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CHEMISTRY

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PRELIMINARY COURSE TABLE OF CONTENTS


Preliminary Course Content................................................................................................................................................... starts page 3 The Chemical Earth ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Metals ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Water .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Energy .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 55

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THE CHEMICAL EARTH TABLE OF CONTENTS


The Chemical Earth ................................................................................................................................................................... starts page 3 Course Outcomes and Topics........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

OUTCOMES:
8.2.1. MIXTURES OF THE EARTH .................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 5

Construct word equations and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions ........................................................... [15-16] Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory ..........................................5-6 Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................6-8 Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of: solids of different sizes, solids and liquids, dissolved solids in liquids, liquids, and gases .................................................................................................8-9 Assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials, identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations ..........................................................................................................................8-9 Describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists ............................ 9 Apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the laboratory ................................................. [15] Identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered ............................................................................ [15, 60-61]
REACTIVITY AND CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS ...................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 10

8.2.2.

Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10 Classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical properties .......................................... 10 Account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties ................................................................... 10
INTERACTIONS AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL.......................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 11

8.2.3.

Identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting ....................................................... 11-12 Describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms ................................................................................................................. 12 Describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number ................................................................................................................ 11 Describe the formation of ions in terms of gaining of losing electrons ......................................................................................... [5], 13 Apply the Periodic table to predict ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals ............................................................ [5], 13 Apply Lewis electron dot structures to: the formation of ions, and the electron sharing in some molecules ..................... 14 Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of attraction of ions of opposite charge ......................................... [6], 13 Describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other........................................................................ [5], 13 Distinguish between molecules containing one atom or more than one atom ......................................................................... [5], 13 Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing electrons ............................................................................ [5], 13 Construct formulae for compounds formed from ions, and atoms sharing electrons ............................................................. 14-15
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE ................................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 18

8.2.4.

Identify the difference between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles .............................. 18 Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference between physical and chemical change ................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Identify light, heat and electricity as common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in everyday life .................................................................................................................................................................................................... [16-17], 19 Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction, or bond, between them .......................................................................................................................................................................... 19

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8.2.5. STRUCTURE AND BONDING OF SUBSTANCES ................................................................................................ STARTS PAGE 20

Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures ............................. 20 Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or covalent network....... 20 Distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds .......................................................................................................... [13], 20-21 Describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons ....................................................................................... 21 Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions..................................................................... 20 Explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula ........................................................................................... 21 Identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices .................................................................................. 20-21 Explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of the ionic, covalent molecular and covalent network substances ........................................................................................................................... 20-21

TOPICS:
8.2.1. MIXTURES OF THE EARTH .................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 5

Classification of matter .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Pure and impure substances ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Composition of the Earth ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6 Mixtures in the spheres ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Physical separation of mixtures ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Gravimetric Analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9
REACTIVITY AND CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS ...................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 10

8.2.2.

Combined and uncombined elements ................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Classification of metals and non-metals ............................................................................................................................................................... 10
INTERACTIONS AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL.......................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 11

8.2.3.

States of matter ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11 Atomic and mass numbers .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Electron configurations ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Chemical bonding............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13 Lewis dot diagrams ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14 Writing chemical formulae ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Naming compounds ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Balancing equations ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE ................................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 18

8.2.4.

Chemical reactions ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Physical and chemical change ................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Energy transfer and chemical change .................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Bond energy ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
STRUCTURE AND BONDING IN SUBSTANCES ................................................................................................ STARTS PAGE 20

8.2.5.

Bonding and properties ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Structure and bonding in substances ..................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Properties of substances .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

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8.2.1 MIXTURES OF THE EARTH CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER ATOMS


John Dalton proposed in 1805 that elements were composed of small indivisible particles called atoms. He developed this idea in order to explain how elements always reacted in ratios of whole numbers. John Dalton proposed that atoms are simply rearranged in a chemical reaction. Nowadays, it is known that atoms are composed of smaller particles called protons, electrons and neutrons. The nucleus is the centre of the atom and is composed of smaller particles called protons which are positively charged (1.6022 1019 Coulombs) and neutrons which have no charge. These particles are collectively referred to as nucleons, as they are present in the nucleus of the atom. The mass of the proton is 1.6726 1027 kilograms, while the neutron is similar in size with a mass of 1.6749 1027 kilograms. Electrons (e) are small negatively charged particles which orbit the central positive charged nucleus of an atom. They have a mass significantly smaller than the proton (9.1094 1031 kg), and have a charge equal to the proton. They orbit in energy levels called shells, which are different energy levels, which the electrons occupy when they orbit the nucleus.

MOLECULES
A molecule is made of two or more atoms joined with covalent bonds (bonds between elements due to the sharing of electrons to obtain a stable octet in the outermost shell). In other terms, molecules consist of the smallest unit of a substance (covalently bonded substance) that can move independently. All covalently-bonded compounds (two or more atoms bonded together) are molecules, even though some exist not as individual molecules but as a lattice, such as SiO2 (silicon dioxide sand) or C (carbon diamond). Other molecules include when the same element is bonded with itself e.g. H 2, O2 or N2. Monatomic molecules are molecules with only one atom include the noble gases, which exist as uncombined elements, and therefore as single elements. Some examples include: He (helium), Ne (neon) and Ar (argon). Diatomic molecules include some elements such as O2 (oxygen), H2 (hydrogen), N2 (nitrogen), and some compounds such as hydrogen iodine HI and hydrogen fluoride HF. Diatomic molecules can also be compounds such as HCl (hydrochloric acid) but not ionic compounds such as NaCl (sodium chloride table salt) Some triatomic molecules include ozone O3, water H2O and sulfur dioxide SO2 Some tetratomic molecules include white phosphorus P4 and ammonia NH3

COMPOUNDS
A compound consists of two or more elements joined chemically. In compounds, the atoms form chemical bonds between the electrons in the outer shell of the atom. Unlike elements, compounds can be chemically broken down into their elemental components. Compounds are chemical bonded with fixed ratios. If they are not chemically bonded they may be a mixture or alloy. For example in HCl, there is one hydrogen atom for every chlorine atom. Ionic compounds are compounds formed between usually a metal and a non-metal, where the metal transfers its excess electrons to the non-metals forming an ionic compound. Ionic compounds are lattices, and the formula used (empirical formula) represents the ratio of atoms in the lattice. Covalent compounds are compounds formed between two or more non-metals, through the sharing of electrons to reach a stable octet in the outer shell of each element. Covalent compounds are molecules. The formula used is a direct proportion to the structure of the molecule.

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IONS
Ions are charged particles. Positive ions are formed when metal atoms lose electrons, e.g. Na +, Mg2+ or Al3+. Negative ions are formed when non-metal ions gain electrons e.g. Cl, S2 or N3 A polyatomic ion or radical is a charged particle made up of more than one type of atom, e.g. NH4+, or CO32

PURE SUBSTANCES AND IMPURE SUBSTANCES


Matter can either be classified by their state of matter at room temperature, either as a solid, liquid or gas. Matter can also be classified into two categories, pure substances and impure substances. Pure substances include elements and compounds. These substances have a fixed composition and properties and therefore are unable to be separated using simple physical separation methods. Impure substances, also referred to as mixtures, have variable composition and properties and are able to be separated easily using various methods such as sieving, sedimentation and evaporation.

HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS SUBSTANCES


Homogeneous refers to a substance that is composed of a single substance for example elements or a mixture that has roughly a uniform composition or structure. Heterogeneous refers to a mixture that is composed of different substances without a uniform composition or structure.

COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH

The earth has a layered structure consisting of a core, mantle and crust. This composition of the Earth has been established through observations of the earths density and also through seismology. In pa rticular S waves (secondary waves) do not penetrate travel through liquids or gases, while P waves (primary waves) can travel in liquids and gases, and therefore can travel through the outer core, which is liquid.

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THE CORE
The mass of the Earth can be calculated by noting the gravitational influences it exerts on other objects of matter. The volume of the Earth can be estimated because the Earth is roughly spherical in shape and the radius can be easily calculated. This leads to an approximate calculation for the average density at around 5,500 kg/m3. Since it has been calculated that the density of the material closer to the crust is lower in density, it implies that the centre of the Earth has to be constituted of more dense materials. Through studying seismic waves, seismologists have detected that the core is composed of two main sections: A solid inner core that has a radius slightly greater than 1200 km. Through examination of the prevalence of certain elements within other Solar system bodies, has led to determine that the inner core is composed of mostly an ironnickel alloy. Despite being the surface temperature of the Sun (5700 K) the intense pressure results in a solidified core. A liquid outer core whose thickness is almost twice the radius of the inner core. The outer core is responsible for Earths magnetic field, due to the convection of liquid metals around the core.

THE MANTLE
The mantle is the thickest layer and lies underneath the crust, and is around 2900 km thick. It is composed mainly of solid rocks, and is the source for igneous rocks found at the surface. Convection currents in the mantle are responsible for the movement of the plate tectonics, and recycle of rock material. The mantle is relatively homogeneous and is composed mainly of magnesium and silicon oxides and magnesium and iron silicates.

THE CRUST
The crust is a thin and heterogeneous layer of rocks composed of many elements and compounds, found in different rock types including igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Predominant elements include oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium while other elements make up less than 1% of the crust. The crust varies in thickness. Oceanic crust which is relatively new (less the 200 million years) is only on average 6 km average, while continental crust is up to 3500 million years old and is up to 70 km thick. The density of continental crust which is 2.7 grams per cubic cm is less than that of oceanic crust, which has a density of around 3.5 grams per cubic cm. Continental crust is composed of granitic rocks and is higher in silicon that oceanic crust which is mainly composed of basaltic rocks.

MIXTURES OF THE SPHERES


The earths crust includes a solid lithosphere, a liquid hydrosphere and a gaseous atmosphere together with a living biosphere which overlaps with the other three components. These each contain different quantities of elements, compounds and mixtures.

THE LITHOSPHERE
The lithosphere of which includes the crust and upper mantle is composed mostly of rocks and soil, which are mixtures of minerals. The lithosphere contains high amounts of oxygen and silicon. Few elements are found uncombined in the lithosphere, with gold, sulfur and carbon being notable exceptions. Most are present in minerals such as: quartz (silicon and oxygen) feldspars (containing various combinations of sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminium, silicon and oxygen), calcite (calcium, carbon and oxygen) many other minerals such as pyroxene, biotite, iron oxides and kaolinite (a clay mineral)

THE ATMOSPHERE
The atmosphere is composed mostly of uncombined lighter elements such as nitrogen, oxygen and argon with small percentages of compounds such as carbon dioxide, methane and water.

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THE HYDROSPHERE
The hydrosphere includes the Earths oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and underground water. By far its major constituent is water, with varying quantities of compounds containing chlorine, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, bromine and many other elements. The hydrosphere also has a variable composition e.g. fresh water and sea water

THE BIOSPHERE
The biosphere contains a vast array of living things with many chemical characteristics in common. All living things are composed of compounds based on the element carbon. Other elements essential to living things include oxygen, hydrogen nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. These elements are provided from the surrounding lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere in the form of compounds.

ELEMENTAL CYCLES
The continuous flow of elements, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, in various forms between the biospheres, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere is essential to maintaining life on earth.

COMPOSITION OF THE SPHERES


ELEMENT aluminium argon calcium carbon chlorine hydrogen iron magnesium nitrogen oxygen phosphorus potassium silicon sodium sulfur ABUNDANCE (percentage of total weight) LITHOSPHERE ATMOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE 8.2 ------1.0 --3.6 ------0.1 ------1.9 --0.1 10.8 5.0 ----2.1 --0.1 --78.1 --46.6 20.9 86.0 ------2.6 ----27.7 ----2.8 --1.1 ------BIOSPHERE ----2.5 21.0 0.2 11.0 ----3.5 60.0 1.2 ------0.2

PHYSICAL SEPARATION OF MIXTURES


In order to separate mixtures into their components a chemist needs to know the properties of the components so that a suitable technique can be used. For example: solubility in different solvents, particle size, melting and boiling points.

SEPARATING SOLIDS OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE SIZE


Sieving uses sieves of different mesh size and is important in mining industry. Centrifuging is useful when solids of different sizes are suspended in a liquid such as water. The process of these solids settling under gravity is accelerated by the centrifuge. Heavier particles are more rapidly separated from lighter particles. It is used to separate whole blood, smoke particles from gas emissions.

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SEPARATING SOLIDS WITH DIFFERENT PROPERTIES


Froth flotation is a specific method of separation used in industry, particular the copper mining industry. It works by separating minerals from unwanted rock. A foaming substance (e.g. detergent) along with other oily chemicals are added to the mineral and water. Air is bubbled through and the mineral adheres to the surface of the resultant froth, which can then be decanted from the waste material. Magnetic separation can be used separate magnetic materials from the mixture from non-magnetic metals. Ironcontaining minerals such as magnetite are separated from iron ore in this way.

SEPARATING SOLIDS FROM LIQUIDS


Filtration is very common and separates insoluble solids from liquid. For effective filtration to occur the size of particle must be greater than pore size of filter. Sedimentation occurs when solid particles are allowed to settle from water (or other liquids) or air. It occurs most readily if the water or air is not moving. Decantation is the process of pouring off a liquid from above a solid that has been allowed to settle by sedimentation

SEPARATING DISSOLVED SOLIDS FROM LIQUIDS


Evaporation is a common procedure to separate soluble solid from the solvent and can be achieved if the volatility of solid is much less than solvent. Crystallisation depends on the components of the mixture having different solubilities in a selected liquid, usually water.

SEPARATION OF IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS


Liquids that do not mix with each other are said to be immiscible. They form separate layers, with the less dense liquid floating on top of the denser liquid A separating funnel separates these liquids efficiently. The denser liquid is run off through a tap at the bottom of the flask, leaving the less dense liquid in the funnel.

SEPARATING MIXTURES OF LIQUIDS OR GASES


Distillation depends on components having significantly different boiled points. Fractional distillation of liquefied gas mixtures is a common procedure used to separate the components of the air. Gas centrifuges can be used to separate gases of different molecular weights. Chemical separation of selected gases can be achieved by taking advantage of the chemical properties of the gas. Fractional distillation can also be used for separating mixtures of liquids that have more than one component.

CHROMATOGRAPHY
Chromatography is a relatively recent development useful for separating components in small quantities of mixtures. There are several different chromatographic techniques including column chromatography, paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The separation of the components in the mixture occurs because the components absorb, or cling, to the surface of the inert surface with different strengths.

GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
Determining the quantities (mass) of the substances present in a sample is called gravimetric analysis which is analysis by weight or mass. In gravimetric analysis, the mass of each component needs to be determined. Many industrial situations use gravimetric analysis: to determine if a mineral deposit contains a high percentage of required compound to determine the composition of soil to determine the amount of pollutants in water or air to determine whether a commercial mixture has the required percentage composition comparison of products

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8.2.2 REACTIVITY AND CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS COMBINED AND UNCOMBINED ELEMENTS


Most of the elements occur on Earth as compounds; very few are present as free elements. The more reactive an element is, the less chance there is of finding it in the Earth as an uncombined element. Sodium, potassium, fluorine and chloride which are very reactive are never found as free elements. Gold, platinum and the noble gases such as argon and helium which are extremely unreactive occur naturally as uncombined elements. Unreactive elements, such as gold, platinum or the noble gases can exist as free elements in nature. In particular unreactive metals such as gold are often referred to as noble metals, while a metal found uncombined is also referred to as a native metal. Reactive elements, such as sodium, potassium, fluorine and chlorine are rarely found as free elements in nature and instead combine with other substances in the environment to produce compounds. The uses of elements are directly related to their physical and chemical properties. For example, aluminium is a malleable metal that can be readily formed into saucepans, window frames and thin foils.

CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
Every element has its own set of unique properties which can be used to distinguish it from other elements. These properties include melting point, boiling point, density, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity. Pure substances can be classified by their state of matter, as either a solid, liquid or gas at standard room temperature (25C) and pressure (100 kPa). The properties of these substances as well as their positions in the Periodic table can help determine whether the element is a metal (metallic in nature) or otherwise.

METALS
Metals occupy the left hand-side of the periodic table and have the following properties: All most all solids at room temperature (excluding mercury, which is a liquid) They have a shiny or lustrous appearance Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity Metals are malleable (able to be shaped without breaking) and ductile (able to be drawn into wires).

As a result, metals are used for a wide range of uses ranging from cooking utensils, electrical wires, piping to structures containing alloys (mixtures of metals).

NON-METALS
Non-metals occupy the right hand-side of the periodic and have the following properties: Most are gases at room temperature. Notable exceptions include bromine Br2, which is a liquid and iodine I2 which is a solid. Some non-metals exist as diatomic molecules rather monatomic molecules. Most are poor conductors of heat and electricity, with the exception of carbon in the form of graphite. Non-metals are not malleable or ductile, and are not as strong as compared to metals. They do not have shiny or lustrous appearances.

SEMI-METALS
Semi-metals have properties of both metals and non-metals. This category contains elements that are hard to classify as metals or non-metals.

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8.2.3 INTERACTIONS AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL STATES OF MATTER


Matter is made of particles that constant interact with each other, slipping and sliding past each other.

In a solid, these particles are packed close together. The particles have a fixed position but can still vibrate independently. In a liquid, these particles can move more freely able to slip past each other. As a result, a liquid still has a consistent volume, but can change its shape to match that of the container which carries it. In a gas, these particles are widely separated and move much more freely than in a liquid. It allows them to spread out to occupy the entire container. Gases are able to change their volume and shape.

PHYSICAL STATES OF THE ELEMENTS


The physical states of the elements at room temperature are: Two elements are liquids bromine and mercury Eleven elements are gases oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon, fluorine and chlorine. All of these are colourless except fluorine which is pale yellow and chlorine which is greenish yellow. The rest of the elements are solids.

ATOMIC AND MASS NUMBERS


Atomic number (Z) refers to the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom (not an ion) Mass number (A) refers to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Therefore to calculate the number of neutrons in a nucleus we subtract Z from A, that is: number of neutrons = A Z Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons i.e. same atomic number but different number of neutrons i.e. different mass number, e.g. 126C, 136C, 146C The atomic number is a specific quantity that distinguishes a carbon atom from an oxygen atom. The atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons (provided the atom has an net charge of 0) A nuclide is any atom of a specified atomic number and mass number, i.e. any atom that has the same number of protons and neutrons (collectively called nucleons).

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ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS
The reactivity of atoms is determined by the way the electrons are arranged in the electron cloud. Electrons possess energy which is sufficient to resist the attraction towards the positive nucleus. The way electrons are arranged around the nucleus is called the electron configuration. For example: Neon has 10 electrons, its electron configuration is 2, 8 Magnesium has 12 electrons, its electron configuration is 2, 8, 2

ENERGY LEVELS
There is a set of discrete energy levels available in an atom, called the first, second, third etc. energy levels. Electrons in the shell closest to the nucleus have the least energy, while the electrons in the shell furthest from the nucleus usually have more energy. The number of shells around a nucleus depends on the number of electrons. Each shell can only hold a certain number of electrons. The first shell can only hold 2, the second shell 8, the third shell 18 and the fourth shell 32. Not all atoms fill up their inner shells before starting to fill up their outer shells. Potassium with 19 electrons has the electron configuration 2, 8, 8, 1 while Calcium has the electron configuration 2, 8, 8, 2

Note the presence of the stable octet (8 electrons) in the outer shell (valence shell) of the noble gases. Shell 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Maximum Number of Electrons 2 8 18 32

ORBITALS
Each electron shell (or energy level) is divided up into orbitals, which occupy different areas of the particular energy level. This allows for more complex electron configurations, which can be useful for explaining why not all atoms fill up their inner shells before filling their valence shell. The order of which the orbitals are filled is given by the diagram on the right. However even then it gets complicated requiring all sorts of rules to determine electron configurations; (and even with these rules, some elements, such as copper and gold, do not follow these rules). Element Name Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Atomic Number 5 6 7 8 9 10 Electron Configuration 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Electron Configuration (with orbitals) 1s2 2s2 2p1 1s2 2s2 2p2 1s2 2s2 2p3 1s2 2s2 2p4 1s2 2s2 2p5 1s2 2s2 2p6

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CHEMICAL BONDING
Atoms gain or lose electrons to form ionic bonds or share electrons to form covalent bonds, in order for the atom to reach a more stable configuration, i.e. stable octet in the valence shell of the atoms. Noble gases possess these stable configurations and therefore do not react to form compounds.

IONIC BONDING
Ions are formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another of a different element, where one atom donates there excess electrons to the other. Atoms that have lost or gained electrons are called ions and they carry an electric charge. Metals form positively charged ions, called cations and non-metals form negatively charged ions, called anions The electrostatic attraction between a cation and an anion is called an ionic bond, which results in the formation of an ionic compound. In order for an ionic compound to form, one atom needs to have an excess of electrons required to reach a stable configuration, while another atom needs to have a deficiency of electrons required to reach a stable configuration. As a result ionic bonding almost always involved metals bonded with non-metals. Ionic compounds are crystalline solids, unless dissolved in water as an aqueous solution, where the ionic bonds are broken, because the ions have a tendency to bond towards the different atoms of the water molecules.

COVALENT BONDING
Atoms can also gain stable electron configurations through the sharing of electrons. his type of chemical bond formed by sharing electrons is called a covalent bond and occurs only between two non-metals (which both have a deficiency of electrons required to reach a stable electron configuration) Non-metals can share electrons to form covalent compounds, or in the case where one atom of an element shares with another atom of the other element forms diatomic molecules and so on. Covalent bonding is stronger than ionic bonding (although the forces between individual molecules are very weak).

METALLIC BONDING
The bonding between metals, e.g. iron (Fe), gold (Au) and calcium (Ca), is called metallic bonding. All metals are solid at 25C except mercury (Hg), which is liquid. The result of this is that valence electrons are delocalised resulting in a metals being able to conduct electricity.

BONDING AND PROPERTIES


The behaviour of which atoms and ions bond to one another is responsible for the properties of the resulting compound, and results in very distinct structures, where atoms arrange themselves in particular arrays. The melting point and boiling point of the compound is determined by the strength of the forces between each compound (or molecule) entity, rather than the forces within the molecule or compound. The different elements in a compound determine not only its structure, but also its shape, size and behaviour. In particular certain compounds are known to be acidic (behaving like an acid) or basic (behaving like a base), depending on the elements composed in the compound. In the case of oxides, non-metal oxides are usually acidic for example carbon dioxide CO2, while metal oxides are usually basic, such as lithium oxide Li2O. The strength of bonding also determines electrical conductivity. Since only metals (and graphite), have free electrons, they can conduct electricity. Ionic compounds can only conduct electricity, when the ionic bonds are broken.

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LEWIS ELECTRON DOT DIAGRAMS


Electron Dot Diagrams or Lewis Dot Diagrams are a simple way of showing the arrangement of valence electrons in atoms and when bonds are formed between atoms. Ionic Compounds:

Covalent Compounds and Molecules:

Another way of showing the bonding arrangement in molecules is to draw the structural formulae where a dash is used to represent a bonding pair of electrons:

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULAE VALENCY


The ability of an element to combine with other elements to form compounds can be expressed by the term valency. Valency refers to the number of electrons in the outer shell, that need to be donated or gained to make a stable shell of an ion or atom, e.g. hydrogens valency is H+, lithiums valency is Li+ and chlorines is Cl. In the case of ionic compounds, the valency of each element is the number of electrons lost or gained by the reacting metal and non-metal. It is therefore equal to the charge on each ion which is related to the electron configuration and the number of electrons in the valence shell.

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VALENCIES OF COMMON POLYATOMIC IONS


+1 Ammonium Ion NH4+ 1 Acetate Ion CH3COO Hydrogen Carbonate HCO3 Hydroxide Ion OH Nitrate Ion NO3 Nitrite Ion NO2 2 Carbonate Ion CO32 Chromate Ion CrO42 Dichromate Ion Cr2CO72 Sulfate Ion SO42 Sulfite Ion SO32 3 Phosphate Ion PO43 Blue indicates that these should be known.

WRITING FORMULA
The following rules should be used: All electrons must be accounted for as there can be no loose or unpaired electrons. The sum of positive and negative valencies of ionic compounds is zero. Steps involved: Determine an elements valency How many electrons are going to be lost or gained

NAMING COMPOUNDS
In the early days of chemistry, there was no system for naming of compounds. Chemists used common names like bicarbonate of soda, quicklime, milk of magnesia, Epsom salts and laughing gas to describe compounds. As the number of named compounds increased it was obvious that if such common names were used, confusion would result. In 1787, in order to solve the problem a scientist named Lavoisier established the principles for a systematic naming process. There are however, some familiar compounds that are always referred to by their common name for example H2O is always referred to as water, rather than di-hydrogen monoxide.

NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS


To name an ionic compound: The positive ion (usually a metal) is named first, and the negative ion is second. A simple positive ion takes its name from its parent element. For e.g. Na + is called sodium. A simple negative ion is named by taking the first part of the parent elements name and adding the suffix -ide. Cl was originally a chlorine atom but is now an ion is given the new name chloride. Likewise, Br (originally bromine) is called bromide, O2 (originally oxygen) is called oxide and N3 (originally nitrogen) is called nitride.

NAMING COVALENT COMPOUNDS


The naming of covalent compounds is similar to ionic compounds, even though there are no ions present: The first element in the chemical formula is named first, using the elements full name. The second element is named as if it was a negative ion. Prefixes are used to show the number of atoms present. If the first element exists as a single atom, no prefix is used. For example, CO2 is called carbon dioxide To avoid awkward pronunciation CO is called carbon monoxide, not carbon mono-oxide. Some examples of covalent compounds and their names are CO2 carbon dioxide CO carbon monoxide N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide CCl4 carbon tetrachloride NH3 ammonia CH4 carbon tetrahydride, methane

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BALANCING EQUATIONS
No atoms can be created or destroyed. They are just rearranged. You cannot change the valencies therefore you cannot change the formula.

Steps: 1. Write the formulae for reactants and products. 2. Make the number of atoms for reactants equal the number of atoms for products by placing whole numbers in front of the formula.

THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER


The Law of Conservation of Matter (or Law of Conservation of Mass) states that: matter cannot be neither created nor destroyed. Instead it can only be changed from one form to another. This means that there must be the same number of each type of atom on each side of the equation. The atoms are simply being rearranged through the reaction process.

GENERAL EQUATIONS
1. Oxidation (Corrosion): METAL + OXYGEN METAL OXIDE Examples: i. Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium Oxide 2Mg + O2 2MgO ii. Iron (II) + Oxygen Iron Oxide 2Fe + O2 2FeO 2. Metals with acids: METAL + ACID SALT + HYDROGEN GAS This type of reaction involves active metals such as Na, K, Hg, Ca etc. Unreactive metals such as Au (gold) do not react with hydrochloric acid (HCl), no matter how concentrated the acid is. Copper reacts with HNO3 (nitric acid). Examples: i. Sodium + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Hydrogen Gas 2Na(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(s) + H2 (g) ii. Zinc + Hydrochloric Acid Zinc Chloride + Hydrogen Gas Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(s) + H2 (g) 3. Acids with carbonates: ACID + CARBONATE SALT + WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE Examples: i. Hydrochloric Acid + Zinc Carbonate Zinc Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide 2HCl(g) + ZnCO3 (s) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 (g) ii. Sulfuric Acid + Calcium Carbonate Calcium Sulfate + Water + Carbon Dioxide H2SO4 (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CaSO4 (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 (g) 4. Neutralisation (acids with alkalis or bases): ACID + BASE (ALKALI) SALT + WATER Neutralisation is an exothermic reaction, which raises the temperature of the solution. Examples: i. Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Water NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) ii. Calcium Hydroxide + Nitric Acid Calcium Nitrate + Water Ca(OH)2 (aq) + 2HNO3 (aq) Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + 2H2O(l)

CORROSION (RUSTING)
Corrosion refers to the reaction of a metal with gases in the air. There are many methods to prevent corrosion such as galvanizing, chromium plating and tin plating.

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COMBUSTION
Combustion is any chemical reaction in which heat (and usually light) is produced, sometimes called burning, for example: 2Mg(s) + O2 (g) 2MgO(s) + heat + white light. Combustion reactions involve the burning of a usually organic substance with oxygen. Combustion of organic substances almost always produces CO2 and H2O. Rapid combustion produces flame and high temperatures e.g. fire Slow combustion produces low temperatures and no flames. Combustion reactions are an essential part of our lives: the burning of fossil fuels such as coal are all combustion reactions which are vital for cooking food, warming houses and driving vehicles.

OTHER REACTIONS
COMBINATION OR SYNTHESIS

Word equation: A + B AB Often two or more substances usually elements combine together, to form a single substance. These are called direct combination reactions or synthesis reactions, and it has only one product, for example: i. ii. Iron (II) + Sulfur Iron (II) Sulfide + energy Fe(s) + S(s) FeS(s) Sodium + Chloride Sodium Chloride + energy 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl + energy

DECOMPOSITION

Word equation: AB A + B Decomposition involves the reaction of a single substance by which it breaks down into two or more simple substances. Decomposition reactions have only one reactant, and are caused by either light or heat. Decomposition caused by heat is called thermal decomposition, for example: i. ii. Calcium Carbonate + heat energy Calcium Oxide+ Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 (s) + heat CaO(s) + CO2 (g) Copper Carbonate + heat energy Copper Oxide + Carbon Dioxide CuCO3 (s) + heat CuO(s) + CO2 (g)

Some decomposition reactions can also be caused by light, for example: i. ii. Silver Chloride + light energy Silver + Chlorine AgCl2(s) + light Ag(s) + Cl2 (g) Silver Bromide + light energy Silver + Bromine AgBr2(s) + light Ag(s) + Br2 (l)

PRECIPITATION

Word Equation: AB + CD AD + CB Certain solutions when mixed react to product a suspension in a liquid, an insoluble product, which is a compound, and is called the precipitate, for example i. Silver Nitrate + Sodium Chloride Silver Chloride + Sodium Nitrat e AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3 (aq)

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8.2.4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE CHEMICAL REACTIONS


In a chemical reaction, the starting materials are called reactants. The substances produced are called the products. In each chemical reaction, the number of atoms of each type of element is conserved, and the total mass is conserved. End products (substances produced) are called products Mass is conserved The number of atoms of each type is conserved

EQUATIONS FOR CHEMICAL REACTIONS


Word equations use words to represent the reaction. Symbolic equations use chemical formulae and symbols to represent reactions, and are often called chemical reactions.

Equations also include state symbols (s) solid, (l) liquid, (aq) aqueous and (g) gas written as subscripts after the equation.

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE


A change in which no new substance is formed is called a physical change. A change in which at least one new substance is formed is called a chemical change. Examples of physical change include: Change of state, or change in size Dissolving a solute in a solvent Filtration or other physical separation techniques.

INDICATORS OF CHEMICAL CHANGE


Examples of chemical change that give an indicator for a chemical reaction: Formation of a gas or a precipitate on mixing solutions Change in colour Significant change in temperature, due to absorption or release of heat Disappearance of a solid which is not merely dissolving or a dissolution of an insoluble solid

ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER
Water can be electrolysed as follows: 1. A voltameter was filled with water that has been acidified with a little acid, since water is a poor conductor of electricity. Then current was allowed to flow. 2. The negative terminal collects the hydrogen, while the positive terminal collects oxygen. 3. The amount of acid is the same concentration in the beginning and at the end, so therefore does not take part. 4. Water is decomposed before any additional chemical change occurs. Reaction in cathode: 2H2O (l) + 2e H2 (g) + 2OH (aq) Reaction in anode: 2H2O(l) O2 (g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e These two processes clearly indicate the difference between physical and chemical changes: Electrolysis produces two new substances: hydrogen and oxygen Boiling does not produce any new substance (change of state only, from liquid to gas) Electrolysis is difficult to reverse, (need to mix gases and ignite them with a high temperature spark) whereas boiling can be exactly reversed through cooling. Electrolysis requires much more energy than boiling

P a g e | 19 In terms of particles: Boiling does not alter the actual particles (molecules) it just separates them from one another. Electrolysis breaks the particles up (water molecules) are broken up to form hydrogen and oxygen molecules.

ENERGY TRANSFER AND CHEMICAL CHANGE


This usually requires the input of energy in the form of light, heat or electricity. Some pure substances can be decomposed into two or more other pure substances.

DECOMPOSITION AND SYNTHESIS INVOLVING HEAT


An exothermic reaction is a reaction that results in the release of heat energy An endothermic reaction is a reaction that results in the absorption of heat energy Synthesis of water: Hydrogen + Oxygen Water + energy 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O(g) + energy Decomposition of mercury oxide: Mercury Oxide + energy Mercury + Oxygen 2HgO(s) + energy 2Hg(l) + O2 (g)

DECOMPOSITION AND SYNTHESIS INVOLVING LIGHT


Combustion of magnesium: Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium + energy 2Mg (g) + O2 (g) 2MgO(g) + energy Decomposition of silver bromide: Silver Bromide + energy Silver + Bromine 2AgBr(s) + energy 2Ag(s) + Br2 (l)

DECOMPOSITION AND SYNTHESIS INVOLVING ELECTRICAL ENERGY


Electrolysis of molten sodium chloride: Negative electrode: Na+ + e Na(l) Positive electrode: 2Cl Cl2 + 2e Net reaction: 2Na+ + 2Cl 2Na(l) + Cl2 (g) Generally when elements combine directly to form compounds energy is released. To decompose compounds generally we need to supply energy.

BOND ENERGY
Decomposing a compound into atoms requires a large input of energy because it is necessary to overcome the strong chemical bonds holding the atoms together in compounds. There are strong electrostatic attractions holding ions together in ionic compounds. There are strong covalent bonds holding atoms together in covalent molecules and covalent lattices.

20 | P a g e The stronger the chemical bonding is in a compound, the more energy that is required to break the compound into its atoms. Alternatively, the stronger the chemical bonding is in a compound, the more energy that is realised when it is formed from its atoms.

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PROPERTIES OF COVALENT MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES


Bonding forces (intramolecular forces) holding atoms together within a covalent molecule are very strong but the forces between one molecule and its neighbours are quite weak. These weak forces between pairs of molecules are called intermolecular forces. Boiling involves separating molecules from one another. Boiling overcomes intermolecular forces. It does not break any covalent bonds. Because the intermolecular forces are weak not much energy is required. Melting like boiling only overcomes weak intermolecular forces. The strength of the intermolecular forces does vary from one molecular compound to another: The stronger the intermolecular forces in molecular compounds, the higher are the melting and boiling points. It is easy to distort a solid covalent molecular substance. Such solids are soft. Covalent molecules are neutral; they cannot conduct electricity either as pure substances or in solution. If the covalent substance reacts with water to form ions then it will conduct electricity e.g. HCl

PROPERTIES OF COVALENT NETWORK SOLIDS


Covalent network solids are solids in which the covalent bonding exists indefinitely throughout the whole crystal. Covalent network solids are sometimes called covalent lattices solids or covalent lattices. The word lattice is used to mean an infinite orderly array of particles. (Ionic solids are also called ionic lattices) Carbon in the form of diamond is an example of a covalent network solid. Each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms. Silica (silicon dioxide or quartz, SiO2) is another example. As with ionic lattices, the chemical formula for a covalent lattice compound represents the ratio in which the atoms are present in the compound i.e. the empirical formula. Melting covalent lattices involves breaking many covalent bonds that are very strong. This requires a lot of energy and thus only occurs at high temperatures. Covalent lattices have extremely high melting points, typically above 1000C. With the exception of graphite, covalent network solids do not conduct electricity. They do not contain ions and all the electrons are tied up being held by individual atoms or shared by pairs of atoms. None are free to move. Empirical Formulae: The formula of an ionic compound or covalent lattice is not a molecular formula, since ionic compounds form large crystal lattices containing large numbers of atoms, which would result in huge numbers, not molecules. Instead the formula shows the ratio of ions in the crystal, in the simplest form, and is called an empirical formula. Sometimes more than one of a polyatomic ion is needed in a formula. This is when brackets are used, for example Fe2(SO4)3, Ca(OH) 2, (NH4)2CO3. Empirical formulae are used for lattices because molecular formula would be incorrect and impractical. Molecular Formula: For carbon dioxide, a molecule consists of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms covalently bonded together. Its formula is CO2. The molecular formula represents the number and types of atoms in the molecule.

PROPERTIES OF METALS
Metals, with exception of mercury, are solids at room temperature. Most have relatively high boiling points and are fairly hard. They are all good conductors of electricity. A metal consists of an orderly three-dimensional array of positive ions held together by a mobile sea of delocalised electrons. The valence electrons break away from their atoms, leaving behind positive ions. These free electrons, called delocalised because they no longer belong to particular atoms, move randomly through the lattice and by being shared by numerous positive ions, and provide the chemical bonding that holds the crystal together. Its the ability of these delocalised electrons to move freely that causes metals to be good conductors of electricity. Metals can be bent, rolled into sheets (they are malleable) and drawn into rods and wires (they are ductile). When the orderly array of positive ions is sheared, the mobile electrons are able to adjust to the new arrangement of positive ions and again glue the metal atoms together.

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METALS TABLE OF CONTENTS


Metals ..........................................................................................................................................................................................starts page 22 Course Outcomes and Topics..................................................................................................................................................................................... 22

OUTCOMES:
8.3.1. USAGE OF METALS AND ALLOYS ....................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 24

Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as uncombined elements or as alloys .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 24-27 Describe the use of common alloys including steel, brass and solder and explain how these relate to properties ......... 27 Explain why energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its ore ................................................................................................. 28 Identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago ................................... 28
REACTIVITY OF METALS ..................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 29

8.3.2.

Describe observable changes when metals react with dilute acid, water and oxygen ................................................................... 29 Describe and justify the criteria to place metals in order of activity based on their ease of reaction with oxygen, water and dilute acids ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 29-30 Identify the reaction of metals with acids as requiring the transfer of electrons ............................................................................. 29 Outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes based on their reactivity, with a particular emphasis on current developments in the uses of metals ............................................................................................................................ 30 Outline the relationship between relative activities of metals and their position in the Periodic table ................................ 30 Identify the importance of the first ionisation energy in determining the relative reactivity of metals ............................... 32
PERIODIC TRENDS................................................................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 31

8.3.3.

Identify an appropriate model that has been developed to describe atomic structure ................................................................ 31 Outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table including its origins, the original data used to construct it and the predictions made after its construction ...................................................................................................................... 31 Explain the relation between position in the Periodic Table and: electrical conductivity, ionisation energy, atomic radius, melting point, boiling point, combining power (valency), electronegativity and reactivity .................. 32-33
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................ STARTS PAGE 33

8.3.4.

Define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of Carbon-12 (Avogadros number) ......................................... 35 Compare mass samples changes in samples of metals when they combine with oxygen ................................................. [33-34] Describe the contribution of Gay-Lussac to the understanding of gaseous reactions and apply this an understanding of the mole concept ................................................................................................................................................................ 35-36 Recount Avogadros law and describe its importance in developing the mole concept ....................................................... 34-36 Distinguish between empirical formulae and molecular formulae .............................................................................................. 21, [36]
EXTRACTION OF METALS .................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 36

8.3.5.

Define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and non-economic deposits of natural resources ....... [28] Describe the relationship between commercial price of common metals, their actual abundances and relative costs of production ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... [28] Explain why ores are non-renewable resources ................................................................................................................................. [28], 38 Describe the separation processes, chemical reactions and energy considerations involved in extraction of copper from one of its ores ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium................................................................................................................................................. 38

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TOPICS:
8.3.1. USAGE OF METALS AND ALLOYS ....................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 23

Historic uses of metals .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23 Contemporary uses of metals .................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Alloys and their uses ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Sources of metals ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 27
REACTIVITY OF METALS ..................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 28

8.3.2.

Reactions with metals ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28 Reactivity and the Periodic Table ............................................................................................................................................................................ 29 Reactivity and uses of metals..................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
PERIODIC TRENDS................................................................................................................................................. STARTS PAGE 30

8.3.3.

History of the atomic model ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Periodic Table development ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Periodic Table trends .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
CHEMICAL ANAYLSIS ............................................................................................................................................ STARTS PAGE 32

8.3.4.

Atomic theory ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32 The mole concept ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 34 Moles and chemical equation .................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Empirical formula ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
EXTRACTION OF METALS .................................................................................................................................... STARTS PAGE 37

8.3.5.

Extraction of metals ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Recycling of metals ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38

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8.3.1 USAGE OF METALS AND ALLOYS HISTORIC USES OF METALS


The discovery of certain metals and the ability to form them into various tools and weapons have dramatically affected the way civilisation has developed over the past 5000 years, so much so that terms like the Bronze Age and the Iron Age are commonly used in archaeology and ancient history. The most widely used metals are iron, copper, aluminium, zinc, lead, tin, chromium, nickel, titanium, magnesium, silver, gold and platinum. Gold was the first metal used by ancient people because not only did it look gold but it was found free. Native copper was the first evidence of metal working. The process of annealing was discovered about 5000 BC. Heat from wood fires was sufficient for this. Smelting of copper occurred before 4000 BC. Pottery kilns could produce more intense heat than wood fires and malachite and other copper ores could be decomposed to copper. This lead to a greater use of copper, as ornaments, tools and also weapons. It was not until 3000 BC that the extraction of silver was mastered but the artefacts were rarer than gold artefacts. It was restricted in use until the late Roman Republic when huge quantities made it available for use as coins, eating utensils, drinking goblets and even tables and bath tubs. The first true bronze appeared around 3000 BC as tin and copper ores often occurred together. Bronze is easier to cast than copper and produced better weapons, having better cutting edge: spears, arrowheads, adzes. It was also used for bed and table frames, bells and horse trappings. The first iron came from meteoritic iron which was soft and rusted quickly. The first cast iron appeared around 500 AD and wrought iron was produced from the middle of the 14th century. Lead was produced by the Romans during their silver refining. It was more popular during the Middle Ages, and was mixed with tin to form pewter in the 3rd century. It was used as an alternative to silver. Brass, an alloy of zinc and copper was made around 1000 BC. It was similar to bronze. Aluminium although the most abundant metal in the lithosphere, was among the latest of the metals to be extracted in commercial quantities during the 1800s.

CONTEMPORARY USES OF METALS


Copper and iron are still widely used today. However, other metals such as aluminium and titanium are now also of considerable importance.

COPPER
Copper is a salmon-pink metal that is present naturally as sulfide minerals, such as chalcopyrite CuFeS2 and chalcocite Cu2S. Copper metal can be extracted from these minerals using the process of smelting. Being fairly unreactive, meant that it was easily extracted, and therefore was one of the first metals to be used by humans. It has the following properties: Copper is an excellent thermal and electrical conductor It is malleable (able to be hammered into sheets) and ductile (able to drawn into wires) It is fairly unreactive and slow to corrosion. It also readily forma alloys.

Copper because of its good conductivity of electricity is used as electrical cables and wiring. It is also used in radiators, refrigeration systems and water pipes. It forms alloys including brass and bronze, which are used for fittings, fixtures and casting respectively. Use Electrical Wiring Saucepan Bases Water Pipes and Fittings Ornaments Properties of Copper Used High electrical conductivity and ductility High heat conductivity and malleability High malleability and resistance to corrosion Lustre and malleability

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IRON
Iron is a silvery metal that is fairly reactive and is rarely found uncombined in the lithosphere. It is present in ores including magnetite Fe3O4, hematite Fe2O3, siderite FeCO3 and limonite 2Fe2O3.3H2O. It has the following properties: Iron is soft and malleable. It is a good thermal and electrical conductor. It is fairly reactive and readily forms alloys.

Iron is not used by itself, as it corrodes easily. Instead, it is used as an alloy steel, which is used in bridges, buildings, cars, machinery and appliances, including kitchen appliances.

MAGNESIUM
Magnesium is a silvery metal that is lightweight and is present naturally in minerals such as magnesite MgCO3 and dolomite MgCO3.CaCO3. Magnesium being highly reactive is not found free in nature, and was only prepared in 1808 by Humphrey Davy who decomposed MgCO3 using electrolysis. The properties of magnesium include: Magnesium has a low density and has high strength. Magnesium has a high reactivity and is often used as a sacrificial anode where because it corrodes more readily than another, it can be used to protect a less active metal. It reacts with oxygen to produce a bright white light Properties of Magnesium Used High reactivity with oxygen, producing a bright white light on combustion. Low density and high strength. High reactivity of sulfur, combining with the sulfur in steel to produce MgSO4 High reactivity, used to reduce titanium salts into titanium metal at high temperatures. High reactivity, acts as a sacrificial anode to protect iron and steel structures

Use Fireworks Aircrafts and cars, as an alloy Steelmaking Production of titanium Corrosion protection

LEAD
Lead is a soft blue-grey metal that is not found free in nature usually, but rather exists in minerals such as galena PbS and cerussite PbCO3. Lead was produced in the uncombined form around 5500 years ago, by reduction of galena. Nowadays, due to the health of lead poisoning, lead has been replaced by other metals in many applications. It has the following properties: Lead has a low melting point and a high density. Lead is soft and malleable. Lead also has a relatively good conductively. Lead has the ability to absorb ionizing radiation. Properties of Lead Used Malleability, resistance to corrosion due to formation of a stable oxide on the surface Low melting point of lead alloys, good electrical conductivity of lead and tin. Good electrical conductivity, malleability and low chemical reactivity in sulfuric acid Ability to absorb ionising radiation High density, malleability, softness, resistance to corrosion

Use Sheet lead for roofing Solder Electrodes in car batteries Shielding against radiation Fishing sinkers

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ALUMINIUM
Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earths crust and possesses some remarkable properties: Aluminium has a low density and is relatively soft when pure. It is an excellent thermal and electrical conductor. It is malleable and ductile. It is highly reflective and is used in telescope reflectors and food packaging. Aluminium can be strengthened by the addition of small amounts of other metals such as titanium to produce many alloys that have a low density and are strong so they can be used in spacecraft, aircraft and boat construction. Aluminium was not used until the beginning of the twentieth century because it was extremely difficult and expensive to extract from its ore, bauxite (Al2O3.3H2O). Since the development of a new, commercially viable method of extracting aluminium was developed in 1886, the use of aluminium increased rapidly. Due to its low density and its resistance to corrosion, aluminium has displaced steel in many commercial and industrial situations. For example, roofing, window frames, appliance trim and decorative furniture, saucepans, frying pans, drink cans and cooking foil.

TITANIUM
Titanium was discovered in 1791 but it was not until 1910 that the pure metal was isolated, due to its high reactivity. It is the ninth most abundant element in the Earths crust, present in minerals such as rutile TiO2 and ilmenite FeTiO3. It has the following properties: Titanium has great strength. It has a high melting point, which means it melts at high temperatures. It has a low density. It is a lustrous solid that is resistant to corrosion, and is therefore used in the marine environments. It also has a low reactivity, and readily forms alloys.

Alloys of titanium are very strong, are used in situations where lightweight but strong materials as well as resistance to high temperatures are required, so it is used in jet engine components, aircraft, spacecraft and missiles. Due to its low reactivity it is used for pipes and lining for vats where acids are used. Titanium alloys are also biocompatible and are used for surgical implants such as artificial knee and hip joints.

GOLD
Gold is a shiny yellow-coloured metal that is found uncombined in the lithosphere. It was one of the first metals, and is still used today. However, because of it is expensive; other metals have replaced gold in some areas where gold was used, particularly metals such as copper. Gold because of its shiny gold appearance is used in jewellery. It is an excellent heat and thermal conductor (better conductor than copper) is used in electrical connections.

OTHER METALS
Chromium has a shiny silver appearance and is resistant to corrosion. It also readily forms alloys. It is used as an additive to steel alloys for example in stainless steel. Cobalt is a magnetic metal that readily forms alloys. It is used in alloys to manufacture permanent magnets. Nickel is also a magnetic metal that readily forms alloys. It is used as an additive to steel alloys, as well as in other alloys which include: Invar (an alloy of iron and nickel), which is used for scientific instruments. Nichrome (an alloy of nickel and chromium), which is used in electrical heating elements. Alloys with copper, which are used for coins. Zinc is fairly reactive but forms a protective oxide layer which protects the metal from further corrosion. It readily forms alloys.

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ALLOYS AND THEIR USES


Metals can be used in their pure form, for example aluminium or copper. However, metals are increasingly being used as alloys. This allows the production of a substance with the exact properties required for a particular use. An alloy is a mixture containing a metal and one or more other elements. Alloys, being mixtures, can vary in composition they do not have a constant composition or properties. Adding small amounts of a metal to another can change its properties. For example, adding chromium to iron produces stainless steel which resists corrosion. Adding a metal with different sized particles makes a stronger alloy as layers cannot slide over each other as easily. Alloys usually have better physical properties, including better strength or better resistant to corrosion.

STEEL
Steel is an example of an alloy consisting of mainly iron, carbon and other elements such as manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten in smaller amounts. These elements differ in atomic size, and as a result break the orderly array of the iron atoms, which prevents them from easily sliding over each other, which makes the substance stronger. Physical properties including hardness, ductility and tensile strength of the alloy can be modified by adding different quantities of other elements, which result in different types of steels, which are used for different purposes: Carbon steel, which is only contains carbon and iron, is the most common form of steel, accounting for 90%. Stainless steel contains a minimum of 10% chromium in addition to iron and carbon. Nickel is often added as well. These additional elements make the alloy more resistant to corrosion. Depending on the quantities of these elements, some stainless steels may be magnetic.

In the 17th century, the first efficient methods of producing steel were developed, and since then its use has increased. As the cost of production decreased, steel became used more often, with uses ranging from building structures to cars. However, since the refining of aluminium has become easier, it has replaced steel in many uses.

BRASS
Brass is an example of an alloy consisting of varying proportions of copper and zinc. It has the following properties: The relatively low melting point of brass (900-940C) makes it a relatively easy material to shape into casts. Brass has also a higher malleability than both copper and zinc. If small amounts of aluminium or tin are added, a stronger alloy that is also more resistant to corrosion is the result. Combining brass with small amounts of iron, aluminium, silicon and manganese can make the brass more resistant to wear.

Brass has many usages including: Decoration, because of its shiny gold-coloured appearance. Applications where low friction is required, such as locks, gears, bearings, valves or ammunition. Applications in the plumbing and electrical industry. Musical instruments, particularly brass instruments and bells, due to its acoustic properties.

SOLDER
Solder is an example of an alloy consisting of varying proportions of tin and lead. Solder has a melting point that is relatively low (ranging from 90-450C, but more commonly 180-190C), allowing it to be melted. There are two main types of solder: Electricians solder has more tin, and sets faster, and is used in electrical connections. Plumbers solder has less tin, which allows time while it is setting to be work ed to allow adjustments of the pipes, and is used for plumbing.

Nowadays the lead component of solder has been replaced with copper due to health concerns of lead poisoning.

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SOURCES OF METALS
Most metals are reactive and therefore are not found in the Earths crust, as elements, but rather present combined with other elements as compounds. Examples of uncombined elements include gold, platinum and silver. The reactivity of a given metal with substances in the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere determines the likelihood of finding the metal in the Earths crust in the uncombined elemental form. Most metals are reactive and are therefore usually found combined with other elements in naturally occurring compounds called minerals. Highly reactive metals such as potassium and sodium are never found as the free element but unreactive metals such as gold are much more likely to be found as the free element. Minerals are naturally occurring substances, usually compounds, with a definite composition or a range of compositions and crystal structures. They usually contain metals in the form of oxides, carbonates, silicates, sulfides and sulfates. Silicates are the most common class of minerals, but it is very difficult to extract metals from these compounds.

OCCURRENCE OF METALS IN THE EARTHS CRUST


Gold, platinum and silver are almost always found in the free elemental form, while metals such as mercury, copper and lead are occasionally found in the free elemental form. Metals such as tin, nickel, iron and zinc are rarely found in the free elemental form, while metals such as aluminium, magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium are never found in the free elemental form. In order to obtain metals in their elemental form they must be extracted from their minerals, as they usually occur in nature as mixtures with other minerals. Extraction of metals from ores: If there is metal present in sufficient quantity to make the mining and extraction of metal economically viable, it is called an ore. An ore is therefore defined as a naturally occurring deposit that is a mixture of minerals from which the substance usually a metal can be economically extracted. The mineral in the ore requires energy to extract to be separated from the other rocks. The pure metal requires energy to break the bonds between each element. This energy input adds to the cost of producing the pure metal.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE USE OF METALS


Their uses are determined by their physical and chemical properties. Other factors that affect the commercial price and extent to which particular metals are used include: the abundance of the metal in the ore deposit, and in the Earths crust the cost of extraction of the metal which is dependent on how accessible the mineral is and how much energy input is required to extract the pure metal the demand for the metal More important than the overall abundance is the occurrence of ore deposits that contain a sufficient proportion of a particular mineral to make the mining of the ore and extraction of the metal economical. The cost of mining an ore and metal extraction is another important factor that affects the uses of metals. Despite being the most abundant metal i n the Earths crust, aluminium was once so expensive to extract that its use was severely limited, even though it had very many useful properties. As extracted methods improved, metals became easier and cheaper to extract, resulting in more metals being available today than 200 years ago.

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8.3.2 REACTIVITY OF METALS


Metals display a wide range of reactivity with many other substances, varying from extremely reactive to no reaction at all. The substances that most influence the choice of metal for a particular purpose are oxygen (from air), water and acids.

REACTIONS WITH METALS REACTION WITH OXYGEN


General Equation: METAL + OXYGEN METAL OXIDE All metals except silver, platinum and gold react with oxygen to form oxides, all of which are ionic compounds. Lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium and barium react rapidly at room temperature. Magnesium, aluminium, iron and zinc react slowly at room temperature but burn vigorously if heated in air or pure oxygen gas.

REACTION WITH WATER


General Equation: METAL + WATER BASE + HYDROGEN GAS Some metals react with water or steam while others are completely unreactive. Lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium and barium react with water at room temperature. Magnesium, aluminium, zinc and iron react with steam at elevated temperature. Tin, lead, copper, silver, gold and platinum do not react at all with water.

REACTION WITH DILUTE ACID


General Equation: METAL + ACID SALT + HYDROGEN All metals except copper, silver, gold and platinum react with acid. (Note: the reaction of copper with some acids, such as nitric acid is treated as a different type of reaction) For tin and lead, the reactions are quite slow unless the acid is heated. Acids in solution produce H+ ions, which are what actually react with the metal, i.e. the metal displaces the hydrogen. The metal loses the electrons and the hydrogen gains them.

The reaction of metals with acids (with the exception of some reactions, such as copper with nitric acid) results in electrons being transfer from the metal to the acid. In all these reactions, a positively-charged metal ion and hydrogen gas is formed, since the hydrogen ions in the aqueous solution accept the electrons from the metal. What is happening is this: metal metal ion + electron(s) hydrogen ions + electron(s) hydrogen gas Examples: 1. Zinc + Hydrochloric Acid Zinc Chloride + Hydrogen Zn(s) + HCl(aq) ZnCl(aq) + H2 (g) 2. Iron + Sulfuric Acid Iron (II) Sulfate + Hydrogen Fe(s) + H2SO4 (aq) FeSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)

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TYPES OF EQUATIONS
A balanced equation (or a neutral species equation) contains balanced quantities of each type of atom, with no ions. A complete ionic equation contains all the ions, while a net ionic equation does not contain any ions which do not partake in the chemical reaction, which are called spectator ions. For example in the reaction between zinc and hydrogen, the net ionic equation is: Zn + 2H+ Zn2+ + H2 A half equation is where one particular element is focused, and the electron transfer, and formation of ions. For example: Zn Zn2+ + 2e and 2H+ + 2e H2

REACTIVITY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE


Group I metals are the most reactive metals, followed by Group II metals. Group III metals are less reactive that Group I and Group II metals. Some metals such as iron and zinc are as reactive as the metals in this group. The soft metals (such as lead) located at the bottom of Group IV are less reactive than Group III metals. The least reactive metals are located in the lower periods of the transition metals. Generally with metals (excluding the transition metals) reactivity increases down a group, and decreases across a period. Reactivity series of metals: K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ag, Au and Pt. The reactivity series can be determined through comparing the activity in reactions with cold water, hot water (steam), cold dilute acid, hot dilute acid and oxygen respectively in order.

REACTIVITY AND USES OF METALS


Calcium has the ability to react moderately with water, is used to dehydrate many organic solvents. Magnesium, being very reactive, reacts readily with oxygen to produce a bright, white light. This chemical reaction is used in flash bulbs and fireworks. Magnesium is also used as a sacrificial anode with steel, corroding in preference to the steel. Aluminium is used in the steel refining process, to ensure that oxygen does not remain in the molten steel. The resultant aluminium oxide formed floats to the surface for removal. Aluminium has multiple uses because it forms a protective oxide layer when it reacts with the surrounding oxygen, prevent any further corrosion. Zinc is reactive enough to be used as sacrificial anodes, and is in particular on the hulls of ships and propellers. Coppers low reactivity makes it suitable for water pipes, than the cheaper iron.

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8.3.3 PERIODIC TRENDS HISTORY OF THE ATOMIC MODEL


In 1803, John Dalton proposed was made of solid indivisible particles which he called atoms. He reasoned that the different elements had different atomic weights. In 1897, J.J Thomson discovered the electron, which led to a new model being developed for the atom, referred to as the plum pudding model. This new model proposed that the atom was a positive sphere in which the negatively charged electrons were embedded into. In 1911, Ernest Rutherford developed the planetary model of the atom, following his discovery of the nucleus in the centre of the atom. This model proposed that the negatively charged electrons orbit a central positively charged nucleus, similar to the way the planets orbit the sun. In 1913, Niels Bohr inferred correctly that the electrons must occupy stable, non-radiating orbits called shells (or energy levels) around the central positively charged nucleus. In addition to this, Bohr released that electrons could move from one energy level to another, through the absorption or emission of a fixed amount of energy. In 1927-35, Erwin Schrodinger refined Bohrs model into the cloud model of the atom. The main difference between Bohrs model and Schrodingers model, was that unlike Bohr, Schrodinger proposed orbitals (or clouds) which are regions of space where electrons have a higher probability of being located, rather than the precise orbits which Bohrs model suggests.

PERIODIC TABLE DEVELOPMENT


In 1789, Antoine Lavoisier classified elements into four sub-categories: metals, non-metals, elastic fluids (gases) and earths, some of which (the earths) were shown later to be compounds. Lavoisier also supported the idea of accurate gravimetric analysis and the conservation of mass in a chemical reaction. In 1817-1829, Johann Doberener observed notable relationships between groups of elements, which he called triads. He noted that not only the properties of the middle element were between the other two elements, but also had an atomic weight that was close to the average of the other two. In 1864, John Newlands, following Dobereners work arranged the elements into a table with increasing atomic weight. He noted that every eighth element after a given element possessed similar physical and chemical properties. However, his table broke down, as it paired non-metals such as nitrogen and phosphorus with metals such as manganese. In 1869-71, Dmitri Mendeleev compared the similarities in chemical and physical properties to produce his own classification table, which was based on atomic weights. Where the atomic weight of the element was not accurately known, he placed the element in a position consistent with its properties. He left spaces for undiscovered elements in the belief that the properties of these undiscovered elements could be predicted by analysing trends across the rows and columns of the table. Elements with similar properties occupied vertical groups. In 1870, Lothar Meyer developed a periodic table similar to that of Mendeleev. However because Mendeleevs table is based on chemical properties, generalisations and predictions could be made more readily. In 1893-1898, William Ramsay along with Lord Rayleigh discovered the unreactive noble gases. Ramsay though that this new family should be added to the right-hand end of Mendeleevs table. In 1913, Anton van den Broek suggested that the elements of the periodic table be arranged according to the charge on their nucleus rather than according to their atomic weight. In 1912-13, Henry Moseley conducted a series of experiments to investigate Broeks ideas, where he measured the X-ray spectra of the first ten elements and noted a fundamental quantity for each element, which is referred to as atomic number. As a result, the current periodic table is organised by atomic number. Periodic law: The properties of elements vary periodically with their atomic numbers.

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PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY


Electrical conductivity is related to the metallic nature of the element. The more metallic the element, the better the conductivity. As a result metals are good conductors the non-metals are poor conductors. This is because metals form positive ions, resulting in free electrons that are able to flow through the substance. Due to these free electrons allowing electric current to flow. Generally, conductivity decreases across a period, and increases downwards towards the period.

ATOMIC RADIUS
Atomic radius is the size of the atom and is dependent on the number of shells and the magnitude of charge of the nucleus. Atomic radius decreases across the period, from left to right. This is because the increased positive charge pulls the outermost electrons (same energy level) closer to the nucleus. Atomic radius increases down the group, from top to bottom. This is because there are additional shells.

IONISATION ENERGY
Ionisation energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom of an element in a gaseous state. The first ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the first electron Second ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the second electron. It is always greater than the first ionisation energy as it requires more energy to remove an electron from a positive ion due to the extra electrostatic attraction. Third ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the third electron, and so on. The third ionisation is always greater than the second ionisation energy as it is even more positively charged. Ionisation energies provide strong evidence for periodic law. This is because ionisation energy is a direct result of the increasing atomic number. The first ionisation energy increases across each period with a minimum at the alkali metals (Group I) and a maximum at the noble gases (Group VIII). This is due to each successive element have one additional proton resulting in an increase of attractive force. For second ionisation energy, the minimum is at the alkaline earth metals (Group II) and increases to the noble gases (Group VIII), with the maximum being the alkali metals (Group I) and so on. Ionisation energy decreases down the group, as outer electrons are further away from the nucleus, as the atomic radius increases. With Group I and Group II metals, the reactivity of the metal is related to the first ionisation energy. With transitions metals the relationship is not as simple.

MELTING POINTS AND BOILING POINTS


Melting point and boiling points are related to the strength of bonding within the substance. The stronger the bonding within the substance, the higher the melting points and boiling points. Metallic bonding strength varies, but is strongest in the transition metals. Metals generally have a high melting point, and a high boiling point. Covalent molecular forces are very weak, so covalent molecular substances have a low melting and boiling points, but covalent network bonding is very strong, so they have high melting and boiling points. Melting point and boiling points generally rise up to Group IV (carbon, silicon and germanium) and then decreases. The trend down a group is variable, because it is dependent on the bonding and type of crystal lattice. It generally decreases for groups I to IV (i.e. up to carbon) It generally increases for groups V to VIII, and also with the transition metals.

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ELECTRONEGATIVITY
Electronegativity is the ability of an element to attract electrons to form compounds. Non-metals, with the exception of the noble gases, require electrons to complete a stable octet in their valence shell, and so have a higher electronegativity than metals. As a result, electronegativity increases across a period (excluding the noble gases), and decreases down a group.

METALLIC NATURE
Metallic nature is related to its ability to lose electrons, and is related also to electrical conductivity. Metallic nature decreases across the period from the metals to the non-metals, and increases down a group.

VALENCY
Valency is the number of electrons in the outer shell (called the valence shell). With the exception of transition metals for which there is no trend, valency is constant for each group, and increases across a period. Some elements have variable valencies.

REACTIVITY
The most reactive metals, such as francium and radium are found towards the bottom left corner of the Periodic Table. These elements are very electropositive, due to the low ionisation energy, and the large atomic radius of these atoms. The most reactive non-metals (excluding the noble gases), such as oxygen and fluorine are found in the top right corner of Periodic Table. These elements are very electronegative, due to the almost stable octets present in these elements.

8.3.4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ATOMIC THEORY


Law of Conservation of Mass: Matter cannot be neither created nor destroyed. Instead it can only be changed from one form to another. This means that there must be the same number of each type of atom on each side of the equation. The atoms are simply being rearranged through the reaction process. In 1808, John Dalton proposed the atomic theory, which states: 1. 2. 3. Matter is composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. All atoms of one element are identical, but different from the atoms of other elements Chemical reactions consist of combining, separating or rearranging atoms in simple whole number ratios.

This theory led to the use of symbols which represented elements, formulae for molecules and compounds and equations for chemical reactions. Using his model, Dalton reasoned that in a chemical reaction, atoms simply were rearranged into new substances, with no net loss or gain of atoms.

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ATOMIC WEIGHT
Since the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of another element, the atoms of different atoms will have different masses. However, since atoms are too small to measure individually, so as a result, only relative mass can be measured through their reactions with other elements. Originally hydrogen was used as the standard, being assigned a mass of 1, since it had one proton. However, since using hydrogen as a standard, meant that some weights did not result in nice whole numbers. Carbon 12 was adopted as the standard in 1961, such that a single atom of Carbon 12 had a relative atomic mass of 12. The relative atomic mass (atomic weight) of an element is the average mass of the atoms present in the naturally occurring element relative to the mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, taken as exactly 12. However, certain elements may have atoms that contain different numbers of neutrons (called isotopes), which affects the relative atomic masses.

RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS


The relative molecular mass (or molecular weight) of a compound is the mass of a molecule of the compound relative to the mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, taken as exactly 12. The relative formula mass of an ionic compound is the mass of the compound as stated in the formula, relative to the mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, taken as exactly 12. Calculating relative molecular mass: The relative molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms as given in the molecular formula. Calculating relative formula mass: The relative formula mass (formula weight) of a compound is the sum of atomic masses of the atomic species as given in the stated formula of the compound

PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF COMPOUNDS


Knowing the atomic weights of elements has allowed chemists to calculate the percentage composition of compounds and structures by mass. Through a comparison with experimental data, a sample can tested also for its purity. Calculating the theoretical percentage weight of an element in a compound: molar mass of element Composition % = 100% molar mass of compound Calculating the percentage weight of an element in a compound given experimental data: Composition % = mass of element 100% mass of compound

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THE MOLE CONCEPT GAY-LUSSAC AND A VOGANDROS WORK


The French chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac determined that gases reacted in whole number ratios, as demonstrated through his experiments involving the synthesis of gases, for example: 100 ml of hydrogen reacts with 100 ml of chlorine gas to produce 200 ml of hydrogen chloride gas. 200 ml of hydrogen reacts with 100 ml of oxygen gas to produce 200 ml of water vapour Gay-Lussacs Law of Combining Volumes: When measured at a constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gases taking part in a chemical reaction are able to be expressed in simple whole number ratios. It became apparent that Gay-Lussacs experiments using Daltons atomic theory. Dalton reasoned that if the reacting gases were composed of single atoms, and if the compounds were composed of single aggregates of these atoms, then the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to form water, would require the splitting of atoms. Amadeo Avogadro in 1811, proposed a solution to Gay-Lussacs experiments, which is that elements could exist as atomic aggregates called molecules. Avogadros Law: At constant temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain equal numbers of molecules.

APPLYING THE MOLE CONCEPT


Avogadros Law has allowed chemists to compare atomic weights of equal number of molecules of gases at the same temperature and pressure. Chemists have adopted a standard unit of measurement, in order to measure the amount of substance. This unit is called the mole. Using the modern mass spectrometer, chemists were able to measure the weight of a single carbon atom to be around 1.992 1023 grams. Then they calculated the number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12 is 022 10 . This is called Avogadros number (NA). This was used to define the mole. A mole is defined as the same amount of substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12. One mole of any substance contains 022 10 particles of that substance For example: 1 mole of Fe consists of 6.022 x 10 23 atoms 1 mole of N2 consists of 6.022 x 10 23 molecules

MOLAR MASS
The mole concept can be related to the atomic weight of an element. A mole of any substance has a mass equal to its relative atomic masses, relative molecular mass or relative formula mass expressed in grams. It is called the molar mass. Calculating number of particles or moles (given either): number of particles n= NA where n is the number of moles and NA is Avogadros constant: 6.022 1023. Calculating mass or number of moles: m n= M where n is the number of moles and m is the mass in grams (must be in grams), and M is molar mass which can be calculated from a Periodic table of weights.

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MOLES AND CHEMICAL EQUATIONS


A chemical equation tells us the ratios by mass in which substances react or are formed in a reaction. The coefficients used to balance a chemical equation represent the mole ratio of the reactants and products. Calculating mole ratios in a chemical equation: 1. First, write a balanced equation. 2. Use the coefficients to determine the mole ratio. Calculating mass in equations: 1. Write the balanced equation. 2. Determine the mole ratio 3. Convert any existing known information such as mass provided into moles, to find how many moles of the other substances will be required or produced. 4. Convert back to grams.

LIMITING REAGENT
In some chemical reactions, one reactant gets depleted before the any of the other reactants. This is called the limiting reagent because it limits the process of the reaction. Calculating the amount of limiting reagent: 1. Write the balanced equation. 2. Determine the mole ratio 3. Convert any existing known information such as mass provided into moles, to find how many moles of the other substances will be required or produced. 4. Calculate how many moles will be required to complete the reaction, (This is done by multiplying the lowest mole quantity through the mole ratio). 5. Subtraction from the number of moles supplied for each element. 6. Convert back to grams.

EMPIRICAL FORMULA
The empirical formula is the composition of the compound expressed in the simplest ratio. The molecular formula is the formula that represents the molecules in the covalent molecular substance. Gravimetric analysis has allowed chemists to determine by percentage composition of each element in a compound. From this, the number of moles of each element and the mole ratio present. The empirical formula can then be calculated using this information.

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8.3.5 EXTRACTION OF METALS EXTRACTION OF METALS


In the production of most metals, four distinct steps are needed to convert ore to refined metal. These steps are: mining, milling, smelting and refining. The total process is called metallurgy.

EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM ITS ORE


Australia is one of the worlds major copper producers. Copper is extracted principally from sulfide ores, in particular chalcopyrite (CuFe2). Milling is the process of concentrating of purification of the ore through physical separation processes to separate the mineral from the rock, clay and sand, collectively referred to as gangue. Copper is then concentrated using a method called froth flotation. In this process, air is bubbled through a suspension of the pulverised ore in water containing a flotation or frothing agent. The desired copper particles adhere to the rising bubbles and are skimmed off as froth, leaving the unwanted silicate minerals to settle out. The concentrated ore, which is now about 15% copper, is then roasted in air which converts the iron sulfide to iron (II) oxide but leaves the copper (II) sulfide unaffected: 2CuFeS2(s) + 3O2(g) 2CuS(s) + 2FeO(s) + 2SO2(g) The result is then heated to 1100C with ground limestone, sand and additional concentrated ore. This coverts the iron (II) oxide to a molten slag, and converts the copper (II) sulfide to copper (I) sulfide: FeO(s) + SiO2(s) FeSiO3 (l) The final smelting process, the copper (I) sulfide is roasted in air so that part of it is converted to copper (I) oxide. 2Cu2S(s) + 3O2 (g) 2Cu2O(s) + 2SO2 (g) The copper (II) sulfide and copper (I) oxide then react together to form copper metal and sulfur dioxide: 2Cu2O(s) + CuS(s) 5Cu (l) + SO2 (g) This process requires a significant input of energy to maintain the temperatures required for this reaction. The smelting process produces crude copper of about 98% purity. It is called blister copper because of the bubbly appearance produced by escaping sulfur dioxide. To obtain the 99.9% purity of copper required for electrical wiring, the blister copper is refined electrolytically, i.e. using electrolysis.

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EXTRACTION OF ALUMINIUM
Vast amounts of energy are required to isolate pure aluminium oxide, alumina from bauxite and then aluminium from alumina. After mining bauxite must be separated from its impurities and converted into aluminium oxide (alumina). This process involves several steps. The bauxite is first heated in hydroxide solution (sodium hydroxide) under pressure: Al(OH)3 (s) + OH(aq) [Al(OH)4](aq) Aluminium oxide is soluble in sodium hydroxide, whereas the impurities are not. So as a result, most of the impurities settle out as an insoluble red mud, which is pumped to disposal ponds. The highly concentrated hot solution of sodium aluminate is then filtered, cooled and seeded with crystals of pure aluminium hydroxide. The precipitation reaction that occurs is the reverse process of the solution process: [Al(OH)4](aq) Al(OH)3 (aq) + OH(aq) The aluminium hydroxide is then filtered off and decomposed by heating to produce aluminium oxide: 2Al(OH)3 (s) Al2O3 (s) + 3H2O(g) The next stage is the electrolysis of molten Al2O3. However the high melting point of Al2O3 at 2045C makes it prohibitively expensive but is reduced by a mixture containing approximately 80% cryolite which allows a molten phase to be maintained at 950C to 1000C. The mixture is electrolysed using a graphite anode (positive) and an iron tank cathode (negative). The overall equation for the electrolysis is as follows; 2Al2O3 (l) + 3C(s) 4Al(l) + 3CO2 (g) The molten aluminium is periodically removed from the cell and cast into ingots. Huge electrical currents are needed to convert the aluminium oxide to the aluminium and to keep the electrolyte molten. This makes the extraction process expensive.

RECYCLING OF METALS
Mineral resources are non-renewable and are limited in quantity. Mineral resources are being extended in several ways: New ore bodies are being discovered Improving technology is increasing our ability to access some ores. Our ability to extract metals from lower-grade ores is improving. An increasing important option in extending our metal resources, and reducing energy use, is to recycle metals from objects that no longer serve the original purpose. Many metals, particularly iron, steel, copper, and aluminium are recycled. Once the metal has been sorted and treated, it is ready to be re-melted and re-formed. As the cost of metals continue to increase due to decreasing supplies and increasing demand, the cost-effectiveness of recycling will also rise.

ALUMINIUM RECYCLING
The recycling of aluminium from drink cans, car engines and body trim, boats and appliances is well established in Australia and many other countries. More than 60% of the aluminium cans produced in Australia are recycled. The recycling of aluminium is very cost-effective compared to extracting the metal from bauxite. The refining of bauxite to produce alumina (Al2O3) uses about 15000 MJ of energy per tonne of alumina produced. Smelting this alumina requires an additional 50000 MJ per tonne. Thus the total energy for producing is 65000 MJ per tonne. Melting recycling aluminium requires less than 5% of the energy needed to produce the same amount of aluminium from its ore. Recycling not only conserves our reserves of aluminium ore but also greatly reduces the amount of electricity needed to produce aluminium.