ArtHunter – Research report

Mobilising new experiences for museum staff and visitors
Ms. Maureen Michael, Research Assistant, University of Stirling

Executive Summary
Background
For this project, National Galleries of Scotland (NGS) worked with technology development firm Kotikan to create a mobile app, ‘ArtHunter’, that would increase visitor engagement with artworks in the National Galleries and other participating galleries across Scotland. This project represents an important first foray for NGS into the usage of mobile technologies, and offers a useful contribution to our understandings of the design and implementation challenges related to such initiatives. NGS received £42,715 from the Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland for the development of ArtHunter.

The project
The ArtHunter app features selected artworks organised into thematic clusters as well as collection information, all structured around a competitive art ‘collecting’ game. Ten ‘must see’ NGS artworks are published in ArtHunter every month. The object of the game is to visit all ten artworks in the respective galleries and share the visits through social media. Visitors ‘collect’ each artwork when a four-digit code (seen next to the artwork in the gallery) is entered into a smartphone or tablet, unlocking extra content such as high-resolution images and information, video, hidden details and links to other works. ArtHunter was conceived and developed as a partnership project. Organisational rhythms and styles of working were different across the two partners. Kotikan used ‘agile methodology’, an adaptive and iterative approach to projects. NGS followed a more traditional, linear approach in its project management. Communication and dedication to the partnership allowed for effective reconciliation of the two styles.

Results
The app was launched in April 2013, and received 1959 downloads (iOS and Android) in its first 4 months. The number of monthly active users has remained relatively constant at around 380, and 30% of ArtHunter users now use the app at least 3 times per month. From comments obtained through informal anecdotes offered by visitors (on Twitter, blog and one extended description), NGS 1

has concluded that ArtHunter has created an original and more positive user experience for at least some of its gallery audiences. Project outcomes include significantly increased user engagement with specific artworks; new and more active mode of user engagement; a collaborative innovation process within NGS for developing and implementing technology; new visitor policies to allow mobile phones in the galleries; and strengthened links among NGS’s partners and external galleries around Scotland. The ArtHunter project has precipitated a cultural shift through the change in NGS policies for photography and use of mobile devices in their galleries. Prior to ArtHunter, the gallery had a ‘no mobile phone’ policy, but now visitors generally are able to use their phones and take photos of artworks.

Insights
Building support for such an unfamiliar initiative as a mobile app required continual efforts in communication and problem-solving. Key concerns related to additional resources needs, mobile phone use and copyrights. Key stakeholders were internal departments and management structure, volunteer staff, visitors, partner galleries, and lenders of art works. Strategies devised to keep these stakeholders engaged and confident of ArtHunter’s success included internal meetings, creative workshops for staff and volunteers and a user testing session with visitors. The project partners met challenges by anticipating unpredicted problems and setbacks as a natural part of the process and maintaining patient, frequent and enthusiastic direct communication with each group of stakeholders throughout the project.

Future
The legacy of ArtHunter beyond the app itself is twofold. NGS and Kotikan have built a partnership characterised by trust and reciprocity that is ideally poised for joint future idea generation and problem solving. ArtHunter has changed the organisational climate for digital engagement within NGS. With now two relatively successful mobile applications enhancing its collections and public engagement, and a strong relationship with a technology partner, NGS is well poised to explore further projects in this domain.

1. Background
National Galleries of Scotland (NGS) (http://www.nationalgalleries.org/) is the custodian of one of the largest collections of western art in the world. It is a publicly-funded arts and cultural organisation 2

comprised of three Edinburgh-based galleries (Scottish National Gallery, Scottish National Portrait Gallery, and the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art) and two partner institutions (Paxton House in Berwickshire and Duff House in Banff). The Scottish National Gallery features artworks from the early Renaissance to 1900 and the national collection of Scottish art c.1600-c.1900, while the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art offers modern and contemporary art, plus renowned Dada and Surrealist collections. The Scottish National Portrait Gallery presents portraits of those who shaped Scotland's history from the sixteenth century, and includes the national collection of photography. The combined museum collection includes 96,000 artworks, 3883 of which can be online via the NGS website. Attendance figures for all three institutions average about 1,377,232 annually. At present NGS does not yet have audience development goals (these are in development at the time of writing). However, the galleries have adopted three key digital goals: 1. Open up our collection and knowledge: We will use our digital collection and create engaging content resources to attract and grow audiences. 2. Grow our audiences: We will grow our audiences in order to achieve the greatest reach for the artworks in our care and the facilities we offer, by creating and delivering varied and enjoyable content across our digital channels. 3. Increase income generation: We will use increased audiences and insights to extend and promote our online commercial offer increasing the income we have to invest in our organisational vision. As part of these goals, NGS decided to try developing a mobile app with the assistance of a technology firm with whom it had worked previously. Kotikan (http://kotikan.com/) is a mobile application development company of designers, software engineers and marketing experts who focus on the design and development of mobile technologies. Currently Kotikan employs 17 full-time staff and is located in the centre of Edinburgh. Kotikan’s managing director, Gav in Dutch, maintained a project overview with different members of staff assigned to different phases of the design and development process. NGS received £42,715 from the Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland for developing the ArtHunter mobile app project. This project represents an important first foray for Scotland’s National Galleries into the usage of mobile technologies, and offers a useful contribution to our understandings of the design and implementation challenges related to such initiatives. ArtHunter is a free mobile phone app designed to increase visitor engagement with artworks across Scotland. Downloaded from the Apple App Store or Google Play, ten ‘must see’ NGS artworks selected by Gallery staff are published in ArtHunter every month. The object of the game is to visit all ten artworks in the respective galleries and share the visits through social media, for example, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Visitors ‘collect’ each artwork when a four-digit code (seen next to the artwork in the gallery) is entered into a smartphone or tablet, unlocking extra content such as high-resolution images and information, video, hidden details and links to other works. The app rewards the visitor with trophies for the collections they accumulate and NGS is rewarded with additional visits and with the marketing and promotion of the artworks through the visitor’s social networks. Scholarly research analysing art gallery experiments with these sorts of mobile applications and app games has only begun to appear. Some prescriptive literature is available (e.g. Proctor 2010), and various descriptive literature is appearing in blogs, news stories and conference papers to describe particular initiatives (e.g. Houlberg Rung and Laursen 2012). What does seem to be clear is that 3

mobile apps started appearing in the US and Europe about 2009 primarily as part of guided tours, but gradually began expanding their uses to include layered material and prompts for social interactions (Economou and Meintani 2011). An online survey (Museum Zero 2013) notes that 70% of art museums have incorporated some sort of mobile application, with the top two reasons cited being ‘to experiment in engaging visitors’ and ‘to make accessible additional interpretative content’. As Bolter et al. (2013) argue, and most descriptions of mobile apps in galleries seem to agree, mobile apps reconfigure the ways users navigate the cultural content and environment. The result is a very hybrid and idiosyncratic experience. Common elements of such apps as described by Bolter et al. (2013:40) are very similar to the ArtHunter characteristics: • text or images floating in the user’s field of view; • clickable elements to reveal more information or link to the WWW; • QR codes and logo recognition; and • location-controlled delivery of information. For games (where the interface is more varied, depending on the kind of game and its game mechanics): • the phone itself as the game instrument; • markers to indicate physical surfaces for game play; and • 3-D images attached to physical surfaces. The ArtHunter partnership built on three previous joint projects between NGS and Kotikan, including 1 the development of a major exhibition-specific app for Elizabeth Blackadder . NGS decided to 2 increase digital engagement with gallery visitors following an organisational review. This review sought to address key issues centred on visitors’ use of mobile phones and cameras, and Wi -Fi access in the galleries. NGS policies to this point prevented mobile phone usage in the galleries to avoid noise disturbance and to protect copyright throughout the collections. The Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland call coincided with the decision to increase visitor digital engagement with the collections, and ArtHunter was developed specifically for this call.

2. The project
The specific objectives of the ArtHunter app were to:       use the competitive aspect of collecting works and completing lists to drive more people into the Galleries; connect the in-gallery and online experiences; engage users by gathering feedback and making use of social media; partner with other museums and galleries in Scotland and create connections between collections; get feedback from audiences about works in the collection; and 3 gather data for analytics.

ArtHunter was conceived and developed as a partnership project. The Head of NGS Digital Media, Tessa Quinn, led the project delegating tasks of curatorial content and design with a team of five people.
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https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/elizabeth-blackadder-national/id444092257?mt=8 NGS 'Digital Engagement - A New Strategy: Project Scope and Road Map' (internal document), 2012 3 National Galleries of Scotland, ‘Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland Application’, April 2012.

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The original funding application was developed following a joint brainstorming session in early 2012. Face-to-face meetings and online discussions witnessed the development and exchange of information, ideas and critique. Key milestones were identified jointly and then each partner projectmanaged their specific tasks towards meeting those milestones. For example, art content for the app was developed independently of the app functionality. Gallery staff developed thematic categories of specific art pieces for consideration (“must see lists”), drawing on their knowledge of the collections as well as visitor preferences, beginning August 2012. Kotikan staff developed the app technology, working from initial discussions of the product vision, for feasibility, usability, user appeal, etc., beginning in September 2012. In October and November 2012, personnel engaged in the two activities were brought together to negotiate the final choices: the art content had to fit with app affordances and limitations, and the app had to render the art content effectively and appropriately. Each partner had to accommodate the other whilst at the same time identifying aspects of the content/functionality that could not be altered. Throughout the whole project NGS and Kotikan worked together to keep ArtHunter moving forward, bringing its progress to the attention of their stakeholders at every opportunity. NGS stakeholders enrolled into the ArtHunter project included internal departments and management structure, volunteer staff, visitors, partner galleries, and lenders of art works. Strategies devised to keep these stakeholders engaged and confident of ArtHunter’s success included internal meetings, creative workshops for staff and volunteers and a user testing session with visitors. The marketing strategy aimed to build internal organisational excitement as well as public 5 engagement. Building and sustaining organisational confidence with digital innovation can be challenging (as discussed in the next section) but the project leads (Tessa Quinn for NGS and Gavin Dutch for Kotikan) both described these challenges as integral to the different stages of the creative design process. Both emphasised a process approach to project management that expected and 6 worked through challenges. Both partners, of course, were overseeing other projects concurrent with ArtHunter. Kotikan managed 7 this workload with ‘Agile Methodology’ , a flexible and emergent approach to project management that produced iterations of ArtHunter in ‘sprints’: each small-increment iteration works through all functions of planning, design, testing etc. to produce a working product. Every two weeks NGS received a working prototype of ArtHunter from Kotikan. Kotikan’s MD explains that this: ‘is about trying to deliver the maximum value by following as much communi cation as possible… The big reason for following this is often when you’re working on software it’s quite easy to misunderstand how much work you’ve got left to do. The tidying everything up and 8 getting everything to work without any errors is often what t akes the most time.’ In contrast to this ‘agile’, adaptive and iterative approach, NGS follows a more traditional, linear approach in its project management, including that used for ArtHunter. NGS assigned specific content-related roles to Digital Media team members working in response to, and in anticipation of, Kotikan’s sprint cycles. At the same time, NGS was engaged in a programme of activities designed to scaffold the success of ArtHunter: securing additional funding from the Friends of NGS (for the development of the Android app); building stakeholder confidence (internally with other NGS departments and externally with other galleries/collections in Scotland); extending the Wi-Fi capacity of the Gallery; reviewing the NGS mobile policy; developing a marketing and signage strategy for ArtHunter; and presenting workshops
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Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, November 2012. Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013. 6 Interviews with Tessa Quinn, NGS, 30 August 2012, and with Gavin Dutch, Kotikan, January 2013. 7 Agile methodology was also employed by the Happenstance project funded by the Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in England: see Bilton (2012). 8 Interview with Gavin Dutch, Kotikan, January 2013.

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for visitor staff in using ArtHunter.

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Resources invested by NGS over and above the funding received are shown in the Table 1 below. All figures represent costs for goods and services, not for staff time. Market research mobile phone usage ArtHunter iOS ArtHunter Android Images & copyright Video production Video equipment Marketing materials TOTAL Table 1: Additional NGS investment in ArtHunter. Beyond these operational costs, NGS staff time dedicated to the project was also a significant resource. This time was not tracked, and hence difficult to break down. However, the NGS project lead is clear that the staff time required was much more than planned – as much as 25% more, at a 10 soft guess. These additional time requirements resulted partly from the research process itself, including interviews and assistance with report preparation, and partly from the Nesta workshops related to the Digital R&D initiative which required participation to obtain the funds. While NGS considered these activities valuable, they were also time consuming. With no prior experience of such processes, NGS had not anticipated the staff time needed for these research activities. £ 1000 £ 29300 £ 15500 £ 1000 £ 7000 £ 3000 £ 3200 £ 60000

3. Results
The app had a soft launch in April 2013 with a full launch planned for October 2013. Its uptake was monitored closely using download counts (number of visitors that downloaded the app) from April 2013 onwards, in order to establish relationships between online and in-gallery visitors. The project aim to increase audience engagement appears to have been met, according to visitor 11 downloads of the ArtHunter app. From April to July 2013 there were 1320 iOS downloads of the app and 639 for the Android version. The number of weekly active users has been constant (excluding the April launch spike) at around 90. Thirty per-cent of ArtHunter users use the app at least 3 times per month (see Figures 1 & 2 for charts showing detailed statistics for total downloads, active users, artworks captured, and collections completed from April-December 2013).

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Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013. Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, 27 January 2014. 11 Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, 27 January 2014.
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Figure 1: Usage of iOS and Android Apr-Dec 2013

250

200 Daily Downloads

150 Android 100 iOS

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617181920212223242526272829 April Figure 2: Daily downloads of iOS and Android NGS did not analyse further statistics on user engagement with the app (session length, ratings, etc), because the organisation lacks the budget and resources to conduct this detailed evaluation. In any case, in the views of gallery staff, these sorts of data would not reveal much useful information about the quality and purposes of visitor engagement with their collections through the app. In general, NGS explained, the organisation had few resources to invest in systematic evaluations of their various projects. As the NGS project lead observed in a final interview, more useful information for the gallery emerges through observation of visitors, and visitors’ anecdotal information. For example, certain tweets and blogposts created by visitors using ArtHunter, and one extended description of her 12 ArtHunter experience sent directly to the NGS, described further on, have been valuable. These have revealed advantages, limitations and suggestions for the app from a visitor perspective.

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Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, 27 January 2014. (e.g. https://twitter.com/Stacker/status/322019045136297984, and http://museumzero.blogspot.co.uk/2013/08/art-hunter-app-shows-what-not-to-do.html The letter containing an extended description is confidential to the NGS.)

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The fourth objective was to partner with other museums and galleries in Scotland and create connections between collections. Already five partner venues – University of Stirling, Burns House Museum, The Pier Arts Centre, Kelvingrove Art Gallery & Museum, Hawick Museum – have artworks 13 on the app and more are scheduled to come on stream over the coming months. The partnership aspirations of ArtHunter have thus been fulfilled as far as NGS is concerned. For NGS some of the other outcomes are yet to unfold. Without doubt the ArtHunter project has precipitated a cultural shift through the change in NGS’ policies for photography and use of mobile devices in their galleries. Prior to ArtHunter, the gallery had a ‘no mobile phone’ policy, but now visitors are able to use their phones and take photos of artworks (with the exclusion of most special exhibitions, unless owners grant permission). In the three art galleries comprising NGS, the attendants were concerned about a potential general relaxation of rules governing behaviour in the gallery. However, in two of the three galleries, gallery attendants found instead that the new rules made their jobs easier with the removal of the need to discipline visitors. (One gallery felt that the mobile phones were creating problems, but after some observation and conversation with staff the project lead determined that these problems were related to gallery renovations that restricted space). Among curators, there was some concern about the relaxation of copyright rules, but these concerns turned out to result from confusion about the content of the copyright policies. This issue was addressed by listening carefully to the curators’ concerns and explaining as clearly as possible just what the current relevant copyright policies actually permitted. Among lenders, some were concerned about the implications of the mobile phones. All were communicated with directly, and some requested that their artwork be posted with a ‘no photo’ sign. In general, the shift is being managed with much two way communication and negotiation: it is an ongoing process. Data gleaned from users showed a flurry of interest following the product launch, then a levelling. The data do not speak to the question of whether bigger, new or different audiences have been reached through ArtHunter’s competitive aspect (collecting 10 pieces of art). Overall, the NGS feels the user take-up is still somewhat lower than hoped. With total NGS visitor attendance figures of 1,262,463 in the April 2013 – February 2014 period (weekly visitor average 28,692), a weekly average app usage of 90 seemed low. However it is fair to add that the organisation was unsure what, exactly, might be reasonable targets given the utter novelty of the project for its galleries and audiences. Further, given that this is the first NGS foray into mobile museum experiences, it is difficult to know whether uptake reflects Scottish audiences, and a general museum culture established in the NGS galleries that will take more time to change. Certainly the introduction of mobile phones in galleries has changed certain behaviors of visitors (whether or not they are using ArtHunter) and their relations with gallery attendants. The NGS project 14 lead also observed that the project has changed user experience. Through anecdotal visitor information (too few to categorise), NGS has learned that visitors seem to like the freedom to ‘to whizz past whole collections without feeling guilty about it’ that the app seems to provide, and the encouragement to focus more deeply on a few artworks. Some users felt that the app directions could be clearer and the ArtHunter signs in the galleries themselves more visible. Most users indicated they were motivated by the ‘game’ of different levels and badges, while others enjoyed the artwork information without being particularly interested in the ‘game’ aspect. Some users felt that the texts themselves were rather basic, and were hoping for more linked online information about the artworks. One user commented positively on the tags that grouped the ArtHunter selections into thematic clusters, stating that ‘surprising moments’ like this made the museum visit more interesting. There was a feeling that the ArtHunter helped the visitor to ‘take charge of the space’ rather than to feel ‘a wee bit patronised by museums’ organised experiences’.
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Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, 27 January 2014. Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, 27 January 2014.

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From these sorts of comments obtained through informal anecdotes offered by visitors (on Twitter, blogs and one extended description), NGS has concluded that ArtHunter has created an original and more positive user experience for at least some of its gallery audiences. NGS has also decided, from this feedback, that marketing of the app as well as clarity about its usage (in signs and brochures) could improve. Overall the ArtHunter project has been affected by, and made an impact on, the NGS policies and staff attitudes respecting visitors’ use of digital devices. For Kotikan, ArtHunter provided an 15 opportunity to extend the application of their infrastructure technology.

4. Insights
Project Development Without the Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland the ArtHunter project would not have been conceived and developed in the collaborative manner in which it emerged. As explained by NGS in particular, the funding was essential to enable them to take the necessary creative risks and provide the necessary time for collaboration with Kotikan. That is, it helped to validate the project within the NGS organisation which justified the staff time needed. It also provided a bit of a safety net: if, for example, the app had failed to engage target audiences, it was felt that the fund would mediate this, and help to ensure continuing management support for new digital ventures regardless of possibilities for some unsuccessful outcomes. The ArtHunter project entailed a process of development that was important for NGS in catalysing new thinking around digital engagements and new policies to support this. Whilst the app itself is perhaps not especially innovative in the broader international landscape of museum innovations (e.g. its features follow common elements of museum apps listed by Bolter et al. 2013 and summarised earlier in this report), it created important new forms of audience participation and organisational changes in Scottish galleries. Overall, the NGS/Kotikan ArtHunter project demonstrates real optimism and appetite for digital innovation, at least in this particular cultural sector. Resource Challenges The development of ArtHunter raised several challenges relating to resources, staffing, organisational change and partnership working. Both partners agreed that their enthusiasm for the ArtHunter project encouraged a greater allocation 16 of resources than originally anticipated. NGS’ commitment to visitors’ expectations for dual platform technology saw them secure further funding for the development of the Android version of the app (funded by Friends of NGS). Both NGS and Kotikan also provided the project with more staff time than originally planned. Although Kotikan did not receive more funding than originally agreed, the firm was motivated by the learning opportunities offered by the project. In particular, they were developing a new technological infrastructure to serve the ArtHunter app that they hoped might be transferable to other projects. Staffing Challenges Matters of staffing concerned both partners. The ArtHunter project was a professional development opportunity for the NGS digital content team. This team was supported by the wider NGS Digital
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Interview with Gavin Dutch, Kotikan, January 2013. Interviews with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013 and with Gavin Dutch, Kotikan, January 2013. 17 Interviews with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013 and with Gavin Dutch, Kotikan, January 2013.

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Media Department and their learning became part of the whole ArtHunter process. The nascent nature of their experience, both as junior staff and as relative novices in digital design, was managed sensitively to provide them appropriate scaffolding and progressively increasing responsibility. ArtHunter’s role as an opportunity for professional development was very important to the Head of Digital Media who understood ArtHunter as a “really good pathfinder” for exploring how people might 18 do things differently. Kotikan was subject to staff leaving the company mid-project, in October-November 2012. Whilst staff mobility is a regular occurrence in small enterprises it meant that the development schedule for ArtHunter stuttered, timelines had to be revised, and the Agile Methodology – which depends on the coherence of a small team – was interrupted. NGS was without a Director of Public Engagement throughout the project period, whose remit would include Digital Media, and so a champion for ArtHunter was absent from senior management contexts. Organisational Challenges This absence of the ArtHunter/Digital Media voice in the upper hierarchy of the NGS organisational structure may have contributed to the slow process of building support for the app across the various departments. While there was always general organisational buy-in, not all of the stakeholders supported ArtHunter all of the time. Sustaining a shared sense of organisational confidence in ArtHunter challenged the project team throughout the development process. Attending to wider organisational buy-in began in earnest when 19 funding was secured via the Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland, when Tessa Quinn and her colleagues promoted the project at various departmental/strategic meetings. The tight project timescale meant that confidence, at different levels and departments of the organisation, waxed and waned as people struggled to understand the mobile app and the potential of its technology, and reconcile their partial understandings with what some considered to be its disadvantages (creating noise and disruption in the Gallery, or threatening the copyright of certain art pieces). Often ‘the penny dropped’ when individuals were able to get hands-on experience with ArtHunter 20 during its final user-testing phase in February-April 2013. Personal experience of the app brought a practical understanding of its potential and the different NGS departments began to see how ArtHunter could work with their organisational priorities. For example, Education team members noted that aspects of their ‘Family’ programme could be enhanced through ArtHunter by including artworks featured in their programmes as part of the ArtHunter collection; they also commented that they might 21 contribute to the content of ArtHunter to tie it directly to their future events. Bringing conceptual understanding into line with practical experience emerged as pivotal in the internal relationships described here but also in the NGS collaboration with Kotikan, and this process took about 8 months of time altogether. For NGS a primary challenge to ArtHunter’s success was the organisation’s own policies limiting the use of mobile devices and photography in the galleries, designed to protect copyright and art work 22 loan agreements. As the progress of ArtHunter was reported at different team and management meetings, these policies were constantly revisited: ArtHunter motivated and accelerated resolution of the longstanding issues underpinning these policies. Policy changes were proposed in a Digital Engagement Strategy circulated to staff (May 2013) and discussed at a special staff event (June 2013).

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Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013. Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013. 20 Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013. 21 Fieldnotes from Marketing Strategy Meeting, Jan 2013. 22 NGS ‘Mobile Use Policy Recommendations’, 2012.

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Sometimes there was misalignment in the collaborative development process between NGS and Kotikan. Despite each organisation working with similar timelines, the necessary points of 23 convergence did not always happen as planned. For instance, the NGS content team needed practical hands-on experience working with ArtHunter before they could fully appreciate its scope for 24 different content, but the opportunity for this was not possible until later stages of the project. Strategies for Addressing Challenges In terms of strategies for addressing all of these challenges, both NGS and Kotikan stressed the importance of anticipating unpredicted problems and setbacks as a natural part of the process and working through them. As such, the challenges listed above were anticipated and certain characteristics of the two project managers eased the transition from challenge to solution. Resource challenges required greater internal allocation of resources, particularly staff time within the NGS, than had first been anticipated. Staffing challenges required attention paid to capacity building among more inexperienced staff and graduating their induction into increasing responsibilities. Staff turnover demanded resilience as well as more time spent in communication to bring newer project members on board throughout the project. Communication with senior managers in NGS was an important issue requiring attention from the project lead herself. Overall, as the NGS project lead explained, working through such challenges required from both partners patience, persistence, listening and building an ethos of mutual learning at individual and organisational levels. These processes needed to be sustained throughout the life of the project, and organisational communication in particular needed to be continually circulated. For example when it appeared that internal NGS stakeholders were becoming uncertain about the value or purpose of the project, they were gathered together to ‘play with’ early versions of ArtHunter to see how it actually was going to work. Uncertainty and questioning of the project within the arts organisation were treated by the project lead as positive and necessary in the process of organisational change.
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According to the NGS project lead, collaborating with the app developer as soon as possible in the project process (from the original idea and funding application) is essential for a shared understanding of both the content and functionality/design of digital products. Communication throughout the process, and resilient adaptation to issues that arise, is vital. Patient and ideally enthusiastic communication by the project leader, tailored for different stakeholders, will help keep all stakeholders engaged in the project and clear about its nature and purposes. In particular the agile development approach of ‘hands -on’ / show and tell was found to be an effective way to help arts organisation staff to understand purposes and possibilities of new digital innovations such as this app, thus building their trust and receptivity to such projects. The project leaders as well as the staff needed to accept challenge as a natural part of the creative process, and view challenges as opportunities for professional development. Different styles of project management and different organisational rhythms, cultures and processes, which inevitably emerge when working across digital firms and arts institutions, need to be recognised and reconciled at key points of exchange. Lessons Learned  Collaborate early with the technology partner to achieve a shared understanding of both the content and functionality/design of digital products.

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Interviews with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013 and with Gavin Dutch, Kotikan, January 2013. Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013. Interview with Tessa Quinn,NGS, August 2012. 26 Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, April 2013.

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   

The agile development approach can help arts organisations to understand purposes and possibilities of new digital innovations. Expect different working styles and rhythms across the partners. Communicate frequently, at all levels. Anticipate challenge and the need for frequent problem-solving.

5. Future
Another app for NGS was produced after ArtHunter, related to the NGS Titian and Diana exhibition. This app development was funded by the Art Fund, as part of the award to acquire these paintings jointly with the National Gallery, London. Public engagement was one expectation of this funding, and the app was conceived to achieve this engagement. This audio app was designed for iPad (ArtHunter is iPhone and Android only), and presents audio history of the paintings, enactment of background scenes, and curator commentary. Kotikan won the contract in a competitive tender, and the app is being implemented in March 2014. The Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland funded ArtHunter project was important for NGS in helping to build their relationship with the digital provider Kotikan. Through the ArtHunter project, the arts organisation and technology firm established a partnership characterised by trust and reciprocity. Their working relationship has moved beyond the merely ‘transactional’, where a product is contracted, to a collaboration where ideas emerge and problems are resolved through ongoing dialogue. This evolving collaboration, explains NGS, has been a key part of their experience of success with a digital technology firm. It is clear that, with two relatively successful mobile applications enhancing its collections and public engagement, and a strong relationship with a technology partner, NGS is well poised to explore further projects in this domain. In terms of further research, this project joins a burgeoning movement to explore possibilities opened by mobile technologies in art museums. Useful questions to examine include the specific ways these technologies are being developed and used to increase visitors’ attendance and expand their engagement with collections, with what sorts of results in different contexts and with different audiences. It also would be useful to know more about the implementation processes of such technologies in different institutional cultures of museums, comparing local with national museums, and comparing across international regions. Along this line of investigating implementation processes, it also would be useful to track follow-on projects that museums adopt once they begin introducing new mobile technologies. While NGS itself has no immediate plans for further research, it clearly is continuing further experimentation with mobile apps. In the broader picture, discussions are now underway for a digital curricular program of contemporary art to be rolled out across Scotland. The possibilities are that this can build on and upscale lessons from ArtHunter in a large implementation that has the potential for greater impact.
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6. Further resources
Further project information

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Interview with Tessa Quinn, NGS, 27 January 2014.

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General information on the National Galleries of Scotland can be found on http://www.nationalgalleries.org/ For information on the technology partner Kotikan please see http://kotikan.com/ Further information about ArtHunter. This site provides essential information including the downloadable application itself. http://www.nationalgalleries.org/visit/arthunter ArtHunter information from the web developer’s perspective. http://kotikan.com/ourwork/arthunter/ The Education activities of the National Galleries of Scotland are important context for understanding the aims of ArtHunter and other mobile public engagement projects that might be undertaken. These projects may be found here http://www.nationalgalleries.org/education Special Projects of the National Galleries of Scotland lists the updates on ArtHunter’s development and progress, and shows the context of this project in relation to other special projects being conducted by NGS, both digital and non-digital: www.nationalgalleries.org/aboutus/special-projects Articles about ArtHunter in the general press: Herald Scotland, 12 April 2013: RSA New Contemporaries. http://www.heraldscotland.com/artsents/visual/rsa-new-contemporaries-2013-rsa-building-edinburgh.1365818679 Art Daily, 15 April 2013: National Galleries of Scotland announce ArtHunter, the first ever collaborative free app for art. http://artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=62166&b=scotland#.UvjCp80vTFh Club Innovation & Culture France, 16 April 2013: ArtHunter, nouvelle application mobile créée par les National Galleries of Scotland: http://www.club-innovation-culture.fr/arthunter-nouvelle-applicationmobile-creee-par-les-national-galleries-of-scotland-pour-chasser-lesoeuvres/?utm_source=feedly#.UZStrjky6Fg.twitter

Tools and guidance
The survey ‘How Museums Go Mobile’, examines trends as of 2013 in art museums introducing mobile technologies. This is from MuseumZero Blogspot UK, which also can be searched for postings related to ArtHunter: http://museumzero.blogspot.co.uk/2013/08/how-museums-go-mobilesurvey.html Museum2 Blogspot features weekly posts, reports etc. exploring ways that web 2.0 philosophies can be applied in museum design. http://museumtwo.blogspot.co.uk/ Research on mobile use and visitor experiences includes a repor t into the Cleveland Museum of Art’s introduction of Gallery One (http://mw2013.museumsandtheweb.com/paper/transforming-the-artmuseum-experience-gallery-one-2/); Publishing Perspectives article on enhancing museum’s visitor experience through mobile technology (http://publishingperspectives.com/2013/12/how-uk-museumsuse-mobile-tech-to-enhance-visitor-experience/) and the V&A’s article on visitors’ feedback on mobile devices in museums (http://www.vam.ac.uk/b/blog/digital-media/museum-visitors-using-mobile). A helpful user perspective can be found in SmartTourism’s review of the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum’s guidemetour app in June 2012 (http://www.smart-tourism.co.uk/kelvingrove-museum-andart-gallery-generates-funds-with-new-technology/).

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ArtHunter was built using Kotikan’s content delivery platform Keystone http://kotikan.com/products/keystone/ .The Kotikan website lists other keystone products that Kotikan have been developing and that are particularly suited for arts organisations: http://kotikan.com/ourwork/ One example would be Hedout, which was launched for the Edinburgh Festivals.

Further reading
Bilton, C. (2012). Happenstance Report, Digital R&D Fund for the Arts/University of Warwick. Available at: //www.artsdigitalrnd.org.uk/sites/default/files/case-studydocuments/Academic_report_Happenstance_0.pdf Bolter, J.D., Engberg, M, and McIntyre, B. (2013). Media studies, mobile augmented reality, and interaction design. Interactions 20 (1), 36-45. Economou, M and Meintani, E. (2011). Promising beginnings? Evaluating museum mobile phone apps. Paper presented to the Rethinking Technology in Museums Conference, University of Limerick, Ireland. Houlberg Rung, M. and Laursen, D.(2012). Adding to the experience: use of smartphone applications by museum visitors. Proceedings of The Transformative Museum conference, Roskilde University, Denmark. pp. 314-25. Museum Zero (2013). How museums go mobile - survey. Available at: http://museumzero.blogspot.co.uk/2013/08/how-museums-go-mobile-survey.html Proctor, N. (2010). Mobile apps for museums: The AAM guide to planning and strategy. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums.

Other examples
The Digital R&D Fund for the Arts in Scotland comprised two other projects which also produced apps aimed at making physical/geolocated content discoverable in new ways. The An Iodhlann project developed the Frasan app for exploring the island of Tiree and its heritage: www.frasan.org.uk The Publishing Scotland project produced the Bookspotting app which helps users to discover Scottish books in new ways, amongst others by location: [URL to be inserted after project completion 31/03] Other museum apps include the Tate Magic 8 Ball app available at http://www.tate.org.uk/contextcomment/apps/magic-tate-ball, which points users to artworks linked to their surroundings and makes an artwork of the moment which users can then share with friends. The website also contains a video of the app in action. The National Museum of Scotland http://www.nms.ac.uk/our_museums/national_museum/museum_apps.aspx offers three apps: Museum Explorer (only available on iTunes); Museum Highlights (available from iTunes and Google

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Play) and Capture the Museum, which turns the museum into the battlefield of a game and is available via http://www.capturethemuseum.com/. The British History Museum’s Pompeii App, available at http://www.britishmuseum.org/whats_on/past_exhibitions/2013/pompeii_and_herculaneum/app.aspx, extends the visitor’s exploration of the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum after they have explored the exhibition at the Museum. The app is available for download on iPhone, iPad and Android. The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum’s guidemetour app available via http://www.guidemetour.co.uk/, provides users with a two hour audio tour of the Gallery and Museum available to download from iTunes and Android.

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