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CHINESEJOURNALOFMECHANICALENGINEERING

Vol.26,aNo. 1,a2013
DOI:10.3901/CJME.2013.01.***,availableonlineatwww.springerlink.comwww.cjmenet.comwww.cjmenet.com.cn

SimulationResearchontheEffectofCooledEGR, Superchargingand Compression Ratioon DownsizedSIEngineKnock


SHUGequn,PANJiaying,WEIHaiqiao*,and SHINing
StateKeyLaboratoryofEngines,TianjinUniversity,Tianjin300072,China
Received March15,2012revised October 16,2012 accepted November 14,2012

Abstract:Knockinsparkignition(SI)enginesseverelylimitsengineperformanceandthermalefficiency.Theresearchesonknockof downsizedSIengine have mainlyfocused onstructural design,performance optimizationandadvanced combustion modes, however thereislittleforsimulationstudyontheeffectofcooledexhaustgasrecirculation(EGR)combinedwithdownsizingtechnologiesonSI engineperformance.Onthebasisofmeanpressureandoscillatingpressureduringcombustionprocess,theeffectofdifferentlevelsof cooled EGR ratio, supercharging and compression ratio on engine dynamic and knock characteristic is researched with threedimensional KIVA3V program coupled with pressure wave equation. The cylinder pressure, combustion temperature, ignition delay timing, combustion duration, maximum mean pressure, and maximum oscillating pressure at different initial conditions are discussedandanalyzedtoinvestigatepotentialapproachestoinhibitingengineknockwhileimprovingpoweroutput.Thecalculation results of the effect of just cooled EGR on knock characteristic show that appropriate levels of cooled EGR ratio can effectively suppresscylinderhighfrequencypressureoscillationswithoutobviousdecreaseinmeanpressure.Analysisofthesynergisticeffectof cooledEGR,superchargingandcompressionratioonknockcharacteristicindicatesthatundertheconditionofhighsuperchargingand compressionratio,severaltimesmorecooledEGRratiothanthatundertheoriginalconditionisnecessarilyutilizedtosuppressknock occurrenceeffectively.TheproposedmethodofsynergisticeffectofcooledEGRanddownsizingtechnologiesonknockcharacteristic, analyzed from the aspects of mean pressure and oscillating pressure, is an effective way to study downsized SI engine knock and provides knockinhibition approaches inpracticalengineering. Keywords: exhaustgasrecirculation, compressionratio, knock,pressure waveequation, pressureoscillation
[1213] supercharging and variable technologies . However, * knocking combustion is still the primary barriers for 1 Introduction downsized SI engine to improve thermal efficiency. It is shownthatthehighercompressionratioandsupercharging At present, with the increasing issues of energy and applied to SI engines can make knocking problem more environment all over the world, much attention has been [14] serious . Therefore, it is significant to investigate paid tothemore stringent emission regulations in light of formationandinhibitionmechanismofknockandpropose Tokyo Agreement, which is characterized by taking CO2 [15] emission as an important criterion of fuel consumption. new knockingsuppressionmethods . Because of the complexity of phenomena itself, the [14] Engine downsizing refers to the way of reducing formation mechanism of knock hasnt been completely cylinder volume assisted with intake supercharger to [16] understoodsofar .Autoignitiontheorydemonstratesthat maintain power output, or increasing engine power output knock is spontaneous combustion of end gas due to the withoutchangingcylindervolumewhileimprovingengine of high temperature and high pressure in efficiency. Enginedownsizing is one ofthemost potential inhomogeneity [17] endzone . Detonation wave theory describes knock as a ways to improve fuel consumption and emission complex combustion of the unburned fuelair mixture [5] performance . Depending on downsizing factors, a ahead of the normal flame front by the action of a shock reduction in fuel consumption of up to 30% can be [18] wave or true detonation wave . According to flame [610] achievedintheNewEuropeanDrivingCycle(NEDC) . propagation theory, knock is aresult of accelerating flame The advantages of downsized gasoline engines have been [19] widely reported and proved being able to meet stringent propagation in homogeneous mixture . Autoignition theory has been widely accepted due to its good [11] emissions . explanation for various test results. However, all of these To meet normal power and torque output, engine knockingtheoriesfindthatwhenknockoccurs,the velocity downsizing technology has to be assisted with high offlamepropagationandheatreleaserateareconsiderably * Correspondingauthor.Email:haiqiaowei@tju.edu.cn high, which is accompanied by unique highfrequency This project is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of pressureoscillationincombustionchamber. China(Grant No. 51176138), and Tianjin Municipal Natural Science Pressureoscillation,anacousticalparameterinnature,is FoundationofChina(Grant No.12TJZDTJ28800) ChineseMechanicalEngineeringSociety andSpringerVerlagBerlinHeidelberg 2012

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supercharging,andEGR combined with compressionratio onengineknockperformanceisinvestigatedandanalyzed, respectively.Thenthe synergistic effectofthecooledEGR, superchargingandcompressionratioisdiscussedindepth. Theresultsshow that appropriateEGRlevelcombinedwith downsizing technologies can suppress knock effectively while improving engine performance. Therefore, in this paper,theproposedresearchofsynergisticeffectofcooled EGRanddownsizingtechnologiesonsuppressingcylinder pressureoscillationsisaneffectivewaytostudydownsized SI engine knock and reveal its inhibition mechanism in practicalengineering.

acommonphenomenoninSIenginesknockingcycles.For itsgeneration,itsconsideredthattherapidheatreleaseof autoignition reaction results in local overpressure which then develops into pressure wave or shock wave [20] propagating in thecombustion chamber back and forth . Whats more, knock intensity depends mainly on cylinder [2123] pressure oscillation and chemical heat release . Therefore, some intrinsic correlation may exist between engine knock characteristics and pressure oscillation in combustion chamber. However, most current studies of pressureoscillation,payingmoreattentiontoexperimental investigation, dont give quantitative description and clear explanation for the relation between unsteady transients andpressureoscillation. Inordertosuppressengineknock,thecurrently common ways aretodelay ignition timing,takelower compression [24] ratio or change intake components . Since that the first two approaches can affect engine thermal efficiency obviously, researchers have shifted to the latter one in [2529] recentyears. Lotsof studies have indicated thatcooled exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) can suppress knock effectively without much loss of power output. [30] PIROUZPANAH, et al , investigated the effect of EGR on a dualfuel engine to improve thermal efficiency and emissionofcarbonmonoxideatpartload.Theresultsshow thatthethermaleffectandchemicaleffectofEGRplayan [3133] important role in combustion process. KARIM, et al , also considered that positive effects of EGR can be moderatedby itsdilutingeffect. Inaddition, turbocharged SI enginebecomes popular in themarketduetoitscompactnessandhighpowerdensity. With regard to the effect of cooled EGR on knock performance in turbocharged SI engine, lots of literature [34] has been published . The effect of cooled EGR on a turbocharged sparkignited engine was investigated by [35] GRANDIN, et al , who investigated the potential for suppressing knock and reducing the exhaust gas temperature at high load conditions. The results indicate thattheeffectof cooledEGRonknockcanbe concludedas followingaspects.Thefirstoneisthatthedilutioneffectof EGR can extend combustion duration and reduce incylinder temperature, which is beneficial for inhibiting autoignition. However, the speed of flame propagation decreases with the utilization of cooled EGR, which is undesirablefor knockinhibition. Althoughthere isabasic understanding of inhibitory effect of EGR on knock, very few has researched the synergistic effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on SI engine knock, which is of great significance to optimize premixed combustionprocess. Combined with pressure wave equation of internal combustion engine, the effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on SI engine performance, especially the knock characteristic, is discussedsystematically.Thispaperisorganizedasfollows. Firstly the effect of cooled EGR, EGR combined with

2 Pressure WaveEquationof Internal CombustionEngine


In general, for the combustion process of internal combustionengines,twokindsoftimescalecanbeutilized todescribethechangingpressure history.Macrotimescale, equivalent to cycle period, can describe the macroscopic characteristics of cylinder pressure, and microtime scale, equivalent to combustion instantaneity, describes microscopic characteristics of incylinder pressure. Therefore, the total cylinder pressure can be decomposed intomeanpressure andoscillatingpressure by

p=p +p ,
where p Totalcylinderpressure, p Meanpressure, p Oscillating pressure.

(1)

The macroscopic scale and microscopic scale of wave equations of internal combustion engine is theoretically deducedinRefs.[36-37]. The macroscopic pressure wave equation can be representedby p r 2 & + A re - c & = ( g - 1) Q 0 m , t t

(2)

& Heatreleaseofcombustion, where Q g Adiabaticexponent, r Gasdensity, A 0 Laminarflow is0,turbulentflow is1,

e Turbulentenergyterminmodel, & Increaseinunitvolumeofquality, m c Speedofsound. The microscopic pressure wave equation can be represented by
1 2 p 1 g - 1 - 2 2 p = c 2 t 2 a c & Q + A 0 r e r r + 2 ( r u u )- H , t

(3)

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2 r r r where H =- A0 ( r k )+ s + Fs + r g , 3 k Energydissipationtermin k e model, a Dimensionless, related with pressure gradient scaling (PGS)inKIVA, uFluidvelocity, Fs Momentum increment due to spray and other causes, s Viscousforcetensor, g Accelerationdueto gravity. Finally, pressure wave equation of internal combustion enginecanbeobtainedbyintegratingaboveformulasfrom Eq. (1)toEq. (4):

Fig.1. Distributionofpressuresensor incombustionchamber

Pressureoscillation p'/MPa Pressure p /MPa

Inordertovalidatethesimulationmodel,the comparison of experimental data and calculated results of 900 r/min r g 2p 1 r 2 p operatingconditionis analyzed,shownasFig. 2.Compared & + Are ) & - p = -g - g r m ) (Q + ( g -1 0 c2 t 2 a2 t with experimental data,thecalculatedresultsin thispaper t r r r r r r areprovedtobewithinacceptablerange.Itisobviousthat rr 2 r r + 2 ( ruu ) + A02 ( rk ) -2 s -Fs -r g + the calculated results agree well with the experimental 3 pressure history and pressure oscillation trace. When the r r g -1 rr r r r & c + Q & s . (4) g 2 - p u + (1 - A0 )su- J + A0re + Q piston reaches approximately the top dead center(TDC), c t highfrequency oscillating pressure generating from end gasautoignitionappears,andthendeceasesquicklyinthe 3 ExperimentSubjectandSimulation Model later expansion stroke, and both themaximum ofabsolute incylinder pressure obtained from experiment and calculation are more than 10 MPa. Therefore, this Combined with wave equation of internal combustion computational model is able to utilized to investigate engine,thesynergisticeffectofcooledEGR,supercharging pressureoscillation characteristics in knocking cycles, and and compression ratio on the knock characteristics of SI also the existing experimental data can be utilized [38] engine was researched based on previous work . The [3940] effectively . experiment was performed on a modified, single cylinder twostroke gasoline engine, which was modified from a 10 diesel engine.In order toobtainthe expected knock level, 8 theadvancedignitiontiming(30 CA)andrelativelylow 6 octanenumberoffuel(MON53)wereadoptedinthetest. 4 Inaddition,adataacquisition system was established,and 2 Kistler 6125 flushmount incylinder pressure sensor was 0 installed at cylinder head, as shown in Fig.1. Related 5.0 specificationsoftheengine are presentedinTable1.
2.5 0.0 2.5 5.0 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 Crankangle q /CA 10 15 2

Table 1. TechnicalspecificationsofSIengine chosenforcalculation


Parameter Enginetype Bore Lstroke S/(mmmm) Compressionratio R Intaketemperature T1/ Intakepressure p/MPa Enginespeed n/( rmin ) IgnitionAdvance t/(CA) EGRtemperature T2/
1

Value Single cylinder 95.060.2 9.6 60 0.12 900

(a) Experimental data

30
60

4
Pressurep /MPa 10 8 6 4 2 0 5.0 2.5 0.0 2.5

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appropriate EGR levels dont result in significantly negative effect on combustion process. However, there is an obvious decrease in cylinder pressure when the CO2 concentration reaches 20%. The main reason is that the excessive CO2 dilutes the combustible mixture, which changes the airfuel ratio of the normal ignition and combustiontosomeextent.

Pressureoscillationp'/MPa

10 Meanpressure p/MPa 8 6 4 2 0 30

WithoutEGR 2%CO 2 4%CO 2 6%CO 2 8%CO 2

5.0 25

20

15

10 5 0 5 Crankangle q /CA

10

15

bCalculated results Fig.2. Comparisonof experimentaldata andcalculated results

4 ResultsandDiscussion
When autoignition occurs in combustion process, rapid release of chemical energy of the end gas will result in pressure wave or even shock wave spreading in the combustion chamber backand forth.Then chamber cavity is forced to resonate at its resonant frequency, emitting sharp metallic noises. By utilizing an appropriate level of EGR, the ignition delay timing and combustion duration can be extended, and the temperature of end zone is maintained relatively lower temperature which retards chemicalreaction ofendgas.Asaresult,theamplitudeof pressure oscillations is reduced drastically. Ref. [41] mentionedthatthechangerangeoftemperature caused by EGR couldreachupto 1 100 K. [42] Here,theEGRpercentageisdefinedby
n he=100 1 , n1 +n2

20

10 0 10 Crankangle q /CA

20

30

Fig.3. Meanpressureunderdifferent CO2 concentration condition

3000 TemperatureT /K 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 WithoutEGR 2%CO 2 4%CO 2 6%CO 2 8%CO 2 20 10 0 10 Crankangle q /CA 20 30

(5)

0 30

where he Percentage ofthe EGR, n 1 MolesofEGRoraddedgases, n 2 Totalmolesofairandfuelcharge. 4.1 EffectofcooledEGRonmeanpressure In this paper, the calculation of EGR is based on the variationinCO2 concentration.TheeffectofdifferentCO2 concentrations on mean pressure and temperature of combustion chamber is discussed and compared with original datawithoutEGRutilization. FromFig.3andFig.4wecanseethat,withtheincrease of CO2 concentration, the ignition timing delays and incylindertemperaturedecreasesobviously,especiallythe maximum of combustion temperature. Fig. 3 shows that with the increase of CO2 concentration, the maximum of meanpressureremainsbasically equal,whichindicatesthat

Fig.4. Temperatureunderdifferent CO2 concentrationcondition

Thefocusofthispaperisto researchtheeffectofcooled EGR on knocking combustion process, thus the temperatureofendgasisdiscussedindetail.Fig.4shows that withtheincrease of CO2 concentration, themaximum of incylinder combustion temperaturedecreases moreand more obviously.Comparedwithoriginaltemperaturecurve, themaximumoftemperature,correspondingto4%and8% CO2 concentration cases, is decreased by 2.8% and 5.5%, respectively.The factisdueto that the comicmolecule CO2 has larger specific heat capacity. Therefore, the dilution effect of cooled EGR not only reduces the maximum of combustion temperature, but also decreases flame propagation and prolongs combustion duration to some extent.

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Fig. 5 is the schematic diagram of the combustion duration of different percentages of CO2 concentration. From the figure we can see that with the increase of CO2 concentration, the combustion duration is prolonged significantly. Although lower temperaturein end gas zone can help avoid autoignition occurrence, the decrease in speedofflamepropagationresultingfromtheutilizationof cooled EGR has adverse effect on knock suppression. Therefore, its necessary to further discuss the effect of EGRonpressure oscillation.
2 Pressureoscillation p'/MPa 2%CO 2 1 4%CO 2

50 40 30 20

2 20

10

0 Crankangle q /()

10

20

Combustionduration w/

(a) Pressureoscillationof 2%and4%CO2 concentrations

1.2 Pressureoscillation p'/MPa 6%CO 2 0.6 8%CO 2

10 0

10

0.0

CO percentage h /% 2

Fig.5. Schematicdiagramofthecorrespondingcombustion durationunder differentCO2 concentrationscondition

0.6

1.2 20

10

4.2 EffectofcooledEGRonoscillationpressure andknockintensity It is known that there is a close relation between high frequency pressure oscillation and knock intensity. In this paper, knocking indicator, the maximum amplitude of pressureoscillationswithincertainwindowofcrankangle, [43] isutilized to define knockintensity . Fig. 6 shows four oscillating pressure curves under the conditionofdifferentCO2 concentrations.Itisobviousthat there is a significant increase in ignition delaytimingand combustion duration with the increase of CO2 concentration,which isconsistentwith thevariation ofthe mean pressure discussed above, shown as Figs. 6 (a) and (b). And meanwhile, the amplitude of pressure oscillation decreasessignificantly ingeneralexceptforthecaseof4% CO2 concentration. This is mainlydue to the fact that the extension of combustion duration slows down the rate of chemicalheatrelease,which weakenspressureintensityin combustion chamber to some extent.Therefore, compared with the four pressure oscillation curves, it can be concludedthatthecooledEGRhasagoodinhibitoryeffect onSIengineknockintensity.

0 10 Crankangle q /()

20

(b)Pressureoscillationof 6%and8%CO2 concentrations Fig.6. Comparisonofoscillatingpressure underdifferent CO2 concentrationcondition

Finally, engine power performance allowing for knock suppression is researched. Fig. 7 shows the maximum of outbreakpressureunderdifferentCO2concentrations.It can be seen that with the increase of CO2 concentration, the maximum of mean pressure increases at first and then decrease, but the oscillating pressure goes downward in general.Thisdemonstratesthat appropriate levelsofcooled EGR can inhibit knock intensity effectively without much lossofpoweroutput.Notingthatthe4%CO2 concentration is an abnormal case that the maximum of mean outbreak pressure isthe largest,however, themaximum of pressure oscillation is also considerable high, approximately 1.5 MPa. The reason is that the decrease in speed of flame propagation may affect autoignition of end gas to some extent.

6
Maximum p/MPa 7.4 7.3

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2.0 Max.meanpressurep'/MPa
p0 =0.132MPa p0 =0.182MPa p0 =0.172MPa p0 =0.192MPa

7.2 7.1 7.0 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 0

1.5

Maximum p'/MPa

1.0

0.5

0.0
2 4 6 CO percentage h /% 2 8 10

4 6 8 CO percentage h /% 2

10

12

Fig.7. Maximum of cylinderpressure outbreakprofile under differentCO2 concentrationcondition

(b)Maximum value of oscillation pressure Fig.8. Maximum of outbreakpressuresunder theconditionof differentCO2 concentrations and superchargedpressure

4.3 CooledEGR combinedwith supercharging Themaximumofoutbreakpressureunder differentCO2 concentrations and different supercharging p0 is discussed in order to further analyze the effect of cooled EGR and supercharging on engine performance. The simulation resultsofmaximumoutbreakpressuresunderthecondition of different CO2 concentrations combined with supercharging are showninFig. 8.

10 Max.meanpressurep /MPa

p0 =0.132MPa p0 =0.182MPa

p0 =0.172MPa p0 =0.192MPa

4 6 8 CO percentage h /% 2

10

12

(a)Maximum value of mean pressure

Fig. 8(a) shows that with the increase of supercharging within a certain range, the mean pressure continuously increases, but the trend in growth slows down. This may due to the higher supercharging making more fuelair mixtureparticipatesincombustionreaction,inwhichmore releasedheatis transformedinto mechanicpower.However, whenthesuperchargedpressureincreasestoacertainlevel, thegrowthtrendofcylinderpressurebeginstodecline.For certain supercharging, mean pressure remains basically equalindifferentCO2 concentrations,especially inthecase of high supercharged pressure. Fig. 8 shows that when superchargedpressurereaches0.192MPa,themaximumof meanpressuremaintainsalmostunchangedunderdifferent CO2 concentrations condition. The probable reason is that with increase in the intake density, the dilution effect of CO2 gasweakens drastically. Allowing for knocking characteristics, the oscillation pressure is further investigated. Fig. 8(b) shows that, for certain supercharged pressure,the maximum ofoscillating pressure decreases in general with increase of CO2 concentration. Noting that the oscillating pressure, corresponding to the range from 2% to 6% CO2 concentration, maybe locates in a transition region due to the fact that there isnt clear variation law. It might have somethingtodowithturbulence,flamepropagationaswell asautoignitionincombustionchamber.For acertainCO2 concentration,oscillatingpressure issignificantly enhanced withtheincreaseofsuperchargingduetothefactthat under theconditionof0.192MPasuperchargedpressureand0% CO2 concentration, the maximum amplitude of oscillating pressure goes up to 1.5 MPa. The probable reason is that for fixed compressionratio,the increase oftheintake will lead to higher pressure and temperature of combustion chamber,whichisproneto autoignitionoccurrence.

CHINESEJOURNALOFMECHANICALENGINEERING
4.4 CooledEGR combinedwithvariable compressionratio The maximum outbreak pressure under different CO2 concentrations and compression ratio is discussed to investigate the effect of cooled EGR and variable compressionratiotechnologyonengineperformance.The calculated results of the maximum outbreak pressure under the condition of different CO2 concentrations and compressionratios are shownasFig. 9.

Maximumofmeanpressurep /MPa

10

R=8.6

R=9.6

R=10.6

the maximum of oscillating pressure is greatly increased withtheimprovementofcompressionratio.Themaximum ofoscillatingpressure,corresponding tocompression ratio 10.6andCO2 concentrationfrom0%to4%,isbeyond2.0 MPa,whichindicatesthattheincreaseofcompressionratio canleadtoknockeasily.However,withtheincreaseof CO2 concentration,the oscillatingpressureathigh compression ratiodecreasessignificantly.Comparedwiththemaximum of pressureoscillation under the condition of compression ratio 10.6 and 2% CO2 concentration, the oscillation pressureinthecaseof10.6compressionratioand8%CO2 concentration falls by about 46%. However, themaximum of pressureoscillation under the condition of compression ratio 10.6, and 8% CO2 concentration is equal to that of compression ratio 9.6 and 2% CO2 concentration. This illustrates that engine knock can be suppressed effectively by the utilizationof cooledEGR.

4.5 Cooled EGR combined with supercharging and compressionratio Fromtheaboveanalysisweknowthatpoweroutputand engine knock intensity can be increased by both 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 compression ratio and supercharging. Supercharged CO percentage h /% technology increases the cylinder pressure by improving 2 density of the intake, while compression ratio affects (a) Maximum value of meanpressure combustionprocessbychangingthevolumeofcombustion chamber directly. For the improvement of combustion process, variable compression ratio technology is more 3.0 R=8.6 R=9.6 R=10.6 significantthansupercharging.Therefore,itisnecessaryto further discuss the synergistic effect of cooled EGR, 2.5 supercharging and compression ratio on the engine 2.0 performance and knock characteristic based on the precedinganalysis. 1.5 Fig. 10 is the curve of maximum outbreak cylinder pressure under the condition of CO2 concentrations from 1.0 0% to 12%, compression ratio10.6 and initial pressure 0.5 0.192 MPa. The figure shows that the variation of mean pressure and pressure oscillation is similar to that of the 0.0 previousones.However,the maximumofcylinderpressure 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 isimprovedbythehigherinitialpressureandcompression CO percentage h /% 2 ratiosignificantly.Themeanpressure goesupto8.19MPa, (b) Maximum value of oscillating pressure andthemaximumamplitudeofoscillatingpressurereaches 3.2 MPa. Although engine performance is improved Fig.9. Maximum of outbreakpressure underdifferentCO2 concentration andcompressionratio condition remarkably, a higher level of cooled EGR should be utilized in order to suppress engine knock intensity It is known that higher compression ratio can improve effectively. As is shown in Fig. 10, when using 8% CO2 thermal efficiency of internal combustion engine concentration, the maximum amplitude of pressure significantly. However, the knocking tendency also oscillation isreduced to 1.7 MPa,but the maximummean increases obviously due to the increase of combustion outbreakpressurecanreachabout8.2MPa.Unfortunately, temperature, especially in the end gas zone. Fig. 9 (a) the effect of cooled EGR on combustion emissions arent shows that for a certain level of CO2 concentration, the discussed here, which may be investigated in future maximum of mean pressure is significantly increased in research. higher compression ratio case, but the effect weakens continually. Thereason is that theincrease in temperature of combustion chamber improves the combustion process andthevelocity offlamepropagation.Fig.9(b)showsthat
4 Maximumofmeanpressurep'/MPa

8
Maximum p /MPa 8.4 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6 3.6 3.0 2.4 1.8 1.2 0

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3 Oscillationpressurep'/MPa 2 1 0 1 2 30

p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, noEGR p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, 8%CO 2

Maximump'/MPa

4 6 8 CO percentage h /% 2

10

12

20

10 0 10 Crankangle q /()

20

30

Fig.10. Maximum of outbreakpressure underthecondition of different CO2concentrationsand R=10.6, p0=0.192MPa

Fig.12. Comparisonof oscillationpressure curves

Fig.11andFig.12arethecurvesofmeanpressureand oscillating pressure in the 8% CO2 concentration and 0% EGR case,respectively. In this condition,thecompression ratio and initial pressure is set as 10.6 and 0.192 MPa, respectively. With the increase of CO2 concentration, ignition timingand combustion duration are extended and combustion temperature is reduced obviously, which is shownasFig.13andFig.14.However,inordertoachieve higherpoweroutputandeffectiveknocksuppressionunder theconditionofhighinitialpressureandhighcompression ratio, several times more cooled EGR than that under the original condition is necessarily utilized in order to suppressknockeffectively.isnecessary.Itcanbeseenfrom Fig. 12, the maximum of pressure oscillation in 8% CO2 concentration case decreases to approximate 1.6 MPa whichislower1.0 MPa thanthatwithoutEGRcase,.

1.0 0.8 Heatrelease c /% 0.6 p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, 0.4 0.2 0.0 25 20 15 10 5 noEGR p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, 8%CO 2

10 15 20

Crankangle q /()

Fig.13. Comparisonof cumulativeheatreleaserate

3000 TemperatureT/K 10 p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, Meanpressure p /MPa 8 noEGR p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, 8%CO 2 6 2500 2000 1500 p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, 1000 500 4 0 30 2 20 10 0 10 20 30 20 10 noEGR p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, 8%CO 2 0 10 20 30

Crankangle q /CA

Crankangle q /()

Fig.14. Comparisonofcylindertemperature under8%CO2 andwithoutEGRcondition

Fig.11. Comparison ofmeanpressure curves

Duetothefactthatthereissomecloserelationbetween knock and cavity resonance of combustion chamber, it is necessarytoanalyzefrequencycharacteristicsofoscillating pressure. Fig. 15 is the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) frequency spectrum curve of oscillating pressure. Fig. 15 showsthattherearetworesonantpeaks,approximately5.8

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KHz and 11 KHz, respectively, in which the vibration energy ismainlydistributedduringengine combustion.The 5.8kHzfrequencyisthenaturalvibrationofthefirstorder transverse mode of cylinder gas and 11 kHz isthe second order transverse mode. Compared with the case without EGR, not only the amplitude corresponding to 8% CO2 concentration is lower, but also the whole spectrum curve shiftsto thehigh frequencyside. This may due tothatthe lower combustion temperatureresulting from cooled EGR affects sound speed in combustion chamber. However, the effect of combustion chamber geometry on cavity resonancecharacteristicisntdiscussedinthispaper,which needstobe investigated infuturestudy.

necessarilyutilized inorderto suppressknock. (4) Forrelation betweenknock characteristicand cavity resonance of combustion chamber, the Fast Fourier Transform analysis of oscillating pressure shows that frequency spectrum shifts to low frequency region as a whole due to the fact that lower combustion temperature resulting fromthe utilization ofcooled EGR affects sound speedincombustionchamber. References
[1] LEDUC P, DUBAR B, RANINI A, et al. Downsizing of gasoline engines: an efficient way to reduce CO2 emissions[J]. Oil and Gas Scienceand Tech, 2003,58(1):115127. [2] SHAHED M R. Gasoline engine downsizing and boosting for CO2 emission reduction[C]// International Vehicle Technology Symposium, California Air Resources Board Climate Change, Sacramento,March 1113, 2003. [3] STOKESJ,LAKETH,OSBORNERJ. A gasolineengineconcept for improved fuel economyThe lean boost system[C]//America: SAEpaper, 012902,2000. [4] POLICEG,DIANA S,GIGLIO V, etal.Downsizingof SI engines by turbocharging[C]//Proceedings of ESDA2006, 8th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, Torino,Italy,July 2006: 47. [5] PIERRE P, ADRIANC,GEORGESD.Influence ofthelubricating oil pressureand temperatureon the performanceat low speedsofa centrifugalcompressorforanautomotive engine[J].AppliedThermal Engineering,2011, 31(3): 194201. [6] MAHLE P. Advanced Downsizing Technology[EB]. Germany: ATZ autotechnology Edition, 2007[20070221]. http: //www.atzonline. com. [7] RAINER G, GUNTER P, MERKER. Downsizing bei verbrennungsmotorenGrundlagen,standdertechnikundzuknftige konzepte[EB]. Germany: GWV Fachverlage GmbH, 2005 [20050210]. http://www.atzonline.com. [8] VOLKERK,DAVIDH,HUGHB.Downsizingmotorvonmahleals technologiedemonstrator konzept, auslegung und konstruktion[EB]. Germany: GWV Fachverlage GmbH, 2007[20070210]. http: //www.atzonline.de. [9] YI J, WOOLDRIDGE S, COULSON. Differentiated analysis of downsizing concepts[EB]. Germany: GWV Fachverlage GmbH, 2008[20080618]. http://www.atzonline.com. [10] PREVEDEL K, KAPUS P. Motorprozesssimulation und a ufladung[M]. Germany:ExpertVerlagGmbH,2006:62100. [11] BRDARSKI A, KERM J, WOLDRING, et al. SI engine hardware andsoftwaredesignforhighpowerlowemissionsapplications[C]// America:SAEPaper, 010617,2009. [12] BERTRAND L,GEATAN M.Downsizinga gasolineengineusing turbocharging with direct injection[C]//America: SAE Paper, 010542,2003. [13] TIML,JOHN S, RICHARD M, etal.Turbochargingconcepts for downsized DI gasoline engines[C]// America: SAE Paper, 010036, 2004. [14] WILLIAM A, STEEVEN K. Comparing the performance and limitations of a downsized formula SAE engine in normally aspirated,superchargedandturbochargedmodes[C]//America:SAE Paper,320072,2006. [15] SUWanhua.Autoignitionofthefuelanditsapplicationininternal combustion engine technology[J]. Mechanics and Practice, 2009, 31(6): 18.(inChinese) [16] LI Jianquan. Research of detonation combustion in spark ignition engine[D]. Tianjin:TianjinUniversity,1995.(inChinese) [17] LIVENGOODJ C,WUPC.Correlationofautoignitionphenomena ininternalcombustionenginesandrapidcompressionmachines[C]//

0.4

p0 =0.192MPa, R=10.6, noEGR p0 =1.92MPa, R=10.6, 8%CO 2

Amplitudem /MPa

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 0

10 15 Frequency f /KHz

20

25

Fig.15. FFTspectrumcurvefrom cylinderoscillatingpressure

5 Conclusions
(1) On basis of mean pressure and oscillating pressure, the coupling model of KIVA3V combustion model and pressure wave equation is established to research the synergistic effect of cooled EGR and downsizing technologies on knock characteristic. The calculation results show that this method is an effective wayto study knockcharacteristicof downsizedSIengine. (2) With the increased of CO2 concentration within a certain range, ignition delay timing and combustion duration are extended correspondingly, and combustion temperature decreases obviously, which is beneficial for inhibitionofautoignition occurrence.Andmeanwhile,the suppressionofhighfrequency pressureoscillationswithout obvious decrease of mean pressure indicates that cooled EGR canbeutilizedtosuppressknockeffectively. (3)Theresultsofsynergisticeffectofdifferentlevelsof cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on engine performance indicates that both supercharging and compression ratio can improve engine power output, but the latter is more obvious. Under the condition of high superchargedpressureandcompressionratio,severaltimes more cooled EGRthanthat underthe original condition is

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Biographicalnotes
SHUGequn,bornin1964,iscurrentlyaprofessorandadirector atStateKeyLaboratoryofEngines,TianjinUniversity,China.He receivedhisbachelordegreeininternalcombustionenginesfrom ZhejiangUniversity,ChinaandbothhismasterandPhDdegrees from Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, Tianjin University, China. He has been working in Tianjin University, China. His research interests include engine noise and vibration andmoderndesigntechnique,etc. Tel: +862227409558Email: sgq@tju.edu.cn PANJiaying,bornin1987,iscurrentlyaPhDcandidateatState Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, China. He received his bachelor degree in thermal energy and power engineering from Shandong Universityof Scienceand Technology, ChinaandhismasterdegreesfromInternalCombustionEngines, Tianjin University, China. His research interests include engine combustion,SIengineknock,etc. Email: panjiaying1987@163.com WEIHaiqiao,bornin1974,iscurrentlyanassociateprofessorat State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, China. He received his bachelor degree in North China Electric Power University,China.HereceivedhisPhDdegreefromDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, China. His researchinterestsincludecombustionprocessesandenginenoise andvibration,SIenginedownsizing. Tel: +862227891285Email:whq@tju.edu.cn SHINing, born in 1988,is currently a master candidateatState Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, China. He received hisbachelor degreefrom NanjingAgriculturalUniversity, China. His research interests include engine combustion, SI engineknock,etc. Email: shiningsmx@sohu.com