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Industrial Automation Solutions

Programmable Logic Control (PLC)

TIs PLC system solutions speed the design cycle with the right devices, software, tools and support.

tackle more complex operations and the Distributed Control System (DCS) which is used extensively in process control. The DCS uses distributed controllers, each performing a specic task, connected together by networks for communication and monitoring. A central control room is typically used for an entire plant.

actuators. Together, the input and output modules along with the central controller form a control loop.

I/O Module Types

I/O modules can be classied as analog input (AI), analog output (AO), digital input (DI) and digital output (DO). They are usually categorized into 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-channel modules. I/O modules need to meet stringent electrical specications such as the IEC 61000-4 family of Electro Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) tests for surge, ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) and EFT (Electrically Fast Transients). They also need short-circuit and overload protection. All these modules include isolation between the control side and the eld side via DC-DC converters and isolation on digital communication between the eld devices and the digital backplane. Communication over the digital backplane is done by a variety of interfaces (RS-485, CAN, Ethernet, etc.) and industrial eldbuses (PROFIBUS, DeviceNet, CANopen, Modbus, EtherCAT, Ethernet I/P, PROFINET, SERCOS, POWERLINK, etc.). On the following pages we discuss solutions from TI for these various I/O types.
Prop. digital bus

The PLC System Overview

The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is the workhorse of Industrial Control systems. It uses digital and analog I/O modules to interface to sensors, actuators and other equipment. These I/O modules must meet stringent electrical specications and designers face challenges in conditioning and converting these signals. In addition, increasing levels of embedded processing and connectivity can be seen on these modules. Variations of the PLC include the Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) which has more integration and processing functions to PLCs can be segmented by I/O count and scan rates. They can also be classied as brick type versus modular PLCs. A small or brick PLC has a xed number of connections for inputs and outputs. Modular PLCs have a chassis (also called a rack) into which are placed modules with different functions. The processor and selection of I/O modules is customized to t the application. A modular PLC consists of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), a power supply and various I/O modules. The CPU performs the main controller functions like scanning data and running control sequences. The power supply unit converts line power to 24 volts. The I/O modules are used to measure data from sensors and to control various

24-Volt power bus

Power Supply Module


MultiChannel Analog In

MultiChannel Analog Out

MultiChannel Digital In

Comm. Module (Fieldbus, Ethernet)

I/O Modules Includes backup power 4 to 64 channels is typical Can be integrated with CPU

220/110 Volt

2H 2012

PLC: Analog Inputs

Analog input modules capture and measure signals such as temperature, pressure, ow, level, vibration and motion. These parameters are transmitted from equipment such as sensors and other eld devices on the factory oor in the form of current or voltage. Current loops typically range from 420 mA while voltage inputs can be single ended or differential ranging from 05V, 010V, 5V and 10V. The system accuracy is determined by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) resolution with thermocouple applications needing up to 24 bits. Delta sigma ADCs are a good choice with some products having a built-in PGA and MUX. Some products also offer ratio-metric measurement with built-in current sources for RTD excitation and voltage biases for ungrounded thermocouples. Slow changing variables like temperature, pressure, level and ow need lower sampling rates (up to 2 kSPS) while other applications and systems with higher channel counts need larger sampling speeds (several 100 kSPS). SAR ADCs are a good choice for these applications. Simultaneous sampling architectures are used for modules used in condition monitoring, motion control and power automation. Signal conditioning considerations include high-input impedance when interfacing to sensors with low-source impedance which is achieved with input buffers and instrumentation ampliers (INA). Other considerations are large commonmode voltage range and common-mode rejection of interference from motors, AC power lines and other sources which inject noise on the analog inputs. Since the inputs could be signals from thermocouples and other low-level sensors, low offset voltages as well as minimal drift of the offset voltage over temperature is needed to maintain accuracy. Precision bipolar op amps are
Electrical Isolation Field Side Control Backplane 24 V Communication Fieldbus IN

used extensively. Differential amps can be used when the common mode range is greater than the power supply rails. Finally, Programmable Gain Ampliers (PGA) can be used when the input voltage range can vary over multiple sensor types.

TI signal chain solutions for analog inputs

ADS1248 (temperature measurement and universal inputs) 4 differential or 7 single-ended inputs, 24bit, single-cycle settling Low-noise PGA, temperature sensor, burnout detection 50-/60-Hz simultaneous rejection, up to 2kSPS Dual matched current sources for RTD excitation PGA280 + ADS1259 Zero drift high-voltage PGA + low-noise, 24-bit, 14-kSPS ADC Input signals from 10s of mV to 15V Allows input signal diagnostics OPA2188 36-V zero-drift, rail-to-rail precision op amp 36-V, low power, OPA211 1.1-nV/Hz precision op amp OPA320 20-MHz, 0.9-pA, Ib precision op amp ADS8319 16-bit, 500-ksps precision SAR ADC LMP7721 Ultra-low-bias current 3fA op amp LMP90100 24-bit ADC + chopper stabilized PGA 1:128 40V precision op amp LMP8671/2 2.5-nV/Hz

Power Management: Exists on All Modules

DC/DC Converter

Isolated Power

DC/DC Converter

Isolated Power

Group Isolated Analog Input Module


Buffer Protection AMP VREF

Temp Flow

Protection AMP


Optical Pressure Level

Digital Isolation Digital Isolation





PLC: Digital I/O

Design Considerations
Digital input modules capture and measure digital input signals from a wide variety of sensors like
Electrical Isolation Field Side Control Backplane Communication Fieldbus IN

proximity switches, limit switches and push button switches. Inputs typically are 024V with tolerances up to 30V. The signals from DC sensors used in PLC digital input (DI) modules are typically

24 V

DC/DC Converter

Isolated Power

DC/DC Converter

of a higher voltage and are usually isolated through optocouplers before going into a shift register to be serialized. Instead, digital input serializers can be used to serialize a large number of digital inputs allowing higher channel densities in PLC I/O modules. The isolation is then limited to the SPI interface as a number of serializers can be daisy chained. They also provide the benet of sensing higher voltages, adjustable current limits and programmable de-bounce times. Other functions that are integrated into these products are temperature sensing and voltage regulation.


Field Inputs From Sensors


Digital Input Serializer

0 24 V 24V Protection

Digital Isolation



TI solutions for Digital I/O

SN65HVS880 18V 30V industrial 8-channel digital input serializer



Processor Interface RF/IF Amplifier

24 V

Communication Fieldbus OUT

Logic Power ADC/DAC Clocks Other

SN65HVS881 10V 34V industrial 8-channel digital input serializer with parity

PLC: Analog Outputs

Design Considerations
Analog output modules are used to drive and control actuators and other machines to form part of an overall control system. Current-loop outputs typically range from 420 mA while voltage outputs range from 05V, 010V, 5V and 10V. The linearity, settling time, response and accuracy is determined by the DAC used. Resistor string-based DACs are small, inexpensive and inherently monotonic. For higher resolution and for applications requiring higher linearity like openloop valve control, R-2R DACs are a good choice. Finally, for achieving the fastest settling times and
Electrical Isolation Communication Fieldbus IN Control Backplane 24 V Field Side

TI signal chain solutions

speeds, R-2R multiplying DACs should be used. Selecting the right reference and pairing it with the right buffer can impact system performance. Considerations for references include initial temperature drift and source/sink current capability. The output must be picked based on speed, output voltage level and power. TIs XTR industrial drivers are excellent for implementing 420 mA current loops. Some products allow the designer to make the output programmable to be either a voltage or current. Newer products integrate the DAC and XTR to minimize board space and optimize power. DAC8718 family 16-/14-/12-bit family of 8-channel bipolar 16.5V DACs Wide voltage range of 16.5V with up to 6 gain eliminates need for external gain circuitry 10-s settling time, 4 nV-s glitch energy 12- and 14-bit serial and parallel options provide exible upgrade / downgrade path DAC8562 family 16-/14-/12-bit family of dual-channel, low-power and low-voltage DACs Integrated precision reference (4 ppm/C drift), ultra-small package (33 mm) Wide temperature range (-40C to 125C) XTR300 Industrial analog current/voltage output driver User-selectable: voltage or current output Design exibility Separate driver and receiver channels Digital output selection, error ags, and monitor pins OPA140 11-MHz, precision, low-noise, RRO, JFET op amp REF5020 + OPA365 precision voltage reference + high-speed, single-supply railto-rail op amp DAC161S055 16-bit rail-to-rail output DAC with external voltage reference DRV110 current driver for solenoid loads

DC/DC Converter

Isolated Power

DC/DC Converter

Power Management: Exists on All Modules

Isolated Power

Group Isolated Analog Output Module

ffer Buffer VREF AMP Protection

To Field Acutators I/V Driver 420 mA



Digital Isolation

AMP Protection

Voltage Driver 05 V, 010 V, 5 V, 10 V

Digital Isolation

HART AMP Protection Current Driver 420 mA 05 V, 010 V, 5 V, 10 V

PLC: Connectivity
There are a number of eldbus options both serial (RS-485, DeviceNet, PROFIBUS, CAN, etc.) and Ethernet based. Extended cable reach and diagnostics to debug wire breaks provides system designers signicant value. Integrated
Enterprise Level
PC Network

TI interface products for PLC

digital isolation on the interface transceivers is highly desirable to reduce board space. In addition, the interface between the DAC and the controller can be digitally isolated either by using optocouplers or TI isolators built with capacitive technology.
Automation Server

ISO1176/76T (isolated RS-485 PROFIBUS transceiver): Reduced components and board space; Life span > 25 years @ 125C; Hot pluggable without data corruption TLK105/TLK106/TLK110 (10/100 industrial Ethernet PHY): Low and deterministic latency for real time; Extended cable reach (up to 150 m); Cable diagnostics (TLK106/TLK110); 32-pin QFN packages (TLK105/TLK106) ISO1050 (isolated CAN transceiver): Integrated CAN and isolation for easy system integration; Reduced loop time improves timing margin; Lower power than optocouplers ISO7420E/20FE (low-power dual-channel, digital isolator): Signaling rate above 50 Mbps; Low propagation delay: 7 ns; Low power consumption: 2.5 mA per ch @ 25 Mbps SN65HVD255/6/7 (Turbo CAN transceiver): Fast loop times with up to 2-Mbps data rate; Next generation for HVD251 and HVD1050; Special features: I/O level shifting (HVD256); bus redundancy (HVD257)

PLC/PAC Comm Module Comm Module



Industrial Ethernet, RS-485, CAN, Other Fieldbuses


Actuator PLC Comm Module Sensor

420 mA HART, Comm IO-Link, Module RS-485

Comm Module CNC, Machine Vision, Others Drives

IEEE 802.11 RTU Gateway PLC

Data Acquistion PLC

Device (Field) Level

Actuator Sensors & Actuators Digital/Analog

IEEE 802.15.4


Sensor Wireless Sensors


Field Network

Intelligent Sensors & Actuators

Controller Ofce Network Network

Control Level

PLC: Processor
To support the processor, development platforms and software tools in addition to support which quickens time to market are highly desired. Connectivity options ranging from Ethernet ports to UARTs to simple SPI ports are required. Ethernet enables integration of eld devices to the corporate enterprise network. Most industrial Description Sitara ARM Cortex-A8 processors with integrated industrial communications support TMS570 ARM Cortex-R4F-based microcontroller for safety-critical applications up to 160 MHz and 2-MB Flash RM4x ARM Cortex-R4-based microcontroller for safety-critical applications up to 220 MHz and 3-MB Flash Device Series AM335x AM3517 control applications need simple, low-cost PLCs with lots of digital I/O and integrated functions. These include fault diagnostics, watchdog timers, low power, multiple SPI ports, UARTs, integrated analog peripherals like ADCs and PWM outputs which perform similar functions to DACs. MCUs (Micro Controller Units) are a good choice for these applications. For applications which push Key Benefits Integrated industrial communications support including: EtherCAT, PROFIBUS, Ethernet/IP, PROFINET, POWERLINK, SERCOS-III, CANOpen, and more, with scalable performance Support for safety-critical applications up to IEC 61508 SIL-3 Three integrated CAN controllers Powerful Cortex-R4F oating-point CPU Up to 2 MB of integrated Flash memory Support for safety-critical applications up to IEC 61508 SIL-3 Three integrated CAN controllers Powerful Cortex-R4 CPU From 384 KB up to 3 MB of integrated Flash memory capabilities and need higher loop rates along with advanced control algorithms to handle multiple functional domains like logic, PID control and motion, higher-performance MPUs (Micro Processing Units) are needed. TI provides solutions to address all these needs.

TI processors for PLC

Sitara AM335x ARM Cortex-A8 Processor Multiple industrial communication standards integrated with application processor Two development tool options: $99 USD Industrial Communications Engine (ICE); $895 USD Industrial Development Kit (IDK) Robust software options including: SYS/BIOS real-time kernel and application stacks for industrial communication standards Includes parts listed to the left


RM42x RM46x RM48x

MSP430 16-bit ultra-lowMSP430F2xxx / F4xxx 10 24-bit ADC / op amps / DACs power microcontroller family. Up MSP430F5xxx / F6xxx Fast / ULP FRAM non-volatile memory to 25 MHz, 0.5-kB 512-kB NVM MSP430FR57xx Low-cost, easy-to-use tools Stellaris ARM Cortex-M4Fbased MCUs up to 80 MHz and 256-kB Flash C2000 32-bit real-time MCUs up to 300 MHz, including dualcore C28x + ARM Cortex-M3 devices with up to 1.5 MB of Flash LM4Fx Up to 120 GPIOs that can drive over 600 mA Up to 8 UARTs, 4 SPI, and 6 I2C Two integrated CAN controllers and USB OTG

Delno oating- IEC61131-3 programming with CoDeSys point series Integrated real-time control peripherals coupled Concerto oating- with integrated communications interfaces point C28x + ARM Support for Power Line Communications Cortex-M3 standards

PLC: Power
To protect against transients and ground loops, the eld side which interfaces to sensors is electrically isolated from the control side. This is done on a per channel basis or by isolating groups of channels from each other and from the control side. The design can be customized for performance and cost by using a DC-DC converter and discrete components or pre-built isolated DC-DC converter modules can be used. Other considerations include high efciency and integration along with smaller packages. Picking a DC-DC converter with a large input range will protect against supply transients. Finally, using LDOs with good PSRR (power supply rejection ratio) to supply the precision analog circuitry will reduce the power supply ripple and preserve system accuracy and resolution.

TI power management for PLC

Description 3.5-V to 60-V input, 0.5/1.5/2.5/3.5-A, DC-DC converters 50-mA / 200-mA 4.7-V to 60-V synchronous step-down converters 150-mA, LDO reg., ultra-lowpower, IQ 500-nA with pin-selectable, dual-level output voltage 2-W, 3.3/5-Vin isolated DC/DC converter 36-V, 150-mA high voltage, ultra-low-noise LDOs Device Series TPS54060A/ 160A/260/ 360 TPS54062/1 TPS78001 Key Benefits 12-/24/48-V support plus transients Small size and low IQ Refer to PMP5863 Very small size; very low IQ High efciency, synchronous solution Low IQ: 500nA 150-mA, Low-dropout regulator with pin-selectable dual-voltage level output No optocoupler required Primary side feedback allows input/output voltage combinations with the same transformer Stable with 2.2-F ceramic capacitor Low noise with 15.4 Vrms and 72-dB PSRR Reduces noise from switchers generating Vout Optimized to supply TIs C2000 MCU series: F2833x (Delno), F2823x, F281x, and F280x/F2801x Wide supply voltage range: 1.8 V to 18 V Adjustable threshold: Down to 400 mV Open-drain outputs for over- and under-voltage detection Input voltage range: +3 V to +36 V Output voltage noise: 4.17 VRMS (10 Hz to 100 kHz) Power supply ripple rejection: 82 dB (100 Hz), 55 dB (10 Hz to 10 MHz) Input voltage range: 3 V to 36 V Output voltage noise: 16 VRMS (10 Hz to 100 kHz) Power-supply ripple rejection: 72 dB (10 kHz)


TPS7A4901/ TPS7A30xx

Dual, 500-mA low-dropout regula- TPS75005 tors and triple voltage rail monitor Window comparator for over and under voltage detection TPS3700

+3-V to +36-V input, 1-A low noise (4 VRMS), high PRSS, low drop-out linear regulator 3-V to 36-V input, 1-A low noise, high PRSS, low drop-out linear regulator High-power/high-efciency Power-over-Ethernet PD solution



TPS2378/9 Integrates PoE interface and DC-DC controller TPS23751/2/4 25-W operation, high efciency Robust process to withstand surges and over-currents TPS84259 Small 9112.8-mm QFN package Meets Class B radiated emissions Frequency synchronization Small 9112.8-mm QFN package Meets Class B radiated emissions Frequency synchronization Small solution footprint (80 mm2) High efciency across entire load range Fast AC line and load transient response Ideal for powering Stellaris processors High efciency across entire load range Small total solution footprint (<60 mm2) Wide 9-V to 100-V input range Integrated 100-V, high- and low-side switches Constant on-time control Small MSOP10 or SON10 (33-mm) packages Choose MOSFET to optimize performance Refer to PMP4626 Provides circuit protection and current limit Supports any switching or linear regulator with an available feedback node Simple design with adjustable gain and bandwidth

4.5 to 40-V input, 15-W negative output voltage power module 7-V to 50-V input, 2.5-A stepdown power module 17-V supply, 1-A step-down converter, DCS-Control topology, pin-selectable frequency, adj. soft-start, power good 28-V supply, 0.5-A step-down converter with SNOOZE mode, DCS-Control topology, power good 100-V, 600-mA synchronous stepdown regulator with integrated high-side and low-side MOSFETs 4.5-V52-V PWM controller for isolated yback, boost or SEPIC Precision current limiter







Visit for Industrial Automation solutions from TI

TI offers best-in-class analog and embedded processing semiconductor solutions including precision ampliers, data converters, interface, isolation, clocking and power management products, as well as ARM-based processors and microcontrollers that cater to the broad range of industrial applications. These solutions are complemented by TIs software, design tools, reference designs and support, which simplify and accelerate design cycles. As the worlds largest industrial semiconductor manufacturer, TIs system-optimized hardware and software allow customers to easily scale between product lines to maximize investment, accelerate time to market and enable differentiated products across various industrial markets.

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