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Defining Size and Location of Capacitor in Electrical System (1)

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De fining Siz e and Lo c atio n o f Cap ac ito r in Ele c tric al Sys te m (1)

Content
Type of Capacitor Bank as per Its Application: Type of Capacitor as per Construction Selecting Size of Capacitor Bank Selection of Capacitor as per Non Liner Load Configuration of Capacitor: Effect of series and Parallel Connection of capacitor: 1. Parallel Connection 2. Series Connection

Type of Capacitor Bank as per Its Application


1. Fixed t ype capacit or banks

T he reactive power supplied by the f ixed capacitor bank is constant irrespective of any variations in the power f actor and the load of the receivers. T hese capacitor banks are switched on either manually (circuit breaker / switch) or semi automatically by a remote-controlled contactor. T his arrangement uses one or more capacitor to provide a constant level of compensation . T hese capacitors are applied at the terminals of inductive loads (mainly motors), at bus bars.

Disadvant ages:
Manual ON/OFF operation. Not meet the require kvar under varying loads. Penalty by electricity authority. Power f actor also varies as a f unction of the load requirements so it is dif f icult to maintain a consistent power f actor by use of Fixed Compensation i.e. fixed capacitors. Fixed Capacitor may provide leading power f actor under light load conditions, Due to this result in overvoltages, saturation of transf ormers, mal-operation of diesel generating sets, penalties by electric supply authorities.

Applicat ion:
Where the load f actor is reasonably constant. Electrical installations with constant load operating 24 hours a day Reactive compensation of transf ormers. Individual compensation of motors. Where the kvar rating of the capacitors is less than, or equal to 15% of the supply transf ormer rating, a f ixed value of compensation is appropriate. Size of Fixed Capacitor bank Qc 15% kVA transformer Go to Content

2. Aut omat ic t ype capacit or banks


T he reactive power supplied by the capacitor bank can be adjusted according to variations in the power f actor and the load of the receivers. T hese capacitor banks are made up of a combination of capacitor steps (step = capacitor + contactor) connected in parallel. Switching on and of f of all or part of the capacitor bank is controlled by an integrated power factor controller. T he equipment is applied at points in an installation where the active-power or reactive power variations are relatively large, f or example: At the bus bars of a main distribution switch-board, At the terminals of a heavily-loaded f eeder cable. Where the kvar rating of the capacitors is less than, or equal to 15% of the supply transf ormer rating, a fixed value of compensation is appropriate.

Above the 15% level, it is advisable to install an automatically-controlled bank of capacitors. Control is usually provided by contactors. For compensation of highly f luctuating loads, f ast and highly repetitive connection of capacitors is necessary, and static switches must be used . Go to Content

Types of APFC Aut omat ic Power Fact or Correct ion


Automatic Power Factor correction equipment is divided into three major categories: 1. Standard = Capacitor + Fuse + Contactor + Controller 2. De tuned = Capacitor + De tuning Reactor + Fuse + Contactor + Controller 3. Filtered = Capacitor + Filter Reactor + Fuse + Contactor + Controller.

Advant ages:
Consistently high power f actor under f luctuating loads. Prevention of leading power f actor. Eliminate power f actor penalty. Lower energy consumption by reducing losses. Continuously sense and monitor load. Automatically switch on/of f relevant capacitors steps f or consistent power f actor. Ensures easy user interf ace. Automatically variation, without manual intervention, the compensation to suit the load requirements.

Applicat ion:
Variable load electrical installations. Compensation of main LV distribution boards or major outgoing lines. Above the 15% level, it is advisable to install an automatically-controlled bank of capacitors. Size of Automatic Capacitor bank Qc > 15% kVA transformer. Method Individual capacitors Fixed bank Automatic bank Combination Go to Content Advantages Most technically ef f icient, most f lexible Most economical, f ewer installations Best f or variable loads, prevents over voltages, low installation cost Most practical f or larger numbers of motors Disadvantages Higher installation & maintenance cost Less f lexible, requires switches and/or circuit breakers Higher equipment cost Least f lexible

Type of Capacitor as per Construction


1. St andard dut y Capacit or
Construction: Rectangular and Cylindrical (Resin filled / Resin coated-Dry) Application : 1. Steady inductive load. 2. Non linear up to 10%. 3. For Agriculture duty.

2. Heavy-dut y
Construction: Rectangular and Cylindrical (Resin filled / Resin coated-Dry/oil/gas) Application: 1. Suitable f or f luctuating load. 2. Non linear up to 20%. 3. Suitable f or APFC Panel. 4. Harmonic f iltering

3. LT Capacit or
Application: Suitable f or f luctuating load. Non linear up to 20%. Suitable f or APFC Panel & Harmonic f ilter application. Go to Content

Selecting Size of Capacitor Bank


T he size of the inductive load is large enough to select the minimum size of capacitors that is practical. For HT capacitors the minimum ratings that are practical are as follows: System Voltage 3.3 KV , 6.6KV 11 KV 22 KV 33 KV Minimum rating of capacitor bank 75 Kvar 200 Kvar 400 Kvar 600 Kvar

Unit sizes lower than above is not practical and economical to manuf acture. When capacitors are connected directly across motors it must be ensured that the rated current of the capacitor bank should not exceed 90% of the no-load current of the motor to avoid self -excitation of the motor and also over compensation. Precaution must be taken to ensure the live parts of the equipment to be compensated should not be handled f or 10 minutes (in case of HT equipment) af ter disconnection of supply. Crane motors or like, where the motors can be rotated by mechanical load and motors with electrical braking systems, should never be compensated by capacitors directly across motor terminals. For direct compensation across transformers the capacitor rating should not exceed 90 % of the noload KVA of the motor. Go to Content

Selection of Capacitor as per Non Liner Load


For power Factor correction it is need to f irst decide which type of capacitor is used. Selection of Capacitor is depending upon many f actor i.e. operating lif e, Number of Operation, Peak Inrush current withstand capacity. For selection of Capacitor we have to calculate Total Non-Liner Load like: UPS, Rectif ier, Arc/Induction Furnace, AC/DC Drives, Computer, CFL Blubs, and CNC Machines. Calculation of Non liner Load, Example: Transf ormer Rating 1MVA,Non Liner Load 100KVA % of non Liner Load = (Non Liner Load/Transf ormer Capacity) x100 = (100/1000) x100=10%. According to Non Linear Load Select Capacitor as per Following Table. % Non Liner Load <=10% Up to 15% Up to 20% Up to 25% Above 30% Go to Content Type of Capacitor Standard Duty Heavy Duty Super Heavy Duty Capacitor +Reactor (Detuned)

Conf iguration of Capacitor


Power factor correction capacitor banks can be configured in the following ways: 1. Delta connected Bank. 2. Star-Solidly Grounded Bank. 3. Star-Ungrounded Bank.

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1. St ar-Solidly Grounded
Initial cost of the bank may be lower since the neutral does not have to be insulated f rom ground. Capacitor switch recovery voltages are reduced High inrush currents may occur in the station ground system. T he grounded-Star arrangement provides a low-impedance f ault path which may require revision to the existing system ground protection scheme. Typically not applied to ungrounded systems. When applied to resistance-grounded systems, dif f iculty in coordination between capacitor f uses and upstream ground protection relays (consider coordination of 40 A fuses with a 400 A grounded system ). Application: Typical f or smaller installations (since auxiliary equipment is not required) Go to Content

2. St ar-Ungrounded
Industrial and commercial capacitor banks are normally connected ungrounded Star, with paralleled units to make up the total kvar. It is recommended that a minimum of 4 paralleled units to be applied to limit the over voltage on the remaining units when one is removed f rom the circuit. If only one unit is needed to make the total kvar, the units in the other phases will not be overloaded if it fails. In industrial or commercial power systems the capacitors are not grounded f or a variety of reasons. Industrial systems are of ten resistance grounded . A grounded Star connection on the capacitor bank would provide a path for zero sequence currents and the possibility of a f alse operation of ground fault relays. Also, the protective relay scheme would be sensitive to system line-to-ground voltage Unbalance, which could also result in f alse relay tripping. Application: In Industrial and Commercial. Go to Content

3. Delt a-connect ed Banks


Delta-connected banks are generally used only at distributions voltages and are conf igured with a Single series group of capacitors rated at line-to-line voltage. With only one series group of units no overvoltage occurs across the remaining capacitor units f rom the isolation of a f aulted capacitor unit. T heref ore, unbalance detection is not required f or protection and they are not treated f urther in this paper. Application: In Distribution System. Go to Content

Ef f ect of series and Parallel Connection of capacitor


Parallel Connect ion
This is the most popular method of connection. T he capacitor is connected in parallel to the unit. T he voltage rating of the capacitor is usually the same as or a little higher than the system voltage. Go to Content

Series Connect ion


T his method of connection is not much common . Even though the voltage regulation is much high in this method, It has many disadvantages. One is that because of the series connection, in a short circuit condition the capacitor should be able to withstand the high current. T he other is that due to the series connection due to the inductivity of the line there can be a resonance occurring at a certain capacitive value. T his will lead to very low impedance and may cause very high currents to f low through the lines. Go to Content

Defining Size and Location of Capacitor in Electrical System (2)


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De fining Siz e and Lo c atio n o f Cap ac ito r in Ele c tric al Sys te m (2)

Continued from part 1: Defining Size and Location of Capacitor in Electrical System (2)

Content
1. If no-load current is known 2. If the no load current is not known Placement of power capacitor bank for motor: Placement of capacitors in distribution system: Common capacitor reactive power ratings

Size of CB, Fuse and Conductor of Capacitor Bank


A. Thermal and Magnet ic set t ing of a Circuit breaker 1. Size of Circuit Breaker

1.3 to 1.5 x Capacitor Current (In) f or Standard Duty/Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors 1.31In f or Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors with 5.6% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 4.3) 1.19In f or Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors with 7% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 3.8) 1.12In f or Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors with 14% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 2.7) Note: Restrictions in T hermal settings of system with Detuned reactors are due to limitation of IMP (Maximum Permissible current) of the Detuned reactor.

2. Thermal Set t ing of Circuit Breaker


1.5x Capacitor Current (In) f or Standard Duty/Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors

3. Magnet ic Set t ing of Circuit Breaker


5 to 10 x Capacitor Current (In) f or Standard Duty/Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors Example: 150kvar,400v, 50Hz Capacitor Us = 400V, Qs = 150kvar, Un = 400V, Qn = 150kvar In = 150000/4003 = 216A Circuit Breaker Rating = 216 x 1.5 = 324A Select a 400A Circuit Breaker. Circuit Breaker thermal setting = 216 x 1.5 = 324 Amp Conclusion: Select a Circuit Breaker of 400A with T hermal Setting at 324A and Magnetic Setting (Short Circuit) at 324A Go to Content

B. Fuse Select ion


T he rating must be chosen to allow the thermal protection to be set to: 1.5 to 2.0 x Capacitor Current (In) f or Standard Duty/Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors. 1.35In f or Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors with 5.7% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 4.3) 1.2In f or Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors with 7% Detuned Reactor (Tuning Factor 3.8) 1.15In f or Heavy Duty/Energy Capacitors with 14% Detuned Reactor(Tuning Factor 2.7) For Star-solidly grounded systems: Fuse > = 135% of rated capacitor current (includes overvoltage, capacitor tolerances, and harmonics). For Star -ungrounded systems: Fuse > = 125% of rated capacitor current (includes overvoltage, capacitor tolerances, and harmonics). Care should be taken when using NEMA Type T and K tin links which are rated 150%. In this case, the

divide the f use rating by 1.50. Example 1: 150kvar,400v, 50Hz Capacitor Us = 400V; Qs = 150kvar, Un = 400V; Qn = 150kvar. Capacitor Current =1501000/400 =375 Amp To determine line current, we must divide the 375 amps by 3 In (Line Current) = 375/3 = 216A HRC Fuse Rating = 216 x1.65 = 356A to HRC Fuse Rating = 216 x 2.0 = 432A so Select Fuse Size 400 Amp Go to Content

Problems wit h Fusing of Small Ungrounded Banks


Example: 12.47 kV, 1500 Kvar Capacitor bank made of three 3 Nos of 500 Kvar single-phase units. Nominal Capacitor Current = 1500/1.73212.47 = 69.44 amp Size of Fuse = 1.569.44 = 104 Amp = 100 Amp Fuse If a capacitor f ails, we say that It may approximately take 3x line current. (3 x 69.44 A = 208.32 A ). It will take a 100 A fuse approximately 500 seconds to clear this f ault (3 x 69.44 A = 208.32 A ). T he capacitor case will rupture long bef ore the f use clears the f ault. T he solution is using smaller units with individual fusing . Consider 5 Nos of 100 kVAR capacitors per phase, each with a 25 A f use. T he clear time f or a 25 A f use @ 208.32 A is below the published capacitor rupture curve. Go to Content

C. Size of Conduct or f or Capacit or Connect ions


Size of capacitor circuit conductors should be at least 135% of the rated capacitor current in accordance with NEC Article 460.8 (2005 Edition). Go to Content

Size of capacitor f or Transf ormer No-Load compensation


Fixed compensat ion
T he transf ormer works on the principle of Mutual Induction . T he transf ormer will consume reactive power f or magnetizing purpose. Following size of capacitor bank is required to reduce reactive component (No Load Losses) of Transf ormer. Selection of capacitor for transformer no-load compensation

KVA Rating of the Transformer Up to and including 315 KVA 315 to 1000 KVA Above 1000 KVA Go to Content

Kvar Required for compensation 5% of KVA Transf ormer Rating 6% of KVA Transf ormer Rating 8% of KVA Transf ormer Rating

Sizing of capacitor f or motor compensation


T he capacitor provides a local source of reactive current. With respect to inductive motor load, this reactive power is the magnetizing or no load current which the motor requires to operate. A capacitor is properly sized when its f ull load current rating is 90% of the no-load current of the motor. T his 90% rating avoids over correction and the accompanying problems such as overvoltages. Go to Content

1. If no-load current is known


T he most accurate method of selecting a capacitor is to take the no load current of the motor, and multiply by 0.90 (90%). Example: Size a capacitor f or a 100HP, 460V 3-phase motor which has a f ull load current of 124 amps and a no-load current of 37 amps. Size of Capacitor = No load amps (37 Amp) X 90% = 33 Kvar Go to Content

2. If t he no load current is not known


If the no-load current is unknown, a reasonable estimate f or 3-phase motors is to take the f ull load amps and multiply by 30%. T hen multiply it by 90% rating f igure being used to avoid overcorrection and overvoltages. Example: Size a capacitor f or a 75HP, 460V 3-phase motor which has a f ull load current of 92 amps and an unknown no-load current. No-load current of Motor = Full load Current (92 Amp) x 30% = 28 Amp estimated no-load Current. Size of Capacitor = No load amps (28 Amp) X 90% = 25 Kvar.

Thumb Rule:
It is widely accepted to use a thumb rule that Motor compensation required in kvar is equal to 33% of the

Motor Rating in HP. Go to Content

Placement of Power Capacitor Bank f or Motor


Capacitors installed f or motor applications based on the number of motors to have power factor correction . If only a single motor or a small number of motors require power f actor correction, the capacitor can be installed at each motor such that it is switched on and off with the motor. Go to Content

Required Precaut ion f or select ing Capacit or f or Mot or:


T he care should be taken in deciding the Kvar rating of the capacitor in relation to the magnetizing kVA of the machine. If the rating is too high, It may damage to both motor and capacitor. As the motor, while still in rotation af ter disconnection f rom the supply, it may act as a generator by self excitation and produce a voltage higher than the supply voltage. If the motor is switched on again bef ore the speed has f allen to about 80% of the normal running speed, the high voltage will be superimposed on the supply circuits and there may be a risk of damaging other types of equipment. As a general rule the correct size of capacitor f or individual correction of a motor should have a kvar rating not exceeding 85% of the normal No Load magnetizing KVA of the machine. If several motors connected to a single bus and require power f actor correction, install the capacitor(s) at the bus. Go to Content

Where do not inst all Capacit or on Mot or:


Do not install capacitors directly onto a motor circuit under the following conditions: 1. If solid-state starters are used. 2. If open-transition starting is used. 3. If the motor is subject to repetitive switching, jogging, inching, or plugging. 4. If a multi-speed motor is used. 5. If a reversing motor is used. 6. If a high-inertia load is connected to the motor. Fixed power capacitor banks can be installed in a non-harmonic producing electrical system at the f eeder, load or service entrance. Since power capacitor banks are reactive power generators, the most logical place to install them is directly at the load where the reactive power is consumed. Three options exist for installing a power capacitor bank at the motor. Go to Content

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Locat ion 1 (The line side of t he st art er)


Install between the upstream circuit breaker and the contactor.

Ins talling a p o we r c ap ac ito r b ank at the mo to r

T his location should be used f or the motor loads with high inertia, where disconnecting the motor with the power capacitor bank can turn the motor into a self excited generator, motors that are jogged, plugged or reversed, motors that start f requently, multi-speed motors, starters that disconnect and reconnect capacitor units during cycling and starters with open transition.

Advant age
Larger, more cost ef f ective capacitor banks can be installed as they supply kvar to several motors. T his is recommended f or jogging motors, multispeed motors and reversing applications.

Disadvant ages
Since capacitors are not switched with the motors, overcorrection can occur if all motors are not running. Since reactive current must be carried a greater distance, there are higher line losses and larger voltage drops.

Applicat ions
Large banks of f ixed kVAR with f using on each phase. Automatically switched banks Go to Content

Locat ion 2 (Bet ween t he overload relay and t he st art er)


Install between the contactor and the overload relay. T his location can be used in existing installations when the overload ratings surpass the National Electrical Code requirements. With this option the overload relay can be set f or nameplate f ull load current of motor. Otherwise the same as Option 1. No extra switch or f uses required. Contactor serves as capacitor disconnect. Change overload relays to compensate f or reduced motor current. Too much Kvar can damage motors. Calculate new (reduced) motor current. Set overload relays f or this new motor FLA.

FLA (New) = P.F (Old) / P.F (New) x FLA (Name Plate)

Applicat ion:
Usually the best location f or individual capacitors. Go to Content

Locat ion 3 (The mot or side of t he overload relay)


Install directly at the single speed induction motor terminals (on the secondary of the overload relay). T his location can be used in existing installations when no overload change is required and in new installations in which the overloads can be sized in accordance with reduced current draw. When correcting the power f actor f or an entire f acility, f ixed power capacitor banks are usually installed on f eeder circuits or at the service entrance. Fixed power capacitor banks should only be used when the f acilitys load is f airly constant. When a power capacitor bank is connected to a f eeder or service entrance a circuit breaker or a f used disconnect switch must be provided. New motor installations in which overloads can be sized in accordance with reduced current draw Existing motors when no overload change is required.

Advant age
Can be switched on or of f with the motors, eliminating the need f or separate switching devices or over current protection. Also, only energized when the motor is running. Since Kvar is located where it is required, line losses and voltage drops are minimized; while system capacity is maximized.

Disadvant ages
Installation costs are higher when a large number of individual motors need correction. Overload relay settings must be changed to account f or lower motor current draw.

Applicat ion
Usually the best location f or individual capacitors. Go to Content

Placement of capacitors in Distribution system


T he location of low voltage capacitors in Distribution System ef f ect on the mode of compensation, which may be global (one location for the entire installation), by sectors (section-by-section), at load level, or some combination of the last two . In principle, the ideal compensation is applied at a point of consumption and at the level required at any instant.

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A. Global compensat ion Principle


T he capacitor bank is connected to the bus bars of the main LV distribution board to compensation of reactive energy of whole installation and it remains in service during the period of normal load.

Advant ages

Plac e me nt o f c ap ac ito rs in d is trib utio n s ys te m

Reduces the tarif f penalties f or excessive consumption of kvars. Reduces the apparent power kVA demand, on which standing charges are usually based Relieves Reactive energy of Transf ormer , which is then able to accept more load if necessary

Limit at ion
Reactive current still f lows in all conductors of cables leaving (i.e. downstream of) the main LV distribution board. For this reason, the sizing of these cables and power losses in them are not improved by the global mode of compensation. T he losses in the cables (I2R) are not reduced .

Applicat ion
Where a load is continuous and stable, global compensation can be applied No billing of reactive energy. T his is the most economical solution, as all the power is concentrated at one point and the expansion coef f icient makes it possible to optimize the capacitor banks Makes less demands on the transf ormer. Go to Content

B. Compensat ion by sect or Principle


Capacitor banks are connected to bus bars of each local distribution Panel. Most part of the installation System can benef its f rom this arrangement, mostly the f eeder cables f rom the main distribution Panel to each of the local distribution panel.

Advant ages
Reduces the tarif f penalties f or excessive consumption of kvar. Reduces the apparent power Kva demand, on which standing charges are usually based. T he size of the cables supplying the local distribution boards may be reduced, or will have additional capacity f or possible load increases. Losses in the same cables will be reduced. No billing of reactive energy. Makes less demands on the supply Feeders and reduces the heat losses in these Feeders. Incorporates the expansion of each sector. Makes less demands on the transf ormer. Remains economical

Limit at ions
Reactive current still f lows in all cables downstream of the local distribution Boards. For the above reason, the sizing of these cables, and the power losses in them, are not improved by compensation by sector Where large changes in loads occur, there is always a risk of overcompensation and consequent overvoltage problems.

Applicat ion
Compensation by sector is recommended when the installation is extensive, and where the load/time patterns dif f er f rom one part of the installation to another. T his conf iguration is convenient f or a very widespread f actory Area, with workshops having dif f erent load f actors Go to Content

C. Individual compensat ion Principle


Capacitors are connected directly to the terminals of inductive circuit (Near to motors). Individual compensation should be considered when the power of the motor is signif icant with respect to the declared power requirement (kVA) of the installation. T he kvar rating of the capacitor bank is in the order of 25% of the kW rating of the motor. Complementary compensation at the origin of the installation (transf ormer) may also be benef icial. Directly at the Load terminals Ex. Motors, a Steady load gives maximum benef it to Users. T he capacitor bank is connected right at the inductive load terminals (especially large motors). T his conf iguration is well adapted when the load power is signif icant compared to the subscribed power. T his is the technical ideal conf iguration, as the reactive energy is produced exactly where it is needed, and adjusted to the demand.

Advant ages
Reduces the tarif f penalties f or excessive consumption of kvars Reduces the apparent power kVA demand Reduces the size of all cables as well as the cable losses. No billing of reactive energy From a technical point of view this is the ideal solution, as the reactive energy is produced at the point where it is consumed. Heat losses (RI2) are theref ore reduced in all the lines. Makes less demands on the transf ormer.

Limit at ions
Signif icant reactive currents no longer exist in the installation. Not recommended f or Electronics Drives. Most costly solution due to the high number of installations. T he f act that the expansion coef f icient is not incorporated.

Applicat ion
Individual compensation should be considered when the power of motor is signif icant with respect to power of the installation. Go to Content

Common Capacitor Reactive Power Ratings


Voltage 216 240 480 600 2,400 2,770 7,200 12,470 13,800 Kvar Rating 5, 7.5, 131/3, 20, 25 2.5, 5, 7.5,10, 25, 20, 25, 50 5, 10, 15, 20 25, 35, 50, 60, 100 5, 10, 15, 20 25, 35, 50, 60, 100 50, 100, 150, 200 50, 100, 150, 200 50, 100, 150, 200,300,400 50, 100, 150, 200,300,400 50, 100, 150, 200,300,400 Number of Phases 1 or 3 1 or 3 1 or 3 1 or 3 1 1 1 1

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