The first law of thermodynamics is simply the conservation of energy principle and can be defined as, the energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it can only change from one form to other with certain process such as, combustion, chemical and mechanical. The conservation of energy principle may be expressed as follows: the net change (increased or decreased) in the total energy of the system during a process is equal to the difference between the total energy entering and the total energy leaving the system.
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
Total energy
entering the system
⎞
⎛
⎟ ⎟ ⎠ − ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
Total energy
leaving the system
⎛ Change in the total ⎞
energy of the system
The above relation is often referred to as the energy balance. The energy is a property and the value of a property does not change unless the state of the system changes. Also, the first law of thermodynamics is called the law of the conservation of heat and work undergoing a cycle, and then for a change of state of a system. Many measurements were made during a cycle (control mass) for various amounts of work and heat, and the results were compared. The results were always proportional and the observations led to the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics as,
δQ = δW
The symbol, _{∫} δQ , which is called the cyclic integral of the heat transfer, represents the net heat transfer during the cycle, and _{∫} _{δ}_{W} , the cyclic integral of the work, represents the net work during the cycle.
65
We now considered the first law of thermodynamics for a control mass that undergoes a change of state. We begin by introducing of the energy property, which is given by the symbol E. Consider a system that undergoes a cycle, in which it changes from state 1 to state 2 by process A, and returns from state 2 to state 1 by process B as shown in Fig. 4 1. Considering the two separate processes, we have,
1
δQ
A
+
2
δQ
B
=
1
δW
A
+
2
δW
B
Now consider another cycle in which the control mass change from state 1 to state 2 by process C and returns to state 1 by process B, as before. For this cycle we can write,
1
δQ
C
+
2
δQ
B
=
1
δW
c
+
2
δW
B
Subtracting the two equations, we get,
1
δQ
A
−
1
δQ
C
=
or, by rearranging, δQ δW
_{1}
(
−
)
A
=
Since
A
and C represents
arbitrary processes between state 1 and 2, the quantity
_{δ}_{Q} _{−} _{δ}_{W} is
the
same
for
all
processes
between
state
1
and
state 2. Therefore,
_{δ}_{Q} _{−} _{δ}_{W} depends only on the initial and final states and not on the path. We conclude
66
that this is a point function and this property is the energy of the mass and is given by the symbol E. Thus we can write,
δ
Q
−
δ
W
=
dE
δ
Q
=
dE
+
δ
W
or
Because E is a property, its derivative is written dE. The above equation is integrated from an initial state 1 to a final state 2, we have,
Q
12
= E − E + W
2
1
12
The determination of the energy change of a system during a process involves the evaluation of the energy of the system at the beginning and at the end of the process as follows,
Δ
E
=
system
E
−
final
E
initial
=
E
2
−
E
1
The energy can be exist in various forms such as internal (sensible, latent, chemical, and nuclear), kinetic, potential, electric, and magnetic, and their sum is the total energy E of a system. In the absence of electric, magnetic and surface tension effects ( i.e., for simple compressible systems), the change in total energy of a system during a process is the sum of the changes in its internal, kinetic, and potential energies and can be expressed as,
ΔE = ΔU + ΔKE + ΔPE
Most of engineering systems are stationary and no change of its velocity and elevation during process, it means that, _{Δ}_{K}_{E} _{=} _{Δ}_{P}_{E} _{=} _{0} , and the total energy change reduces to _{Δ}_{E} _{=} _{Δ}_{U} . The energy can be transferred to or from the system in three forms: Heat,
67
Work and Mass Flow. For a closed system or fixed mass, the only two forms of energy are the heat and work interaction.
The heat transferred to a system (heat gain) increases the internal energy of the system, and the heat transferred from a system (heat loss) decreases the internal energy of a system.
The energy interaction that is not caused by a temperature difference between a system and surroundings is called work. A rising piston, rotating shaft, and electrical wire crossing the system boundaries are work done.
Noting that the energy can be transferred in the forms of heat and work and the net transfer of a quantity is equal to the difference between the amounts transferred inlet and outlet, and the energy balance can be defined as,
(Q − Q ) − (W − W ) = ΔE
in
out
in
out
system
The first law of thermodynamics for closed system and fixed boundary (rigid tank) as shown in Fig. 42, and the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, _{Δ}_{K}_{E} _{=} _{Δ}_{P}_{E} _{=} _{0} , then the thermodynamics first law relation becomes,
or
Q
i
+
W
i
+
mu
1
=
Q
o
+
W
o
+ mu
2
(
Q − W = m u
2
− u
1
)
68
Fig. 42 Closed system and fixed boundary (stationary).
For no interaction work done and heating process, the first law takes,
Q =
(
m u
2
− u
1
)
For cooling process, the first law takes,
(
− Q = m u
2
− u
1
)
The first law of thermodynamics for closed system and moving boundary as shown in Fig. 43, and the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, _{Δ}_{K}_{E} _{=} _{Δ}_{P}_{E} _{=} _{0} , then the thermodynamics first law relation becomes,
Q
Q
Fig. 43 Closed system and moving boundary (frictionless pistoncylinder).
or
(
Q − W = m h
2
− h
1
)
For no interaction work done and heating process, the first law takes,
(
Q = m h
2
− h
1
)
For cooling process, the first law takes,
69
(
− Q = m h
2
− h
1
)
A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that is being stirred by a paddle wheel as shown in Fig. 44. The tank is not insulated and heat transferred to surrounding, the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, ΔKE = ΔPE = 0 , then the first law becomes,
(
Q − W = m u
2
− u
1
)
Applying the sign role or the directions of heat and work in the system, the first law takes the following form,
−
Q
(
− −
W
)
=
(
m u
2
−
u
1
)
W
−
Q
=
(
m u
2
−
u
1
)
Or applying the sum of energy at inlet that is equal the sum of energy at outlet,
∑ = ∑
E
i
E
o
→
Q
i
+
+
mu
1
=
Q
o
+
W
o
+
mu
2
There is no heat transfer inter the system, Q _{i} =0, and no work done leave the system, W _{o} =0,.
or
Fig. 44 Paddle wheel stirred fluid in closed system
70
A rigid tank contains fluid that is being heat by an electric heater as shown in Fig. 45. The tank is insulated and no heat transferred to surrounding, the kinetic and potential energies are negligible, _{Δ}_{K}_{E} _{=} _{Δ}_{P}_{E} _{=} _{0} , then the thermodynamics first law becomes,
(
Q − W = m u
2
− u
1
)
Applying the sign role or the directions of heat and work in the system, the first law takes the following form,
(
− −
W
e
)
=
(
m u
2
−
u
1
)
W
e
=
(
m u
2
−
u
1
)
IV
Δ =
t
(
m u
2
−
u
1
)
Where, V is the volt, I is the current, and Δt is the heating time.
Fig. 45 Electric heating process
A large number of engineering devices such as turbine, compressor, and nozzles are operating for long period of time under the same conditions, (steadyflow process). During the steadyflow process, no intensive or extensive properties within the control volume change with time. Thus, the volume V, the mass m, and the total energy content E of the control volume remain constant as shown in Fig. 46.
71
Fig. 46 Steadyflow process and control volume
As a result, the boundary work is zero for steady flow system (because the volume is constant in control volume V _{c}_{v} = constant.), and the sum of mass or energy entering the control volume must be equal to the sum of mass or energy leaving the control volume (since m _{c}_{v} = constant and E _{c}_{v} =constant). Then, the rate of the general energy and mass balance for steady flow process as follows,
_{o}_{r}
∑
&
E
in
= ∑
&
E
out
Δ
E
CV
= 0
and,
and
∑
m&
in
= ∑
m&
out
∑ Δ
m
CV
= 0
During the steady flow process, the fluid properties at inlet or exit remain constant. Also, the rate of heat and work interaction between a steady flow system and its surrounding do not change with time. For steady flow process, there are some applications has multiinlet and multiexit as shown in Fig. 47.
Fig. 47 Steady flow process in general
So, the first law of thermodynamics for steady flow process becomes for that case,
2
2
&
&
Q + W + ∑ m ( h + + gz ) = Q + W + ∑ m& ( h + + gz
i
i
&
i
i
2
i
o
o
o
o
o
2
v
i
&
&
v
o
)
72
For single stream flow, one inlet and one exit as shown in Fig. 48, the first low of thermodynamics becomes,
Fig. 48 Steady flow process for one inlet and one exit
For specific quantity, the energy balance on a unit mass basis defined as,
q
−
w
=
(
h
2
−
h
1
)
+
v
2
2
−
v
2
1
2
+ g
(
z
2
− z
1
)
Many engineering devices operate under the same conditions for long periods of time and never change throughout the operating time such as, turbines, compressors, pumps, boilers, heat exchangers, nozzles and diffusers and these devices can be analyzed as steady flow processes.
73
A turbine is a rotary machine which used in thermal power station as shown in Fig. 49, whose purpose is the production of shaft work by expansion the fluid. The work done in the turbine is positive since it done by the fluid on the moving blades to causing rotational velocity of the turbine shaft.
Fig. 49 Adiabatic turbine process
The energy balance ofo this steadyflow system is,
&
Q
−
&
W
=
&
m
[(
h
2
−
h
1
)
+
2 2
2 + g
2
1
v
−
v
(
z
2
− z
1
)]
If the process occurred in the turbine which insulated fro surrounding (adiabatic process,
Q & = 0
) we get,
Power
=
W
&
= −
m
[(
h
2
−
h
1
)
+
v
2
2
−
v
2
1
2
+
g ( z
2
−
z )]
1
kW
For some cases, by neglecting the kinetic and potential energy, we obtain,
Power
=
W
= − &
m( h
2
−
h )
1
kW
The purpose of compressors (gas) or pumps (liquid) is the same, to increase the pressure of a fluid by adding shaft work as shown in Fig. 410.
74
Fig. 410 Compressor and pump process
For gas compressors, by neglecting the kinetic energy at inlet only and potential energy
at inlet and outlet, and some heat transferred to the surrounding, we obtain,
−
&
Q
&
(
− −
W
)
=
&
m
[(
h
2
−
h
1
)
+
1
2
v
2
2
] or
power
=
&
W
in
=
&
Q
out
+
&
m
[(
h
2
−
h
1
)
+
1
2
v
2
2
]
kW
For ideal gas, and the compression is adiabatic process, and neglecting the kinetic energy, we get
power
=
&
W
in
=
& (
m h
2
−
h
1
)
power
=
&
mC
P
ave
(
T
2
−
T
1
)
kW
kW
For pumps, by neglecting the kinetic and potential energy,
power
=
&
W
in
=
(
m h
&
2
−
h
1
)
kW
For pumps, the increasing pressure is usually occurred at constant temperature, and the liquid temperature does not change throughout the process. So, the change only in the pressure and the steady flow energy equation for pumps can be write as,
power
=
&
W
in
=
mv P
2
&
(
−
)
kW
Nozzles and diffusers are usually utilized in jet engine, rockets and air craft. The nozzle is a device that increases the velocity of a fluid. A diffuser is a device that increases the
75
pressure of the fluid. That is, nozzles and diffuser perform opposite tasks as shown in Fig. 411.
Fig. 411 Nozzle and diffuser The energy balance for this steady flow system which no heat transferred, no work and potential energy is zero, we get for nozzle,
0
=
(
h
2
−
h
1
)
+
v
2
2
−
v
2
1
2
h = h −
2
1
v
2
2
2
Q fluid velocity at inlet v
1
≈ 0
For diffuser,
0
=
(
h
2
−
h
1
)
+
v
2
2
−
v
2
1
2
h = h +
2
1
v
2
1
2
Q fluid velocity at outlet v
2
≈ 0
The heat exchangers are usually used for cooling of a hot fluid inside the coil by using cooled fluid outside the coil as Fig. 412. The energy balance of heat exchanger, the steady flow system which no heat transferred to the surrounding, no work done, and
kinetic and potential energies are negligible. The heat rejected from hot fluid, to the heat added to the cooled fluid m& , then we get,
2
m& equal
1
− m&
1
(
h
2
− h
1
)
= m&
2
(
h
4
− h
3
)
76
Fig. 412 Heat exchanger process
A throttling process occurs
when a
fluid flowing in
a line suddenly encounters a
restriction in the flow passage such as, valves and capillary tubes as shown in Fig. 413.
Fig. 413 Throttling process in valves and capillary tubes
For throttling process, the steady flow system which no heat transferred, no work done,
and kinetic and potential energies are negligible, we get,
h
1
= h
2
Usually the throttling process is called constant enthalpy process.
Fig. 414 Mixing chamber process
In engineering applications, mixing two streams of fluid in a certain system are occurred
without heat transferred to surrounding, no work done, and kinetic and potential
77
energies are negligible as shown in Fig. 414. The energy balance of steady flow process as,
m&
1
h
1
+ m&
2
h
2
= m&
3
h
3
and for mass balance
m&
1
+ m&
2
= m&
3
Examples of First Law of Thermodynamics
1. Is it possible to compress an ideal gas isothermally in an adiabatic pistoncylinder device? Explain. Impossible to compress an ideal gas isothermally in an adiabatic pistoncylinder device because during the compression process which to keep the temperature constant, it is necessary to remove heat from the system boundary, heat is interaction
out the system.
2. Consider two identical rooms, one with a refrigerator in it and the refrigerator door is open, and the other without one. If all the doors and windows are closed, will the room that contains the refrigerator be cooler or warmer than the other room? Why? The room which contain refrigerator is becoming warmer than the other, because electric work done for the compressor is added to room, work is interaction into the system.
3. A 2.5 m ^{3} rigid tank contains air at 300 kPa and 150 ^{o} C. The air is now cooled until its temperature drops to 40 ^{o} C. Determine (a) the final pressure in the tank and (b) the amount of heat transfer.
Solution
78
State 1, Process 1 
P V 1 → 
1 = mRT 1 , ∴ m = P V 1 2 is constant volume, V 
1 
/ RT = C 
1 = 
= 300 mRT 1 
× 
2.5 /( 0.287 = mRT 2 , or 
× 423) P 1 = 
= 6.18 T 1 
kg 

P 2 
P 2 
T 2 

T 2 
313 

∴ 
P 2 
= 
P 1 
T 1 
= 
300 
× 
423 
= 221.99 
kPa 
First Law of Thermodynamics for closed volume and fixed boundary,
4.
Δ 
K.E = 0 
ΔP.E 0, = 
W 
= 0 

, Q = Δ = U ( m u 2 − u 1 ) For Ideal  gas, air 

u 
1 
= 
C V T 1 
= 
0.718 × 423 
= 303.714 
kJ 
/ 
kg 

u 
2 
= 
C V T 2 
= 
0.718 × 313 
= 
224.734 
kJ 
/ 
kg 

Q 
= 
m × ( u 
2 
− u 
1 
) 
= 6.18 
× 
( 224.734 
− 
303.714) 
= − 
488.096 
kJ 

A mass of 20 kg of air in a frictionless pistoncylinder device is heated from 27 to 80 ^{o} C by passing current through a resistance heater inside the cylinder. The pressure inside the cylinder is held constant at 400 kPa during the process, and a heat loss of 30 kJ occurs. Determine the electric energy supplied in kWh. 

Solution 



First Law of Thermodynamics for closed system and moving boundary, 

Assume, Δ 
K.E 
= 
0, Δ 
P.E 
= 
0 

Q 
i 
+ 
W i + 
m 
× h 
1 
= Q 0 
+ 
W 
o 
+ 
m 
× h 
2 
, 
W i 
= W 
o 
= 
0 

∴ 
Q 
i 
= Q o 
+ 
m 
× 
( 
h 2 − 
h 
1 
) 

For Ideal gas, air 

h 
1 
= 
C P T 1 
= 
1.005 × 300 
= 301 .5 
kJ / 
kg 

h 
2 
= 
C P T 2 
= 
1.005 
× 353 
= 
354.765 
kJ 
/ 
kg 

Q 
i 
= 
30 + 
20 
× (354.765 
− 301.5) 
= 
1095.3 
kJ 
79
Electric Work,
W
e
=
Q
i
= 1095.3
kW s
.
=
1095.3 = 0.3043
3600
kWh
5. Water is being heated in a closed vessel on top of a range while being stirred by a paddle wheel. During the process, 3000 kJ of heat transferred to the water, and 150 kJ of heat is lost to the surrounding air. The paddlewheel work amounts to 250 N.m, determine the final energy of the system if its initial energy is 200 kJ.
Solution
=
0,
Δ
P.E
=
0
6. A classroom that normally contains 60 peoples which one person at rest may be assumed to dissipate heat at a rate of 432 kJ/h. There are 15 light bulbs in the room, each with a rating of 150 W. The rate of heat transfer to the classroom through the walls and the windows is estimated to be 15000 kJ/h. If the room air is to be maintained at a constant temperature of 22 ^{o} C and the supply fresh air at 35 ^{o} C with volume flow rate of 10 L/s for one person is provided .Determine the number of window air conditioning units required if the unit cooling capacity is about of 8 kW.
Solution
80


First law of Thermodynamics, steady flow and control volume. 

Assume ΔK.E = 0, ΔP.E 
= 0 

Q 
W + 
& 
× h = 
Q 
+ W 
+ 
m h & 
No input or output 
work, 
W 
W 
0 

+ 
m 
= 
= 

i i i i o 
& 
o 
& o 
o 
, 
& 
i 
o 

Steady mass flow rate, m i = m = o Cooling capacity, Q o = ∑ + Q i & m a 
m × ( 
a h 
i − 
h 
o 
) 

Air Denisty, 
ρ a = 
P 
= 
100 
= 1.13 
kg 
/ 
3 

RT 
0.287 
m 

× 
(35 
+ 273) 

& 

& 
V 
= 1.13 
10 
× 
60 × 
10 − 3 
0.678 
kg 
/ 

m 
a 
= 
ρ a × 
× 
= 
s 

∑ 
Q 
i 
= Q 
wall 
+ Q light 
+ 
Q 
= persons 
15000 
+ 
15 
× 
150 1000 
× 
3600 + 
60 
× 
432 

∑ 
Q 
i 
= 49020 
kJ 
/ 
h 

For Ideal gas, air 

h 
1 
= 
C P T 
1 
= 
1.005 × 
308 = 
309.54 
kJ / 
kg 

h 
2 
= 
C P T 2 
= 
1.005 × 
295 
= 
296.475 
kJ 
/ 
kg 

∴ 
Q 
o 
= 49020 
+ 0.678 
× 
(309.54 
− 
296.475) 
× 
3600 
= 80909.052 
kJ 
/ 
h 

∴ Q 
o 
80909.052 = 3600 
= 
22.475 
kJ 
/ 
s 
= 
22.475 
kW 

Number of Units = 
Q o 
= 
22.475 
= 
2.81 
≈ 3 Units 

Unit Capacity 
8 
7. The steam radiator for a heating system has a volume of 20 L and is filled with superheated vapor at 300 kPa and 250 ^{o} C. At this moment both inlet and exit valves to the radiator are closed. Determine the amount of heat that will be transferred to the room when the steam pressure drops to 100 kPa. Also, show the process on a Pv diagram with respect to saturation line.
Solution
81
State 1, from steam table, superheated vapor at,
P
1
=
300
u
1
=
2728 7
.
kJ/kg,
v
1
=
07964
3
m /kg
∴ Steam
mass,
m =
V
20
×
10
3
=
v
1
0.9764
= 0.0251
kg
kPa
,
Cooling process occured at constant volume, V
1
=
V
2
=
C
State
2,
from steam table, at,
=
100
kPa
,
v
1
=
v
2
=
0.7964
v
f
<
v
2
<
v
g
∴
state 2, wet vapor
T
1
=
250
kg
v
2
=
v
f
+
x
2
×
( v
g
−
v
f
)
0.7964
=
0.001043
+
x
2
×
(1.694
−
0.001043)
x
2
= 0.47
u
2
=
u
f
+
x
2
×
( u
g
−
u
f
)
u
2
=
417.36
+
0.47
×
( 2506.1
−
417.36)
=
1399.07
kJ
/
kg
First law of thermodynamics for closed system, fixed boundary,
W =
0
Q
−
W
= Δ =
U
(
m u
2
−
u
1
)
Q
=
m
×
(
u
2
−
u
1
)
=
0.0251
×
(1399.07
−
2728.7 )
= −
33.39
kJ
o
C
8. A wellinsulated rigid tank initially contains 8 kg of a saturated liquidvapor mixture of water at 100 kPa and quality of 18.1 %. An electric resistor placed in the tank is connected to a source of 220 V, and a current of 4 A flows through the resistor when the switch is turned on. Determine how long it will take to vaporized all the liquid in the tank. Also, show the process on a Tv diagram with respect to saturation lines.
Solution
82
9. A pistoncylinder device contains 1.2 kg of N _{2} initially at 100 kPa and 27 ^{o} C. The Nitrogen is now compressed slowly in a polytropic process during which PV ^{1}^{.}^{3} = C until the volume is reduced by onehalf. Determine the work done and the heat transfer for this process.
83
Solution
State 1, P 1 = 100 kPa , T 1 = 300 K From ideal gas equation, P V 1 1 = mRT 1 , ∴ ∴ V 1 = 1.0685 m 3 , for ideal gas of N 2 
100 
× 
V 1 
= 
1.2 × 
0.2968 × 300 

∴ u 1 
= 
C V 
T 
1 = 
0.743 
× 
300 
= 
222.9 
kJ 
/ kg 

State 2, 
V 2 
= 
0.5 
V 
1 
= 
0.5 × 
1.0685 = 
0.53424 
m 
3 

Process 1 
PV 
n = C 1.3 
P V 1 1 
n 
n P V 2 2 

→ 2, Polytropic n 
, 
= 

∴ P 2 = P 1 ⎛ V ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 V 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ = 100 ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ V 1 0.5 V 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ = 246.23 P V = mRT 
kPa ∴ T = 
P V 2 2 
= 
246.23 
× 0.53424 

From ideal gas equation, 
2 2 
2 
, 
2 
mR 
1.2 
× 0.2968 

∴ 
T 2 
= 369.35 
K 

∴ 
u 2 
= 
C V T 2 P V 
= 
0.743 P V 
× 369.35 246.23 
= 274.427 0.53424 
kJ 100 
/ kg 1.0685 

W 
= 
2 
2 − 
1 
1 
= 
× 
− 
× 
= − 82.32 
kJ 

1 
− 2 
1 
− n 
1 
− 
1.3 

First law of thermodynamics, closed volume, moving boundary, Δ K.E 
= 
0, 
Δ 
P.E 
= 
0 

W 
1 − 
2 
= 
W 
b , boundary work, 
= W i , 
Q 
i 
= 
0, 
W 
0 
= 
0 

Q 
+ W 
+ 
m × 
u 
= 
Q 
+ W 
+ m × u 

0 Q 
i i 1 + W i + m × = u 1 o = W i + m(u 1 − 
o o 2 Q o 0 + + m × u 2 u 2 )= −
+ 1.2 ( 222.9 
− 274.424 = − 
144.15 
kJ 
10. Air enters an adiabatic nozzle steadily at 300 kPa, 200 ^{o} C, and 30 m/s and leaves at 100 kPa and 180 m/s. The inlet area of the nozzle is 80 cm ^{2} . Determine (a) the mass flow rate through the nozzle, (b) the exit temperature of the air, and (c) the exit area of the nozzle.
Solution
84
State 1, from ideal gas equation,
P V
1
1
=
mRT
1
ρ
1
=
P
1
300
=
RT
1
0.287
×
473
= 2.209
kg
/
3
m
Mass flow rate,
& =
m
ρ
1
A V
1
1
=
2.209
×
80
×
10
− 4
×
30
=
0.5304
kg
/
s
From ideal gas properties of air at
T
1
=
473
K
,
h
1
=
475.24
kJ
/
kg
From first law of thermodynamics for steady flow through nozzle,
h
1
+
V
1
2
2
=
h
2
+
2
V
2
2
,
∴
475.25
+
30
2
2
×
1000
=
h
2
+
180
2
2
×
1000
h
2
= 459.5
kJ
/
kg
From ideal gas properties of air at
h
2
=
459.5
kJ
/
k
,
Mass flow rate,
&
m
=
ρ
2
A V
2
2
,
∴
A
2
=
&
m
/
ρ
2
V
2
T
2
= 460.99
ρ
2
=
P
2
100
=
RT
2
0.287
×
460.99
= 0.7558
kg
/
3
m
A
2
=
0.5304 /( 0.7558
×
180)
=
3.898
×
10
−
3
m
2
=
38.98
2
cm
K
11. Steam at 5 MPa and 500 ^{o} C enters a nozzle steadily with a velocity of 80 m/s, and it leaves at 2 MPa and 400 ^{o} C. The inlet area of the nozzle is 50 cm ^{2} , and heat is being lost at a rate of 90 kJ/s. Determine (a) the mass flow rate of the steam, (b) the exit velocity of the steam, and the exit area of the nozzle.
Solution
85
State 1, from steam table, superheated at,
P
1
=
5
MPa
,
h
1
=
3433.8
kJ
/
kg
,
v
1
=
0.06857
3
m
/
kg
T
1
=
500
State 2, from steam
table, superheated at,
P
2
=
2
MPa
,
T
2
=
400
h
2
=
3247.6
kJ
/
kg
,
v
2
=
0.1512
m
3
/
kg
Mass flow rate,
& =
m
ρ
1
A V
1
1
=
A V
1
1
50
×
10
− 4
×
80
=
v
1
0.06857
= 5.8335
kg
/
s
o
C
o
C
First law of thermodynamics for steady flow through nozzle,
h