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International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) ISSN: 2277-3878 !

olu"e-# I$$ue-% &cto'er 2(#2

6onitoring o# .ag A Temperat$re in the 2lectrical 'ower Transmission lines

Sau+i, -a$ .u*ta Sou+i, /undu 0'hi$he, )alli,
Abstract For proper transmission of power in overhead transmission lines temperature control and sag monitoring are the two major parameters to be kept in mind. Electrical load variation and environmental changes affect the temperature in the transmission lines. For proper safety measurements these monitoring should be done on a continuous basis. Some of the ongoing temperature and sag monitoring methods that can be sited are the usage of stainless steel temperature probes, glass based sensors, thermocouples, !"s, and #nfrared sensors. $owever, all these methods have a disadvantage of having loosening of contacts. %ross sensitivity may also arise due to environmental contaminations. !he disturbances caused by the different parameters can be stated as follows&' $igh temperature due to climate changes decreases the efficiency of electrical transmissions. E(treme weather conditions would increase the chances of failure rate of power lines. !emperature rise also results in an increase in thunder storms and results in the lightning strike of power lines. ) degrees %elsius of temperature rise increases network losses by *.*+,. #t is also found that operation of the conductors on high temperature reduces the mechanical integrity of the overhead systems. #t is also clear that cumulative damage occurs to the Aluminium metal in the overhead conductors. $ence, in order to overcome these disadvantages, we hypothise the introduction of -E-S .-icro Electro -echanical Systems/ technology through 012!.1. !his is a temperature sensor, which has numerous advantages over the e(isting ones. !he thin film of 1ead 1anthanum 3irconate titanate .012!/ will be coated on nickel foil by chemical solution deposition and this will be fabricated as sensor using -E-S technology. !he sensor in turn will be embedded in the transmission line at selected point wherefrom monitoring of temperature and sag is 4uite feasible. !his sensor will be having high chemical stability , high mechanical and thermal resistances , good pie3oelectric coefficients and enhanced sensitivity for which it will be reckoned to be a more accurate and versatile one. #nde( !erms'''' -E-S, 012!, sag, temperature control I. INTRODUCTION

rein#orce% ,)C.R- con%$ctor, a temperat$re increase o# a&o$t 820.%egree ." will ca$ses a&o$t 9.: inches increase in line length, which will increase the sag &y a&o$t :.; #eet. "or the p$rpose o# this calc$lation, line tension at :0.%egree. ". was set to 20< o# the con%$ctor &rea/ing loa% ,a common practice &y the transmission line %esigners-. A. $a3ardous effects of sag The pro&lem o# sagging power lines is well /nown to the electric power in%$stry an% is associate% with pro&lems which are ha*ar%o$s an% which are &oth time cons$ming an% e(pensive to recti#y. .agging power lines pose an electroc$tion ha*ar% to persons an% vehicles an% can lea% to interr$ption in power s$pply an% are /nown to ca$se h$gely %estr$ctive an% e(pensive #orest an% &r$sh #ires. 5. Electrocution ha3ards 2ach year 3.9 percent o# the %eaths o# yo$ths $n%er age 20 on #arms are ca$se% &y electroc$tion= 2lectroc$tion is >$ic/ an% %ea%ly an% is one o# the most overloo/e% ha*ar%s o# #arm wor/. The most common ca$se o# electroc$tions are porta&le grain a$gers, oversi*e% wagons, large com&ines, an% other tall e>$ipment that come into contact with overhea% power lines. The same pro&lem o# sag also a##ects all other s$spen%e% str$ct$res s$ch as &ri%ges, s$spen%e% telecomm$nications wires an% str$ct$ral ca&les. ,not really #or this case?-. .$ch wires an% ca&les incl$%e ca&les $se% in constr$ction o# &$il%ings an% &ri%ges.

"ig$re 8@ 5igh !oltage Transmission 7ines

Transmission power lines are electrical lines that carry high voltage, e.g., 230 !. "or reasons o# sa#ety, s$ch lines are s$spen%e% well a&ove gro$n% level. 'ower lines, which are generally s$pporte% &y transmission towers, cover large %istances. D$e to the #orce o# gravity, power lines intrinsically ten% to sag. This initial sag increases with line temperat$re &eca$se the con%$cting material o# which the line is ma%e e(pan%s as line temperat$re increases, e##ectively lengthening the line. ) small increase in line length pro%$ces a large an% potentially ha*ar%o$s increase in sag. "or e(ample, #or a line with a +00 #oot tower spacing ,a typical span #or overhea% transmission lines- an% an al$mini$m con%$ctor steel
)anu$cri*t recei+ed &cto'er 2(#2 .a$vi/ Das 0$pta, Technical Cons$ltant12.l, . ol/ata, 3est 4engal, In%ia. .o$vi/ $n%$,4.Tech , 5eritage Instit$te O# Technology, ol/ata, 3est 4engal, In%ia. )&hishe/ 6alli/, 'artner12.7, ol/ata, 3est 4engal, In%ia.

"ig$re 2@ 4ar graph showing the %eaths ca$se% %$e to electroc$tion


)onitoring of Sag 1 Te"*erature in the Electrical 2o3er Tran$"i$$ion line$

)%%itionally the same pro&lem may a##ect any wire that is $n%er tension, s$ch as g$i%e wires an% ca&les $se% #or transmitting #orce #rom a control to an instr$ment s$ch as may &e $se% in &oats an% aircra#t an% cars an% other machines too. 'resent techni>$es to compensate #or s$ch sag ca$se% &y $n%esire% increase in length o# a ca&le incl$%e@ 8. .hortening the %istance &etween a%Bacent towers to re%$ce span length an% th$s re%$ce line sag. 2. 2recting taller transmission towers to accommo%ate line sag. 3. Replacing e(iting con%$ctors with new ones with lower sag characteristics. :. Retro1#itting e(isting towers to increase height. +. 7imiting electrical c$rrent loa% capacity to compensate #or increase% am&ient temperat$re. 9. Other metho%s #or re%$cing sag an% #or /eeping a s$spen%e% line ta$ght incl$%e the $se o# constant tension elements s$ch as springs an% pre1stresse% tensioners an% even the $se o# strategically place% weights on the s$spen%e% line. %. 6eed of temperature monitoring To provi%e electricity witho$t interr$ption to a growing economy is a challenge #or power engineer. This has to &e cost e##ective, harmless to the environment an% sho$l% also meet the re>$irements o# the %ynamic in%$stries. The reasons #or temperat$re monitoring o# power ca&les are@ 8. 5ot spot location an% monitoring. 2. To compare installation con%itions. 3. Control cooling systems :. Determine circ$it rating. +. 6anage overloa% operation. 9. 6a(imise power capacity. To s$mmarise we can say that temperat$re monitoring o# power ca&les o##ers the #ollowing a%vantages@ 8. 6eans to monitor the ca&le con%ition since rise in temperat$re in%icates an ins$lation &rea/%own or a change in its operating environment. 2. Option o# comparing the loa% to temperat$re changes an% the act$al temperat$re can &e compare% to theoretical val$es. 3. )&ility to postpone circ$it investment, since i# the ca&le temperat$re is /nown in relation to loa%, maintenance an% replacement can &e properly sche%$le% accor%ing to its &ehavio$r rather than %oing pre%iction. ". Effect of environmental conditions on transmission lines 8. Temperat$re rise will increase precipitation. In winter, an increase in Cma(im$m snow precipitation4 is to &e e(pecte%. This wo$l% lea% to more severe snow an% ice %eposition on power line str$ct$res. 2. Temperat$re rise res$lts in an increase in th$n%er storms an% conse>$ently lighting stri/es on power lines. 3. 'erio%s with $n#ro*en gro$n% will increase. This has the positive e##ect that it #acilitates wor/ing at $n%ergro$n% lines %$ring a longer perio% o# the year. 5owever, it will increase the #re>$ency o# weather con%itions com&ining high win% spee%s, snow, an% $n#ro*en gro$n%. .$ch a com&ination &ears a high ris/ o# #alling trees, possi&ly %amaging power lines. :. )n increase o# %ays with temperat$res o# 30DC an% more5 Distri&$tion trans#ormers are calc$late% #or an am&ient temperat$re o# 20DC correspon%ing with a trans#ormer hot spot o# EFDC. )m&ient temperat$res o# a&ove 30DC lea%ing to hot spots o# more than 880DC wo$l% serio$sly a##ect the li#e e(pectancy o# those trans#ormers. II. 2G'2RI62NT)7 'ROC2DUR2 A. 012!'5ASE" !E-0E A!7 E SE6S8 The compo$n%s o# the soli%1sol$tion '&HrO3 I'&TiO3, calle% 'HT shows strong pie*oelectric e##ect an% have same str$ct$re as 'ervos/ites. The pie*oelectric properties %epen% on the TiJHr ratio. ) very important material o&taine% &y incorporating 7anthan$m into 'HT shows &oth pie*oelectric as well as electro1optic e##ects .This new gro$p o# material is /nown as '7HT, where $s$ally '& is replace% &y 7a. 2r&i$m %ope% '7HT ceramic pow%ers with 7a@Hr@Ti with proportion E@9+@3+ were o&taine% thro$gh conventional soli% states reaction .The mi(t$re is mi(e% in a &all mill #or three ho$rs ,$sing %istille% water an% HrO2 cylin%ers as grin%ing me%ia .It is then %rie% ,an% the mi(e% pow%er was calcine% in

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"ig$re 3@ ) Transmission Tower

,&"ig$re :@ .26 6icrographs o# '7HT %eposite% with .$&strate heating at %i##erent temperat$res.


International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) ISSN: 2277-3878 !olu"e-# I$$ue-% &cto'er 2(#2 air at E000c #or three ho$rs to #orm 'ervos/ites phase. )#ter this process the pow%er was remille% #or 80 ho$r to re%$ce the particle si*e. 5. 0roperties of 012! 8. 5igh chemical sta&ility, 2. 5igh mechanical an% thermal resistances, 3. 0oo% pie*oelectric coe##icients an% :. 2nhance% sensitivity. +. 2asy an% #ast #a&rication $sing )E)S Technology. 9. Cost e##ective. %. Fabrication of the sensor: ) lea% lanthan$m *irconate titanate ,'7HT- thin #ilm was coate% on nic/el #oil &y chemical sol$tion %eposition on nic/el #oil. This sensor can &e %esigne% &y IntelliSuite ,the #irst commercial C)D #or 626. tools- which optimi*es )E)S de$ign$ prior to #a&rication, re%$cing prototype %evelopment cycle time an% c$tting man$#act$ring costs. Intelli.$ite also contains 'ie*o 626. mo%$le which has the #ollowing #eat$res@ 8. 'ie*oelectric an% pie*oresistive mo%elling 2. 7inear an% non1linear mo%els. 3. 'ie*o1aco$stic co$pling an% high #re>$ency analysis. the section o# power con%$ctor &ase% $pon comp$ting the real time covariance o# these signals is also employe%. I!. CONC7U.ION 5ence the '7HT &ase% Temperat$re .ensorK #a&ricate% $sing 626. technology can &e a promising %evice #or the #$t$re applications having n$mero$s a%vantages. It can &e $tili*e% as a %evice which will &e help#$l to monitor the temperat$re an% sag in electrical transmission lines even in a%verse environmental con%itions. D$e to the recent tren%s in 626. technology we hope that this sensor will &e &roa%ly implemente%. D$e to the enormo$s application potential, it might &e reasona&le to hope that large scale #a&rication metho%s o# '7HT &ase% sensors will &e %evelope%, res$lting in %ecrease in the cost. The most important #eat$re o# this proBect is that this has a high social relevance. 3e can re%$ce the electroc$tion ha*ar%s an% transmission losses &y contin$o$s an% proper sag monitoring. This will also enhance proper power transmission an% also%etect the increase in loa% even in the pea/ ho$rs. )s this propose% metho% is also cost e##ective, we can ens$re that power will &e %elivere% in the remotest places witho$t any ris/. !. )C NO372D062NT The a$thors wo$l% li/e to ac/nowle%ge 2.7 ,eschoollearning- #or its help an% s$pport ren%ere% to #or the completion o# this wor/. R2"2R2NC2.
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"ig$re +@ 4asic principle o# pie*oelectric e##ect

"ig$re 9@ '7HT temperat$re sensor #i(e% in the power ca&le. III. R2.U7T )ND DI.CU..ION The sense% signals are to &e transmitte% to the control station #or proper monitoring. Transmitters are electrically connecte% to the temperat$re sensor an% the tension sensor #or rea%ing the o$tp$t o# the temperat$re sensor an% tension sensor an% transmitting signals in%icative o# the sensor o$tp$ts. ) processor incl$%ing a receiver #or receiving signals in%icative o# the sensor o$tp$ts o# the temperat$re sensor an% the tension sensor, an% calc$lating the average temperat$re o#