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Chapter 7 & 8

Outline of Power Cycles


Heat engines
Steam power plants
1. Carnot cycle
2. Rankine cycle
Turbines/compressors Chap 7
Internal combustion engines
1. Otto engine
2. Diesel engine
3. Gas turbine engines
Regenerative cycle

Heat into work

Most present day methods based on the evolution of heat
and subsequent conversion of part of the heat into useful
work.

Fossil fuel steam power plants (Efficiency: 35%)
Combined cycle plants (Efficiency: 50%) advanced
technology gas turbines

Conversion of chemical energy directly into electrical
energy
Eg.: Electrochemical cell (battery), fuel cell (Efficiency: 50%
and more)






Heat engines

Internal combustion energy
Conversion of chemical energy of fuel directly into internal
energy
Eg: Otto engine, Diesel engine, gas turbines

Power plants
Working fluid such as steam is separated from heat source and
heat is transferred across a physical boundary





Heat Engine Cycle
Heat engines operate in a cyclic manner, adding energy in
the form of heat in one part of the cycle and using that
energy to do useful work in another part of the cycle.
Revision
Specific volumes at constant temperature and states within the
vapor dome in a liquid-vapor system
Boiler part of heat from fuel oil converts water to steam at high T
and P QH

Turbine shaft work by a turbine Ws

Condenser condenses exhaust steam at low T QC

Pump pumps water back to boiler. Ws
Simple steam power plant

Carnot engine
The most efficient heat engine cycle is the Carnot cycle,
consisting of two isothermal processes and two adiabatic processes.
When the second law of thermodynamics sets the limiting value
on the fraction of the heat which can be so used.
Carnot efficiency
H
C
T
T
=1 q
Issues in Carnot cycle
Turbines (Expanders - gas)
The expansion of a gas in a nozzle to
produce a high velocity stream
Converts internal energy into kinetic
energy and finally shaft work
Consists of alternate sets of nozzles
and rotating blade through which
vapour flows in an expansion process

Conversion of a
high pressure stream
into shaft work
Shaft work, Ws
In open systems, AH = Q + Ws

For turbines, Ws = AH = H
2
H
1

If the fluid in turbine expands reversibly and
adiabatically isentropic process
Isentropic: S2 = S1
Ws (isentropic) = (AH)s

Ws (isentropic) is the maximum that can be
obtained


Adiabatic expansion process in turbine
Turbine efficiency
Values of q range from 0.7 0.8
Adiabatic expansion process in turbine
Compressors
Expansion process (turbines): pressure reduction
in a flowing fluid

Compression process (compressor): pressure
increases (by reducing volume)

Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase
the pressure on a fluid and both can transport
the fluid through a pipe
Adiabatic compression
P1
P2
W
Compressor efficiency
A steam turbine with rated capacity of 56400kW operates with steam at
inlet conditions at 8600 kPa and 500
o
C, and discharges into a condenser at
a pressure of 10kPa. Assuming the turbine efficiency at 0.75, determine the
state of the steam at discharge and the mass flow rate of the steam.
1) Determine quality, x2
2) Find (AH)s
M=M
l
+x
v
AM
lv
3) Find H2 actual using efficiency and determine new quality, x2
4) Find S2 actual and actual shaft work, Ws
H=H
l
+x
v
AH
lv
What if the fluid is not steam?
How can the isentropic shaft work be calculated?
Where will you obtain data from?
Lets say the stream going through the turbine is a gas
eg. ethylene you have two options:

1. Ideal gas assumption



) (
1 2
T T C H
H
ig
P
= A
}
= A
2
1
1
2
1
2
ln ln
T
T
ig
P
P
P
R
T
T
C S
For isentropic conditions, AS=0
) ( ) ( ) (
1 2
T T C s H isentropic Ws
H
ig
P
= A =
Alternatively
2. Choose an appropriate generalised equation


( ) ( )
) , , (
1 0
OMEGA PR TR HRB
RT
H
RT
H
RT
H
c
R
c
R
c
R
=
(
(

+ = e
( ) ( )
) , , (
1 0
OMEGA PR TR SRB
R
S
R
S
R
S
R R R
=
(
(

+ = e
R R
H
ig
P
H H T T C H
1 2 1 2
) ( + = A
R R
T
T
ig
P
S S
P
P
R
T
dT
C S
1 2
1
2
2
1
ln + = A
}
R R
H
ig
P
H H T T C s H isentropic Ws
1 2 1 2
) ( ) ( ) ( + = A =
Refer to Example 7.7
Simple steam power plant
Turbine and pump work
Work output of the cycle (Steam turbine), Wturbine and work
input to the cycle (Pump), Wpump are:

W
turbine
= m (h2-h1) (negative value)
W
pump
= m (h4-h3)

where m is the mass flow of the cycle. Heat supplied to the cycle
(boiler), Q
H
and heat rejected from the cycle (condenser), Q
C

are:

Q
H
= m (h4-h1)
Q
C
= m (h3-h2) (negative value)

The net work of the cycle is:
W = W
turbine +
W
pump


Rankine Cycle
Practical power cycle - Rankine
Rankine Cycle
Carnot Cycle
Rankine Cycle
1. Saturated or superheated steam enters the turbine at
state 1, where it expands isentropically to the exit
pressure
2. The steam is then condensed at constant pressure and
temperature to a saturated liquid.
3. The heat removed from the steam in the condenser is
typically transferred to the cooling water. The saturated
liquid then flows through the pump
4. The pump increases the pressure to the boiler pressure
where the water is heated to the saturation temperature,
boiled and typically superheated to state 1.
Isentropic conditions
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion (Steam turbine)
2 to 3: Isobaric heat rejection (Condenser)
3 to 4: Isentropic compression (Pump)
4 to 1: Isobaric heat supply (Boiler)

Rankine efficiency
The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is not
as high as Carnot cycle but the cycle has
less practical difficulties
Internal Combustion Engines
Does not require heat transfer areas such as in
steam power plant

Internal combustion engines burn fuel within the
engine

Does not happen in cyclic process for the working
medium such as steam in power plants, therefore
the cyclic process is imagined with air as the
working fluid

First presented in qualitative description than
quantitative using air as an ideal gas
The Otto Engine
Stage 1: Beginning of the intake stroke of the engine. The pressure is near atmospheric
pressure and the gas volume is at a minimum. The pressure remains constant, and the gas
volume increases as fuel/air mixture is drawn into the cylinder through the intake valve.
Stage 2: Compression stroke of the engine with the closing of the intake valve. Between
Stage 2 and Stage 3, the piston moves back into the cylinder, the gas volume decreases, and
the pressure increases because work is done on the gas by the piston.
Stage 3: Combustion of the fuel/air mixture. The combustion occurs very quickly and the
volume remains constant. Heat is released during combustion which increases both the
temperature and the pressure, according to the equation of state.
Internal Combustion Engines
- The Otto Engine
Stage 4: Power stroke of the engine. Between Stage 4 and Stage 5, the piston is driven
towards the crankshaft, the volume in increased, and the pressure falls as work is done by
the gas on the piston.
Stage 5: Exhaust valve is opened and the residual heat in the gas is exchanged with the
surroundings. The volume remains constant and the pressure adjusts back to atmospheric
conditions.
Stage 6: Exhaust stroke of the engine during which the piston moves back into the cylinder,
the volume decreases and the pressure remains constant. At the end of the exhaust stroke,
conditions have returned to Stage 1 and the process repeats itself.
Internal Combustion Engines
- The Otto Engine
Idealised Air Standard Cycle

Heat is transferred at
constant volume during 1-2.
The gas expands
reversibly and adiabatically
during 2-3, where work is
done.
Heat is rejected at
constant volume at low
temperature during 3-4.
The gas is compressed
reversibly and adiabatically
in 4-1.
The thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle with a perfect gas as
working fluid is:

It can be shown that:

where,
r = V1/V2= Compression ratio
= constant depending on specific heat capacity

The Otto Engine efficiency
Ideal Otto cycle thermal efficiency
Diesel engine

Diesel Cycle
1 to 2: Isentropic compression
2 to 3: Reversible constant pressure heating
3 to 4: Isentropic expansion
4 to 1: Reversible constant volume cooling

Heat is supplied reversibly at constant
pressure in 1-2.
Reversible adiabatic expansion during
which work is done in 2-3.
Heat is rejected reversibly at constant
volume in 3-4.
Gas is compressed reversibly and
adiabatically in 4-1.
Diesel Cycle
- Advantages of internal combustion and those of the
steam turbine are combined in the gas-turbine engine.
- Driven by high temperature gases from combustion chamber,
compressed to several bars
Gas Turbine Engine
P
A
P
B
Ideal cycle:
Brayton cycle
Working fluid is air as
ideal gas
Idealisation of gas turbine is known as the Brayton cycle
Comparison of efficiency
= 1.4 for ideal cycle conditions
Both k and may be used. However they represent the same constant
Example 8.1 from textbook
Turbine as done previously
For condenser and boiler,
Thermal efficiency
When turbine efficiency = 0.75,
If rating of power cycle = 80000kW,
what is the steam rate, QB and QC
Regenerative cycle
The incremental steps of heat transfer to the feedwater
increases the cycle efficiency over having all of the heat
transfer taking place within the boiler. The steam from the
turbine releases its heat to the feedwater, reducing the amount
of heat rejected in the condenser.



After emerging from
the condenser as a
subcooled liquid the
working fluid is heated
by steam tapped from
the hot portion of the
cycle. On the diagram
shown, the fluid at 2 is
mixed with the fluid at
4 (both at the same
pressure) to end up
with the saturated
liquid at 7.
Tutorial Questions
Attempt the following from textbook (7
th

Edition):

Chapter 7: 10, 18, 23

Chapter 8: 1, 4, 6, 7