidated Formation • Objectives: – Lower cost installation for slightly unconsolidated homogeneous formations • Advantages: – Maximize formation contact – Liner assembly can be rotated and washed to bottom – Screens can be circulated through to remove fluid loss material – Packer provides downhole tubing/casing isolation Internal Use Only .

Tubing Flow Coupling Selective Landing Nipple Flow Coupling Flow Coupling Circulating Device Flow Coupling Seal Assembly Permanent or Retrievable Sealbore Type Packer Sealbore Extension Conveyed Perforated Single trip Completion • Alternatively TCP guns can be run as part of the packer tailpipe assembly Tubing Conveyed Perforating Gun Pressure-Activated Tubing Release Ported Pressure Equalizing Sub Optional Mechanical Tubing Release Mechanical Firing Head Gun Time Delay Firing Head Internal Use Only .

Completion Hardware Internal Use Only .

Packer What is it? What does it look like? What does it do? Internal Use Only .

when set. seals the annular area between 2 strings of pipe or a string of pipe and the open hole. which.What is a Packer? A tool. Production flow is also allowed through the packer. Tubing Casing Packer Internal Use Only .

Why Run a Packer? • • • • • Production control Production testing Protection of equipment Well repair and well stimulation Safety Internal Use Only .

Components of a Packer • • • • Slips Elements Mandrel Wedges / Cones Internal Use Only .

Setting Methods • Hydraulically set – Apply pressure with fluid • Mechanically set – Tubing movement • Wireline set – Wireline unit and setting tool Internal Use Only .

Types of Packers Mechanical Retrievable Hydraulic Retrievable Seal Bore Retrievable Permanent Internal Use Only .

Seal Bore Assembly Packer Seal Assembly Installed In Packer Seal Movement Seal Contact Maintained Seal Assembly Seal Bore Extension Mill Out Extension Internal Use Only .

Seal Assemblies

Molded

Premium

Internal Use Only

Locators

Straight-Slot

J-Slot

RATCH-LATCH®

Internal Use Only

Mule Shoe Guides

G Muleshoe

COL Muleshoe Collet

SG Self-Aligning Muleshoe

Internal Use Only

RH Catcher Subs Catcher subs provide additional holes for easily adjusted pinning alternatives CN0124 7C CN0126 2 CN0126 1 Catcher Sub Assembly With Wireline Re-Entry Guide Catcher Sub Assembly With Tubing Threads Catcher Sub Assembly With Muleshoe Internal Use Only .

Blast Joint Internal Use Only .

Flow Coupling Internal Use Only .

Landing Nipple/Locking Mandrel System Landing Nipple • Short piece of thick pipe ran on tubing that has an internal profile • Locking Mandrel Tool that is part of a plug system which will lock inside of a landing nipple Internal Use Only .

Application of Landing Nipples and Lock Mandrels • • • • • Subsurface safety valve installation Plugging for surface wellhead repair Zonal isolation Bottom hole chokes and regulators Setting packers Internal Use Only .

but what is it? Internal Use Only .Safety Valve? Sounds like a good idea.

Why Do We Use Subsurface Safety Valves? • Last line of defense in the event of a catastrophe • • • • Protects life Protects operator’s investment Protects the environment Government requirement Internal Use Only .

SSSV Equipment • Tubing retrievable subsurface safety valves • Wireline retrievable subsurface safety valves Internal Use Only .

Internal Use Only .Sliding Sleeves • What on earth is a sliding sleeve? – Closable port in a tubing string to allow fluid flow from the annulus into the tubing or from the tubing into the annulus.

DURASLEEVE™ Non-Elastomer Production Sleeve Top Sub with Landing Nipple Profile Circulation/ Closing Sleeve Non-Elastomer Seals Large Flow Ports Equalizing Ports Applications in: • Producing alternate zone in singleselective completion • Circulating kill fluid eliminates expense of perforating tubing • Washing above packer Bottom Sub with Polished Bore End Sub DURASLEEVE™ Sliding Sleeve Internal Use Only .

Sleeve Positions Closed Equalize Open Internal Use Only .

Completion Hardware Review of components Internal Use Only .

Tubing Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve Tubing Landing Nipple SINGLE COMPLETION Wireline-Set Permanent Packer Mill-Out Extension Seal Bore Extension Wireline Entry Guide Landing Nipple Perforated Pup Joint Landing Nipple Muleshoe Guide Internal Use Only .

Hydraulic Control Line Flow Coupling Safety Valve Landing Nipple Lock Mandrel Wireline-Retrievable Safety Valve Flow Coupling Sliding Sidedoor® Circulating Device Flow Coupling Dual Hydraulic Retrievable Packers Selective Landing Nipple Collet Catcher Sub No-go Landing Nipple Sliding Sidedoor® Circulating Device Dual String Retrievable Packer Installation Blast Joints Electric-line Set Permanent Packer Selective Landing Nipple No-Go Landing Nipple Wireline Re-Entry Guide Internal Use Only .

Perfs Want to product from 2 zones and able to produce from any one at one time. Label the components you put in your completion string. Internal Use Only .Exercise (signal selective) • Draw a diagram of a signal selective completion.

Considerations When Selecting Metals for Down-Hole Use • • • • • • Hydrogen embrittlement from H2S-H2O mixtures Chloride stress cracking from hot salt water Galvanic corrosion (oxygen-containing injection water) Weight-loss corrosion (dissolve & erodes) Strength Cost Internal Use Only .

Smart Wells? Internal Use Only .

Internal Use Only .Smart Well Definition • A “smart well” is a well that provides the operator with the ability to: – Re-configure well architecture at will – Acquire real-time data without well intervention.

Control & Monitoring • Pressure Measurement • Temperature Measurement • Gross Flow Measurement • Reservoir Isolation Internal Use Only .Present Smart Well System Remote Access.

Smart Well Advantages Maximize NPV of Asset Value by: • Reducing Intervention Costs • Increases Reservoir Understanding • Accelerating Production • Maximizing Recoverable Reserves • Improving Lift Efficiency Internal Use Only .

Completion Fluids Internal Use Only .

i.e. which clean as much debris as possible from the wellbore • Displacement fluids Internal Use Only . • Minimize damage to the formation • Minimize fluid losses to the formation • Act as carrier fluids.Completion Fluid Functions • Main Purpose.Well Control..Maintain overburden pressure on the formation/s during completions operations.

Density of Clear Brines at 70ºF Brine Ammonium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Chloride Potassium Bromide Sodium Formate Calcium Chloride Sodium Bromide Maximum Density.5 Note: The maximum density may vary slightly.0 11.8 Density of Stock Solution.7 10. lb/gal 9. Internal Use Only . depending on how the brine is prepared.9 11.6 12.0 10.4 9. lb/gal Sacked Ammonium Chloride Sacked Potassium Chloride Sacked Sodium Chloride Sacked Potassium Bromide Sacked Sodium Formate 11.8 12.

2 19.Density of Clear Brines at 70ºF Maximum Density. Internal Use Only .3 none Brine Potassium Formate Calcium Bromide-Calcium Chloride Calcium Bromide Zinc Bromide-Calcium Bromide 15.1 Density of Stock Solution.5 14. lb/gal 13. depending on how the brine is prepared.5 20.2 Note: The maximum density may vary slightly. lb/gal 13.3 15.

Non-Brine Completion Fluids • Seawater and bay water – – – – – – Salinity may be too low to prevent clay damage Water may need to be filtered and treated with biocide Crude oil may precipitate asphalt or paraffin Diesel oil or mineral oil are cleaner Air foam may cause excessive corrosion Nitrogen can be used • Crude oil • Foam – for extremely low-pressure zones Internal Use Only .

Basic Selection Criteria • Density requirements – pressure control – Reservoir pressure (P) – 200 to 300 psi overbalance (Pob) often needed Ph = P + Pob Where. Ph= bottomhole hydrostatic pressure Internal Use Only .

Example problem • What density completion fluid should be used if the BHP is 6800psi and the TVD is 9000ft? The company man would like to stay 200psi overbalanced. Internal Use Only .

Basic Selection Criteria • Density requirements – pressure control • Crystallization temperature – precipitation – Problems associated with crystallization • • • Settling in tank Density of pumped brine too low Plugged lines Internal Use Only .

Basic Selection Criteria • Density requirements – pressure control • Crystallization temperature – precipitation • Reservoir compatibility requirements: – with formation clays – with formation Fluids Internal Use Only .

Basic Selection Criteria • • • • Density requirements – pressure control Crystallization temperature – precipitation Reservoir compatibility requirements: Cost and availability Internal Use Only .

lb/gal 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 9.Relative Cost for Standard Production Brines 16 16 14 Density.7 CaCl2 NaCl KCl US$ CaBr2 NaBr CaCl2/CaBr2 NaBr NaCl/NaBr CaBr2 CaBr2 CaCl2/CaBr2 CaBr2/ZnBr2 CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 Internal Use Only .

Engineering and Testing • Filtration – To ensure clear brines are as particle-free as possible Internal Use Only .

Engineering and Testing • Filtration • Corrosion – In an electrically conductive brine. the environment is favorable for corrosion – Causes of corrosion: • • • oxygen acidity bacteria Internal Use Only .

Engineering and Testing • Filtration • Corrosion • Weighting up and weighting down (density adjustment) Internal Use Only .

in bbl W1 = initial mud weight. ppg W 2= desired mud weight. ppg Internal Use Only .Halliburton • Water-Back or weighting down heavy Fluid V (W 1 − W 2 ) X = − 8 . 33 W 2 » X = barrels of water needed » » » V = original volume of mud.

000bbl and you want to reduce the fluid weight from 12ppg to 11ppg. 33 Internal Use Only . How many barrels of water should be added? V (W 1 − W 2 ) X = W 2 − 8 .Example problem The total volume of fluid in the system is 1.

Engineering and Testing • Filtration • Corrosion • Weighting up and weighting down • Fluid-loss control – Excessive brine loss • • • Expensive Potential formation damage Well-control problems Internal Use Only .

Engineering and Testing • Filtration • Corrosion • Weighting up and weighting down • Fluid-loss control • Rheology needed to – Calculate pressure losses in workstring – Suspend solids Internal Use Only .

Engineering and Testing • Filtration • Corrosion • Weighting up and weighting down • Fluid-loss control • Rheology • Emulsion prevention – Emulsions form when some crudes are mixed with brine. Internal Use Only .

Conclusion about Completion Fluid • Proper engineering of completion fluids – – Is essential for the economic success of the well Considers interactions from the time the bit penetrates the reservoir until well is producing They prepare the well for production They minimize or reduce damage to the productive capacity of the well • Completion fluids are tools – – Internal Use Only .

Sandcontrol • What is it? • Why is it needed? Internal Use Only .

Sandcontrol Completion Tubing Retrievable Packer Blank Pipe Screens Proppant or Sand Sump Packer Internal Use Only .

Sand Control Screens First Generation • All-Welded Screen Internal Use Only .

Sand Control Screens Second Generation • Dual Prepack Screen • Perforated Prepack Screen • Enhanced Low Profile Prepack Screen Internal Use Only .

Sand Control Screens Third Generation Poroplate® Filter Media Two Layered Shroud Internal Use Only .

Gavel Pac Tools Internal Use Only CN01029 .

MULTI POSITION SERVICE TOOL VERSA-TRIEVE PACKER MCS CLOSING SLEEVE BLANK PIPE WASH PIPE PRODUCTION SCREEN SUMP PACKER Internal Use Only CN00801 .

PRODUCTION SEAL ASSEMBLY VERSA-TRIEVE PACKER MCS CLOSING SLEEVE Production Seal Assembly PRODUCTION SCREEN SUMP PACKER Internal Use Only CN00803 .

Summary • Types of conventional Completions • Completions Components (hardware) • Completions Fluids • Sandcontrol Internal Use Only .

Internal Use Only .