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Chapter 4

First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is simply the conservation of energy principle and can be defined as, the energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it can only change from one form to other with certain process such as, combustion, chemical and mechanical. The conservation of energy principle may be expressed as follows: the net change (increased or decreased) in the total energy of the system during a process is equal to the difference between the total energy entering and the total energy leaving the system.

⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

Total energy

entering the system

⎟ ⎟ ⎠ − ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

Total energy

leaving the system

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

Change in the total

energy of the system

The above relation is often referred to as the energy balance. The energy is a property and the value of a property does not change unless the state of the system changes. Also, the first law of thermodynamics is called the law of the conservation of heat and work undergoing a cycle, and then for a change of state of a system. Many measurements were made during a cycle (control mass) for various amounts of work and heat, and the results were compared. The results were always proportional and the observations led to the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics as,

δQ = δW

The symbol, δQ , which is called the cyclic integral of the heat transfer, represents the net heat transfer during the cycle, and δW , the cyclic integral of the work, represents the net work during the cycle.

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The First Law of Thermodynamics of a Control Mass

We now considered the first law of thermodynamics for a control mass that undergoes a change of state. We begin by introducing of the energy property, which is given by the symbol E. Consider a system that undergoes a cycle, in which it changes from state 1 to state 2 by process A, and returns from state 2 to state 1 by process B as shown in Fig. 4- 1. Considering the two separate processes, we have,

2

1

δQ

A

+

1

2

δQ

B

=

2

1

δW

A

+

1

2

δW

B

Now consider another cycle in which the control mass change from state 1 to state 2 by process C and returns to state 1 by process B, as before. For this cycle we can write,

2

1

δQ

C

+

1

2

δQ

B

=

2

1

δW

c

+

1

2

δW

B

Subtracting the two equations, we get,

2

1

δQ

A

2

1

δQ

C

=

or, by rearranging, δQ δW

2

1

(

)

A

=

∫ 2 δW − ∫ 2 δW A C 1 1 ∫ 2 ( δQ δW
∫ 2
δW
∫ 2
δW
A
C
1
1
∫ 2
(
δQ δW
)
C
1
Fig. 4-1 Control mass undergoing a cycle

Since

A

and C represents

arbitrary processes between state 1 and 2, the quantity

δQ δW is

the

same

for

all

processes

between

state

1

and

state 2. Therefore,

δQ δW depends only on the initial and final states and not on the path. We conclude

66

that this is a point function and this property is the energy of the mass and is given by the symbol E. Thus we can write,

δ

Q

δ

W

=

dE

δ

Q

=

dE

+

δ

W

or

Because E is a property, its derivative is written dE. The above equation is integrated from an initial state 1 to a final state 2, we have,

Q

12

= E E + W

2

1

12

The determination of the energy change of a system during a process involves the evaluation of the energy of the system at the beginning and at the end of the process as follows,

Δ

E

=

system

E

final

E

initial

=

E

2

E

1

The energy can be exist in various forms such as internal (sensible, latent, chemical, and nuclear), kinetic, potential, electric, and magnetic, and their sum is the total energy E of a system. In the absence of electric, magnetic and surface tension effects ( i.e., for simple compressible systems), the change in total energy of a system during a process is the sum of the changes in its internal, kinetic, and potential energies and can be expressed as,

ΔE = ΔU + ΔKE + ΔPE

Where, Δ U = m u ( − u ) 2 1 1 2 2 Δ
Where,
Δ
U
=
m u
(
u
)
2 1
1
2
2
Δ
KE
=
m ( v
v
)
2
1
2
Δ
PE
=
mg
(
z
z
)
2
1
1
2
2
or
Δ =
E
m
(
u
u
)
+
( v
− v ) +
g
(
z
z
)
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

Most of engineering systems are stationary and no change of its velocity and elevation during process, it means that, ΔKE = ΔPE = 0 , and the total energy change reduces to ΔE = ΔU . The energy can be transferred to or from the system in three forms: Heat,

67

Work and Mass Flow. For a closed system or fixed mass, the only two forms of energy are the heat and work interaction.

Heat Transfer, Q

The heat transferred to a system (heat gain) increases the internal energy of the system, and the heat transferred from a system (heat loss) decreases the internal energy of a system.

Work, W

The energy interaction that is not caused by a temperature difference between a system and surroundings is called work. A rising piston, rotating shaft, and electrical wire crossing the system boundaries are work done.

Energy Balance of Closed System

Noting that the energy can be transferred in the forms of heat and work and the net transfer of a quantity is equal to the difference between the amounts transferred inlet and outlet, and the energy balance can be defined as,

(Q Q ) (W W ) = ΔE

in

out

in

out

system

The first law of thermodynamics for closed system and fixed boundary (rigid tank) as shown in Fig. 4-2, and the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, ΔKE = ΔPE = 0 , then the thermodynamics first law relation becomes,

or

Q

i

+

W

i

+

mu

1

=

Q

o

+

W

o

+ mu

2

(

Q W = m u

2

u

1

)

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Fig. 4-2 Closed system and fixed boundary (stationary). For no interaction work done and heating process,

Fig. 4-2 Closed system and fixed boundary (stationary).

For no interaction work done and heating process, the first law takes,

Q =

(

m u

2

u

1

)

For cooling process, the first law takes,

(

Q = m u

2

u

1

)

The first law of thermodynamics for closed system and moving boundary as shown in Fig. 4-3, and the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, ΔKE = ΔPE = 0 , then the thermodynamics first law relation becomes,

Q

Q

+ W + mu + PV = Q + W + mu + PV i i
+
W
+
mu
+
PV
=
Q
+
W
+
mu
+
PV
i
i
1
1
o
o
2
2
+
W
+
m u
(
+
Pv
)
=
Q
+
W
+
m u
(
+
Pv
)
i
i
1
1
o
o
2
2

Fig. 4-3 Closed system and moving boundary (frictionless piston-cylinder).

or

(

Q W = m h

2

h

1

)

For no interaction work done and heating process, the first law takes,

(

Q = m h

2

h

1

)

For cooling process, the first law takes,

69

(

Q = m h

2

h

1

)

Cooling process with work done from paddle wheel

A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that is being stirred by a paddle wheel as shown in Fig. 4-4. The tank is not insulated and heat transferred to surrounding, the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, ΔKE = ΔPE = 0 , then the first law becomes,

(

Q W = m u

2

u

1

)

Applying the sign role or the directions of heat and work in the system, the first law takes the following form,

Q

(

− −

W

)

=

(

m u

2

u

1

)

W

Q

=

(

m u

2

u

1

)

Or applying the sum of energy at inlet that is equal the sum of energy at outlet,

∑ = ∑

E

i

E

o

Q

i

+

W i
W
i

+

mu

1

=

Q

o

+

W

o

+

mu

2

There is no heat transfer inter the system, Q i =0, and no work done leave the system, W o =0,.

or

W + mu = Q + mu or the form of, W − Q = m
W
+
mu
=
Q
+
mu
or the form of,
W
Q
=
m u
(
u
)
i
1
o
2
pw in
out
2
1
W − Q = m u
(
− u
)
2
1

Fig. 4-4 Paddle wheel stirred fluid in closed system

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Electric Heating of Fluid in Insulated Rigid Tank

A rigid tank contains fluid that is being heat by an electric heater as shown in Fig. 4-5. The tank is insulated and no heat transferred to surrounding, the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, ΔKE = ΔPE = 0 , then the thermodynamics first law becomes,

(

Q W = m u

2

u

1

)

Applying the sign role or the directions of heat and work in the system, the first law takes the following form,

(

− −

W

e

)

=

(

m u

2

u

1

)

W

e

=

(

m u

2

u

1

)

IV

Δ =

t

(

m u

2

u

1

)

Where, V is the volt, I is the current, and Δt is the heating time.

Electric Heating of Fluid in Insulated Rigid Tank A rigid tank contains fluid that is being

Fig. 4-5 Electric heating process

Energy Balance of Steady-flow System

A large number of engineering devices such as turbine, compressor, and nozzles are operating for long period of time under the same conditions, (steady-flow process). During the steady-flow process, no intensive or extensive properties within the control volume change with time. Thus, the volume V, the mass m, and the total energy content E of the control volume remain constant as shown in Fig. 4-6.

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Fig. 4-6 Steady-flow process and control volume As a result, the boundary work is zero fo

Fig. 4-6 Steady-flow process and control volume

As a result, the boundary work is zero for steady flow system (because the volume is constant in control volume V cv = constant.), and the sum of mass or energy entering the control volume must be equal to the sum of mass or energy leaving the control volume (since m cv = constant and E cv =constant). Then, the rate of the general energy and mass balance for steady flow process as follows,

or

&

E

in

= ∑

&

E

out

Δ

E

CV

= 0

and,

and

m&

in

= ∑

m&

out

∑ Δ

m

CV

= 0

During the steady flow process, the fluid properties at inlet or exit remain constant. Also, the rate of heat and work interaction between a steady flow system and its surrounding do not change with time. For steady flow process, there are some applications has multi-inlet and multi-exit as shown in Fig. 4-7.

Fig. 4-6 Steady-flow process and control volume As a result, the boundary work is zero fo

Fig. 4-7 Steady flow process in general

So, the first law of thermodynamics for steady flow process becomes for that case,

2

2

&

&

Q + W + ∑ m ( h + + gz ) = Q + W + ∑ m& ( h + + gz

i

i

&

i

i

2

i

o

o

o

o

o

2

v

i

&

&

v

o

)

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For single stream flow, one inlet and one exit as shown in Fig. 4-8, the first low of thermodynamics becomes,

For single stream flow, one in let and one exit as shown in Fig. 4-8, the

Fig. 4-8 Steady flow process for one inlet and one exit

2 2 v v & & i & & o Q + W + m &
2
2
v
v
&
&
i
&
&
o
Q
+ W + m
&
(
h +
+ gz
)
= Q + W + m&
(
h +
+ gz
)
i
i
i
i
i
o
o
o
o
o
2
2
2
2
v
v
&
&
i
&
&
o
And,
Q
+ W + m h +
& (
+ gz
)
= Q + W + m& h +
(
+ gz
)
i
i
i
i
o
o
o
o
2
2
In such cases, it is common practice to assume that the heat to be transferred into
the system (heat input) at a rate of Q , and work produced by the system (work output) at
&
a rate of W
&
and the inlet and outlet are denoted by subscripts 1 and 2. The first law of
thermodynamics for single stream steady flow systems becomes,
2
2
v
v
&
&
2
1
Q
W
=
m
& [(
h
+
+
gz
)
(
h
+
+
gz )]
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
v
v
&
&
2
1
Q
W
=
m
& [(
h
h
)
+
+
g
(
z
z
)]
2
1
2
1
2

For specific quantity, the energy balance on a unit mass basis defined as,

q

w

=

(

h

2

h

1

)

+

v

2

2

v

2

1

2

+ g

(

z

2

z

1

)

Some Steady Flow Applications

Many engineering devices operate under the same conditions for long periods of time and never change throughout the operating time such as, turbines, compressors, pumps, boilers, heat exchangers, nozzles and diffusers and these devices can be analyzed as steady flow processes.

73

Turbine

A turbine is a rotary machine which used in thermal power station as shown in Fig. 4-9, whose purpose is the production of shaft work by expansion the fluid. The work done in the turbine is positive since it done by the fluid on the moving blades to causing rotational velocity of the turbine shaft.

Turbine A turbine is a rotary machine which used in thermal power station as shown in

Fig. 4-9 Adiabatic turbine process

The energy balance ofo this steady-flow system is,

&

Q

&

W

=

&

m

[(

h

2

h

1

)

+

  • 2 2

  • 2 + g
    2

1

v

v

(

z

2

z

1

)]

If the process occurred in the turbine which insulated fro surrounding (adiabatic process,

Q & = 0

) we get,

Power

=

W

&

= −

m

[(

h

2

h

1

)

+

v

2

2

v

2

1

2

+

g ( z

2

z )]

1

kW

For some cases, by neglecting the kinetic and potential energy, we obtain,

Power

=

W

= − &

m( h

2

h )

1

kW

Compressors and Pumps

The purpose of compressors (gas) or pumps (liquid) is the same, to increase the pressure of a fluid by adding shaft work as shown in Fig. 4-10.

74

Fig. 4-10 Compressor and pump process For gas compressors, by neglecting the kinetic energy at inlet

Fig. 4-10 Compressor and pump process

For gas compressors, by neglecting the kinetic energy at inlet only and potential energy

at inlet and outlet, and some heat transferred to the surrounding, we obtain,

&

Q

&

(

− −

W

)

=

&

m

[(

h

2

h

1

)

+

1

2

v

2

2

] or

power

=

&

W

in

=

&

Q

out

+

&

m

[(

h

2

h

1

)

+

1

2

v

2

2

]

kW

For ideal gas, and the compression is adiabatic process, and neglecting the kinetic energy, we get

power

=

&

W

in

=

& (

m h

2

h

1

)

power

=

&

mC

P

ave

(

T

2

T

1

)

kW

kW

For pumps, by neglecting the kinetic and potential energy,

power

=

&

W

in

=

(

m h

&

2

h

1

)

kW

For pumps, the increasing pressure is usually occurred at constant temperature, and the liquid temperature does not change throughout the process. So, the change only in the pressure and the steady flow energy equation for pumps can be write as,

power

=

&

W

in

=

mv P

2

&

(

P 1
P
1

)

kW

Nozzles and Diffusers

Nozzles and diffusers are usually utilized in jet engine, rockets and air craft. The nozzle is a device that increases the velocity of a fluid. A diffuser is a device that increases the

75

pressure of the fluid. That is, nozzles and diffuser perform opposite tasks as shown in Fig. 4-11.

pressure of the fluid. That is, nozzles and diffuser perform opposite tasks as shown in Fig.

Fig. 4-11 Nozzle and diffuser The energy balance for this steady flow system which no heat transferred, no work and potential energy is zero, we get for nozzle,

0

=

(

h

2

h

1

)

+

v

2

2

v

2

1

2

h = h

2

1

v

2

2

2

Q fluid velocity at inlet v

1

0

For diffuser,

0

=

(

h

2

h

1

)

+

v

2

2

v

2

1

2

h = h +

2

1

v

2

1

2

Heat Exchanger

Q fluid velocity at outlet v

2

0

The heat exchangers are usually used for cooling of a hot fluid inside the coil by using cooled fluid outside the coil as Fig. 4-12. The energy balance of heat exchanger, the steady flow system which no heat transferred to the surrounding, no work done, and

kinetic and potential energies are negligible. The heat rejected from hot fluid, to the heat added to the cooled fluid m& , then we get,

2

m& equal

1

m&

1

(

h

2

h

1

)

= m&

2

(

h

4

h

3

)

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Fig. 4-12 Heat exchanger process Throttling Process A throttling process occurs when a fluid flowing in

Fig. 4-12 Heat exchanger process

Throttling Process

A throttling process occurs

when a

fluid flowing in

a line suddenly encounters a

restriction in the flow passage such as, valves and capillary tubes as shown in Fig. 4-13.

Fig. 4-12 Heat exchanger process Throttling Process A throttling process occurs when a fluid flowing in

Fig. 4-13 Throttling process in valves and capillary tubes

For throttling process, the steady flow system which no heat transferred, no work done,

and kinetic and potential energies are negligible, we get,

h

1

= h

2

Usually the throttling process is called constant enthalpy process.

Mixing Process

Fig. 4-12 Heat exchanger process Throttling Process A throttling process occurs when a fluid flowing in

Fig. 4-14 Mixing chamber process

In engineering applications, mixing two streams of fluid in a certain system are occurred

without heat transferred to surrounding, no work done, and kinetic and potential

77

energies are negligible as shown in Fig. 4-14. The energy balance of steady flow process as,

m&

1

h

1

+ m&

2

h

2

= m&

3

h

3

and for mass balance

m&

1

+ m&

2

= m&

3

Examples of First Law of Thermodynamics

1. Is it possible to compress an ideal gas isothermally in an adiabatic piston-cylinder device? Explain. Impossible to compress an ideal gas isothermally in an adiabatic piston-cylinder device because during the compression process which to keep the temperature constant, it is necessary to remove heat from the system boundary, heat is interaction

out the system.

  • 2. Consider two identical rooms, one with a refrigerator in it and the refrigerator door is open, and the other without one. If all the doors and windows are closed, will the room that contains the refrigerator be cooler or warmer than the other room? Why? The room which contain refrigerator is becoming warmer than the other, because electric work done for the compressor is added to room, work is interaction into the system.

  • 3. A 2.5 m 3 rigid tank contains air at 300 kPa and 150 o C. The air is now cooled until its temperature drops to 40 o C. Determine (a) the final pressure in the tank and (b) the amount of heat transfer.

Solution

energies are negligible as shown in Fig. 4-14. The energy balance of steady flow process as,

78

State 1,

Process 1

P V

1

1

=

mRT

1

,

m

=

P V

1

2 is constant volume,

V

1

/

RT

=

C

1

=

=

300

mRT

1

×

2.5 /( 0.287

=

mRT

2

,

or

×

423)

P

1

=

=

6.18

T

1

kg

     

P

2

P

2

T

2

 

T

2

313

   

P

2

=

P

1

T

1

=

300

×

423

= 221.99

 

kPa

First Law of Thermodynamics for closed volume and fixed boundary,

4.

Δ

K.E

=

0

 

ΔP.E 0,

=

 

W

=

0

 

,

Q

= Δ =

U

(

m u

2

u

1

)

For Ideal - gas, air

   

u

1

=

C

V

T

1

=

0.718

×

423

=

303.714

 

kJ

/

kg

u

2

=

C

V

T

2

=

0.718

×

313

=

224.734

kJ

/

kg

Q

 

=

m

×

(

u

2

u

1

)

=

6.18

×

( 224.734

303.714)

= −

488.096

kJ

A mass of 20 kg of air in a frictionless piston-cylinder device is heated from 27 to 80 o C by passing current through a resistance heater inside the cylinder. The pressure inside the cylinder is held constant at 400 kPa during the process, and a heat loss of 30 kJ occurs. Determine the electric energy supplied in kWh.

 

Solution

 
 
Δ K.E = 0 Δ P.E 0, = W = 0 , Q = Δ =
 

First Law of Thermodynamics for closed system and moving boundary,

Assume,

Δ

 

K.E

=

0,

Δ

P.E

=

0

Q

i

+

W

i

+

m

×

h

1

=

Q

0

+

W

o

+

m

×

h

2

,

W

i

=

W

o

=

0

Q

i

=

Q

o

+

m

×

(

h

2

h

1

)

For Ideal gas, air

 

h

1

=

C

P

T

1

=

1.005

×

300

=

301 .5

kJ

/

kg

 

h

2

=

C

P

T

2

=

1.005

×

353

=

354.765

 

kJ

/

kg

 

Q

i

=

30

+

20

×

(354.765

301.5)

=

1095.3

 

kJ

Electric Work,

W

e

=

Q

i

= 1095.3

kW s

.

=

  • 1095.3 = 0.3043

3600

kWh

  • 5. Water is being heated in a closed vessel on top of a range while being stirred by a paddle wheel. During the process, 3000 kJ of heat transferred to the water, and 150 kJ of heat is lost to the surrounding air. The paddle-wheel work amounts to 250 N.m, determine the final energy of the system if its initial energy is 200 kJ.

Solution

First Law of Thermodynamics for closed system, Fixed boundary, Δ K.E Q + W + m
First Law of Thermodynamics for closed system, Fixed boundary,
Δ
K.E
Q
+
W
+
m
×
u
=
Q
+
W
+
m
×
u
,
W
=
W
,
W
=
0
i
i
1
0
o
2
i
pw
o
Q Initial Energy,
E
=
m
×
u
,
Final Energy,
E
=
m
×
u
i
1
f
2
Final Energy, E
=
m
×
u
=
Q
+
W
+
m
×
u
Q
f
2
i
i
1
o
250
E
=
3000
+
+
200
150
=
3050.25
kJ
f
1000

=

0,

Δ

P.E

=

0

  • 6. A classroom that normally contains 60 peoples which one person at rest may be assumed to dissipate heat at a rate of 432 kJ/h. There are 15 light bulbs in the room, each with a rating of 150 W. The rate of heat transfer to the classroom through the walls and the windows is estimated to be 15000 kJ/h. If the room air is to be maintained at a constant temperature of 22 o C and the supply fresh air at 35 o C with volume flow rate of 10 L/s for one person is provided .Determine the number of window air conditioning units required if the unit cooling capacity is about of 8 kW.

Solution

80

 
First law of Thermodynamics, steady flow and control volume. Assume Δ K.E = 0, Δ P.E
 

First law of Thermodynamics, steady flow and control volume.

 

Assume ΔK.E

=

0, ΔP.E

=

0

Q

 

W

+

 

&

×

h

=

Q

 

+

W

+

m h

&

 

No input or output

work,

W

 

W

 

0

+

m

 

=

=

i

i

i

i

o

&

o

&

o

o

,

&

i

o

Steady mass flow rate,

m

i

=

m

=

o

Cooling capacity,

Q

o

= ∑ +

Q

i

&

m

a

m

×

(

a

h

i

h

o

)

Air Denisty,

ρ

a

=

 

P

 

=

100

 

= 1.13

kg

/

3

RT

 

0.287

 

m

 

×

(35

+

273)

 
 

&

&

V

=

1.13

 

10

×

60

×

10

3

 

0.678

 

kg

/

 

m

a

=

ρ

a

×

×

 

=

s

Q

i

=

Q

wall

 

+

Q

light

+

 

Q

=

persons

 

15000

+

15

×

150

1000

×

3600

+

60

×

432

Q

i

= 49020

kJ

/

h

 

For Ideal gas, air

 

h

1

=

C

P

T

1

=

1.005

×

308

=

309.54

 

kJ

/

kg

 

h

2

=

C

P

T

2

=

1.005

×

295

=

296.475

 

kJ

/

kg

 

Q

o

=

49020

+

0.678

×

(309.54

296.475)

×

3600

=

80909.052

kJ

/

h

Q

o

80909.052

=

3600

=

22.475

 

kJ

/

s

=

22.475

 

kW

Number of Units =

 

Q

o

=

22.475

 

=

2.81

3 Units

 
   
 

Unit Capacity

 

8

7. The steam radiator for a heating system has a volume of 20 L and is filled with superheated vapor at 300 kPa and 250 o C. At this moment both inlet and exit valves to the radiator are closed. Determine the amount of heat that will be transferred to the room when the steam pressure drops to 100 kPa. Also, show the process on a P-v diagram with respect to saturation line.

Solution

81

State 1, from steam table, superheated vapor at, P 1 = 300 u 1 = 2728

State 1, from steam table, superheated vapor at,

P

1

=

300

u

1

=

2728 7

.

kJ/kg,

v

1

=

07964

3

m /kg

Steam

mass,

m =

V

20

×

10

-3

=

v

1

0.9764

= 0.0251

kg

kPa

,

Cooling process occured at constant volume, V

1

=

V

2

=

C

State

2,

from steam table, at,

P 1
P
1

=

100

kPa

,

v

1

=

v

2

=

0.7964

v

f

<

v

2

<

v

g

state 2, wet vapor

T

1

=

250

kg

v

2

=

v

f

+

x

2

×

( v

g

v

f

)

0.7964

=

0.001043

+

x

2

×

(1.694

0.001043)

x

2

= 0.47

u

2

=

u

f

+

x

2

×

( u

g

u

f

)

u

2

=

417.36

+

0.47

×

( 2506.1

417.36)

=

1399.07

kJ

/

kg

First law of thermodynamics for closed system, fixed boundary,

W =

0

Q

W

= Δ =

U

(

m u

2

u

1

)

Q

=

m

×

(

u

2

u

1

)

=

0.0251

×

(1399.07

2728.7 )

= −

33.39

kJ

o

C

8. A well-insulated rigid tank initially contains 8 kg of a saturated liquid-vapor mixture of water at 100 kPa and quality of 18.1 %. An electric resistor placed in the tank is connected to a source of 220 V, and a current of 4 A flows through the resistor when the switch is turned on. Determine how long it will take to vaporized all the liquid in the tank. Also, show the process on a T-v diagram with respect to saturation lines.

Solution

82

State 1, from steam table at, P = 100 kPa and , x = 0.181 1
State 1, from steam table at, P = 100 kPa and , x = 0.181 1
State 1,
from steam table at,
P
=
100
kPa and
,
x
=
0.181
1
1
v
=
v
+
x
×
( v
v
)
1
f
1
g
f
3
v
=
0.001043
+
0.181
×
(1.694
0.001043)
=
0.30747
m
/
kg
1
u
=
u
+
x
×
u
1
f
1
fg
u
=
417.36
+
0.181
×
2088.7
=
795.415
kJ
/
kg
2
Heating process occured at constant volume, V
=
V
=
C
1
2
3
x
=
100 % , saturated
water
vapor, v
=
0.30747
m
/
kg
2
2
3
State 2, from saturated steam
table, at, v
=
v
=
0.30747
m
/
kg
,
x
=
100 %
2
g
2
o
3
T
(
C
)
v
(
m
/
kg
)
u
(
kJ
/
kg
)
g
g
160
0.30747
2568.4
u
= 2568.4
kJ
/
kg
2
o
T
= 160
C
2
First law of thermodynamics for closed system, fixed boundary,
Q
=
0, electric work,
W
e
Q
W
= Δ =
U
m u
(
u
)
e
2
1
W
=
m
×
(
u
u
)
= ×
8
( 2568.4
795.415)
=
14183.88
kJ
e
2
1
&
W
=
Power
=
I
×
V
=
220
×
4
=
880
W
=
0.88
kW
=
0.88
kJ
/
s
e
&
W
=
W
/
Δ
t
e
e
14183.88
&
Heating time,
Δ =
t
W
/
W
=
= 4.48
hr
e
e
0.88
×
60
×
60

9. A piston-cylinder device contains 1.2 kg of N 2 initially at 100 kPa and 27 o C. The Nitrogen is now compressed slowly in a polytropic process during which PV 1.3 = C until the volume is reduced by one-half. Determine the work done and the heat transfer for this process.

83

Solution

Solution State 1, P 1 = 100 kPa , T 1 = 300 K From ideal

State 1,

P

1

=

100

kPa

,

T

1

=

300

K

From ideal gas equation,

P V

1

1

=

mRT

1

,

V

1

= 1.0685

m

3

,

for ideal gas of N

2

 

100

×

V

1

=

1.2

×

0.2968

×

300

 

u

1

=

C

V

T

1

=

0.743

×

300

=

222.9

kJ

/

kg

 

State 2,

V

2

=

0.5

V

1

=

0.5

×

1.0685

=

0.53424

 

m

3

Process 1

 

PV

n

=

C

1.3

 

P V

1

1

n

n

P V

2

2

 

2, Polytropic

n

,

=

P

2

=

P

1

V

1

V

2

= 100

V

1

0.5 V

1

= 246.23

P V

=

mRT

kPa

T

=

P V

2

2

=

246.23

×

0.53424

 

From ideal gas equation,

 

2

2

 

2

,

2

mR

1.2

×

0.2968

 

T

2

= 369.35

 

K

 

u

2

=

C

V

T

2

P V

=

0.743

P V

×

369.35

246.23

=

274.427

0.53424

 

kJ

100

/

kg

1.0685

 

W

 

=

 

2

2

1

1

=

×

×

= − 82.32

kJ

1

2

 

1

n

 

1

1.3

 

First law of thermodynamics, closed volume, moving boundary, Δ K.E

=

0,

Δ

P.E

=

0

W

1

2

=

W

b

, boundary work,

=

W

i

,

Q

i

=

0,

W

0

=

0

Q

+

W

+

m

×

u

=

Q

 

+

W

+

m

×

u

0

Q

i

i

1

+

W

i

+

m

× =

u

1

o

=

W

i

+

m(u

1

o

o

2

Q

o

0

+ +

m

×

u

2

u

2

)

= −

  • 82.32 ×

+

1.2

( 222.9

 

274.424

= −

144.15

kJ

10. Air enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily at 300 kPa, 200 o C, and 30 m/s and leaves at 100 kPa and 180 m/s. The inlet area of the nozzle is 80 cm 2 . Determine (a) the mass flow rate through the nozzle, (b) the exit temperature of the air, and (c) the exit area of the nozzle.

Solution

84

State 1, from ideal gas equation, P V 1 1 = mRT 1 ρ 1 =

State 1, from ideal gas equation,

P V

1

1

=

mRT

1

ρ

1

=

P

1

300

=

RT

1

0.287

×

473

= 2.209

kg

/

3

m

Mass flow rate,

& =

m

ρ

1

A V

1

1

=

2.209

×

80

×

10

4

×

30

=

0.5304

kg

/

s

From ideal gas properties of air at

T

1

=

473

K

,

h

1

=

475.24

kJ

/

kg

From first law of thermodynamics for steady flow through nozzle,

h

1

+

V

1

2

2

=

h

2

+

2

V

2

2

,

475.25

+

30

2

2

×

1000

=

h

2

+

180

2

2

×

1000

h

2

= 459.5

kJ

/

kg

From ideal gas properties of air at

h

2

=

459.5

kJ

/

k

,

Mass flow rate,

&

m

=

ρ

2

A V

2

2

,

A

2

=

&

m

/

ρ

2

V

2

T

2

= 460.99

ρ

2

=

P

2

100

=

RT

2

0.287

×

460.99

= 0.7558

kg

/

3

m

A

2

=

0.5304 /( 0.7558

×

180)

=

3.898

×

10

3

m

2

=

38.98

2

cm

K

11. Steam at 5 MPa and 500 o C enters a nozzle steadily with a velocity of 80 m/s, and it leaves at 2 MPa and 400 o C. The inlet area of the nozzle is 50 cm 2 , and heat is being lost at a rate of 90 kJ/s. Determine (a) the mass flow rate of the steam, (b) the exit velocity of the steam, and the exit area of the nozzle.

Solution

State 1, from ideal gas equation, P V 1 1 = mRT 1 ρ 1 =

85

State 1, from steam table, superheated at,

P

1

=

5

MPa

,

h

1

=

3433.8

kJ

/

kg

,

v

1

=

0.06857

3

m

/

kg

T

1

=

500

State 2, from steam

table, superheated at,

P

2

=

2

MPa

,

T

2

=

400

h

2

=

3247.6

kJ

/

kg

,

v

2

=

0.1512

m

3

/

kg

Mass flow rate,

& =

m

ρ

1

A V

1

1

=

A V

1

1

50

×

10

4

×

80

=

v

1

0.06857

= 5.8335

kg

/

s

o

C

o

C

First law of thermodynamics for steady flow through nozzle,

h