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Essential Business Grammar Builder
Essential Business Grammar Builder helps students improve both their grammar and Business English vocabulary. It is designed for students studying at elementary to lower intermediate level and can be used both in the classroom and for self study. • 60 units of clearly structured grammar explanations with graded practice exercises set in business contexts • Authentic and interesting texts and quotations from leading business publications • A preliminary test to measure students’ grammar knowledge plus 18 progress tests for revision and consolidation • Audio CD featuring selected conversations and articles from the book. Can be used for checking answers, revision and additional listening practice • Comprehensive index, glossary of grammar terms and answer keys for all tests and exercises For students: Essential Business Grammar Builder is a valuable resource for students preparing for the BEC and the TOEIC examinations. (The second level, Business Grammar Builder, is suitable for BEC Vantage Level and above.) For teachers: Essential Business Grammar Builder can be used alongside the Business Builder Teacher’s Resource Series to create the ultimate, personalized Business English course.

Essential Business Grammar Builder
Paul Emmerson

Essential Business Grammar Builder
For class and self study

ISBN 1-4050-7048-X

We recommend the Macmillan Essential Dictionary to accompany the course.
9 781405 070485

Paul Emmerson

or how word. already/yet. uses. present simple or present perfect? Present perfect continuous form. instant decisions. for/since. uses. present perfect or present perfect continuous? 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 10 Past perfect form. uses. time adverbs Present simple and present continuous present simple or continuous?. future probability QUESTIONS 15 Questions 1: yes/no questions yes/no questions. time adverbs. talking about the future 13 Future 2: going to and present continuous going to. time adverbs. uses. just. used to Present perfect 1 form. unfinished periods of time Present perfect. disagreeing politely 17 Questions 3: wh. present simple. past simple and present simple past simple or present perfect?. short answers 16 Questions 2: yes/no answers saying yes. time adverbs. time adverbs Past continuous and used to form. facts and predictions.and how questions question words. time adverbs Present continuous form. been and gone Present perfect 2: time adverbs ever/never. uses. going to or present continuous? 14 Future 3: review. uses. questions starting with a wh. state verbs Past simple form. uses. indirect questions 38 40 42 44 4 .99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 4 Contents LIST OF GRAMMAR TERMS + TEST 8 VERB TENSES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Present simple form. prepositions 18 Questions 4: subject/object and indirect questions subject/object questions. time adverbs 11 Review of past and present simple forms. perfect forms 12 Future 1: will form. future probability review of future forms. continuous forms. present continuous. saying no. irregular verbs.

permission. zero conditional. calendar references. requests and permission. wishes 29 Conditionals 3: more conditional clauses unless. in case. uses. no change in meaning. beginning a clause REPORTED SPEECH 70 72 74 76 35 Reported speech 1 introduction. reporting a question 78 80 5 . verb + -ing. no obligation. opinions and advice. verb + to + infinitive 32 Verbs followed by -ing or to + infinitive 2 change in meaning. degrees of probability 26 Modal verbs 4: modals in the past ability. obligation. first conditional 28 Conditionals 2: second conditional second conditional. passive + infinitive MODAL VERBS 50 52 23 Modal verbs 1: ability and requests introduction. verbs with two objects 34 The -ing form as a noun. expectation. active/passive balance. opinions and advice 25 Modal verbs 3: probability certainty.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 5 CONTENTS TIME EXPRESSIONS 19 Time expressions 1 time in relation to today. modal verbs in conditionals 30 Conditionals 4: third conditional third conditional. saying who does the action: by 22 Passive 2 formal contexts. as an adjective. ability. probability CONDITIONALS 54 56 58 60 27 Conditionals 1: zero and first conditional conditions and results. other changes 36 Reported speech 2 say or tell?. at the end/in the end PA S S I V E S 46 48 21 Passive 1 form. on time/in time. result in present V E R B S PAT T E R N S 62 64 66 68 31 Verbs followed by -ing or to + infinitive 1 introduction. time adverbs 20 Time expressions 2 for/since/during/ago. in/on/at. first or second conditional?. tense changes. prohibition. processes. uncertainty. deduction. affirmatives and negatives. after a preposition. phrases with to + -ing 33 Verbs and objects transitive and intransitive verbs. suggestions 24 Modal verbs 2: obligation and necessity obligation. by/until. other reporting verbs. provided that/as long as.

ARTICLES AND PRONOUNS 82 84 39 Countable and uncountable nouns 1 countable nouns. order of adverbs 49 Comparison 1: adjectives comparatives and superlatives. so/such. indefinite pronouns: someone/everyone 47 It’s and there’s it as an empty subject. a friend of mine 46 Pronouns reflexive pronouns: myself/ourselves. singular or plural verb? 41 Determiners 1 introduction. place names 45 Possessives possessive adjectives and pronouns. for instance. when/why/where. uses of the. because. a or the? 44 Articles 2 the/no article. both/either/neither 43 Articles 1 a or an?. good/well. some/any. many/much. therefore. any meaning ‘no limit’.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 6 CONTENTS R E L AT I V E C L A U S E S 37 Relative clauses 1 introduction. what. verb + adjective. ’s (apostrophe s). so/too LINKING WORDS 104 106 108 110 52 Linking words 1 as well as. comparing nouns. however. as … as …/more and more … 50 Comparison 2: adverbs and nouns comparing adverbs. a/some/many/much 40 Countable and uncountable nouns 2 specific and general meanings. so 53 Linking words 2 in addition. non-defining relative clauses NOUNS. combining sentences 38 Relative clauses 2 prepositions. in fact. large and small differences 51 Degree too/not enough. uses of a/an. basically 54 Linking words 3 purpose (to/for/so that). no/none. a few/a little 42 Determiners 2 all. form. special uses of the. there’s… to say that something exists ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 48 Adjectives and adverbs introduction. although. like/as/as if 112 114 116 6 . firstly. each/every. relative pronouns. uncountable nouns. despite.

phrasal verbs with no object. expressions with at/in/on. verb + no preposition 56 Adjective + preposition adjective + preposition 57 Prepositional phrases by accident.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 7 CONTENTS PREPOSITIONS 55 Verb + preposition verb + preposition. phrasal verb + preposition + object 126 128 Test bank Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Test 6 Test 7 Test 8 Test 9 Test 10 Test 11 Test 12 Test 13 Test 14 Test 15 Test 16 Test 17 Test 18 Present simple and present continuous Past simple and past continuous Present perfect simple and continuous Future forms Questions and answers Passives Modal verbs Conditionals Verb patterns Reported speech Relative clauses Nouns and determiners Articles Adjectives and adverbs Linking words Verb/adjective + preposition Prepositional phrases Phrasal verbs 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 Appendices Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Regular verbs: formation Irregular verbs Spelling Punctuation 148 150 152 154 Answer key Index 157 169 7 . on budget. separable phrasal verbs 60 Phrasal verbs 2: inseparable introduction. verb + object + preposition. above/below and over/under PHRASAL VERBS 118 120 122 124 59 Phrasal verbs 1: separable what is a phrasal verb?. in advance. for sale. out of date. up to you 58 Prepositions of place at/in/on.

(not definite – no time given) I’ve lost their invoice. go – went – gone. the present perfect connects the past with the present. She is still there. I’ve known Kumiko since we were at university together. the Erasmus program has allowed 1. She’s been to Paris means she went there and has now returned.” Compare with the past simple (unit 4) where the time is finished and definite. (not definite – no time given) “This is goodbye. I’ve visited Spain several times. Toyota has set a goal to capture 15 percent of the global car market in the next decade. I’ve worked in marketing all my life. 20 . New York Times website B Uses ● We use the present perfect for a situation that started in the past and continues to the present.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 20 6 Over the last 18 years. (not finished – I continue to work in marketing) I’ve visited Spain many times. ● Irregular verbs often have a different past simple and past participle: do – did – done. China and elsewhere. and has spent heavily on new factories in the United States. For a list of irregular verbs see pages 150-1. ● We use the present perfect to talk about a series of actions up to the present. She’s gone to Paris means she went there but has not yet returned. gentlemen. I’ve worked in marketing all my life. ● The contractions (in brackets) are used in speech and informal writing. ● Notice that with the present perfect the time period is not finished or not definite. The first two cases are ‘life up to now’ and the third is ‘present result of a past action’. and we have fallen in love. See you again soon – have a safe journey! ● In general. International Herald Tribune website Present perfect 1 A Form ● We form the present perfect with the auxiliary has/have + the past participle. ● We use the present perfect for a past event that has a present result. Your taxi has arrived.2 million young people to study abroad within Europe. I’ve lost their invoice – I can’t find it anywhere. C Been and gone ● Notice the difference between has been to and has gone to. We have made many improvements to this software in the new version. Affirmative I have (’ve) worked You have (’ve) worked He/she/it has (’s) worked We have (’ve) worked They have (’ve) worked Negative I have not (haven’t) worked You have not (haven’t) worked He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked We have not (haven’t) worked They have not (haven’t) worked Question Have I worked? Have you worked? Has he/she/it worked? Have we worked? Have they worked? ● Regular verbs like work form the past participle with -d or -ed. I have met another board of directors. In verb tables. the second column (past simple) and third column (past participle) are the same: work – worked – worked.

(6) ________________________ (you/see) him recently? Anyway. Please discuss the matter with your team members before then. 6.1 Complete this verb table of irregular verbs. What about us? Should we put in our own bid? I (4) __________________________ (prepare) a short report with my own ideas. There are affirmative. but he (5) ________________________ (not/reply) to my last few emails.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 21 6 PRESENT PERFECT 1 Exercises 6. 21 . Our expansion plans in Central Europe are also going well: senior managers (4) _________________ there many times over the year to look at the possibilities of setting up subsidiaries. Check on pages 150-1. The last letter has been given to help you. make. Let me know what you think.2 Complete this extract from an Annual Report using these verbs in the present perfect: be. 3. but I’m sure they will be interested. and in Slovakia we (5) _________________ a controlling share in an existing local company. It’s attached to this email. buy. It would be good to talk to Dimitrie about this. have. All construction companies are invited to make a bid. Our financial services division (2) _________________ a profit of over eight million dollars. Annual Report have had I am pleased to report that we (1) _________________ an excellent year. Several points occur to me: 1. construction of new line for Bucharest metro have you heard Jim – (1) __________________________ (you/hear) about the plans to extend the Bucharest metro? The European Union (2) __________________________ (announce) that they will provide funding for another line. and for the first time we (3) _________________ activities in the area of life insurance. Infinitive 1 be 2 begin 3 buy 4 come 5 do 6 get 7 give 8 go Past simple was began bought came did got gave went Past participle _________ bee n _________n _________t _________e _________e _________t _________n _________e Infinitive 9 have 10 know 11 make 12 meet 13 see 14 think 15 take 16 write Past simple had knew made met saw thought took wrote Past participle _________d _________n _________e _________t _________n _________t _________n _________n 7 6. negative and question forms. my secretary will schedule a meeting on this issue at the end of March. 2.3 Complete this email by putting the verbs into the present perfect. begin. Our big competitors like Alstom and Bechtel (3) __________________________ (not/make) any public statements yet.

I wasn’t. Do you have what it takes to succeed? (Part 1) 1 Do you enjoy working with other people? A Yes. I have. I hadn’t. 2 Do you welcome responsibility? A Yes./No./No. (NOT Yes./No. I haven’t./No. So to keep the pattern we use do and did. B: Yes. (Full forms are given in earlier units. or the same as this quarter? Are you currently employing more. B No./No. I do.00? A: Will you be late? B: Yes. I am. I staying. B: Yes.) B: Yes. 38 . I don’t 3 Are you a good organizer? A Yes. I do. I can’t. be.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 38 15 Business Week Executive Poll Questions: Do you expect that your sales next quarter will be higher. will. I have. I speak.) B: Yes. Asian Women in Business website B Short answers ● To make a short answer we repeat the auxiliary verb. I haven’t. I’m not. or the same number of people you employed a year ago? Have you tried to get financing from banks or other sources in the last six months? Did you get all the financing you needed? Does your company export goods or services to any other country? Business Week website Questions 1: yes/no questions A Yes/no questions ● The table below is a summary./No. I saw. do you have any money? Will you send me any money? Do you know anyone who has any money? Will they send me any money?” She works He worked ➝ ➝ Does she work? Did he work? (NOT Works she?) (NOT Worked he?) So you want to start a business. B No. I won’t. I am B No. The auxiliary can be do. I’m not. lower. I don’t. by the way. have or a modal verb like can. fewer. I can.) B: Yes. I was. (NOT Yes. etc. I do. I will. I don’t. A: Do you speak French? A: Are you staying at the Ritz? A: Did you see Michel? A: Were you enjoying yourself? A: Have you read this report? A: Have you been waiting long? A: Had you met him before? A: Can you be here at 7. not the main verb. He is working She has worked He was working She has been working He had worked She can work ➝ ➝ ➝ ➝ ➝ ➝ Is he working? Has she worked? Was he working? Has she been working? Had he worked? Can she work? ● The present simple and past simple do not have an auxiliary in the affirmative form. B: Yes. I had. B: Yes./No./No. I did. B: Yes. “Oh. I didn’t.) present simple present continuous past simple past continuous present perfect present perfect continuous past perfect modals: can/could/will Do you live in Prague? Are you coming with us? Did you go to the meeting? Were you waiting long? Have you ever eaten sushi? Have you been working? Had you left when I called? Can you speak German? Does she live in Prague? Is he coming with us? Did she go to the meeting? Was he waiting long? Has he ever eaten sushi? Has she been working? Had she left when I called? Can he speak German? ● Notice that yes/no questions are formed with an auxiliary verb + subject + main verb. (NOT Yes. ● Notice that to make a question we take the affirmative form and then invert the subject and the auxiliary./No.

B: A lot of money? No. I’m interested. 2 Sonia is arriving on Monday.2 Read the replies. the company pays – they can afford it. B: Falling? No. Oh. ________________ 6 Can you speak German? No. has. 1 Bill thinks it’s a good idea.1 Change each affirmative sentence into a question. ________________ 5 Did you have a good trip? Yes. When you go on these courses (4) ____________ the company pay or (5) ____________ you pay yourself? I know that good training isn’t cheap. OK. B: On our computers? No. 2 Have you been to Brazil? No. most servers use Windows. we haven’t installed it. I went to that. not the computer training. ________________ 15. Does Bill think it’s a good idea? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ 15. have.4 Complete the dialogue with these words: are. the inventor hasn’t been making a lot. (7) ____________ the course running again in the near future? MIKE: SUE: MIKE: SUE: MIKE: 39 . And (6) ____________ it helped you in your day-to-day work? Be honest now. B: The eighties? No. B: Linux? No. I was reading about Linux. the popularity of Linux is growing. is. does. It helps you to think about the type of questions we ask our clients during a sales conversation. 3 He made a copy of the Excel file. then complete the questions about the operating system Linux. I think it has. I haven’t. ________________ 7 Are you coming with us? Yes. did. Yes.3 Write a short reply for each question. 5 She’ll be at the meeting tomorrow. ________________ 8 Is Maria coming with us? No. MIKE: SUE: MIKE: SUE: MIKE: SUE: 19 (1) ____________ you go to the training day they told us about at the last meeting? (2) ____________ you talking about the computer training? No.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:05 pm Page 39 15 QUESTIONS 1: YES/NO QUESTIONS Exercises 15. Linux started in 1991. ________________ 4 Does Bill play golf? No. I meant the sales training. 4 They’ve offered her the job. Well I found it very useful. 1 Did you speak to Kate? Yes. Were you reading about IBM? 1 A: ___________________________________ 2 A: ___________________________________ 3 A: ___________________________________ 4 A: ___________________________________ 5 A: ___________________________________ 6 A: ___________________________________ B: IBM? No. (3) ____________ you ever been on that course? No. It was quite good. beginning as shown. The software is free! 15. ________________ I did. It doesn’t cost us anything. ________________ 3 Do you play golf? Yes. do. Oh yes.

In this type of conditional we are not referring to one specific event. and the other part of the sentence is the result. I won’t see you in the morning. ● We use a first conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen. Those are my principles. I’d get a bonus if sales went up. Note that there is no comma in writing if the condition comes second. we pay more for our bank loans. they will come. everyone is happy. ● We use a zero conditional to talk about things that are always or generally true. I’ll get a bonus.present simple or present continuous If sales go up next month. If you’re leaving at six am. general future: likely future: unlikely past Name zero conditional first conditional second conditional third conditional ● The if … part of the sentence is the condition. if is the same as whenever or every time. ● Note that we do not use will in the if … part of the sentence. If you don’t like them. say I’m in a meeting.present simple or imperative you get amazing service. Or will they? Eight tips to drive Internet traffic to your website. If sales go up next month. ● In a zero conditional. If sales went up next month. say I’m …) 62 . If sales had gone up last month. (NOT If sales will go up next month. take the stairs. I usually get a bonus. If the lift isn’t working. I’d get a bonus. I’d have got a bonus. If business is going well. Result . If anyone calls. I’ll …) (NOT If anyone will call.will/won’t or imperative I’ll get a bonus. Compare: Time reference If sales go up.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:06 pm Page 62 27 Conditionals 1: zero and first conditional A Conditions and results ● Conditional sentences are explained in units 27–30. I’ll get a bonus if sales go up. Result . If you build it. Fripp website C First conditional ● The form of a first conditional is: Condition . If/whenever/every time interest rates rise. Groucho Marx B Zero conditional ● The form of a zero conditional is: Condition .present simple or present continuous If you fly first class. I have others. The condition can come second.

a) I’ll take my laptop with me. 2 If Klaus speaks/will speak in the meeting tomorrow. 1 If you have any questions. 63 . 6 If I fly to Sydney next week.1 Complete each sentence 1–6 with the best ending a) or b). 1 If Klaus speaks/will speak in a meeting. I’m sure I’ll get a promotion after a year. So it’s really important that we negotiate with the unions and try to avoid a strike. Life isn’t easy. 5 Whenever I fly Executive Class. 34 If I work hard. I make/I will make the same mistake. I’ll get fat. Study the first conditional sentences. 2 Whenever I get questions. If I don’t go the gym.2 Underline the correct words. 4 It’s time to leave. And if (3) _______________________ (we/lose) production. But … if I have more responsibilities. b) it gets really boring after an hour or so. I’m sure (8) _______________________ (there/be) bad labour relations for years to come. If (7) _______________________ (we/not negotiate) now. If (5) _______________ (our customers/not be) happy. Use contractions (’ll for will. using first conditional sentences each time. 5 If we don’t reach/we won’t reach an agreement soon. We are/We’ll be late if we aren’t/we won’t be careful. If I don’t have so much free time. 27. he usually mentions/will mention the importance of our brand image. etc).3 You are talking to a colleague. b) I’ll deal with them at the end of my talk. 4 If you wait in an airport. I won’t have so much free time in the evenings. (2) _______________________ (we/lose) a lot of production. there’s/there’ll be a problem. send her/you will send her my regards. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ a) I deal with them at the end of the talk. I think they walk away/they’ll walk away from the negotiation. 8 If you order/you will order from our website. If (1) ____________________ there’s (there/be) a strike. 27. I won’t be able to go the gym. 3 If you wait here. I’m sure he mentions/will mention the importance of our brand image. 3 Every time I do/I will do it. 7 If you see/you will see Nicole. (4) _______________________ (we/not be able) to ship the goods to our customers on time.99214_1405070463 18/10/05 8:06 pm Page 63 27 CONDITIONALS 1: ZERO AND FIRST CONDITIONAL Exercises 27. Now complete what you say in another conversation. I’ll have more responsibilities. b) I take my laptop and try to do some work. If I get a promotion. a) I’ll be right back. I’ve just heard that there might be a strike in the factory. we always send/will send an email confirmation. 6 Whenever I use/I will use this computer. (6) _______________________ (they/go) to other suppliers.