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Lewis Jones

1. What liberal changes in marriage, sexuality, and gender roles from 1880 to 1930 caused a conservative backlash by reformers? What shape did this backlash take during these five decades and how successful was it? Be sure to give specific examples of each of your main arguments. In the 1880s we start to see relationships between men and women were changing instead of marring based on financial security more marriages were based on love. Many of the relationships would end up in a premarital pregnancy and at one point there was one abortion for every five live births. With abortion rates rising 40 states issued statutes that banned abortions. With the rise in these new relationships a backlash to all of the free choice people were starting to get with choosing their mates, we start to see the classic gender roles that we still think about today. These two spheres where men were to go to work while the women were expected to stay home and take care of the kids. Also women were considered to be property of the male and it was their job to have sex with them no matter what (Sexuality Within the Victorian Family). Thought the late 19th century utopian societies were in full swing. Many colonies such as the Shakers and the Mormons boasting 6,000 or more members. While the Shakers were a very conservative many societies like the Mormons, Nashoba, and Oneida were very sexually liberal. While the Mormons and Oneida communities were male dominated, Nashoba practiced free love between everyone and thing. None of these communities lived near a popular city or in a highly populated state they were usually in the country like the Shakers located in upstate New York or in the mid-west like the Mormons in Utah. So the different societys ideas and beliefs werent readily available to city dwellers, so many communities died off. As the new form of courtship was taking root many doctors started to see the once innocent intimate same sex friendships as perverse. During the 1880s and thought the 1900s homosexuality was considered

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to be a disease and was thought of as a crime against nature it was known as congenital inversion (Same-Sex Intimacy in Victorian America).

2.

Compare and contrast youth culture, relationships, marriage, and sexuality from 1920-

1945 and 1945 through 1960. Which time period was more sexually liberal and why? Which time period was more sexually conservative and why? Be sure to include information from both course content as well as the movie Kinsey, and to give specific examples of each of your main arguments. During the 1920s dating as we know of it today started to form where people would go out in public and spend time with each other rather than courting in the parlor. With the first ever generation exposed to National Public Culture many teens started to act and dress the same way thanks to magazines like Seventeen and Home Journal. Sex also changed and now was seen as something that could be pleasurable and not just for procreation. So in the 20s we saw a new kind of party know as petting parties were people would go and find a partner to make out with. With sex not being just for procreation the American Birth Control League was founded to educate and disseminate contraceptives. Also during the 1920s The government practiced forced sterilization and Margret Sanger, founder of Planned Parenthood, through the Negro Project wanted to raise abortion rates and use of birth control in black communities. After 1945 America started to see more and more risky writing and even nude photos. Also Kinseys Sexual Behavior books came out to show people that what some might see as a sexual perversion was actually normal. The 1950s we see a moral loosening on sex which helped lead to the 60s sex

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boom. The 1945-1965 era was more sexually freeing because it fed directly into the sexual culture of the 60s. While in the 20s we saw a little sexual freedom it was mostly meet by heavy conservative backlash.

3.

Analyze the ways in which youth culture, relationships, marriage, and sexuality changed

from 1960 to 1980 and created a Sexual Revolution of sorts. What do you believe was the cause of this revolution and what was the overall impact on sexuality? Be sure to include information from both course content as well as the documentary Sex in 69, and to give specific examples from each of your main arguments. The 60s were a very different time from any other decade in American history. Kids were breaking away from their parents lifestyle by marrying early and oppressing their sexual urges. With the start of Playboy nudity was becoming less hard to come by. Hugh Hefner broke down many barriers when it came to sexual liberty. He placed articles in parts of his magazine that criticized Americas war on sex and saw marriage as a financial trap (Sex in 69). Mr. Hefners ideas about living a single and a luxurious lifestyle helped led to the materialistic

Lewis Jones

society we have today. Also more female writers such as Helen Gurley Brown life where it is ok to have sex with multiple partners and not to be the typical stay at home mom, but rather go and get a job to become successful. With these new liberal ideas being spread a new dating scene emerged which revolved around parties, clubs, and bars. During the late 1960s through the 1970s the counter culture movement started to shape up and many kids were dropping out of school and moving out west to California. Specifically San Francisco to the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood to participate in the summer of love. This was a hippie commune where love was love no matter who it was with. During the 70s we start to see a rise in sex in advertisements from cigarettes to rugs advertisers are starting to realize that sex sells. As a result of my racy advertisements we also started to see more risky tv shows like Cheers and Threes Company. So by the 1980s the sex industry was turning into the multibillion dollar industry it is today. Now we have a highly sexualized advertisement industry and nothing really seems to shock people when they see thing that would have outraged people just a generation earlier.

4.

Trace the path which Kerry Cohen travels toward promiscuity at an early age in the book

Loose Girl. How do her experiences with STDS/HIV, pregnancy scares, sexual assault, and even murder impact her life and choices along the way. What did you take away from the book that you will use in your own life? Be sure to give specific examples from the book. Kerry started her sexual path at the age of 12 from her first experience she had with a Milo she wanted to feel need and wanted by men from then on. (Page 11). Once Kerry turns 14

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shes going to clubs and hooking up with random guys on a regular basis. But one night after they hear about one of the Jennifers being murdered by a guy she left the club with they stop going to Dorrians and start going to parties instead (Page 65). Kerry also starts doing cocaine not really being addicted but she does it to fit in the other people in the crowd she wants to be a part of. After this she goes through a period of dating guys and when they end things she goes back to hooking up with random guys at parties and clubs and having unprotected sex. Even though this was in the 80s when AIDS and HIV were destroying peoples lives. She wasnt scared of any STD but only being pregnant (page 77). Even later on in the book when she finds out one of her boyfriends, Lief, gives her crabs she isnt really scared to think about what other STDs she might have only if she I pregnant. The doctor ask her if she uses condoms she says no but she is on the pill (Page 153). Near the end of the book she admits that she has a problem with always wanting more form guys (Page 190). By this point she isnt having random hookups anymore shes just moving from boyfriend to boyfriend until she finally settles down with Michael and she even tells us she turns down a guy (Page 210). This book showed me that you cant judge a girl for following her urges. Also you have to use condoms and protect yourself first because you never know if your partner will use protection.