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WATER TABLE OF CONTENTS


Water ...........................................................................................................................................................................................starts page 39 Course Outcomes and Topics..................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

OUTCOMES:
8.4.1. WATER ON EARTH ................................................................................................................................................ STARTS PAGE 41

Define the terms solute, solvent and solution ................................................................................................................................................... 41 Identify the importance of water as a solvent ........................................................................................................................................... 41-42 Compare the state, percentage and distribution in water in biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere ..... 41 Outline the significance of water and different states of water on Earth in terms of water as: a constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism, a habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats, an agent of weathering of rocks both as a liquid or solid, a natural resource for humans and other organisms ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF WATER .................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 43

8.4.2.

Construct Lewis electron dot structures of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide to identify the distribution of electrons ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14, 43 Compare molecular structure of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, the differences in their molecular shapes and in their melting and boiling points .......................................................................................................................................................... 43, 45 Describe hydrogen bonding between molecules ............................................................................................................................................ 45 Identify the water molecule as a polar molecule ............................................................................................................................................. 44 Describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipole-dipole forces ............................................................................ 45 Explain the properties of water in terms of its intermolecular forces: surface tension, viscosity, boiling and melting points ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43-46
WATER AS AN SOLVENT ...................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 47

8.4.3.

Explain changes, if any, to particles and account for those changes when the following types of chemicals interact with water: a soluble ionic compounds such as sodium chloride, a soluble molecular compounds such as sucrose, a soluble or partially soluble molecular element or compound such as iodine, oxygen or hydrogen chloride, a covalent network substance such as silicon dioxide ........................................................................................................................... 47-48 Analyse the relationship between the solubility of substances in water and the polar nature of the molecule ................ 47
DISSOLUTION AND CONCENTRATION ............................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 48

8.4.4.

Identify some combinations of solutions will produce precipitates, using solubility data ......................................................... 48 Describe a model that traces the movement of ions when solution and precipitation occur ..................................................... 49 Identify the dynamic nature of ion movement in a saturated dissolution ........................................................................................... 49 Describe the molarity of a solution as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution ......................................................... 50 Explain why different measurements of concentration are important ................................................................................................. 49

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8.4.5. HEAT CAPACITY ..................................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 51

Explain what is meant by the specific heat capacity of a substance ...................................................................................................... 51 Compare the specific heat capacity of water with a range of other solvents ...................................................................................... 51 Explain and use the equation for change in enthalpy .................................................................................................................................... 52 Describe dissolutions which release heat as exothermic and give examples .............................................................................. 52-53 Describe dissolutions which release heat as endothermic and give examples........................................................................... 52-53 Explain why waters ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life on Earth generally ................... 53 Explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal pollution ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53-54

TOPICS:
8.4.1. WATER ON EARTH ................................................................................................................................................ STARTS PAGE 41

Distribution of water on Earth .................................................................................................................................................................................. 41 Solutions.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 41 Water and natural processes ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Density ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF WATER .................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 43

8.4.2.

Structure of water and other molecules ............................................................................................................................................................... 43 Polar and non-polar molecules ................................................................................................................................................................................. 44 Intermolecular forces .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Properties of water ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 45
WATER AS AN SOLVENT ...................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 47

8.4.3.

Uses of water as an solvent ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Ionic substances in solution ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Molecular substances in solution ............................................................................................................................................................................. 47 Covalent network substances in solution ............................................................................................................................................................ 48
DISSOLUTION AND CONCENTRATION ............................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 48

8.4.4.

Precipitation reactions ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 48 Precipitation and ion interactions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 49 Equilibrium ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Concentration ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 Molarity ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 Calculations with solutions ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
HEAT CAPACITY ..................................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 51

8.4.5.

Specific heat capacity .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51 Enthalpy .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Heat changes when substances dissolve .............................................................................................................................................................. 53 Consequences of thermal properties of water ................................................................................................................................................... 53 Water pollution ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 53

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8.4.1 WATER ON EARTH DISTRIBUTION OF WATER ON EARTH


The presence of water on Earth in the solid, liquid and gaseous states is unique within the solar system. The fact that the Earth has retained this water is a result of the planets gravitational force, determined by its mass and the Earths temperature, determined by its distance from the Sun. Water plays a central role in the evolution of life on Earth, and remains critical to the maintenance of life on the planet. Water has some remarkable properties that are crucial to the maintenance of all living systems. Such properties include: Water is the only pure substance on Earth commonly found in all three states (solid, liquid and gaseous). Ice is less dense than water at 0C, so as a result, ice floats allowing many aquatic life-forms to survive below the surface in cold climates. Water is transparent to visible light, which allows photosynthesis to occur in aqueous systems. Water has a high surface tension, which is important in some physiological processes and also capillary action in soils and plants. Water is an excellent solvent, allowing biological processes to occur in aqueous solutions, and also allows water to serve as a transportation system for nutrients and waste products in living organisms.

WATER IN THE SPHERES


97% of the water on the planet is present in the hydrosphere. Liquid water covers nearly 75% of the Earths surface in the form of oceans, seas, lakes, ground water and rivers, which are collectively referred to as the hydrosphere. The polar ice caps cover another portion of planet Earth, dominating the regions north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle. The atmosphere also contains varying amounts of water vapour (ranging from 0 5%). Water in the lithosphere can occur as moisture or permafrost within soils and rocks or as water of crystallisation within minerals. Water of crystallisation (or water of hydration) refers to the water molecules that form part of the crystal structure of many ionic substances, such as hydrated copper (II) sulfate CuSO4.5H2O

Water is the major constituent of living matter, representing approximately 70% of the biosphere. It is a component of all cells, the transport system for nutrients and waste products in living organisms, a reaction medium for many biochemical processes. Together with carbon dioxide, water is a reactant in photosynthesis.

SOLUTIONS
The oceans and seas dominate planet Earth. They are not pure substances, but rather mixtures containing large quantities of dissolved substances, called solutions. Solutions are defined as homogenous mixtures. In a solution, one substance, called the solute is dissolved in another substance, called the solvent.

AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Solution in which the solute is dissolved in water, are called aqueous solutions. Common naturally occurring aqueous solutions include sea water, blood plasma, stomach acid, sap in plants and drinks like coffee and lemonade. Aqueous solutions are indicated in chemical equations using the (aq) solution to the right of the solute. For example an aqueous solution of glucose is C6H12O6 (aq) and an aqueous solution of sodium chloride is NaCl (aq).

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SATURATED AND UNSATURATED SOLUTIONS


If sugar is continually added to water, there comes a point at which no more will dissolve. At this stage the solution is said to be saturated. A saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve under the existing conditions of temperatures and pressure. An unsaturated solution is a solution that contains less than the quantity of solute needed to saturate it under existing conditions.

SOLUBILITY
Different substances can exhibit very different solubilities in a particular solvent. For example, salt (sodium chloride) is an example of a substance that is readily soluble in water, while oxygen is less soluble and sand (mainly silicon dioxide) is virtually insoluble.

WATER AND NATURAL PROCESSES


The movement of water through the spheres of the Earth is referred to as the water cycle.

WATER AND THE BIOSPHER


Water makes up approximately 70% of the biosphere and has a crucial role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Water is an essential reactant in the production of glucose by the process of photosynthesis: 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O(l) + light energy C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) Glucose is the form of energy required for living organisms to function. Cellular respiration is essentially the reverse process, and provides the energy to sustain life. C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O(l) + energy Water acts a solvent for many solutes. Water dissolves oxygen, various salts and nutrient, and is therefore important in supporting plant and animal life. Many waste products such as carbon dioxide, ammonia and urea are soluble in water, providing an important mechanism by which plant and animal-wastes can be removed. The human body is over two-thirds water, with blood, being over 80% water. Water is also a major component of the lymph system. Water also is part of the moisture lining of the lungs, allowing the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide to be transferred between the air breathed in, and the respiratory system. Water is used to transfer heat around the body to cells performing respiration to our skin, where it can escape.

WATER AS A TEMPERATURE MODERATOR


Water has a relatively high heat capacity, which implies it can absorb and thus release large quantities of heat with relatively small temperature changes. Water affects the temperature experienced in coastal regions.

WATER AND ICE AS AN AGENT OF WEATHERING AND EROSION


Water performs a vital role in both landform formation, and soil production through the natural processes of weathering and erosion. Water along with dissolved acids and oxygen gas attack minerals breaking then into smaller components. When water freezes in cracks of rocks, its forms ice. Since ice has a larger volume than liquid water, it expands causing cracks and the breakdown of the rock in smaller fragments. This process is called ice wedging.

WATER AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE


Water is essential to human survival. Access to a reliable supply of clean quality water is a necessity for modern-day society. Water has numerous uses, including drinking, washing, and in industry, especially agriculture. Water is used as a transport system, for goods and services around the globe. Water also can serve as a source of entertainment, leisure, relaxation and enjoyment.

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DENSITY
Calculating density: m = V where is density in kg.m3, m is mass in kilograms (kg), V is volume in cubic metres (m3) Note: If mass is in grams (g) and volume is in cubic centimetres cm3, then the density is in g.cm3 As the temperature increases, it usually expands, resulting in an increased volume and therefore a decreased density. This is due to the increasing kinetic energy of the particles in the substance. Most substances increase in density when they freeze, again, because a decrease of volume occurs during the freezing process.

DENSITY OF WATER
Water is unusual in that its density that firstly it expands from the liquid to the solid state, resulting in a decreased density. The lower density of ice in relation to liquid water allows ice to float on top of water, which is crucial for the survival of life forms in polar environments and other regions that experience extremely cold temperatures. As water is cooled, its density increases until 4C, after which its density decreases. This occurs because water initially contracts with cooling but at temperatures below 4C it expands due to intermolecular forces in water causing the water causing the water molecules to arrange themselves in a particular fashion. Water has its maximum density of 1 gm.cm3 at 4C.

8.4.2 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF WATER STRUCTURE OF WATER AND OTHER MOLECULES
Water consists of an oxygen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms. The Lewis Electron Dot Diagram does not tell us anything about the shape of molecules. It just tells us how the valence electrons are arranged and how many covalent bonds are formed. Some electron pairs are involved in bond formation; others that are not involved are non-bonding pairs or lone pairs. Electron pairs repel each other and move as far apart as possible to achieve greater stability. The most stable way to arrange four pairs of valence electrons is in the shape of a tetrahedron. Methane, ammonia and water are molecules based on the tetrahedron. Different shapes of different compounds: Methane (CH4) is a perfect tetrahedron Ammonia consists of three bonding pairs and one pair and is said to be pyramidal. Water has two bonding electron pairs and two non-bonding electron pairs. Hydrogen sulfide is similar to water.

O
+ + +

N H H

H C
+ +

H
+

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POLAR AND NON-POLAR MOLECULES


Elements attract electrons according to their electronegativity. Elements have differing electronegativity, so some elements attract electrons more than others. Electrons spend more time with the stronger elements than weaker elements. This results in one end of a molecule being more negative than the other end.

A pair of equal and opposite charges separated in space is called a dipole. Covalent bonds in which electrons are unequally shared are called polar covalent bonds. Polar molecules have a net dipole. Non polar molecules have their electrons shared equally. For example: H2, Cl2, and N2 are non-polar molecules since, the electrons are shared equally but HCl and H2O are HCl is very electronegative. Electrons are shared unevenly. Diatomic molecules that have a polar covalent bond are called polar molecules. Polyatomic molecules are not necessarily polar, because two or more dipoles can cancel each other out. The shape determines whether dipoles cancel or add up to give a net dipole. In the case of water and ammonia these dipoles add up, but in the case of carbon dioxide (because it is linear) and methane (because it is a tetrahedron), these dipoles cancel.

COMMON POLAR BONDS


Order of Electronegativity: Fluorine Oxygen Nitrogen, Chlorine Bromine Carbon, Sulfur, Iodine Phosphorus, Hydrogen Silicon Common polar bonds are the bonds between hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, carbon and oxygen, carbon and chlorine. Common non-polar bonds are the bonds between nitrogen and chorine, carbon and sulfur, phosphorus and hydrogen, carbon and hydrogen (only slightly).

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
The forces of attraction between molecules are called intermolecular forces. The physical properties of covalent substances are dependent on the strength of these forces. The chemical properties of these molecules are dependent mainly on the strength of the chemical covalent bonds which hold the atoms of the molecule together.

DISPERSION FORCES
Dispersion forces are present in all covalent molecular substances. Dispersion forces are weak attractive forces which result from uneven electron distribution within atoms or between neighbouring atoms and molecules Dispersion forces can be visualised as the attraction between temporary dipole and induced temporary dipoles.

DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES
Dipole-dipole forces are present in some covalent molecular substances, when the component atoms have different electronegativities. Since polar molecules have positive and negative ends they are able to line up so that the positive end of one molecule attracts the negative end of another molecule. Electrostatic forces of attraction hold the molecules strongly together. Dipole-dipole attractions between molecules raises the melting point and boiling point of these substances for example: HCl and H2S

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HYDROGEN BONDING
Hydrogen bonding is a strong form of the dipole-dipole force and is present in some covalent molecular substances containing hydrogen with fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen atoms. Hydrogen bonds are particularly strong types of polar interactions, as result when a hydrogen atom bound to one of three atoms (fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen) can become attached to another one of these atoms in another molecule. Water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3) display hydrogen bonding, as well as molecules such as H2O2, H2SO4, CH3OH and other alcohols. Hydrogen bonds are much stronger than ordinary dipole-dipole forces. Their relative strengths arise from the fact that the hydrogen nucleus (a bare proton only) is extremely small and that the fluorine, oxygen and nitrogen strongly attract.

PROPERTIES OF WATER MELTING POINT AND BOILING POINT OF WATER


With consideration to metals, ionic substances and covalent lattices, water has a relatively low melting point and boiling point. This is expected since water is a covalent molecular compound. However, compared to similar molecules, the melting point and boiling point of water appears to be far higher than expected. Molecular Mass 16 17 18 20 Molecular Mass 18 34 81 130 Melting Point (C) -182 -78 0 -83 Melting Point (C) 0 -83 -66 -49 Boiling Point (C) -160 -33 100 19 Boiling Point (C) 100 -62 -40 -2

Molecular Formula CH4 NH3 H2O HF Molecular Formula H2O H2S H2Se H2Te

These strange properties of water can be explained by the hydrogen bonding between molecules of water. Water molecules are held together by dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and also strong hydrogen bonds. Ammonia molecules are also held together by the same forces as water molecules, but the hydrogen bonds in ammonia are not as strong as the hydrogen bonds in water, because nitrogen is not as electronegative as oxygen. Intermolecular forces for hydrogen sulfide are weaker because of the lack of hydrogen bonding, resulting in a low melting point and boiling point. As a result more energy is required to separate water molecules from each other resulting in a higher melting and boiling point.

DENSITY
In water, the molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds and fit relatively close together. However, in ice, the hydrogen bonds force the molecules further apart as they form a three dimensional crystal lattice. As a result, ice has a larger volume than liquid water, resulting in ice having a lower density than liquid water.

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SURFACE TENSION
The surface tension of a liquid is a measure of the elastic forces in the surface layer. A molecule that is inside a liquid, experiences intermolecular forces from the other molecules around it. A molecule in the surface layer experiences intermolecular forces only from molecules beside it and below it. Surface tension is due to the unbalanced downward forces from other molecules acting on molecules at the surface. The stronger the intermolecular forces, the greater will be the surface tension of the liquid. Water which has strong hydrogen bonding has strong intermolecular forces and so a high surface tension, since the water molecules at the surface experience stronger forces than in comparable liquids. Liquid mercury water chloroform acetone methanol ethanol hexane Surface Tension (mNm1) 487 72.6 27.1 23.7 22.6 22.3 18.4

VISCOSITY
Viscosity is a measure of a liquids resistance to flow or being poured. Viscosity can be measured by comparing the rate of flow of liquids. The higher the viscosity, the slower the rate of flow is. There are two factors that affect the ease with which molecules can move over one another: One factor is the size and complexity of the molecules themselves. For example, Motor oil contains very long floppy molecules that get tangled up and do not flow easily. The other factor is intermolecular forces. The stronger the forces of attraction between pairs of molecules, the more resistance there is to flow. Syrup and honey are solutions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in water. All these four compounds contain O-H groups and so there is extensive hydrogen bonding between the molecules and water. This gives rise to the high viscosity of syrup, honey and glycerol. Water seems to have a low viscosity, however when we compare it with many other pure liquids such as ethanol, acetone chloroform and hexane its viscosity is comparatively high because there is extensive hydrogen bonding involving all the atoms of the molecule. Viscosity depends on the forces between the molecules of the liquid. The forces between water molecules are strong hydrogen bonds. Water with its strong hydrogen bonding results in a much higher resistance to flow than its small molecular size might suggest. As a result water has a high viscosity when compared to similar pure liquids. Liquid glycerol mercury water chloroform hexane pentane Viscosity (mPas) 1490 1.53 0.891 0.58 0.33 0.224

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8.4.3 WATER AS AN SOLVENT USES OF WATERS AS A SOLVENT


Water is the most widely used solvent by both humans and natures. It has many usages including: chemical reactions dissolving nutrients

DETERMING DISSOLUTION
Solvents are either polar or non-polar solvents. Knowing this can help chemists determine whether dissolution will occur if two or more of these substances are mixed together. Water is known as the universal solvent since it can dissolve a wide range of substances. Solutions formed with water as the solvent, are called aqueous solutions. Polar solvents dissolve polar solvents. Non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solvents. Solvent-solute attractions must be stronger that solute-solute attractions (i.e. dispersion forces)

IONIC SUBSTANCES IN SOLUTION


Most ionic substances dissolve in water, because polar water molecules have a strong attraction to charged ions. The ionic bonds in the ionic substance break in the crystal lattice break apart. The ions are move freely and independently. The hydrogen bonds between the water also break The positive ends of the water molecules attach to the negative ions, and the negative ends of the water molecules attach to the positive ions. This happens because the attraction between water and the ions are stronger than the attractive forces between the positive ions and negative ions. Since free ions exist in the solution, the solution is therefore able to conduct electricity and is called an electrolyte. Some substances crystallise out with molecules of water still attached, called water of crystallisation.

MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES IN SOLUTION SOLUBLE MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES


The crystals of molecular substances that are soluble will break up and disperse throughout the solid and break up into individual molecules. Molecules will only dissolve only if the water molecules form a stronger attachment to the solute molecules than the attachment of solute to solute. Polar substances will dissolve in water (which is also a polar substance), but non-polar substances will not dissolve. Some molecular substances will dissolve in water by reacting with the water molecules. This often results in the formation of ions (this process is called an ionisation reaction), resulting in the formation of an acid or base.

PARTIALLY SOLUBLE MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES


Some molecular substances are usually elements that exist as molecules, such as iodine or oxygen. These substances will only partially dissolve in water. These substances are non-polar substances, but are partially soluble because of the weak dispersion interactions with the solvent. Solute-water interactions are so weak that solubility is low, and as a result dissolution does not to completion.

INSOLUBLE MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES


The very large molecules of some hydrocarbons, such as polymers will mean the presence of strong hydrogen bonds. Water molecules are unable to break these large molecules and so these substances will not dissolve.

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COVALENT NETWORK SUBSTANCES IN SOLUTION


Strong covalent bonds exist throughout the entire solid. As a result, water molecules are unable to break these strong covalent bonds and therefore these substances will not dissolve.

8.4.4 DISSOLUTION AND CONCENTRATION PRECIPITATION REACTIONS


A precipitation reaction is when a solid is produced from a reaction of two soluble compounds, resulting in the production of an insoluble solid which is suspended in the solution. Precipitation occurs because not all ionic compounds are soluble and that results in an insoluble compound being precipitated, if the separate ions are added together in solution. It is assumed that if the precipitation reaction goes to completion that either one or both of the ions involved will be completely precipitated. With a precipitation reaction it is important to always use state symbols, as this indicates which compound is the precipitate, and which compound still exists dissolved in the solution as ions.

DETERMINING SOLUBILITY
Soluble compounds: All nitrates All acetates All sulfates (except those of calcium, barium, lead, mercury and silver). All chlorides, bromides and iodides (except those of lead, mercury and silver) All ammonium compounds All sodium, potassium (and the rest of Group 1) compounds. Insoluble compounds: All phosphates, sulfites, carbonates (except those of Group 1 elements and ammonium) All oxides and hydroxides (except those of Group 1 elements, calcium, magnesium, barium and ammonium) All sulfides (except those of Group 1 elements, Group 2 elements and ammonium)

WRITING IONIC EQUATIONS


Often chemical equations involve ions, rather than neutral molecules, which require ionic equations to be properly represented. Precipitation reactions are best represented using ionic equations. Some disadvantages of using a neutral species equation to represent precipitation reactions include: The neutral species equation implies that before the reaction take place the ions are in some way stuck together, i.e. bonded together. However, what is actually happening is the ions exist separately in water. The equation implies that two of the ions (the spectator ions) have changed in some way during the reaction. However, these ions are called spectator ions because they do not take part in the chemical reaction. They still exist as ions dissolved in the solution.

The best way to represent precipitation reactions is to: 1. Ions are written separately when they are in solution 2. Spectator ions which, although they may be present, do not take part in the reaction are not included (these are called spectator ions) 3. Numbers of atoms and charge must be balanced.

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PRECIPITATION AND ION INTERACTIONS DISSOLUTION WITH INSOLUBLE COMPOUNDS


A saturated solution is a solution where no more solute will dissolve into the solvent at existing conditions. If more solute tries to be dissolved in results in the presence of undissolved solid. Saturation, the limit of dissolving the solute, is reached earlier with an insoluble compound than a soluble compound. When an insoluble ionic compound is added to a solvent such as water, a small amount of the crystal lattice will break into free ions. When the solution reaches saturation, no more of the compound will dissolve and some of the ionic compound remains undissolved in the solution.

ION MOVEMENT IN PRECIPITATION


Insoluble compounds will precipitate from solutions. Precipitation will occur when the quantity of insoluble ions exceeds the solubility of the compound formed from these ions. Precipitation is essentially the opposite process to dissolution (dissolving). In a saturated solution, the ions in the solid are continually leaving the crystal to go into the solution, while at the same time, and at the same rate, different ions in the solution precipitate out, resulting in neither reaction going to completion.

EQUILIBRIUM
In saturated solutions, a situation called equilibrium occurs when precipitation and dissolution occurs at the same time and at the same rate resulting in there being no apparent activity. During this situation, the total concentration of ions and the amount of precipitate will remain constant. In order to set up such a situation, the containing vessel must be sealed to prevent evaporation of the solvent and the temperature needs to be kept constant. Equilibrium is a dynamic situation in a closed system, where there is continual interchange between reactants and products on an atomic level, with no noticeable change in observation or physical properties. Equilibrium Equations: Double arrows () are used to show the dynamic equation of the process.

CONCENTRATION
Concentration is defined as the amount of solute in a specific amount of solvent. This is expressed in many ways, because: Concentration is used by people other than chemists, who may be unfamiliar with the concept of molarity. In commerce and industry, the measure of concentration emphasises the mass or volume of the solute, rather than the moles. In areas such as environmental studies or drug testing, the concentration of the solute is very small, so molarity is impractical, and thus concentration is used instead. The concentration used here is usually parts per million (ppm)

Some common ways of expressing concentration are: Mass of solute per volume of solvent or solution. Volume of solute per volume of solvent or solution. Mass per volume as a percentage %(w/v) Volume per volume as a percentage %(v/v) Mass per mass as a percentage %(w/w) Parts per million (ppm), mass in milligrams per kilogram of solution

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MOLARITY
The concentration of a solution in moles per litre indicates the number of moles of solute dissolved in a litre of solution. This form of concentration is the most commonly used in chemistry, as it allows from the measurement of a definite volume of solution of known concentration, the number of moles of solvent present in the solution. The concentration of a solution in moles per litre is referred to as molar concentration or molarity. It is sometimes given the symbol M. (A 0.50 mol L1 solution is the same as a 0.50 M solution) Calculating molarity: n c= V where C is the concentration in mol L1 (moles per litre), n is number of moles and V is volume in litres

PREPARING AND DILUTING SOLUTIONS PREPARING SOLUTIONS OF KNOWN CONCENTRATION


A weighed mass of substance is dissolved in water and the solution made up to a definite volume in a volumetric flask. The beaker is washed out to ensure that all the solute is transferred to the volumetric flask. If this is not done properly, then the concentration will be different. The volumetric flask needs to be filled to the marked level. If this is not done the concentration will be different and also harder to calculate. The expected solution can be calculated using the formula for calculating concentration from moles.

DILUTING SOLUTIONS
First, a solution of known concentration is prepared. A sample (determined by the needed dilution) is then taken and transferred to another volumetric flask, which also needs to be filled up to the marked level

CALCULATIONS WITH SOLUTIONS

Calculating dilution: C1 V1 = C2 V2 where C1 is the original concentration and C2 is the final concentration in mol L1 (moles per litre), V1 is the original volume and V2 is the final volume in litres.

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8.4.5 HEAT CAPACITY SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY


Water plays an important role that water plays, particular the oceans, in moderating temperatures. This is because of the relatively large quantities of heat absorbed or released when the temperature of water changes. This demonstrates the fact that water, unlike other substances such as metals or concretes, does not increase in temperature as fast when heated. For example a bucket of water when exposed to same amount of radiant energy from the Sun as the surrounding environment does not increase in temperature to the same extent as the surroundings. The explanation for this that water has a specific heat capacity than the surroundings. The specific heat capacity (C), also called specific heat, is the amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1 gram of substance of a substance by 1 Kelvin (or Celsius).

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES


Substance water pentane ethanol toluene (methylbenzene) phenol (hydroxybenzene) benzene nitrogen gas oxygen gas Specific Heat Capacity (kJ kg1 K1 or J g1 K1) 4.18 1.66 1.41 1.13 1.11 1.05 1.04 0.92 Substance aluminium chloroform carbon tetrachloride glass iron copper silver mercury Specific Heat Capacity (kJ kg1 K1 or J g1 K1) 0.90 0.55 0.54 0.50 0.45 0.39 0.23 0.14

CALCULATING HEAT ABSORBED OR RELEASED


The specific heat capacity may be used to determine the energy absorbed or released, when a temperature of a known mass or substance changes. Calculating the amount of heat absorbed or released: Q = mCT where Q is the amount of heat released or absorbed in kilojoules, m is mass in kilograms, C is the specific heat capacity, and T is the temperature change in Kelvin (or Celsius) Q = mCT where Q is the amount of heat released or absorbed in joules, m is mass in grams, C is the specific heat capacity, and T is the temperature change in Kelvin (or Celsius) Express the final answer in a positive number. Use the words released or absorbed to specify whether the heat Make sure that the final answer in in kilojoules not joules, i.e. for the second formula, remember to divide by 1000 If using Q for further calculations, such as enthalpy or molar heat, make sure to remember sign

CALORIMETRY
In order to measure heat changes during a chemical reaction, we use a calorimeter. If two objects are brought into contact, heat will flow from the hot object to the cold object until the temperature of the two objects are equal. Two objects can be at same temperature but contain different amounts of heat The heat released by the hot body is equal to the heat gained by the cold body.

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ENTHALPY
The release of energy in chemical reactions occurs when the reactants have a higher chemical energy than the products. The chemical energy of a substance is a type of potential energy stored within the substance. This stored chemical potential energy is called the heat content or enthalpy of the substance is given the symbol H. A change in the enthalpy of a substance is given the symbol H. It is the difference between the total enthalpy of products and the enthalpy of the reactants, i.e. the change in the enthalpy of a system. It is equal to the following expression: H = H products H reactants

CALCULATING CHANGE IN ENTHALPY


Calculating the change in enthalpy: H = mCT where H is change in enthalpy, m is mass in g, C is the specific heat capacity of the substance being cooled or heated, and T is change in temperature in Kelvin (or degrees Celsius) Important things to remember: Always convert the final answer to kilojoules, and where specified: kilojoules per mole, which are the units usually used for H Always pay careful attention to the sign. Exothermic reactions should be a negative answer, while endothermic reactions should be a positive answer. If kilojoules per mole are required, use relevant formula to convert mass to moles and then divide through by the number of moles to the get the change in enthalpy per mole.

EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS
If the enthalpy in the system decreases during a chemical reaction, a corresponding amount of energy (Q) must be released to the surroundings, i.e. the enthalpy of the products is less than the enthalpy of the reactants. The enthalpy difference between the reactants and the products is equal to the energy released to the surroundings. A reaction is which heat energy (Q) is released to the surroundings is called an exothermic reaction. Examples of exothermic reactions include synthesis reactions. Since exothermic reactions release energy into the surroundings, the result of this type or reaction is that the surroundings heats up.

ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS
If the enthalpy in the system increases during a chemical reaction, a corresponding amount of energy (Q) must have been absorbed from the surroundings i.e. the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants. The enthalpy difference between the reactants and the products is equal to the energy absorbed from the surroundings. A reaction is which heat energy (Q) is absorbed from the surroundings is called an endothermic reaction. Since endothermic reactions absorb energy from the surroundings, the result of this type of reactions is that the surroundings are cooled down. Decomposition reactions are endothermic reactions, as often the energy input required for the reaction is absorbed from the surroundings.

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HEAT CHANGES WHEN SUBSTANCES DISSOLVE


When ionic substances dissolve in water, there is a noticeable change in temperature. This means the reaction is endothermic (absorbing heat) or exothermic (releasing heat). For example: i. ii. When sodium hydroxide NaOH dissolves in water, the solution heats up. The dissolution process releases heat which warms up the solution. The dissolution of NaOH is said to be exothermic. When potassium nitrate KNO3 dissolves in water, the solution cools. It requires an input of energy which is taken from normal thermal energy of the water and the solid substance. The dissolution of KNO 3 is endothermic.

Energy is needed to break the ionic bonds in the crystal lattice of the solute, and energy is also needed to break the intermolecular forces (i.e. the hydrogen bonding) between water molecules. But energy is released when the separated ions form bonds with water molecules. Determining these factors will help determine the whether the dissolution is exothermic or endothermic.

MOLAR HEAT OF SOLUTION


The molar heat of solution Hsoln of a substance is the heat absorbed when one mole of the substance dissolves in a large excess of water If Hsoln is positive, then the reaction is endothermic, but if Hsoln is negative, then the reaction is exothermic.

CONSEQUENCES OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WATER


Living organisms can survive and reproduce only if their temperatures are maintained within fairly narrow ranges. Water within cells provides the necessary temperature regulation because of the following properties that water has: High heat capacity (large amount of heat absorbed produce small temperature rises) High thermal conductivity relative to other liquids (quickly removes heat from the hot location to the cooler one) Large proportion of most living things.

The high heat capacity of water means the aquatic environment is maintained at a stable temperature, and therefore allows aquatic organisms to thrive. It also has a moderating effect on global temperatures, and is a large factor in influencing global temperatures. It also smooths day to night, summer to winter fluctuations in temperature, and produces a more hospitable environment then more terrestrial environments.

WATER POLLUTION
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, for example, lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater. Water pollution directs affects the organisms which live in these bodies of water, and has harmful effects on natural ecosystems, such as ocean ecosystems and river ecosystems.

CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION


Water pollution is caused by chemical contaminants and pathogens. Water pollution is sometimes caused by contaminants are released from a single point such as pipe, or discharges from sewerage treatment. Water pollution is sometimes caused by accumulation of contaminants or contaminants that do not have a distinct source, and may be discharged through a pipe as stormwater or waste. Pathogens such as salmonella and the norovirus (which causes the common cold), may result from poor treated sewerage disposed of in the sea. These pathogens could lead to water-borne disasters affecting the human and animal populations dependent on the marine or river ecosystems.

54 | P a g e Chemicals including detergents, insecticides, herbicides, petroleum and other fuels, and organic industrial solvents (VOCs) are organic compounds that act as pollutants when discharged into a water body, and are present in concentrated amounts. Inorganic chemicals, such as ammonia, fertilizers, sediment (run-off from construction or logging), chemical waste and acids, are substances that also cause water pollution. Some chemical waste such as rubbish in the form of food waste, plastics and paper and ships cause visible damage to the water ecosystem, and create debris.

THERMAL POLLUTION
One particular type of water pollution is thermal pollution. This is the discharge into a river or lake quantities of hot water that are large enough to increase significantly the temperature of the water body. A 2-5C increase can be significant. Some of the effects of thermal pollution include: Less dissolved oxygen, which results in stress for the organism Increase metabolism of the organism, due to increased temperature increases demand for oxygen and so aggravates the decreased dissolved oxygen problem Fish eggs do not develop or hatch if temperature is too high. Sudden temperature changes can kill fish eggs even if change is within survival range False temperatures cues can set off migration and spawning at the wrong time. Lethal temperature can be exceeded.

Thermal pollution can result from when the water ecosystem is used for cooling in industry or electrical generation. This is a concern for electricity stations, especially those located on shallow lakes along NSWs Central Coast. It i s rarely a problem when open ocean is used. The problem can be combatted with cooling towers so cooling water is completely recycled, or alternatively by using cooling ponds.

EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION


The effects of these pollutants, in addition to the effects of thermal pollution, include: Some pollutants cause discolouration, temperature changes or changes in acidity. Some pollutants cause cloudiness, which block the gills of certain fish species. Some pollutants cause oxygen depletion (anoxia) which may affect the populations of certain species. Some pollutants cause this indirectly through the increase of concentration of certain chemical nutrients which results in an increase in the productivity of the ecosystem. Some pollutants are toxic, killing organisms. Other pollutants, which are pathogens, can cause diseases which could reduce the population numbers of certain species. Some pollutants cause reductions in water quality or changes to salinity of the water. Some pollutants cause changes in electrical conductivity.

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ENERGY TABLE OF CONTENTS


Water ...........................................................................................................................................................................................starts page 55 Course Outcomes and Topics..................................................................................................................................................................................... 55

OUTCOMES:
8.5.1. SOURCES OF ENERGY ........................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 57

Outline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to chemical energy and recall the raw materials for this process ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 57 Outline the role of the production of high energy carbohydrates from carbon dioxide as the important step in the stabilisation of the suns energy in a form that can be used by animals as well as plants ............................................................. 57 Identify the photosynthetic origins of chemical energy in coal, petroleum and natural gas ...................................................... 57
CARBON AND ITS PROPERTIES .......................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 58

8.5.2.

Identify the position of carbon in the Periodic Table and describe its electron configuration .................................................. 58 Describe the structure of diamond and graphite allotropes and account for their physical properties in terms of bonding ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58-59 Identify that carbon can form single, double or triple covalent bonds with other carbon atoms ............................................. 58 Explain the relationship between carbons combining power and ability to form a variety of bonds and the existence of a large number of carbon compounds. ............................................................................................................................................................. 58
HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR PROPERTIES .................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 59

8.5.3.

Describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and identify the uses of each fraction obtained ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 59 Identify and use the IUPAC nomenclature for describing straight-chained alkanes and alkenes from one carbon to eight carbons .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 60-61 Compare and contrast the properties of alkanes and alkenes carbon 1 to carbon 8 and use the term homologous series to describe a series with the same functional group .................................................................................................................. 60-62 Explain the relationship between the melting point, boiling point and volatility of the above hydrocarbons, and their non-polar nature and intermolecular forces (dispersion forces). ................................................................................................. 62 Assess the safety issues associated with the storage of alkanes carbon 1 to carbon 8 in view of their weak intermolecular forces (dispersion forces). .......................................................................................................................................................... 62
COMBUSTION .......................................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 64

8.5.4.

Describe the indicators of chemical reactions ................................................................................................................................ [18, 52], 65 Identify combustion as an exothermic chemical reaction ................................................................................................................ [52], 64 Outline the changes in molecules during chemical reaction combustion in terms of bond-breaking and bond-making .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65 Explain that energy is required to break bonds and energy is released when bonds are formed ................................ [19], 65 Describe the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction as activation energy .............................................................................. 66 Describe the energy profile for both endothermic and exothermic reactions ................................................................ [52], 65-66 Explain the relationship between ignition temperature and activation energy ............................................................................... 66 Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic compounds and explain how these can be avoided .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 Describe chemical equations using full balanced equations to summarise examples of complete and incomplete combustion ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 64

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8.5.5. REACTION KINETICS............................................................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 67

Describe combustion in terms of slow, spontaneous and explosive reactions and explain the conditions under which these occur ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. [64], 67 Explain the importance of collisions between reacting particles as criterion for determining reaction rates ................... 68 Explain the relationship between temperature and the kinetic energy of the particles .............................................................. 69 Describe the role of catalysts in chemical reactions, using a named industrial catalyst as an example ................................ 68 Explain the role of catalysts in changing the activation energy and hence the rate of chemical reaction ............................. 69

TOPICS:
8.5.1. SOURCES OF ENERGY ........................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 57

Photosynthesis ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 57 Fossil Fuels ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Water and natural processes ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Density ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43
CARBON AND ITS PROPERTIES .......................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 58

8.5.2.

Carbon and bonding....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58 Allotropes of carbon ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58


HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR PROPERTIES .................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 59

8.5.3.

Fractional distillation of crude oil ........................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Classifying hydrocarbons ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 60 Molecular substances in solution ............................................................................................................................................................................. 47 Covalent network substances in solution ............................................................................................................................................................ 48
COMBUSTION .......................................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 64

8.5.4.

Reactions with oxygen .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 Combustion reactions ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64 Chemical reactions ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65 Heat of combustions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65 Activation energy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 66
REACTION KINETICS............................................................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 67

8.5.5.

Determine the rate of a reaction .............................................................................................................................................................................. 67 Combustion and reaction rates ................................................................................................................................................................................. 67 Factors affecting the rate of reaction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Collision theory ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 68 Applying collision theory ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 69

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8.5.1 SOURCES OF ENERGY PHOTOSYNTHESIS


People in industrialised societies use large amounts of energy and most of it comes from fossil fuels. This energy comes directly or indirectly from the sun via photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process in which plants use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground into carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, starch and cellulose, which are compounds containing carbon, oxygen and hydrogen: Carbon dioxide + water + light glucose + oxygen 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + light C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g) Photosynthesis is an endothermic reaction. It is a multistep reaction brought about by the green pigment chlorophyll Solar energy is converted into chemical energy and is stored. Carbohydrates in plants are the energy source for animals, including humans. They are high energy compounds as they release large amounts as they release large amounts of energy during respiration or combustion.

Cellular respiration is essentially the reverse process to photosynthesis. It converts the stored chemical energy into a form which the organism is able to then use: Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy C6H12O6 (aq) + O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) The amount of energy released during respiration is the same as what was absorbed during photosynthesis, which is 2830 kJ per mole of glucose used.

FOSSIL FUELS
Normally when plants and animals die, insects, fungi, worms and bacteria called decomposers, convert them back into carbon dioxide, water and nutrients, releasing the stored energy into the environment. In some locations and under certain conditions, over geological time scales, the decay processes were interrupted resulting in some plant material only being partially decomposed. This partially-composed material remains stored in the form of rich compounds that are called fossil fuels. All of these compounds are carbon-based since living matter is composed of carbon. Through the processes of mining, and burning fossil fuels, the energy content of these materials can be used as a power source for transportation and for generating electricity for homes, schools and businesses. Some fossil fuels include: Coal Crude oil Natural gas Oil shales Tar sands Australia has an abundance of fossil fuel resources, in particular its immense supplies of coal and natural gas, but has limited reserves of crude oil. As a result Australia uses lots of fossil fuels to produce electricity, and exports some of these resources overseas in particular to big consumers such as China or India.

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8.5.2 CARBON AND ITS PROPERTIES CARBON AND BONDING


Carbon is classified as a non-metal. It is the first member of group IV of the periodic table and is located in period 2 between boron and nitrogen. The carbon atom has 6 electrons and therefore has an electron configuration is 2, 4. This means it can either lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons to gain a stable electron configuration. It usually however tends to covalent bond with other non-metals such as hydrogen and oxygen. Since it has 4 valence (free) electrons, each carbon atom can be bonded with 4 hydrogen atoms, or 2 oxygen atoms. Carbon atoms can therefore bind to form many compounds including hydrocarbons and carbohydrates. For this reason it a useful base for the compounds of life. The large number of compounds is due to its ability to form bonds with many elements, which can be single, double or triple bonds. Carbon can from single bonds such as those in alkanes, double bonds such as those in alkenes, or triple bonds such as those is present in alkynes. Carbon also bonds with itself to produce different allotropes.

ALLOTROPES OF CARBON
Allotropes are forms of one element in the same physical state which have distinctly different physical properties i.e. colour, density, hardness and electrical conductivity). Diamond and graphite are some of the allotropes of carbon. Other elements which display allotropy are arsenic, phosphorus, selenium, sulfur, tin and oxygen. Allotropes have different properties because the atoms are joined or packed together in different ways to form molecules or crystals.

AMORPHOUS CARBON
Amorphous carbon (soot) is a low pressure form of carbon that usually exists in the form of as imperfect tetrahedron structures. Each carbon is surrounded by 4 other carbons bonded to it with single bonds.

DIAMOND
The carbon atoms in diamond are covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms to form a 3D covalent lattice, with the shape around each carbon atom being tetrahedral. The 6 membered rings are buckled not flat. All valence electrons are tied up in strong covalent bonds, so there are no mobile electrons. Thus it doesnt conduct electricity. It has an orderly arrangement of atoms throughout the whole crystal gives its transparency and brilliance. For this reason it is used in jewellery. Diamond is a hard substance because of the strong forces between molecules and it used therefore for drills and saws.

GRAPHITE
Each carbon atom in graphite is bonded only to three other carbon atoms, forming a planar structure of flat six-membered rings. This leaves each carbon atom with 1 free valence electrons which forms a delocalised electron cloud located between the layers (called aromaticity), similar to that present in metals. These electrons are able to move within sheets. As a result, graphite is able to conduct electricity. However, it can cause a temporary dipole in one sheet which by electrical induction will cause a dipole of the opposite charge to occur in a neighbouring sheet. For these reasons, it is used for the electrodes in dry cell batteries and superconductors. In graphite, weak intermolecular forces between layers are present, resulting in these layers being able to readily sheer off or to slide over one another. For these reasons, it is used for pencils, and also as a dry lubricant. Graphite lubrication abilities are hypothesised to be due to the presence of a fluid layer (i.e. air) between the layers (as graphite is a poor lubricant in a vacuum).

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OTHER ALLOTROPES OF CARBON


Electrical discharge between graphite electrodes in low pressure helium causes graphite to evaporate and then condense as soot. If soluble in benzene or toluene, it forms a yellow-brown substance with 60 carbon atoms that has a soccer ball structure. Buckminster fullerenes (bucky-balls) are 5-6 membered rings that combine to form a spherical cage. The most common has 60 carbon atoms. Other fullerenes with 70, 74 and 80 carbon atoms have also been produced. In fact, the number of carbon atoms can range from 32 to 84 carbon atoms. Bucky-balls have some delocalised electrons but not like graphite. Cage-like fullerenes may have uses as superconductors or as lubricants because of the weak intermolecular forces between their ball-shaped molecules. However since they are expensive to produce, other materials are used instead. Nanotubes (or bucky-tubes) are other group of fullerenes consist of molecules that have tube-like shape, that are several nanometres long. Nanotubes have high tensile strength, and can act as either conductors or insulators

8.5.3 HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR PROPERTIES FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL


Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons formed by geological action on decayed aquatic plant and animal matter over long periods (i.e. millions of years). The first step in oil refining is fractional distillation. For separating components of crude oil it is carried out in large steel towers up to 40 metres high. In this process, the components of oil are separated according to their boiling points. Since boiling point increases as molecular weight increases, the separation is roughly in order of increasing atomic weights (or increasing number of carbon atoms per molecule). The crude oil is then vaporised by heating, they fed into the bottom of the fractionating column which contains a series of trays. The temperature falls as the vapour rise up through the column. The least volatile components, i.e. those with the highest boiling points and hence the largest molecular weights condense near the bottom of the columns while the most volatile components do not condense until they reach the top of the column. Liquids are drawn off from the column at various heights and these are the various fractions which are collected. Lubricating oils are obtained from the least volatile fraction by distilling under a vacuum because they will boil off at a lower temperature that would be needed at atmospheric pressure). Greases are separated from the remaining non-volatile material by solvent extraction and the final residue is asphalt or tar. Fraction Name natural gas petroleum ether benzines ligroin gasoline kerosene diesel oil lubricating oil vaseline greases paraffin waxes bitumen Boiling Point Range (C) <20 20-100 70-90 80-120 40-205 175-325 >275 (refinery liquid) (refinery solid) (hard solid) (hard solid) Carbons 1-4 5-7 6-7 6-8 5-10 12-18 13-18 16-20 18-22 20-30 30-40 Uses household gas, making methanol and hydrogen in plants very inflammable solvent safer dry cleaning solvent than carbon tetrachloride solvent motor cars (the main refinery product) aviation and tractor fuel diesel engine fuel for trucks and trains lubricants pharmaceuticals candles, cartons, surf-board wax roof flashing, road asphalt

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CLASSIFYING HYDROCARBONS
The most important fossil fuels i.e. natural gas, petroleum and coal, are all mixtures of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain the elements carbon and hydrogen (not to be confused with carbohydrates which contain the elements oxygen, carbon and hydrogen). There are three main groups of hydrocarbons: aliphatic alicyclic aromatic IUPAC (International Union of Practical and Applied Chemistry) has developed a systematic system to name hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. The purpose of adopted this naming system (nomenclature) is to establish an international standard of naming organic compounds. Each organic compound is given a name which effectively describes its structure. When naming organic compounds, attention must be paid to: The number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain The presence of any functional groups in the compounds.

ALKANES
Homologous series are groups of related chemical that obey a general formula and share the same functional groups, i.e. particular aspects of their structure, such as double bond or triple. In alkanes, the general formula is CnH(2n+2) where n is an integer. In alkenes, the general formula is CnH2n where n is an integer (except when there is more than one double bond).

Alkanes are described as saturated hydrocarbons since each carbon is bonded to four other atoms, meaning that no other atoms can be incorporated into its structure. In all alkane molecules, each carbon atom forms four single bonds. When naming alkanes, the suffix ane is used. Name methane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane No of Carbons 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Name octane nonane decane undecane dodecane tridecane tetradecane No of Carbons 20 21 22 30 31 40 50 Name icosane henicosane docosane triacontane hentriacontane tetracontane pentacontane

No of Carbons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Methane (CH4), Ethane (C2H6), Propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10) are gases at room temperature. The boiling point increases with chain length, so the next twelve alkanes are liquids and the rest are solid at room temperature. Alkanes are found in natural gas and crude oil. Natural gas is mostly methane, with small amounts of ethane, propane and butane. Crude oil is a much more complicated mixture of hydrocarbons, and can contain alkanes with up to 100 carbon atoms in their molecules. Alkanes are unreactive, apart from combustion. For example acids and alkalis have no effect on them. However they do burn well in a good supply of oxygen, forming carbon dioxide and water vapour. The reactions give out plenty of heat, so alkanes are often used as fuels. When propane burns, the reaction is: C3H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) 3CO2 (g) + 4H2O (g) + heat Although alkanes do undergo substitution reactions with some very reactive halogens such as fluorine and chlorine. Both propane and butane are used as camping gas, and in gas lighters. Calor gas is mainly butane, and natural gas is used for cooking and heating in homes.

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ALKENES
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon double bond. The suffix ene is used to indicate the double bond present. The double bond in alkenes is the functional group. For alkenes containing four of more carbon atoms, structural isomerisation occurs. Isomers have the same molecular formula but are arranged differently. When naming alkenes, the longest chain must contain the double bond, and is numbered so that double bond has the lowest number possible. Name n/a ethene No of Carbons 3 4 Name propene butene No of Carbons 5 6 Name pentene hexene

No of Carbons 1 2

Alkanes also burn in oxygen like alkanes, and have very similar chemical properties. e.g. C2 (g) + 3O2 (g) 2CO2 (g) + 2H2O(g) + heat However, unlike alkanes which are relatively unreactive compounds, alkenes are not, reacting with hydrogen and other compounds, e.g. C2H4 (g) + H2 (g) C2H6 (g) Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes. The double bond within carbon atoms can break to form single bonds, so can combine easily with other elements such as hydrogen or oxygen. Ethene is unsaturated since its molecules can add on more atoms, while ethane is saturated since its molecules cannot fit in more atoms because there are no double bonds to break, and each carbon atom already has four single bonds. Alkene molecules can combine with each other, due to their double bonds in a process called polymerisation. During polymerisation, many small molecules, called monomers, join together to from very large molecules, called polymers. Polythene is an example of such a molecule which is formed by this process. It is formed, when ethene is heated, under high pressure. More than 1,000 ethene molecules can combine through this process to make a single molecule of polythene. Polythene is a solid. It is unreactive, as there are no double bonds present. It can be rolled into thin sheets and moulded into different shapes, and because that is easy to mould, it is called a plastic.

There are two ways of testing a hydrocarbon to determine whether it is an alkane or alkene. 1. The addition of bromine water. Bromine water is an orange solution of bromine in water. It turns colourless in the presence of an alkene, because the bromine adds on to the alkene, to form a colourless compound: C2H4 (g) + Br2 (aq) C2H4Br2 ethane + bromine water 1,2-dibromoethane The addition of potassium manganate. This is purple, but turns colourless when an alkene is present.

2.

ALKYNES
Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon triple bond. The suffix yne is used to indicate the triple present. When naming alkynes, the longest chain must contain the triple bond, and is numbered so that triple bond has the lowest number possible.

BRANCHED GROUPS
When an alkane (or alkene etc.) has a branched group which replaces one of the hydrogen atoms, then the longest chain in the molecule still gives the basic name of the compound. The chain is numbered to give any double bonds or triple bonds as before, but where possible number so that the branch has the lowest number possible (note: the presence of a double or triple bond takes precedence). Name the group joined to the chain, and state the number of the carbon atom to which it is joined. Alkyl groups are similar to alkanes instead they have one less hydrogen, for example: methane (CH 4) becomes methyl (CH3). The suffix for alkyl groups are yl. For a chain with multiple branches, both branches are named together. Prefixes should also be added (such as di-, tri- and tetra-). If there are two or more different branches, the groups are written alphabetically. When numbering, in the case of a conflict, the one that comes first alphabetically takes precedence provided there are no other constituents. Structure Br Cl Branch Name fluoro iodo Structure F I

Branch Name bromo chloro

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PROPERTIES OF ALKANES AND ALKENES


Alkanes and alkenes are both non-polar substances. The bonds between the molecules are weak intermolecular forces. As a result these substances have low melting and boiling point, and many of them exist as gases or liquids at room temperature. Generally the longer the carbon chain, however, the higher the melting and boiling points, which is which methane is gas, while octane is a liquid. This is because there are more bonds to break in a longer carbon chain, which means more energy is needed. Alkenes tend to have lower melting and boiling points than alkanes because alkenes are smaller, and therefore fewer bonds that need to be broken, and therefore less energy required to change its state from solid to liquid, or liquid to gas. The density naturally increases as the carbon chain increases (i.e. the molecular weight increases). Alkanes and alkenes, when present as a liquid are less than water. They also are insoluble in water because they are non-polar substance and water prefers being bonded to its own atoms (as it is a polar substance). This means when placed in water, alkanes and alkenes will float on-top of the water, forming an immiscible layer. Alkanes and alkenes have a high volatility, which means they go from a liquid to gaseous state much easier than low volatile liquids. Volatility also means a relatively high partial pressure of their gas above the liquids surface.

FLASH POINTS
The flash point is the lowest temperature where if a small flame is applied to the vapour above the fuel will cause it to ignite in a closed container with air. Chemicals that have a low flash point, such as hydrocarbons have low boiling points. In fact, all hydrocarbons up to octane have a flash point less the room temperature meaning that potential to ignite at room temperature (25C).

USES OF HYDROCARBONS
The major uses of hydrocarbons are as fuels such as: natural gas for domestic uses, such as cooking and heating, and also in industry LPG for caravans and barbeques (and even some cars) petrol and diesel for cars, trucks, vans and trucks kerosene for jet aircraft

Higher molecular weight hydrocarbons are used as lubricating oils and greases. Vaseline is a highly purified form of these high molecular weight hydrocarbons, while paraffin waxes are a mixture of high molecular weight alkanes. Low molecular weight hydrocarbons are used as propellants in aerosol sprays. Many hydrocarbons are solvents as well.

SAFETY ISSUES WITH HYDROCARBONS


Hydrocarbons are extremely flammable (especially the low molecular weight), and are toxic in high concentrations. They also have a high volatility, meaning they can quickly form a flammable and explosive mixture with air. As a result the following safety precautions are undertaking when using hydrocarbons: A well-maintained cylinders and fittings for gaseous hydrocarbons are used These cylinders are stored away from sources of electrical sparks Odours are added for early detection of leaks Sturdy containers are used for liquids The quantities of these substances used are minimised, especially in everyday usage. These substances are kept away from exposed flames and sparks. Warning signs are placed around the storage of these liquids as well as on the containers which store these substances. These substances should never be handled in confined spaces, instead well-ventilated rooms or a fume-hood should be used.

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PLASTICS TYPES OF PLASTICS


Polythene used for plastic bags, dustbins and plastic basins. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used for raincoats, seat covers and records Polystyrene used for plastic cups and packaging materials. Nylon used for rope, bristle for brushes, tights and clothing. Melamine used for unbreakable dishes and mugs, and ashtrays. Phenolic used for electric plugs and saucepan handles.

PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS
Plastics are all carbon compounds that are obtained from oil, for e.g. polythene and PVC start off as ethene which is made by cracking some of the alkanes in oil. They are all polymers and consist of very long molecules, made by joining many small molecules, called monomers. Plastics are creating in the process of polymerisation. For example, ethene is reacted with hydrochloric acid to form vinyl chloride, which is mixed with warm water under pressure, and the monomers polymerise, forming PVC. Plastics have the following advantages: Plastics are cheap, and easily made. They are lighter than wood, stone or metal, which results in many applications where light-weight materials are required. They are unreactive, as they do not corrode in air or water and many are not affected by acids or alkalis. This means that they are suitable alternative to metals in certain applications, because plastics are not susceptible to corrosion. Plastics are insulators of heat, and do not conduct electricity, and therefore are used in the insulation of wires. They are able to be moulded into any shape, and therefore are used for containers. They also can be made very strong, and are used for some furniture as well as replacing ceramics in some areas. Plastics can be coloured through the addition of coloured pigments.

However there are some disadvantages to using plastics: Plastic is difficult to dispose of, because of its reactivity. Plastic bags and cartons do not rot when they are thrown away, so they pollute the countryside, but biodegradable plastics rot away. Some plastics catch fire very easily, and when they do burn, they often produce harmful gases, for e.g. PVC produces fumes of hydrogen chloride when it burns, which forms hydrochloric acid in eyes and throat. Plastics are not as aesthetically pleasing as other materials such as wood or stone.

THERMOPLASTICS AND THERMOSETTING PLASTICS


Thermoplastics are plastics which get soft and runny when they are heated and hard again when they are cooled. They can be made hard and soft repeated amount of times. This is because of their structure, where the polymer chains lie next to each other. A thermoplastic gets soft on heating, because the chains can slide past each other. The soft plastic can be moulded into any shape, and the shape can easily be changed again. Some thermoplastics include Polythene, PVC, Polystyrene and Nylon. Thermosetting plastics (thermosets) only get soft once, which is the first time they are heated. Initially, the polymer chains in a thermoset are like this. When heated for the first time, it softens, and therefore can be moulded into a shape. But the heat causes bonds to form between the chains. The plastic sets firmly into its new shape. The bonds keep it hard, even when it is heated again. Examples include phenolic and melamine.

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8.5.4 COMBUSTION REACTIONS WITH OXYGEN


Oxygen is one of three extremely electronegativity elements that react with almost any substance (the other two are fluorine and chlorine), and as it is the most abundant element of the three it is the most common reactant present. Slow reactions with oxygen are called oxidisation reactions (or rusting). In this type of reaction the substance (usually a metal). Faster reactions with oxygen are called combustion reactions (or burning). These reactions both produce the relevant oxides, for example when hydrocarbons are burnt, since hydrocarbons have atoms of hydrogen which combine to form water, and atoms of carbon which combine to form carbon dioxide.

COMBUSTION REACTIONS
An important group of oxidation-reduction reactions called combustion reactions involve the burning of a substance, usually in air to produce heat and light energy. The oxidising agent, usually oxygen, reacts with another reactant resulting in the release of chemical energy from the system as heat. As a result, combustion reactions are exothermic. Examples: i. magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide + energy 2Mg + O2 2MgO + energy ii. butane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy 2C4H6 + 11O2 8CO2 + 6H2O + energy In the case of a candle, when a lit match is brought near its wick, then the hydrocarbons molecules (such as C 30H62) present in a solid state change to a liquid and move upwards on the wick. These molecules present as a liquid then become a gas at the top of the wick, and mix with the surrounding oxygen allowing combustion to occur. The light from a candle is due to the unburnt particles that are excited emitting yellow light.

COMPLETE COMBUSTION
When ignited with a plentiful supply of oxygen, hydrocarbons undergo complete combustion to produce water, carbon dioxide and large quantities of heat. This makes hydrocarbons extremely useful as fuels. If temperatures exceed above 1300C due to complete combustion, then a reaction between the nitrogen in the air, to result in the formation of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) which react with water to produce nitric and nitrous acids, and reacts with oxygen to produce nitrogen and ozone. Fossil fuels often contain traces of compounds containing sulfur, which when burned release toxic sulfur dioxide (which forms sulfur trioxide). These can result in acid rain due to reacting with water to form sulfurous and sulfuric acids.

INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION
If excess oxygen is present, complete combustion occurs. But if there is not enough oxygen to facilitate the complete combustion reaction than incomplete combustion occurs. During incomplete combustion, the products include water, carbon monoxide and carbon in the form of soot. A poorly tuned engine where the fuel/air mixture is too rich (i.e. too much fuel and not enough oxygen supply) contributes to incomplete combustion as well as poor engine performance and increased pollution to the environment. Incomplete combustion is not only inefficient but it is also harmful to the environment. Carbon monoxide, carbon (soot) and unburnt fuel all are contributors to pollution. Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless and toxic gas. It interferes with the functioning of haemoglobin as an oxygen carrier in the blood. Idling vehicles produce large quantities of carbon monoxide. Carbon coats surfaces especially the leaves of plants, preventing photosynthesis.

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CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Physical changes do not involve the production of new substances and are easily reversible. Chemical changes involve the production of new substances as a result of a chemical reaction between two or more substances. Some indicators of a chemical reaction (or chemical change) are: Reactants are permanently converted into new products that have different physical properties. Chemical reactions are difficult to reverse Changes to the enthalpy of the system occurs, i.e. heat is released or absorbed

ENERGY CHANGES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS


The enthalpy of the system represents the stored chemical potential energy and depends on the chemical bonding present in the substance. Exothermic reactions are associated with the decrease in the enthalpy of a system, while endothermic reactions are associated with an increase in the enthalpy of a system. For exothermic reactions (reactions that release energy), the change in enthalpy (H) has a negative value For endothermic reactions (reactions that absorb energy), the change in enthalpy (H) has a positive value

BOND-BREAKING AND BOND-MAKING


When new substances are formed, i.e. bonds are made, energy is released. When bonds are broken, for example in decomposition, energy is absorbed from the surroundings in order to break the bond. Chemical reactions such as exothermic or endothermic reactions require either the breaking of bonds or the formation of new bonds, which explain the resulting changes in enthalpy to the system. From the Law of Conservation of Energy, the quantity of energy released when one bond is formed is the same amount of energy as when absorbed when this bond is broken (i.e. the energy input required). If the energy absorbed to break bonds is greater than the energy released when new bonds are formed to make products, then the reaction will be endothermic. If the energy absorbed to break bonds is less than the energy released when new bonds are formed to make products, then the reaction will be exothermic. The bond energy is the amount of energy that is associated with breaking that particular bond. The stronger the chemical bonding is in a compound, the higher the bond energy. For this reason triple bonds between carbon atoms require more energy to break than double bonds between carbon atoms.

HEAT OF COMBUSTION
The combustion reactions especially those of hydrocarbons are exothermic releasing large quantities of energy from the system. This is because the enthalpy of the products, i.e. water and carbon dioxide is much less than those in the reactants. For example the combustion of methane: CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) + 890kJ energy There is a decrease in the enthalpy of the system of 890kJ for every mole of methane that burns. This large decrease in enthalpy indicates that much less energy is needed to break the bonds in the reactants than the energy that is released when the products are formed.

The molar heat of combustion (H) of a substance is the heat released when one mole of the substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa). Since it is defined in terms of heat released it has by definition a positive value. The minus sign in H ensures that the value is always positive because all combustion reactions are exothermic and release energy. For example the molar heat of combustion of butane is 2877 kJ mol 1 which means that in the combustion of 1 mole of butane 2877 kJ of energy is released.

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ACTIVATION ENERGY
Activation energy (EA) is the minimum energy input required to start the reaction. All reactions require this input of energy, including exothermic reactions. For example the combustion of methane requires an ignition temperature of 630C, or alternatively either a flame or spark to initiate the reaction. The activation energy is often described as an energy hill that has to be overcome to allow the reactants to react and become the products. Reactants without enough energy to overcome this energy barrier will not react, but once this activation energy is reached, the reaction continues without need for additional energy.

IGNITION TEMPERATURE
The temperature will be reached where the fuel ignites and burns without the need for a flame or sparks. This is called the ignition temperature. The ignition temperature can be used to estimate the activation energy for a reaction between a fuel and the air. In the case of hydrocarbons, the smaller hydrocarbon molecules such as methane are more stable and therefore have a higher ignition temperature, and therefore more energy is required to overcome the activation energy barrier. Ignition Temperature (C) 585 540-560 390-420 380 300-350 580 Fuel Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Ignition Temperature (C) 405 260 225 215 206

Fuel Hydrogen Natural Gas Petrol Kerosene Diesel Methane

ACTIVATED COMPLEX
The activated complex is an unstable transition stage in the reaction that exists at the activation energy hill. At this point, the bonds in the reactants have been partially broken while those present in products are just being formed. After a small period, this complex breaks apart. The two possible paths for the reaction after the activated complex has broken apart are that either the reaction will continue resulting in the formation of the products, or the reaction will not continue resulting in the reformation of the reactants instead.

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8.5.5 REACTION KINETICS DETERMINING THE RATE OF A REACTION


In general, reaction rate can be determined by noting the rate of disappearance of reactants or rate of appearance of products. Some reactions occur quickly, while others are slower. The rate of a reaction, at any particular time, is defined as the change in concentration of a substance per unit time, and therefore is measured in mol L1 s1 By examining many different reactions, chemists have been able to produce some guidelines that are useful for predicting reaction rates: If a reaction does not involve bonding rearrangements, it is likely to be rapid at room temperature. For example, the reaction between Ag+ (aq) and Cl(aq) occurs as a result of simple collisions between these two types of ions. No complex bond-breaking and bond-forming processes are required. If a reaction involves the breaking of bonds, it is slow at room temperature. For example, the reaction between methane and oxygen involves the breaking of bonds in both the methane and oxygen.

These processes will only take place if the collisions between the molecules occur with sufficient energy and have suitable orientation.

COMBUSTION AND REACTION RATES SLOW COMBUSTION


Slow combustion is the reaction usually between metals and oxygen. When a very active metal such as sodium, the reaction occurs in a few seconds, while in the case of iron, the reaction rate is slower. These reactions are relatively slow; releasing considerable amounts of heat, but because of their slow reaction rate and the oxide layer formed is very thin, the rise in temperature is not significant. Some examples of slow combustion reactions include: Rusting is the reaction occurs between iron and oxygen to form rust, which is iron oxide. Burning of wood, coal and coke is another slow reaction, due to the small surface area of the fuel used.

SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION
Spontaneous combustion is when the fuel starts burning for no apparent reason, when the temperature is higher than the ignition temperature. This is because the reactants already have sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy barrier, and just need to be mixed to ensure a reaction. Some examples of spontaneous combustion reactions include: White phosphorus (P4) is an allotrope of phosphorus that must be stored underwater, otherwise it will combust spontaneously when present in air, at low temperatures. Brown coal deposits are known to combust spontaneously when exposed to air, due to the temperature change when it starts oxidisation.

EXPLOSIVE COMBUSTION
Explosive combustion reactions are extremely fast reactions that occurs when gases expanded at an extremely fast rate, and is caused by a chemical between a fuel and air. The difference between spontaneous combustion and explosive combustion is that the former requires the mixing of the fuel and the air in the right ratio (to ensure complete combustion). Some examples of explosive combustion reactions include: Hydrogen and oxygen react to form water, when hydrogen gas in air is sparked. This explosive combustion is used in rocket engines to produce the necessary thrust to propel the rocket forward. Hydrogen and chlorine are stable unless in the presence of light, where a chain reaction resulting an explosive combustion reaction and the form hydrochloric acid. Dust particles can form explosive mixtures in air, since they have high surface area.

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF REACTION CONCENTRATION OF REACTANTS


The rate of reaction can be altered by altering the concentration of the reactants. As the concentration of the reactant increases so do this rate of the reaction. This can be determined experimentally, for example the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium.

SURFACE AREA OF REACTANTS


The surface area of the solid or liquid has an effect on the reaction rate. The relationship is the larger the surface area, the faster the reaction. For example: a log of wood that is smaller pieces burns faster than larger pieces of wood. This is also true with particular matter whose surface area is large, despite being small in size, has the potential with sparking, combust explosively.

TEMPERATURE
The temperature also has an effect on the reaction rate, as temperature increases the reaction becomes faster. This is notable also when cooking, that cooking time is quicker, when done at higher temperatures.

CATALYSTS
The addition of a catalyst has the effect of dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. A catalyst is a substance or mixture that increases the rate a chemical reaction without being permanently consumed in the reaction. In industry, a wide variety of processes utilise catalysts to make industrial reactions faster and therefore more economically viable. Some of the uses include the purification of metals, and also in the formation of plastics, rubbers and synthetic fibres. An example of a catalyst that is used is magnesium oxide MgO2, which when added to hydrogen peroxide H2O2 increases the rate of its decomposition into water and oxygen gas.

COLLISION THEORY
The collision theory assumes that if particles are to react, they must first undergo an appropriate collision. The collision theory requires that for a collision between reactant particles to lead a chemical reaction, the following conditions must be fulfilled: The molecules must collide with enough energy to cause the bonds of the reactant molecules to break The molecules must collide with an orientation that is favourable for bond-breaking and bond-forming

For a reaction to occur between reactant molecules, they must collide with a certain amount of energy, called the activation energy. Unless this quantity of energy is reached, the colliding molecules simply bounce back of the molecules and disperse. In addition to this, subsequent collisions require to have a favourable orientation that is the colliding substances must do so at the appropriate angles and in the right position to allow the breaking of bonds (in the reactants) and the formation of bonds in the products.

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APPLYING COLLISION THEORY


The different activation energies for different reactions correspond to the ease in which the bond-breaking and bond-making process can occur.

CONCENTRATION
The result of increasing the concentration is an increase in the number of collisions that occur, and therefore the reaction rate will increase. For gases, increasing the pressure results in an increase of collisions, and therefore the reaction rate will increase.

SURFACE AREA
In a solid or liquid, increasing the surface area means that more of the reactant is able to be collided with. This as a result, means an increased rate of reaction. Solids often powdered as this increases surface area and therefore reaction rate. Liquids are often used as sprays or subject to vigorous agitation in order a larger surface area is available.

TEMPERATURE
Moving particles possess kinetic energy. As these particles are heated, they become excited and move with a faster vibrations. This results in an increase of kinetic energy of the particles. The increased velocity results in a greater rate of reaction, as there are more frequent collisions. However this change in reaction rate is small due to velocity increase alone. The kinetic energy of a particle is proportional to its temperature: EK T However the main contributor to an increased rate of reaction is that more reactant molecules have sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy barrier and therefore react to form products.

CATALYSTS
Catalysts lower the activation energy by allowing the reactants to partially react with them, and assisting in the bond-breaking process. The catalyst means that less collision energy is required, so increased likelihood of successful collisions and results in a faster reaction rate.