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DISCUSSION For this experiment nine sample of carbohydrate was used to undergo seven carbohydrates test !

ypes of carbohydrates used are fructose" glucose" lactose" galactose" ribose" sucrose" starch and two sample of un#nown" un#nown $ and un#nown two respectively !est conducted are %olisch test" &enedicts's test" &arfoed's test" (as#er and )n#elwit* test" Seliwanoff's test" &ial's test" and Iodine test )ach test has different type of carbohydrates of interest +ence" can help identifying both un#nown %olisch's test was used to identify compound that can be dehydrated to furfural or hydroxymethylfurfural in the presence of +,SO- &ut" %olisch test can determine the presence of carbohydrates regardless of structure . positive result from a %olisch's test can be characteri*ed by the presence of purple ring between the carbohydrate solution and concentrated sulphuric acid !he purple ring is the result of dehydration of carbohydrate to furfural !hat later reacts with /0naphthol 1%olisch's reagent2 !his two steps of reaction can be summari*e as follow" carbohydrates 3 dehydration product 3 purple ring .ll type of carbohydrates used show positive results !he only deference is the time ta#en for the reaction to occur varies %onosaccharide undergoes the reaction faster compared to disaccharide and polysaccharide !hus" fructose and glucose has the fastest reaction time Next test is &enedicts's test &enedicts's test is a test for a simple sugar !he results of the &enedicts's test is considered positive if there is a change in colour from s#y blue 1the colour of &enedict's solution2 to bric# red precipitate after the sample was put in water bath together with &enedict's reagent Starch" un#nown $ and un#nown , exhibit the positive result !he &enedicts's solutions composed of copper sufate" sodium carbonate" and sodium citrate that are mildly basic solution !he Cu,4 ions will be reduced to Cu4 oxide by the aldehyde functional group" thus given out a bric# red precipitate !his reaction only occurs if the sample is a reducing sugar !he example of reaction is as followed5 , CuSO-67+,O 4 C8+$,O8 3 C8+$,O9 4 Cu,O 4 ,+,SO- 4 :+,O &arfoed test is a test to differentiate between reducing disaccharide and reducing monosaccharide by comparing reaction time and sometimes sometime disaccharides do not react at all !he positive result is characteri*ed by colour change from s#y blue to red precipitate Only 7 type of carbohydrates show positive results" which are fructose" glucose" galactose" and un#nown $ and , &arfoed test used copper 1II2 ion in slightly acidic medium !he copper ion is then oxidi*ed by both reducing monosaccharide and disaccharide to form carboxylic acid and red precipitate of Cu4 ions For reducing monosaccharide this whole process only ta#es within , ; < minutes while reducing disaccharide ta#es around $= minutes or does not react at all !his explains why galactose give a positive result while lactose give out negative results even though they fall under the disaccharide umbrella !he example of reaction explain above can simplified by the general e>uation shown" ?0C+O 4 ,Cu, 4 ,+,O 3?0COO+ 4 Cu,O 4 -+4 (as#er and )n#elwit* test is for #etoses Only three type of carbohydrates show positive results which are fructose "ribose and un#nown $ !his because fructose is a #etohexose while ribose is a #etopentose Not only that" fructose ta#e ,= minutes to show results while fructose only ta#es $= minutes to do so !he colour change from blue to light blue with white precipitate

Selliwanoff's test is a test to distinguished between aldoses and #etoses !he reaction time between #etohexose and #etopentose is two minutes and has a pin# colouration @hile" aldopentoses react after , minutes and has a peach colourations +ence" sucrose is aldopentoses because it change from colourless to pin# while fructose is a aldopenthoses because it change colour from colourless to peach Only three carbohydrate type show positive result which are fructose" sucrose and un#nown $ .n example of reaction above is #etose 3 dehydration product 3 pin# product !he same reaction also occurs for aldoses but with peach product Next is &ial's tes &ial's test is used to differentiate between pentoxes and hexosex In this test hydrochloric acid was used as dehydrating acid while orcinol with a trace of iron 1III2 chloride as condensation reagent Fructose" ribose " sucrose and un#nown $ show positive result Aositive result can be characteri*e by the colour change &ut" different colour change denotes whether the carbohydrates is a pentoxes or hexosex !he colour changes are shown below5 Aentose 3 dehydration product 1furfural2 3 blue green condensation product +exose 3 dehydration product 170hydroxylmethylfurfural2 3 muddy brown ; gray condensation product !he last test is the basic and the simplest test for carbohydrate" Iodine test !his test can be used to distinguish starch form other carbohydrates only starch show a positive effect !his is due to the fact that starch composed of /0amylose and amylopectin !he /0 amylose form a complex polysaccharide with the iodine !hus" giving out the blue0blac# colour that characteri*e the positive result of Iodine test Not only that" this reaction only exclusive to starch because simpler oligosaccharide and monosaccharide cannot form the complex with iodine

CONC(USION From the series of test conducted and comparing the result from the #nown sample" un#nown $ is fructose while un#nown , is lactose