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A Short Course in Industrial Design

Eskild Tjalve
Senior Lecturer, Department o f Engineering Design, The Technical University o f Denmark

NEWNES- BUTTERWORTHS
LONDON - BOSTON Sydney - Wellington - Durban - T o r o n t o

THE BUTTERWORTH GROUP UNITED KINGDOM AUSTRALIA Butterworth & Co (Publishers) Ltd London; 88 Kingsway, WC2B 6AB Butterworths Pty Ltd Sydney: 586 Pacific Highway, Chatswood, NSW 2067 Also at Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth Butterworth & Co (Canada) Ltd Scarborough: 2265 Midland Avenue, Scarborough, Ontario, MIP 4SI Butterworths of New Zealand Ltd Wellington: & W Young Building, 7 7 - 8 5 Customhouse Quay 1, CPO Box 472 Butterworth & Co (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd Durban: 1 5 2 - 1 5 4 Gale Street Butterworths (Publishers) Inc Boston: 10 Tower Office Park, Woburn, Mass. 01801 First published in Denmark in 1976 as 'Systematisk udformning af industriprodukter' First published in English 1979 E. Tjalve, 1979 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, w i t h o u t the written permission of the copyright holder, application for which should be addressed to the publisher. Such written permission must also be obtained before any part of this publication is stored in a retrieval system of any nature. This book is sold subject to the Standard Conditions of Sale of Net Books and may not be re-sold in the UK below the net price given by the Publishers in their current price list.

CANADA

NEW Z E A L A N D

SOUTH A F R I C A

USA

British L i b r a r y Cataloguing in P u b l i c a t i o n Data

Tjalve, Eskild A short course in industrial design. 1. Engineering design I. Title 620'.0042 TA174 78-41280

ISBN 0-408-00388-X

Typeset by Butterworths Litho Preparation Department Printed in Scotland by Thomson Litho L t d . , East Kilbride

Preface
T h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e w p r o d u c t takes i n m a n y levels o f a c t i v i t y a n d m a n y s k i l l s , o f w h i c h t h e f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t are t h o s e o f design engineers a n d i n d u s t r i a l designers. I t is easy t o recognise t h e e x t r e m e s w h e n c o m p a r i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e design e n g i n e e r a n d t h e i n d u s t r i a l designer, b u t n o t so easy t o say w h e r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f one ends a n d t h e o t h e r begins. T h e design engineer is i n v o l v e d in design w h i c h is o f t e n k n o w n b y o t h e r names, e.g. s k e t c h i n g , d e t a i l d e s i g n , d i m e n s i o n i n g , e t c . A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t h e w o r k o f design engineers a n d i n d u s t r i a l designers consists o f t h e same a c t i v i t i e s , i.e. f o r m u l a t i o n o f suggestions o f shape, ' m o d e l l i n g ' o f these ( s k e t c h i n g , d r a w i n g o r h a r d w a r e m o d e l l i n g ) , i n v e s t i g a t i n g a n d a p p r a i s i n g t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e t h e creative m i n d at m a n y levels a n d are t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s b o o k , w h i c h n o t o n l y i n t r o d u c e s t h e s t u d e n t t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e v o l v i n g a d e s i g n , b u t surveys t h e c r i t e r i a b y w h i c h these are assessed. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s b o o k t h e w o r d ' d e s i g n e r ' has been used as a b l a n k e t t e r m f o r p e o p l e w o r k i n g w i t h design (i.e. engineers, designers and others) of products. T h e c o n t e n t s o f t h i s b o o k s h o u l d be seen as p a r t o f t h e design t e c h n i q u e . In t h e o v e r a l l p l a n f o r p r o j e c t e v a l u a t i o n a n d design o n l y t h e m e t h o d s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e f i n a l phases o f design p r o j e c t have been d e s c r i b e d . T h e danger o f f o r m u l a t i n g s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k , is t h a t o t h e r s are led i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h necessarily gives t h e r i g h t a n s w e r . T h i s is j u s t n o t so. T h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n is achieved b y t h e r i g h t balance o f s y s t e m a t i c s a n d i n t u i t i o n . T h e s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be seen as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e t o i n n o v a t i o n , n a m e l y an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t t h a t one c a n , t h r o u g h a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t l o o k o b j e c t i v e l y a n d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y at all t h e design c r i t e r i a a n d premises o n w h i c h a n y p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n is based. E x i s t i n g p r o d u c t s have t o a great e x t e n t been used as e x a m p l e s . These are i n c l u d e d p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d o r b a d . T h e r e is t h u s n o i m p l i e d e v a l u a t i o n in t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h o s e c o m p a n i e s w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e e x a m p l e s b y s u b m i t t i n g m a t e r i a l o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . T h e p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h are n o t a c k n o w l e d g e d w e r e t a k e n o n m y b e h a l f b y F r a n k S c h m i d t , t o w h o m I am very grateful. It is m y h o p e t h a t m a n y o f t h o s e w h o are i n v o l v e d in t h e e v o l u t i o n o f p r o d u c t s w i l l f i n d t h i s b o o k useful w h e t h e r t h e y are engineers o r designers. I also h o p e t h a t t h e b o o k w i l l f i l l a gap i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g o f e n g i n e e r i n g design in t h e schools o f e n g i n e e r i n g . In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h , a m a t e r i a l o b j e c t requires a r o u g h d r a w i n g b e f o r e o n e c a n get d o w n t o t h e necessary s p e c i f i c c a l c u l a t i o n s a n d d e t a i l i n g . A l o t o f t i m e is r i g h t l y used o n these essential p r o c e d u r e s , y e t so o f t e n n o o n e w i l l q u e s t i o n h o w t h e idea beh i n d a n y p a r t i c u l a r s c h e m e has e m e r g e d . It is t o o c o m m o n a m i s t a k e t o regard t h e f i r s t idea f o r a design as t h e o n l y o n e o r even as t h e best. L a s t l y I h o p e t h a t t h e b o o k m a y be an i n s p i r a t i o n t o i n d u s t r i a l designers in t r a i n i n g a n d in p r a c t i c e , as i t m u s t be i m p o r t a n t f o r designers t o get an idea o f t h e phases a c o m p l e x p r o d u c t goes t h r o u g h , as w e l l as a general v i e w o f t h e r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . Eskild Tjalve where t h e y i l l u s t r a t e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e same p r o b l e m a n d d i f f e r e n t results a n d n o t because t h e y are

1 CREATION OF A PRODUCT
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 T h e idea o f f o r m Life o f the product 3 6 7 7

Properties o f t h e p r o d u c t

T h e step-by-step creation o f t h e p r o d u c t

1. Creation of a Product
1.1 The idea of f o r m
A v e r y great p a r t o f o u r w o r l d consists o f o b j e c t s w h i c h have o n e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o p e r t y , f o r m : i.e. a shape, a c e r t a i n a r r a n g e m e n t o f parts a n d an o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . F o r m m a y arise as f o l l o w s ( F i g u r e 1 ) : 1. A n uncontrolled process, where the form depends solely on the conditions o f the enthe handwheel) valve seat). T h e valve seat is a n n u l a r because o n e m u s t be able t o face i t o f f w i t h a m i l l i n g c u t t e r t o m a k e i t f i t t i g h t l y against t h e gasket. T h e i n n e r c a v i t y o f t h e valve is shaped t o f a c i l i t a t e flow. The outer form of the valve consists o f two intersecting cylinders. T h e c y l i n d e r f o r m is d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f r o m w h i c h t h e valve h o u s i n g is cast. e.g. living S i m i l a r c o m m e n t s t o t h e above can be m a d e o n t h e c u p a n d saucer s h o w n in F i g u r e 3 : T h e c u p a n d saucer have r o t a t i o n a l either symmetry, potter's have because t h e y are t h r o w n o n t h e cups and saucers mould i n t o one of translation (of the

v i r o n m e n t , e.g. p e b b l e s , m o u n t a i n ranges. 2. A process c o n t r o l l e d b y p h y s i c a l a n d c h e m i c a l laws as w e l l as t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , e.g. ice c r y s t a l s , m i c a . 3. A process c o n t r o l l e d of the b y genes a n d t h e c o n ditions environment,

organisms. 4 . A process c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e wishes o f m e n o r animals and the c o n d i t i o n s o f the e n v i r o n m e n t , e.g. m a n u f a c t u r e d b i r d s ' nests. Now dominate that our manufactured everyday products increasingly where p r o d u c t s , a beaver's d a m ,

w h e e l o r , (if t h e y w e r e m a d e in a m o u l d ) s i m p l y because traditionally world indeed rotational symmetry. T h e c u p is c y l i n d r i c a l because a c e r t a i n appearance was d e s i r e d . T h e c u p is s m a l l e r in d i a m e t e r at t h e base p a r t l y because i t is t h e n s t a c k a b l e a n d p a r t l y f o r reasons o f appearance. T h e n o t c h in t h e base o f t h e c u p lets t h e w a t e r drain away if i t is w a s h e d ( u p s i d e d o w n ) i n a part washing up machine.

whole environments

are m a n - m a d e

w e need t o

analyse m o r e c l o s e l y t h e processes b y w h i c h f o r m is d e t e r m i n e d , so t h a t w e m a y design o u r e n v i r o n m e n t as m u c h t o o u r l i k i n g as p o s s i b l e . As a f i r s t a t t e m p t at t h i s analysis let us e x a m i n e t h e valve in F i g u r e 2 . T h e design o f t h e valve a n d t h e parts f r o m w h i c h it is assembled is as f o l l o w s :

T h e t w o c o n n e c t i n g pieces are h e x a g o n a l because o n e m u s t be able t o assemble t h e valve w i t h an a d j u s t a b l e spanner. T h e r o t a t i n g n u t u n d e r t h e h a n d w e e l is also h e x agonal so t h a t it can be t i g h t e n e d w i t h a s p a n n e r . T h e h a n d w h e e l is r o u n d because t h e h a n d m u s t be able t o grasp it f i r m l y in all p o s i t i o n s . T h e s p i n d l e is t h r e a d e d because o f its f u n c t i o n , w h i c h is t o t r a n s f o r m t h e r o t a r y m o v e m e n t ( o f

T h e shape o f is b e i n g u s e d .

t h e h a n d l e ensures t h a t t h e

w h i c h is h e l d does n o t get t o o h o t w h e n t h e c u p T h e edge o f t h e saucer is t u r n e d u p because it m u s t be able t o h o l d l i q u i d s p i l t f r o m t h e c u p .

Even if these t w o e x a m p l e s are a l i t t l e s i m p l i f i e d t h e y s t i l l s h o w c l e a r l y t h a t t h e design o f a p r o d u c t a n d its e l e m e n t s d e p e n d s o n m a n y d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s .

Figure

Form

can arise in four

ways

Creation

of a Product

Figure

The form of the valve is determined number of factors

by a large

e.g. ling,

m a n u f a c t u r i n g process, f u n c t i o n , ease o f h a n d appearance who and economics. Another However very many the

A n understanding of the factors w h i c h influence t h e design m u s t be b u i l t on a knowledge of the v a r i o u s stages i n t h e l i f e o f t h e p r o d u c t . In t h e f o l l o w i n g pages, t h e r e f o r e , w e w i l l e x a m i n e a m o d e l o f t h e life o f a p r o d u c t f r o m i n c e p t i o n t o d e s t r u c t i o n , as w e l l as a m o r e d e t a i l e d m o d e l o f t h e w a y in w h i c h a p r o d u c t comes into being.

i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , w h i c h w e m u s t n o t f o r g e t , is t h e person designs the product. r e q u i r e m e n t s t h e r e are in t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t o express his ideas a n d personal j u d g e m e n t .

d e s i g n , t h e r e w i l l a l w a y s be r o o m f o r t h e designer

Figure 3

Many factors determine

the form of a cup

(R0rstrand)

Creation

of a Produc t p r o d u c t is c o m p l e t e l y s p e c i f i e d . F o r p r o d u c t s w h i c h are t o be p r o d u c e d i n great n u m b e r s , t h e design a n d choice o f p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d f o l l o w next, b u t f o r t h e sake o f c l a r i t y t h i s phase has been l e f t o u t i n Figure 4 . N e x t comes t h e p r o d u c t manufacturing process, a f t e r w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t is sold t o t h e dealer, is used i t p e r f o r m s a process f r o m w h o m i t is resold t o t h e c o n s u m e r . O n l y n o w can t h e p r o d u c t f u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o its i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e . T h e l i f e o f t h e p r o d u c t ends w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n . T h i s process can be a c t i v e , w h e r e t h e p r o d u c t may paper d i v i d e d be c r u s h e d , t a k e n a p a r t o f m e l t e d d o w n , o r passive, w h e r e i t rusts, c r u m b l e s o r d e c o m p o s e s , e t c .

1.2 Life of the product


All p r o d u c t s are c r e a t e d , used a n d e v e n t u a l l y disL e t us, t h e r e f o r e , examine a little more

carded.

closely w h a t happens t o a p r o d u c t before, d u r i n g a n d a f t e r use. When a product which state t o a n o t h e r . for example: Scissors: Fiie: A w h o l e sheet o f paper brings a b o u t a n e x t e r n a l change f r o m o n e I t is t h e need f o r t h i s t r a n s f o r -

m a t i o n t h a t has caused t h e p r o d u c t t o be c r e a t e d ,

F i g u r e 4 s h o w s t h a t , i d e a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n is f e d i n t o t h e design process f r o m ail o t h e r p r o d u c t - r e l a t e d activities. ing board E f f e c t i v e design is o n l y and in other possible i f t h e designer is a w a r e o f w h a t h a p p e n s b e y o n d t h e d r a w -

i n t o t w o pieces. A blank w i t h burrs a blank w i t h chamfered A person w i t h a need f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t edges. Television: and formed. Extruder: information

departments. Thus, the

a person e n t e r t a i n e d a n d i n - p r o d u c t is s p e c i f i e d d u r i n g t h e design process, b u t w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d wishes f r o m all t h e o t h e r stages i n m i n d . It is i m p o r t a n t t o realise t h a t F i g u r e 4 s h o w s t h e general course of an i n d u s t r i a l l y manufactured p r o d u c t . I n p r o d u c t s t h a t are designed a n d m a d e b y t h e same p e r s o n t h e f i r s t t w o processes can be c o m b i n e d . N o t e also t h a t t h e r e m a y be o t h e r i n p u t t o t h e design process o t h e r t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n o n need o r f u n c t i o n , such as an idea f o r a p r o d u c t o r n e w competing products. The input shown in F i g u r e 4 , h o w e v e r , is c o n s i d e r e d t h e general o n e , because in t h e o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s o n e s t i l l has t o g o b a c k a n d start w i t h t h e n e e d .

Plastic granules c o n t i n u o u s l e n g t h o f

plastic p r o f i l e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d cross s e c t i o n . B e f o r e t h e p r o d u c t is used t h e user has b r o u g h t it f r o m a dealer, w h o i n t u r n has b r o u g h t i t f r o m t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r . W h e n i t has e i t h e r served its p u r pose, w o r n o u t o r b r o k e n , i t is d e s t r o y e d . If these events are a r r a n g e d in sequence, w e c a n i l l u s t r a t e t h e life o f t h e p r o d u c t as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 4 . T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t is t h e use f o r w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t is i n t e n d e d . T h e f i r s t phase is t h e design process i n w h i c h possible m e t h o d s o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e user needs are examined, a n d in w h i c h the finally chosen

Feed-back information

r
Information Of need _

DBSIGK/
Specificaion of Ihe product

/f^iv mater Lais

UAKJUrACTUI^E

SALE
Product

DESmUCT/ON

)aste mo^terials

Object in, first state

Object in second state

USIKJQ
Showing

PKOCESS
product

Figure

the processes in the life of a

Creation

of a Product

1.3 Properties o f the product


A n y o b j e c t ( p r o d u c t , m a c h i n e , o r s y s t e m ) possesses characteristic may p r o p e r t i e s . S o m e o f these p r o p e r t i e s important p r o p e r t y o f all is be d e s i r e d , b u t o t h e r s m a y be m o r e o r less

T h e a i m in d e s i g n i n g is t h a t t h e q u a l i t i e s p r e s e n t in t h e finished p r o d u c t s h o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s r e q u i r e d . A s t h i s a i m , h o w e v e r , is n o t always achieved, w e must distinguish w e c a n arrive at a m o d e l between the o f t h e design desired p r o p e r t i e s a n d t h e realised ones. Thus process as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 5. T h i s s h o w s t h e stepb y - s t e p process f r o m t h e analysis o f t h e p r o b l e m t o the finished product. I n t h e i n i t i a l analysis stage, t h e p r o b l e m is exrequired a m i n e d f r o m all sides. T h i s results o n t h e o n e h a n d in a c o n c r e t e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e desired f u n c t i o n , a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n a list o f t h e desired p r o p e r ties w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t m u s t m a k e u p the b a c k g r o u n d f o r the selection o f solutions. N e x t f o l l o w s t h e stage o f s y n t h e s i s , i.e. t h e stage in w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t ties of structure, is c r e a t e d . T h i s is d o n e b y

unwanted. The most

t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t , because it is t h i s t h a t helps t h e user in his n e e d . T h e o t h e r desirable p r o p e r t i e s m a y b e : pleasing a p p e a r a n c e , ease o f handling, safety, durability and reliability. Before the product is designed the p r o p e r t i e s s h o u l d be listed b y t h e designer, p e r h a p s in c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h period when t h e user. D u r i n g t h e design is c r e a t e d , it is these the product

p r o p e r t i e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e decisions a n d c h o i c e s t h a t are m a d e . Unfortunately o n e c a n n o t design a p r o d u c t in such a w a y t h a t t h e desired p r o p e r t i e s are d e t e r m i n e d o n e a f t e r t h e o t h e r , f o r t h e y are n o t i n d e p e n d e n t variables. We f i n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t f i v e p r o p e r t i e s c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m all o t h e r s , in t h a t t o g e t h e r t h e y completely define the p r o d u c t . T h e y are: For the product as a whole: S t r u c t u r e (i.e. t h e elements o f the product and their relationship) For each element: Form Material Dimension Surface These f i v e p r o p e r t i e s are t h e basic properties. which It

r o u g h l y d e t e r m i n i n g step b y step o n t h e basic p r o p e r f o r m , material, dimension, and surface. W h e n t h e basic p r o p e r t i e s are d e c i d e d o n , t h e design o f t h e p r o d u c t is f i n i s h e d , a n d i t c a n be m a n u f a c t u r e d . A f t e r m a n u f a c t u r e the p r o d u c t exists, and possesses s o m e 'realisedproperties., l a t e d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l analysis. which hopefully are close t o t h e ' d e s i r e d p r o p e r t i e s ' t h a t w e r e f o r m u -

1.4 The step-by-step creation o f t h e p r o d u c t


T h e design m o d e l s h o w n in F i g u r e 5 is a g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d o n e , t h a t serves o n l y t o give a general v i e w o f t h e design process. I t c a n n o t be used as a recipe for d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t . I t c a n , h o w e v e r , be elab-

is i m p o r t a n t t o emphasise t h a t these are t h e variables t h e designer c a n m a n i p u l a t e , a n d i t is b y deciding on these that a product the is successively well

o r a t e d t o t r y t o achieve t h i s . A s w e are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the quality of ' f o r m ' , we will only m a k e t h e m o d e l m o r e d e t a i l e d in t h e stages w h e r e t h e basic p r o p e r t i e s are l a i d d o w n . We c a n call t h e d e t a i l e d m o d e l the product synthesis, as i t s h o w s t h e i n d i v i d u a l steps t h r o u g h w h i c h

c r e a t e d . T h u s all t h e o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s , desirable as as u n d e s i r a b l e , are d e r i v e d from basic properties.

BASIC

PJ^0PR:T/3

Structure
DESlfZED

Form Uc^tercaL DimenscoK Sur/Uce

PIZOPEfZr/S

REALISED P/^OPE/ZTIE

Figure

Tfie basic properties

are the variables

which the designer can manipulate. depend on these

The other

properties

of the

product

Creation

of a

Product

PROBLEM ANALYSIS

MAI/<J

FUNCTIONS

IZ I
e

SUB FUNCriOKJS
AND MEANS

BASIC STZUCTUI^B

STICUCJUKE

TOTAL FOIZM

V
1

FO/^M OF THE ELEMENTS Ma Lena Sur\ce

Figure

The product

synthesis. A model of the design process showing in the creation of a product

the stages

the

product

is c r e a t e d , see

F i g u r e 6. T h e the t w o

black syn-

d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . In t h e p r o d u c t s y n thesis t h i s v e r y important stage is d i v i d e d into a series o f steps, b e g i n n i n g w i t h a d i v i s i o n o f t h e desired f u n c t i o n i n t o s u b - f u n c t i o n s . T h e n f o l l o w s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f possible means o f realising t h e subfunctions, a combination of these into a basic s t r u c t u r e a n d f i n a l l y an a d a p t a t i o n i n t o a q u a n t i f i e d structure, where critical is d e t e r m i n e d . parameters are o p t i m i s e d and where the relative arrangement o f the elements

a r r o w s s h o w t h e t i m e sequence. T h e p r o d u c t thesis takes as its s t a r t i n g p o i n t

outputs

f r o m t h e p r o b l e m analysis, n a m e l y o n t h e one h a n d t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e desired f u n c t i o n function tions) (possibly on the other hand the list - the main funcof desired several s u b - o r d i n a t e m a i n

p r o p e r t i e s , w h i c h can also be d e s c r i b e d as c r i t e r i a f o r an o p t i m u m p r o d u c t . In Figure 5 w e saw t h a t the n e x t step is t h e

Creation Form is t r e a t e d in t w o parallel b r a n c h e s , since

of a Product

Sub-functions
B y means, sub-system or

and means
an element, with which a given

t h e t o t a l f o r m a n d t h e f o r m o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t elem e n t s are d e t e r m i n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . T h e d e t a i l e d form of the elements includes a specification of m a t e r i a l s , d i m e n s i o n s a n d surfaces. We see f r o m t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s . F i g u r e 6, t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a f o r an o p t i m u m p r o d u c t are used t h r o u g h t h e w h o l e design process as a g u i d e l i n e a n d c o n t r o l f o r each step w h e r e a d e c i s i o n is t a k e n . T h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs o u t l i n e t h e i n d i v i d u a l stages in t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s a n d t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s are g i v e n .

w e u n d e r s t a n d a s o l u t i o n , i.e. a m e t h o d , a

f u n c t i o n c a n be realised. T h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e m a i n f u n c t i o n i n t o s u b - f u n c t i o n s a n d f u r t h e r i n t o sub-subf u n c t i o n s , e t c t a k e s place a l t e r n a t e l y w i t h t h e search f o r means t o realise these. O n e possible p r o c e d u r e consists o f a r r a n g i n g a so-called f u n c t i o n / m e a n s t r e e . F i g u r e 7 s h o w s h o w t h e f i r s t stages in t h e f u n c t i o n / means t r e e f o r an a u t o m a t i c t e a m a k e r m a y l o o k . T h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e f u n c t i o n / m e a n s t r e e c a n be d e t a i l e d u n t i l t h e means b e c o m e m a c h i n e e l e m e n t s , o r p a r t s o f m a c h i n e e l e m e n t s . We s t o p w h e n w e have f o u n d means t o t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s u b - f u n c t i o n s .

Main

functions
function o f a p r o d u c t is t h e w a y in w h i c h If w e c o n c e i v e t h e of the total parallel

T h e main

Basic

structure

o u t p u t is d e t e r m i n e d b y i n p u t . t i o n s at all levels f r o m

A s o l u t i o n is a c h i e v e d b y c o n n e c t i n g o n e process f o r each s u b - f u n c t i o n , w h i c h w e call t h e basic s t r u c t u r e . T h e basic s t r u c t u r e c a n be expressed in b l o c k d i a grams, working (or basic) drawings (machine symbols, hydraulic, pneumatic, electric symbols, etc) o r o t h e r w i s e s i m p l i f i e d d r a w i n g s . N o d e c i s i o n s are made at this stage as to 'quantities' etc. such as 18 dimensions, Figure 7 ) . relative arrangement Figure

p r o d u c t as a c o m p o u n d s y s t e m w e c a n discuss f u n c the function s y s t e m ( m a i n f u n c t i o n , o r p o s s i b l y several of elements (sub-functions). T h e idea o f f u n c t i o n is a v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o o l f o r a n a l y s i n g a p r o b l e m i n t o a series o f c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d c o m p o n e n t s t h a t express w h a t t h e p r o d u c t m u s t be able t o d o .

m a i n f u n c t i o n s ) t o t h e f u n c t i o n s o f sub-systems a n d

s h o w s d i f f e r e n t basic s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e t e a m a k e r (see

FUAJCT/OKJ MEAKJS

Te(Pi process tea

wM

Normal

tea

process

Tea process
per/i/iSCOH

wLtk

eKtract

Com bene i^ater and tea ieav^es

/ Co^troL \ ^breNin^ Urne'

Separate ea\^ from tea Leares

Pass
i^ecittn^

through
sc/ir/fice

mter^iea

Tea -^yvcpiterl la^Aj^kyater /Jeasure time Measure tea concentration Kieasi/ire \ stte time dependant process

f^eynove both

tokeaUyi^ \ to keatu^g elemnh

in tke

Figure

The function/means

tree for an automatic

teamaker

10

Figure

Alternative

basic structures

for an automatic

teamaker

Creation

of a Product

11

Figure

Quantified

structures

for the main

elements

of a

teamaker

12

Creation

of a

Product

Quantified

structure

Total form
The total form with of of the the the form total product of the design is determined The the

T h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e is one w h e r e t h e i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s are o p t i m i s e d and s p e c i f i e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t of the elements. H o w e v e r , n o t h i n g is y e t decided c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m design o f t h e e l e m e n t s . D i f f e r e n t q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s are s h o w n in F i g u r e 9.

alternately

elements. depend on

requirements

p r o d u c t w e are d e a l i n g w i t h . If a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a are i m p o r t a n t (i.e. in cars, b o a t s , c a m e r a s , e t c ) t h e design o f t h e e l e m e n t s m u s t be a d a p t e d t o t h e t o t a l d e s i g n .

Figure

10

Suggestions

for tfie total

form

of the

teamaker

Creation

of a Product

13

4.

Le<^f spring maij be Msed y

'Pen

^1 Cast

Figure

11

S/<etches made in connection

with

the detail

design elements

of the

teamaker

If t e c h n i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c r i t e r i a are w h a t m a t t e r s m o s t (i.e. c a r b u r e t t o r s , g e a r b o x e s , satellites, e t c ) t h e design o f t h e e l e m e n t s m u s t t a k e precedence t h e t o t a l design. over

extremely

u s e f u l , see F i g u r e

1 1 . G r a d u a l l y , as t h e

f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s is s e t t l e d , t h e sketches are replaced by layouts, prepared w i t h a drawing machine, a n d scale d r a w i n g s . T h e f i n a l design o f each e l e m e n t requires decisions on material, The dimension, of the surface, product tolerance are s p e c i f i e d and in and

Form of the elements


T h e f o r m design o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s is m a d e at t h e d e t a i l design stage o f t h e p r o d u c t . T h e v a r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l areas m a k e a g o o d s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s stage. T h e c r i t e r i a w h i c h m a t t e r at t h i s stage are p r i m a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d by f u n c t i o n , strength and manufacturing methods. Typical calculation, a c t i v i t i e s at t h i s stage are, f i r s t o f a l l , sketching and drawing. Free-hand in a q u i c k a n d l i g h t t e c h n i q u e are

production technology. elements w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s w h i c h express f o u r o f t h e f u n d a mental properties, f o r m , material, dimension s u r f a c e , as w e l l as f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n such as q u a n t i ties t o be p r o d u c e d , possible m a n u f a c t u r i n g process, n u m b e r of the d r a w i n g , date, etc. The f i f t h fundamental elements property, the structure, is specified in assembly d r a w i n g s w h i c h s h o w h o w t h e c o m p o n e n t are t o be a s s e m b l e d , see F i g u r e 12. T h e f i n i s h e d t e a m a k e r is s h o w n in F i g u r e 13.

sketches d o n e

14

Creation

of a

Product

5)

Figure

12 Assembly drawing working drawing

and

Product
Each

syntfiesis
in the product synthesis brings the 1. T h e search f o r s o l u t i o n s , 2. Examination of the solutions, work. 3. E v a l u a t i o n a n d c h o i c e o f s o l u t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r

phase

designer nearer his goal show a typical course:

t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . In

spite o f t h e c h a n g i n g c o n t e n t s o f t h e phases t h e y all

Creation

of a Product

15

T h i s c o u r s e is i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 4 , w h e r e t h e n u m b e r o f s o l u t i o n s is s h o w n as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e . Each p e a k c o r r e s p o n d s t o a phase in t h e product synthesis. T h e search f o r s o l u t i o n s is c a r r i e d o u t b y genera t i n g ideas e i t h e r i n t u i t i v e l y o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d s d e p e n d i n g o n t h e phase. T h e a i m in s e e k i n g m a n y s o l u t i o n s in a given phase is t o e x p l o r e t h e ' s p a c e ' c r e a t e d b y t h e great n u m b e r o f t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . I t is s e l d o m possible t o e x a m i n e all s o l u t i o n s , as t h e y are u s u a l l y so t h a t all t h e m a i n t y p e s o f with best that w e can c h o o s e t h e i n n u m e r a b l e . B u t t h e ' s o l u t i o n s p a c e ' s h o u l d s t i l l be examined thoroughly solution solution. T h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s o l u t i o n s is m a d e o n t h e basis o f c r i t e r i a w h i c h v a r y w i t h t h e phase a n d t h e degree o f d e t a i l in t h e s o l u t i o n s . A n i n t u i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n m a y t h u s be s u f f i c i e n t in t h e e a r l y phases, w h i l e later o n it m a y be necessary t o a p p l y q u i t e a n u m b e r of mutually weighted criteria. T h e final result the p r o d u c t thus depends o n t w o fundamentally decide w h i c h of view. different factors, firstly on the ideas t h a t are b o r n , a n d s e c o n d l y o n t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t Figure 13 Engineering The finished teamaker (The Laboratory for design. The Technical University of Denmark) ideas are c h o s e n . A closer analysis o f the next chapter deals with the t h e idea o f f o r m can be m a d e f r o m these t w o p o i n t s Thus m e t h o d s t h a t c a n be a p p l i e d in s e a r c h i n g f o r f o r m ideas, w h i l e C h a p t e r 3 ' F o r m F a c t o r s ' is a b o u t t h e factors t h a t make up the background f o r the selection criteria. reasonable certainty are i n c l u d e d . O n l y t h e n w e can say

Number

of xciniLhation ofsoLiAtcoMS

solutionis

T^me Figure 14 The search for and examination of solutions, are a characteristic sequence in the product evaluation synthesis and choice

2 METHODS USED IN FORM DESIGN


2.1 2.2 2.3 Limitations 19 21 48

Structure variation Form variation

17

2. Methods Used in Form Design


2.1 Limitations
The final decisions o n a p r o d u c t ' s f o r m normally T h e c a l c u l a t o r f u l f i l l s t h e same n e e d f o r a n E u r o p e a n as t h e abacus f o r a C h i n e s e . T h e w a y in w h i c h t h e m a i n f u n c t i o n is b r o k e n d o w n i n t o s u b - f u n c t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e means c h o s e n , t o s a t i s f y t h e s u b - f u n c t i o n s is j u s t as i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e design as t h e m a i n f u n c t i o n . T h i s c a n be i l l u strated by a comparison of t w o products w i t h the same m a i n f u n c t i o n b u t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t basic s t r u c ture. F i g u r e 16 s h o w s t w o d i f f e r e n t j a c k s , b o t h w i t h the main f u n c t i o n - t o transform a rotational manual movement i n t o a very p o w e r f u l vertical one. The f o r m o f t h e t w o j a c k s d i f f e r s f u n d a m e n t a l l y , because d i f f e r e n t means have been used t o realize t h e i n d i vidual sub functions, i.e. the basic structure is one different. other. We c a n also n o t e t h a t t h e f o r m o f has a

t a k e place in t h e last phases o f t h e design process, b u t i t is i m p o r t a n t t o realise t h a t b e f o r e t h i s , t h e designer has a l r e a d y been reflecting and making d e c i s i o n s t h a t have a f u n d a m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f o r m . In t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ( s e c t i o n 1.4) w e saw an example of this. L e t us, h o w e v e r , c o n s i d e r a illustrate number of examples w h i c h more directly the product. T h e main f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t established d u r i n g t h e f i r s t phase o f p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s c r u c i a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e t y p e o f p r o d u c t , e.g. w h e t h e r i t is a m a c h i n e o r a t o o l . T w o p r o d u c t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t m a i n f u n c t i o n s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be so d i f f e r e n t t h a t i t is i m p o s s i b l e t o create o n e ' i n b e t w e e n ' t h e y are s i m p l y f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . F i g u r e 1 5 s h o w s an e x a m p l e o f t h i s , n a m e l y a c a l c u l a t o r a n d a n abacus.

t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e early decisions o n t h e f o r m o f

c a n n o t be g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e d i n t o t h e f o r m o f t h e

Figure

15

Desk calculator

arid Japanese abacus or counting function is different (Desk calculator 19

frame. The two products fulfil the same need, but the main reproduced by courtesy of Canon)

20

Methods

used in form

design

Figure 16 Two car jacks having the same main function (i.e. similar input and output) but different basic structures

Basic structure

-o

Figure

17

Two valves with

the same basic structure but with different quantified structures. changed into the other how one structure can be gradually

The lower

illustration

shows

Methods T h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e brings us t o a level in

used in form

design

21

t e r i s t i c p a r a m e t e r s are v a r i e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e whole which s o l u t i o n space is c o v e r e d . T h e q u e s t i o n o f p a r a m e t e r s c a n be p r o f i t a b l y v a r i e d w i l l in the following the chapters, where be the the

p r o d u c t synthesis where w e can m o v e gradually f r o m o n e s o l u t i o n t o a n o t h e r . I n F i g u r e 17 t h e t w o valves have d i f f e r e n t basic quantified structures i.e. from the b u t t h e same of view of the form structure, point

examined synthesis,

m e t h o d s are r e l a t e d t o t h e last phases i n namely quantified total f o r m and the f o r m o f the elements.

product

f u n c t i o n t h e y c o n t a i n t h e same e l e m e n t s . T h e y are distinguished b y t h e d i f f e r e n t f o r m design o f in w h i c h the e l e m e n t s a n d b y t h e d i f f e r e n t angle o f t h e s p i n d l e and the handwheel. The w a y design o f t h e t w o valves can be m o d i f i e d , so t h a t w e can m o v e g r a d u a l l y f r o m o n e t o t h e o t h e r , is also illustrated. F o r m synthesis m e t h o d s a i m t o cover t h e w h o l e range o f design s o l u t i o n s . We have seen t h a t f o r a c h o s e n basic s t r u c t u r e t h e f o r m design c a n be c h a n g e d s m o o t h l y f r o m one solution t o another. The methods for form synthesis can therefore be naturally d e s c r i b e d as v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d s w h e r e s o m e charac-

structure,

2.2 Structure variation Tfie structure variation method

C o n s i d e r t h e t h r e e c o f f e e m a k e r s s h o w n in F i g u r e 1 8 . T h e y all w o r k o n t h e same p r i n c i p l e (i.e. w i t h a s i m i l a r basic s t r u c t u r e ) . B u t w h y are t w o o f t h e m alike, while the t h i r d o n e is q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ? The a n s w e r lies in t h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e .

Figure 18 Three different coffee makers with the same basic structure. The shape of the top two products is a/most idntica/. Why is the one below different? (Courtesty of Melitta, NG Electric, Braun)

22

Methods

used in form

design s t r u c t u r e f o r a n y t w o p r o d u c t s gives a c o m m o n design c h a r a c t e r , w h i l e d i f f e r e n t q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s p r o d u c e w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e d e s i g n . T h e s t r u c t u r e v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d is a n easy m e t h o d o f g e n e r a t i n g ideas f o r alternative structures. The m e t h o d is based o n t h e v i e w t h a t a n u m b e r o f suggested s o l u t i o n s are needed b e f o r e a s o l u t i o n c a n d e f i n i t e l y be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as g o o d . T h e m e t h o d has been t r i e d in d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t s i t u a t i o n s , a n d i t can be a p p l i e d at m a n y levels, e.g. in b o t h t h e b u i l d i n g u p o f t h e t o t a l s y s t e m a n d in t h e c r e a t i o n o f small sub-systems. Q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e can be used f r o m t w o p o i n t s o f v i e w , w h i c h d i f f e r in w h e t h e r the f u n c t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t s is i n c l u d e d o r n o t . If these f u n c t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s are i g n o r e d , t h e s t r u c t u r e v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d gives a n u m b e r o f suggestions coffee f o r a v e r y r o u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t . If t h e functional connections are included, we get a d e f i n i t e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e basic s t r u c t u r e , w i t h t h e a i m o f o p t i m i s i n g a n d s p e c i f y i n g t h e paracoffee meters involved. This is s h o w n by the examples given i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s .

In t h e f i r s t t w o t h e r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c o m p o n e n t e l e m e n t s is s i m i l a r , w h i l e i n t h e last o n e i t is d i f f e r e n t . T h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c o m ponent elements is an important feature of a quantified s t r u c t u r e . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e is

t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p a r t s , in t h i s case t h e sizes o f t h e c o n t a i n e r s a n d t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n these. T h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f the component method method.' can The be e l e m e n t s can be used as v a r i a t i o n called 'the effect structure variation if the p a r a m e t e r s in t h e search f o r design s o l u t i o n s . T h i s greatest is achieved

i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t e d ( p o s s i b l y m o d e l l e d in t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s ) i n a t e c h n i q u e w h e r e all superf l u o u s details are l e f t out. In t h i s w a y o n e saves t i m e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s o l u t i o n s as w e l l as clarity when comparing them. Figure 19 s h o w s t h e basic s t r u c t u r e f o r makers, together w i t h h o w a number of quantified s t r u c t u r e s c r e a t e d b y v a r i a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e arrangem e n t and o f the dimensions o f the elements. Figure 20 shows examples of typical m a k e r s . It d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w a c o m m o n quantified

QUANTIFIED V a r i a t i o n of

STRUCTURES relative arrangement

w
Figure 19 Quantified structures for coffee

a
ma/<ers

23

Figure 20 Various types of coffee makers. See a/so quantified structures in Figure 19 (Courtesy of Siemens, Krups, Me/itta, Ptii/ips, and Braun)

24

Methods

used in form

design s o r t i n g o f t h e s o l u t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o such c r i t e r i a as space, o p e r a t i o n a n d a p p e a r a n c e . Figure 21 shows a n u m b e r o f q u a n t i f i e d structures for a vacuum cleaner, t o g e t h e r w i t h between the the relative is not arrangement of the three main elements. The functional connection elements indicated. Figure 22 shows some m o d e r n vacuum

Structure

variation of tfie main elements

The elements t h a t most influence a p r o d u c t ' s f o r m design are, o f c o u r s e , t h e m a i n ones. We m a y t h e r e fore conveniently apply the structure variation m e t h o d t o a f e w o f the main elements o f the p r o d u c t , in o r d e r t h a t a f i r s t s u r v e y o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e design m a y be c a r r i e d o u t . T h e sketches o r m o d e l s m a d e a t t h i s stage give a b a c k g r o u n d f o r a f i r s t r o u g h

cleaners, w h e r e w e can see h o w g r e a t l y t h e relative arrangement o f the elements influences the design.

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURES

SYMBOLS

Variatior^

of

relative

arrangement

jTTI
1S I

tor Mote Dust container

Mouthpiece

etc

Ml. S.
s

Figure

21

Quantified

structures

for vacuum

cleaners

25

Figure

22

Vacuum

cleaners

with different

quantified

structures.

(See also Figure

21).

(Courtesy

ofNilfisk

and

Miele)

26

Methods Let us

used in form see how

design the structure variation be d r a w n very quickly. The t w o microscopes in

now

nnethod can be a p p l i e d t o a m i c r o s c o p e . T h e basic s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m i c r o s c o p e is c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y t h e lenses a n d image planes i n v o l v e d . T o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e r i v e d s t r u c t u r e , o n e needs i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e size a n d f o c a l l e n g t h o f t h e lenses, t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e m and their relative arrangement. Figure 2 3 shows quantified relative structures based of the on variation of the arrangement tube and the object

F i g u r e 2 4 are c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t d i f f e r e n t designs.

quantified

s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h c a n be c l e a r l y seen f r o m t h e i r v e r y O f t e n i t is possible t o use y e t a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r , n a m e l y t h e n u m b e r o f each o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t t y p e s o f e l e m e n t . In p r i n c i p l e a v a r i a t i o n o f the n u m b e r belongs t o t h e basic s t r u c t u r e , b u t in cases w h e r e a n e l e m e n t can be d i v i d e d i n t o several or d o u b l e d w i t h o u t altering the character o f the basic s t r u c t u r e t h e n u m b e r m a y w i t h e q u a l r i g h t be v a r i e d u n d e r t h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e .

plane in relation t o t h e table. The functional connections between the elements (e.g. t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e rays a n d f o c u s s i n g ) are n o t included in t h e q u a n t i f i e d structures, b u t t h e y can

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURES

BASIC STRUCTURE

Variation of relative a r r a n g e m e n t

4
1^ I

Figure

23

Quantified

structures

for a

microscope

27

Figure 24 Microscope with different (Courtesy of Olympus and Monolynx)

quantified

structures.

28

Methods

used in form

design In F i g u r e 2 5 , n o t e t h a t t h e range o f s o l u t i o n s is n a r r o w e d c o n s i d e r a b l y d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t all t h e w h e e l s m u s t be o n t h e same l e v e l , a n d t h a t n o elem e n t m a y lie b e l o w t h i s level. In F i g u r e 2 5 , n o t e also t h a t t h e k e y t o t h e systematic arrangement covering the whole spectrum of solutions lies in t h e small f r a m e d f i g u r e s . These

F i g u r e 2 5 s h o w s possible q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s f o r r o a d r o l l e r s , w h e r e t h e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s are t h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e n u m b e r o f t h e e l e m e n t s . T h e e l e m e n t s w e e x a m i n e are: w h e e l s , engine a n d p o s i t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t o r . O n l y r o a d rollers b u i l t o n the t r a d i t i o n a l principle, where rolling wheels and t r a n s p o r t w h e e l s are i d e n t i c a l are c o n s i d e r e d .

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURFi^

SYMBOLS

Variation of: Relative arrangement -Number

O lEl

Wheel Engine Operator

E L E M E N T S ON ONE LEVEL

2 Wheels

OOdllH]

OOEll

OiOSl

OEO O m o
OMO
Figure 25

Jooia isioo
?! EOG
for road rollers

Quan tified structures

lOO

29

3 Wheels

Id OOiEQO

)?OIlO

4 Wheels

)?

OO

Figure

25

(continued)

30

E L E M E N T S ON TWO LEVELS

2 Wheels

...|...

-I
o m o m

!
o o

oof
3 Wheels

OmO OmOO

OOOE\

doof

coo

4 Wheels o o o J m

oooo
Figure 25

oooo
(continued)

31

E L E M E N T S ON TWO LEVELS

2 Wheels

3 Wheels

m l

OO
i. W h e e l s

OOO

)00

oooo
ELEMENTS ON THREE LEVELS

ooo

MM.
2 Wheels

..|
)"

/El)
\ S o l

3 Wheels

\OOo/

Wheels

oooo
Figure 25 (continued)

32

Methods

used in form

design a reasonable n u m b e r ( f o u r , in t h i s case) o f c a t e g o r i e s , W h e n a given s t r u c t u r e is c h o s e n f o r closer e x a m i n a t i o n o n e m u s t s t i l l feel f r e e t o v a r y t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of the elements, although within narrow limits, Figure 26 shows some m o d e r n existing road rollers.

f i g u r e s express t h e levels o n w h i c h t h e e l e m e n t s lie i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e a r t h . O f c o u r s e an e l e m e n t (e.g. t h e e n g i n e ) m a y lie o n a level b e t w e e n t h e ones w e are c o n s i d e r i n g , b u t as t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s are o b v i o u s l y i n n u m e r a b l e w e begin b y d i v i d i n g t h e p r o b l e m i n t o

Figure

26

Road rollers.

(See also Figure

25)

33

Figure

26

(continued)

34

Methods

used in form

design t h e angle o f t h e t w o e l e m e n t s can be v a r i e d g r a d u a l l y , b u t t h e range o f s o l u t i o n s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e angles s h o w n . T h e relative arrangement o f three elements o f t h e same o r d e r o f size c a n be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e same c o n siderations. Figure 2 8 shows a n u m b e r o f possibilities at t h e s h o w n level o f d e t a i l . T h e great n u m b e r o f solutions that emerge through a permutation the of three different elements in each o f positions

Range of solutions for two and three elements


I t is necessary t o ask ' H o w m a n y q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s is i t realistic t o d r a w u p , a n d is i t possible t o get a clear v i e w o f t h e w h o l e range o f s o l u t i o n ? ' In m a n y cases t h i s can be d o n e if o n l y t h e m o s t The possibilities for important are two e l e m e n t s are i n c l u d e d as a basis f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n s . t w o and three elements examined below. If w e e x a m i n e t h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t o f e l e m e n t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal size w e can d r a w u p t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s s h o w n in F i g u r e 2 7 . O b v i o u s l y

s h o w n w i l l a l w a y s be q u i c k l y l i m i t e d w h e n w o r k i n g o n a s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s is s h o w n i n t h e e x a m p l e o n page 4 2 .

ARRANGEMENT OF TWO

ELEMENTS:

0 O

Remember:

i.e. one inside t h e o t h e n

Figure

27

Possibilities

for the relative

arrangement

of two

elements

35

Figure

28

Possibilities

for the relative

arrangement

of the three

elements

36

Methods

used in form

design

Structure function

variation in connection

witfi

boat

b e i n g used as t h e s o u r c e o f

energy f o r

the

p u m p . As the boat rocks, a p e n d u l u m o n a vertical axis swings f r o m side t o side a n d t h i s drives a p i s t o n pump. The inset of Figure 29 shows the basic

The functional connection between the most importa n t e l e m e n t s is expressed i n t h e basic s t r u c t u r e , m o s t o f t e n in s o m e s o r t o f s k e t c h s h o w i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e of the design, where c o m m o n l y accepted symbols f o r k n o w n elements (machine, h y d r a u l i c , pneumatic, e l e c t r i c s y m b o l s , e t c ) are used. So l o n g as t h i s s k e t c h expresses t h e basic s t r u c t u r e i t is e x e m p t f r o m a n y definite built dimensions or form, but it may be the the starting point f o r a series o f q u a n t i f i e d variation structures

structure. F i g u r e 2 9 also i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e are m a n y possible v a r i a t i o n s , as t h e r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s c a n be c h a n g e d c o n t i n u o u s l y . I t is t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t t o m a k e t h e v a r i a t i o n s a t t h e c o r r e c t stage, w h i c h means t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f elements considered must must not be too great (less the important parameters of ones are k e p t f o r later), and that

on the structure

method with

be v a r i e d in s u i t a b l e steps. T h u s of solutions. Later,

relative a r r a n g e m e n t a n d d i m e n s i o n s as p a r a m e t e r s f o r each separate e l e m e n t in t h e basic s t r u c t u r e . Figure 2 9 shows the q u a n t i f i e d structure f o r a baling p u m p empty intended f o r keeping a m o o r e d by the rocking m o v e m e n t of boat the of water

each suggested s o l u t i o n s k e t c h e d m u s t be t h o u g h t as r e p r e s e n t i n g a c a t e g o r y w h e n c h o o s i n g t h e best suggestions, t h e i n d i v i d u a l categories m a y be e x a m i n e d m o r e c l o s e l y .

37

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURES

BASIC

STRUCTURE W a t e r out

V a r i a t i o n of: R e l a t i v e a r r a n g e n n e n t - Dinnensions

Pendulunn

O'
Piston p u m p ] ^

7777777

W a t e r in

RELATIVE

ARRANGEMENT

H D 777Z7Z7 ////////'

-CID

CUD
DIMENSIONS V to v a r y : , , L , D , V :

-CID;
7777777

-fe
///////

O'

o
77777
Figure 29 Quantified structures for a baling pump

77777

38

Methods

used in form

design section. Figure 31 shows examples of structure

Figure 3 0 shows a n u m b e r o f q u a n t i f i e d structures for a gear, drawn up on t h e basis o f t h e basic structure illustrated in t h e inset. Here t h e r e l a t i v e

variation f o r a labelling machine. The t o p illustration shows q u a n t i f i e d structures f o r f o u r existing labelling m a c h i n e s , a n d a n u m b e r o f o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s are s h o w n below. Finally, Figure 3 2 shows some quantified structures for an excavator, and Figure 33 in demonstrates h o w t h r e e o f these are e m p l o y e d

a r r a n g e m e n t a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s are n o t i n d e p e n d e n t l y v a r i e d . W h e t h e r i t is u s e f u l t o k e e p t h e t w o p a r a m e t e r s separate d u r i n g t h e search f o r s o l u t i o n s depends o n the nature o f the p r o b l e m , a fact w h i c h is also evident from the other examples in this

existing excavators.

BASIC STRUCTURE

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURES

777

Variation o f : Relative a r r a n g e m e n t -Dimensions

v////\ ////

Z77/A

4-

Figure

30

Quantified

structures

for a gear

39

BASIC

STRUCTURE Roll of l a b e l s Motor

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURES Mj

Variation o f : R e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t - Dimensions

^ ^ ? > C supporting
Label (9) strip I

Roll for

U existing labelling

machines:

Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s

0
(M)

Ms)
Figure 31 31 Quantified structures for a labelling machine

40

BASI C

STRUCTURE

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURES

Variation

parameters

Arrangement Dimensions

Figure

32

Quantified

structures

for an

excavator

41

Figure

33

Excavators

wit/i

different

quantified

structures.

(See a/so Figure

32)

42

Methods

used in form

design A m o n g t h e s o l u t i o n s i n F i g u r e 3 4 are s o m e w h i c h c a n be e x c l u d e d o n t h e basis o f c r i t e r i a s u c h as handling (the teapot ought not to be inside the

A coherent example: a tea-maker


In t h i s s e c t i o n w e w i l l e x a m i n e h o w t h e t w o s t r u c t u r e variation methods can be e m p l o y e d successively. boiling the For example, consider a tea-maker, where brews before the leaves are removed

other containers) The next step

a n d q u e s t i o n s o f space (e.g. t h e in deciding consists on of more detailed the the

t h r e e e l e m e n t s i n a r o w c a n be o m i t t e d ) . quantified which it structures connecting

w a t e r is p o u r e d o n t o t e a leaves, a n d w h e r e t h e t e a from f i n i s h e d t e a . We i m a g i n e t h a t w e have reached a stage i n t h e design w o r k w h e r e d i f f e r e n t basic s t r u c t u r e s have been c o n s i d e r e d , so t h a t t h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d . As a first approach t o the q u a n t i f i e d structure we m a y l o o k at the relative arrangement o f the three main elements: a container f o r cold water, one f o r tea t h a t is b r e w i n g , a n d f i n a l l y o n e f o r t h e f i n i s h e d t e a , w h e r e t h e l a t t e r m a y perhaps be a t r a d i t i o n a l teapot. The m a n y possibilities illustrated in Figure 2 8 are r e d u c e d since s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h are s y m m e t r i c a l round simple a vertical axis are identical. The to making relative a r r a n g e m e n t s are s h o w n i n F i g u r e 3 4 . N o t e h o w t h e sketches contribute systematic v a r i a t i o n easy. V a r i a t i o n s c a n be m a d e b y d r a w i n g f r o m one solution t o another.

usable s t r u c t u r e s i n F i g u r e 3 4 w i t h a basic s t r u c t u r e is assumed has been c h o s e n b e f o r e r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e e l e m e n t s was c o n s i d e r e d . T h e inset i n F i g u r e 3 5 s h o w s a r o u g h s k e t c h o f a sugg e s t i o n f o r a basic s t r u c t u r e . T h e m a i n i l l u s t r a t i o n shows t w e n t y d i f f e r e n t q u a n t i f i e d structures expressing t h e relative arrangement o f t h e elements a n d the functional relationship between t h e m . It is p o s s i b l e , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e d i a g r a m s i n F i g u r e 3 5 , t o discard some structures. T h e factors t h a t can be used as c r i t e r i a a r e : p r i c e ( c o m p l e x i t y ) , appearance, h a n d l i n g a n d effectiveness. T h e final c h o i c e o f s t r u c t u r e c a n o n l y be s a f e l y m a d e a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the design possibilities for some of the most promising structures.

43

SYMBOLS QUANTIFIED STRUCTURES [K\ Boiler

Variation

of r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e n n e n t

B r e w i n g vessel

()

Teapot

SS-

ra

g l

'

^ ^ i ^
2.

^msi
3& SS

m 3
ffi.

TU

"i^
8 "2

1 !
El
IIL
teamaker

43

Figure

34

Relative

arrangement

of boiler,

brewing

vessel and teapot

for design of the

44

BASIC S T R U C T U R E

QUANTIFIED

STRUCTURES

V a r i a t i o n o f relative a r r a n g e m e n t

Heating element w h i c h forces the boiling water into the brewing vessel. A f t e r b r e w i n g , a r e m a i n i n g a m o u n t o f w a t e r is b o i l e d , w h e r e b y t h e tea is f o r c e d i n t o t h e t e a p o t

Ti

\I

7^

1^

Figure 35 Basic structure arid twenty quantified structures 2 2 . - 1

21-2.
34)

for an automatic

teama/<er. (The figures refer to Figure

45

Figure

35

(continued)

46

Methods used in form design modelling


d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e see page 5 6 ) . A s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f s u c h a m o d e l is t o f i n d o u t w h i c h r e l a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s o f t h e e l e m e n t s are r e a l i s t i c , t h e m o d e l m u s t be c o n s t r u c t e d in such a w a y t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s can be q u i c k l y m o v e d t o n e w p o s i t i o n s . F o r t h i s p u r pose bricks of polystyrene are e x t r e m e l y useful, p a r t l y because t h e y are easy t o c a r v e , a n d p a r t l y because t h e i r l i g h t w e i g h t a l l o w s a b r i c k t o be h e l d about fast i n a n y p o s i t i o n b y j u s t b e i n g pressed d o w n o n t o a t h i n s p i k e . N o t e here t h a t w e are t a l k i n g s t r u c t u r e s are b e i n g c o n possibility. a test tube structure models and n o t about f o r m models. This means t h a t t h e c o m p o n e n t e l e m e n t s o n l y need t o be m o d e l l e d b y t h e space t h e y w i l l o c c u p y a n d n o t b y t h e i r f o r m d e t a i l s . (See also c h a p t e r 5, w h i c h also deals w i t h t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e m o d e l s ) .

Structure

W h e n v a r y i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e i t is a l w a y s necessary t o visualise t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . D i a g r a m s w i t h seen f r o m the previous examples three-dimensional models simplified section. however, s y m b o l s are s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h i s c a n be in t h i s may, Making

also be r e l e v a n t . F i g u r e 3 6 s h o w s s o m e s t r u c t u r e s f o r a tea m a k e r m o d e l l e d w i t h s i m p l e t o y b r i c k s . (See also F i g u r e 3 4 ) . Where more complex s i d e r e d , sketches are n o t s u f f i c i e n t , a n d In s u c h cases t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l l i n g is t h e o n l y 37, where quantified structures for A t y p i c a l t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l is s h o w n i n F i g u r e filling machine are s h o w n . ( F o r a more detailed

Figure

36

Mal<ing

three-dimensional

models

of quantified structures Figure 34)

for a teamaker

with

the aid of toy bricks.

(See also

47

Figure

37

Three-dimensional

models of quantified structures for a test tube filling machine. handling conditions the best structure may be chosen

On an evaluation

of space

and

48

Methods used in form design

2.3 F o r m variation The idea of functional surfaces


by

In t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n i t was s h o w n h o w t h e basis f o r t h e fornn design o f a p r o d u c t is laid d o w n choosing the quantified structure. Once this choice has been m a d e i n a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t t h e a c t u a l f o r m design w o r k c a n s t a r t . A s t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o d u c t synthesis s h o w e d , t h e r e are t w o aspects o f t h e design t h a t m u s t be t r e a t e d c o n c u r r e n t l y , n a m e l y t h e t o t a l f o r m of the product and the f o r m of the individual e l e m e n t s . T h e m e t h o d s t h a t m a y be e m p l o y e d f o r these t w o a c t i v i t i e s are b r o a d l y s i m i l a r . So i n t h e following pages, w h e r e w e have used e x a m p l e s o f e l e m e n t d e s i g n , t h e m e t h o d s d e m o n s t r a t e d can be t r a n s f e r r e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e t o t a l design a n d vice versa. H o w c a n o n e m a k e a s t a r t o n t h e f o r m design o f a s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t ? We m u s t ask ourselves w h a t i t is t h a t characterises t h e e l e m e n t i n q u e s t i o n . T h e element is a p a r t o f b o t h a basic s t r u c t u r e a n d o f a q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e . We c a n t h e r e f o r e say t h a t t h e e l e m e n t has been d e f i n e d o n l y b y its f u n c t i o n a n d b y its f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o its s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e f o r m design m u s t c o n s e q u e n t l y be t o f o r m u l a t e t h e f u n c t i o n s t h e e l e m e n t m u s t perf o r m . Thereafter one can sketch the most i m p o r t a n t surfaces o r f u n c t i o n a l surfaces a n d f r o m these t h e rest o f t h e e l e m e n t m a y be d e s i g n e d . In t h i s b o o k a f u n c t i o n a l s u r f a c e is t a k e n t o m e a n a surface t h a t has an a c t i v e f u n c t i o n d u r i n g use for e x a m p l e , t h e s l o t i n t h e head o f a s c r e w , t h e area o f i m p a c t o n t h e head o f a h a m m e r ; t h e surface o f a c h a i r seat; t h e cogs o n a w h e e l , e t c . We now examine the connection between the f u n c t i o n a l surfaces a n d t h e f o r m . F o r e x a m p l e , let
Figure 39 The functional surface openers for the two bottle

US select a s i m p l e e l e m e n t - a b o t t l e o p e n e r . F i g u r e 3 8 s h o w s t w o t y p e s o f o p e n e r w h i c h d o n o t appear t o have m u c h i n c o m m o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces are almost identical, see Figure 39. A b o t t l e o p e n e r possesses t h r e e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces as s h o w n . T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o t y p e s illust r a t e d consists i n t h e d i f f e r e n t spacial a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l c o n n e c t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces. We c a n t h e r e f o r e i d e n t i f y t w o steps in t h e design o f an e l e m e n t , o n t h e o n e h a n d d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces a n d , o n t h e o t h e r , d e c i d i n g h o w these w i l l be c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r . A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d . F i g u r e 3 9 s h o w s t h i s last s t e p , w h i l e 40 illustrates how other arrangements functional surfaces give rise t o o t h e r f o r m surfaces are t h e basis o f t h e Figure of the design form

possibilities. Functional design o f a n y p r o d u c t . I t is t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o discuss i n m o r e d e t a i l w h a t , in f a c t , f u n c t i o n a l surfaces are. I n a p r o d u c t c o n s i s t i n g o f m o r e t h a n o n e e l e m e n t t h e r e are t w o t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces external and internal. External surfaces have an

active f u n c t i o n in relation t o t h e surroundings, such as a h a n d l e , a s u p p o r t i n g su'-face, e t c . T h e i n t e r n a J surfaces have a n a c t i v e f u n c t i o n in r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r elements o f the p r o d u c t . T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d b y i m a g i n i n g a p r o d u c t as a system consisting o f a n u m b e r o f elements w i t h
Figure 38 Two different nothing bottle in openers common with apparently

certain

relationships

to

each

other.

The

vice

in

F i g u r e 4 1 m a y t h u s be d e s c r i b e d as a s y s t e m s h o w n

49

Figure

40

Different

cfioices

of functional

surfaces

give rise to different

design

possibilities

Figure

41

A vice. The starting

point

for Figures

42 to

44

50

Methods

used in form

design As s h o w n of functional in Figure 4 4 , a specific arrangement

in F i g u r e 4 2 , w h e r e t h e e l e m e n t s are r e p r e s e n t e d b y blocks and the relationship between t h e m and the s u r r o u n d i n g s b y lines. If w e c o n s i d e r a p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t o f t h e vice e.g. t h e s l i d i n g j a w , w e c a n see t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s c o r r e spond exactly t o t h e above m e n t i o n e d functional surface, surfaces. T h e s l i d i n g j a w has a n e x t e r n a l j e c t as w e l l and

surfaces c a n be t h e basis f o r m a n y

f o r m designs, a n d o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s c a n give o t h e r series o f f o r m designs. In t h e c h a p t e r o n t h e f o r m variation m e t h o d w e described t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e form design w o r k c a n be t a c k l e d o n t h e basis o f functional surfaces. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s i t

c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e s u r f a c e w h i c h presses o n t h e subas o f t h e t o p h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e . T h e f o r t h e rods. T h e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r n a l surfaces c o n s i s t o f t h e h o l e f o r t h e s p i n d l e t h e t w o holes surfaces are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4 3 .

w i l l be a p p a r e n t h o w a great deal o f e f f o r t is n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h f u n c t i o n a l surfaces are t o be used i n o r d e r t h a t a f i r m a n d b r o a d basis f o r t h e design w o r k is a c h i e v e d .

LIMIT OF THE SYSTEM

OBJECT

1
SPIKJDLE

FJAME WITH FIXED JAW

HANDLE

Figure

42

A vice. Relationship

of

elements

Figure

43

A vice. The functional

surfaces

of the sliding jaw

51

Figure

44

Suggested

form

designs for tfie sliding jaw,

based on two different

groups

of the functional

surfaces

52

Methods

used in form

design

Tfie metfiod of variation of thie surfaces

functional

g e o m e t r y a n d d i m e n s i o n . Figures 4 5 a n d 4 6 s h o w a number of examples o f products, where the functional surfaces are e m p h a s i s e d . T h e products are p r e s e n t e d i n pairs in o r d e r t h a t t h e f o u r variation

A specification of the parameters t h a t determine the f u n c t i o n a l surfaces o f an e l e m e n t m a y f o r m t h e basis o f v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d s f o r g e n e r a t i n g ideas. B y system a t i c v a r i a t i o n o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s i t b e c o m e s possible t o list a n u m b e r o f a r r a n g e m e n t s o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces f o r a given e l e m e n t . T h e r e l e v a n t p a r a m e t e r s t h a t can be v a r i e d are: n u m b e r , a r r a n g e m e n t , f o r m

p a r a m e t e r s m a y be o b s e r v e d , p a r t l y f o r t h e i n t e r n a l a n d p a r t l y f o r t h e e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n a l surfaces. As these are n a t u r a l l y a p a r t o f t h e f i n a l f o r m w e shall m e e t t h e f o u r v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s again in c o n n e c tion with the later s e c t i o n o n t h e f o r m variation method.

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

FORM

GEOMETRY

DIMENSIONS

Figure

45 Examples of variation of internal functional surfaces based on tfie four variation parameters. Tfie examples sfiown are a hinge, overhead projector, a socket for a camera lens and a socket for an electric light bulb

53

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

FORM

GEOMETRY

DIMENSIONS

Figure

46

Examples

of variation of external functional surfaces based on the four variation parameters. - a wheel for a chair, an electric drill, a hotplate andan electric switch

The examples

are

54

STARTING P O I N T : Lid w i t h p a c k i n g FUNCTIONAL SURFACES

Variation parameters : - Number -Arrangement -Dimension - Form geometry

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

1=

=B

Figure

47

Variation

of functional

surfaces

for a lid with

packing

number,

arrangement

Methods In t h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs i t w i l l be s h o w n h o w v a r i a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces m a y be a p p l i e d in a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m . T h i s is t o design an area o f packing r o u n d a lid, cover, cork or similar object. T h e p r o b l e m is i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 4 7 ( i n s e t ) . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m o n t h e basis o f v a r y i n g t h e f o u r v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s m a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , give t h e suggestions s h o w n in Figures 4 7 a n d 4 8 . These m u s t n o t be regarded as f i n a l suggestions, b u t o n l y as categories o f s o l u t i o n s , as each o f t h e suggestions shown must be f u r t h e r elaborated at the detail design stage.

used in form

design

55

T h e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s m a y g e n e r a l l y be f r e e l y v a r i e d inside t h e l i m i t s w h e r e t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces c a n f u l f i l l t h e i r f u n c t i o n . I f t h e f u l l range o f s o l u t i o n s is t o be t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n e d i t w i l l be necessary t o evaluate t h e l i m i t s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r a m a t e r s . A s an o v e r a l l c h e c k o n t h e l i m i t s i t m a y be u s e f u l t o e x a m i n e t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces w i t h t h e greatest e x t e n t a n d t h o s e w i t h t h e smallest e x t e n t . S u c h surfaces m a y be s u i t a b l y c a l l e d m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m surfaces, see F i g u r e 4 9 .

DIMENSION

FORM GEOMETRY

5z

Figure 48

Variation

of functional

surfaces

for a lid witfi packing

dimension,

form

geometry

MINIMUM

SURFACE

MAXIMUM

SURFACE

Figure 49

Minimum

and maximum

functional

surface

for a lid witfi

packing

56

Methods used in form design


It is, o f c o u r s e , a personal m a t t e r w h e t h e r one and T h e c o n v e y o r ' s f u n c t i o n a l surfaces m u s t f o r m a s u p p o r t so t h a t t h e t u b e s c a n n o t f a l l over. A m a x i m u m s u r f a c e is easy t o d e f i n e , n a m e l y a h o l e w i t h a r o u n d b o t t o m , w h i c h can c o m p l e t e l y s u r r o u n d the test t u b e . A m i n i m u m s u r f a c e is t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h r e e p o i n t s s u p p o r t i n g t h e t a b l e , b u t as t h e t u b e must n o t be able t o f a l l o v e r b y a c c i d e n t , i t m u s t be supp o r t e d o n a t least f i v e o r six p o i n t s . T h e design o f t h e c o n v e y o r is s h o w n in F i g u r e 5 1 . I t is c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t t h e t u b e s are s u p p o r t e d a t f i v e p o i n t s b y t h e c o n v e y o r and at a s i x t h one, b e l o w , by a f i x e d table t o p o v e r w h i c h t h e t u b e s slide. M i n i m u m for the conveyor have been chosen surfaces case in t h i s

decides t o a p p l y t h e v a r i a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s s y s t e m a t i cally, or whether minimum surfaces one s i m p l y uses m a x i m u m by a few supplemented possi-

b i l i t i e s in b e t w e e n . In a n y case, a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e variation of consciously number, arrangement, f o r m geometry with and dimension is i m p o r t a n t , w h e t h e r i t is a p p l i e d

o r is s i m p l y p a r t o f t h e a t t i t u d e

w h i c h o n e a t t a c k s a given t a s k . L e t us t h e r e f o r e c o n sider s o m e details in a s p e c i f i c m a c h i n e o n t h e basis of a more flexible a t t i t u d e , while primarily studying m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m surfaces. Figure 5 0 shows a machine t h a t can carry o u t a n u m b e r o f processes w i t h t e s t t u b e s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n u t r i e n t s f o r tests o n b a c t e r i a . T h e processes t h a t t h e test t u b e s go t h r o u g h a r e : s t e r i l i s a t i o n ( b y heat), cooling, filling w i t h n u t r i e n t , closing w i t h a sterile w a d o f c o t t o n w o o l a n d l a b e l l i n g . T h e t u b e s are loaded manually, transported through the machine on a continuous circular conveyor and taken o u t by hand.

because t h e c o n v e y o r , as w e l l as t h e t e s t t u b e s , goes t h r o u g h b o t h the heater and t h e c o o l i n g zone and so t h e h e a t c a p a c i t y o f t h e c o n v e y o r needs t o kept to a m i n i m u m . T h e l o a d i n g s y s t e m is a f u n n e l - s h a p e d m a g a z i n e w h i c h c a n t a k e t h i r t y t e s t t u b e s . T h e t u b e s are passed a l o n g b y b e i n g grasped o n e at a t i m e b y a d r u m , w h e r e u p o n t h e y are s w u n g d o w n i n t o t h e c i r c u l a r be

Figure 50 filling with

Machine for filling test tubes. This machine carries out automatic the correct dose, corking and labelling of test tubes (Inst, for Product of Denmark) The Technical University

sterilisation, Development,

57

FROM A B O V E

SIDE V I E W

Toothed

wheel

Guide rail Test tube

Figure

51

The functional

surfaces

in the circular

conveyor

in the test tube machine

are designed

as minimum

surfaces

58

FUNCTION

/////////////////

MAXIMUM

SURFACES

MINIMUM

SURFACES

Figure

52

L oading

system

for the test tube filling

machine.

The actual

design as well as other

functional

surfaces are shown

59

FUNCTION

MAXIMUM

SURFACES

MINIMUM

SURFACES

Figure

53

Unloading

system

of tfje test tube filling

machine

60

Methods

used in form

design Banned areas: in space must which not are structurally conother be o b s t r u c t e d , i.e.

c o n v e y o r as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 5 2 . If t h e l o a d i n g s y s t e m is c o n s t r u c t e d using m a x i m u m surfaces t h e t u b e s m u s t be s u p p o r t e d a n d g u i d e d as m u c h as possible. T h e result can be seen at t h e b o t t o m l e f t in F i g u r e 5 2 . T o design t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces as m i n i m u m ones, t h e desired f u n c t i o n m a y be achieved as l o n g as t h e t u b e s are c o n s t a n t l y s u p p o r t e d at f o u r p o i n t s , see F i g u r e 52, b o t t o m r i g h t . In t h e m a c h i n e , t h e l o a d i n g s y s t e m is designed using m a x i m u m surfaces t o p r e v e n t damage t o t h e t u b e s a n d t o p r e v e n t t h e o p e r a t o r g e t t i n g his f i n g e r s t r a p p e d . W h e n , a f t e r t h e c y c l e is c o m p l e t e d , t h e test t u b e s leave t h e c i r c u l a r c o n v e y o r t h e y are grasped b y a d r u m w h i c h passes t h e m u p i n t o a m a g a z i n e , w h e r e t h e o p e r a t o r can r e m o v e t h e m . T h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e u n l o a d i n g d r u m is i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 5 3 , t o p . T h e d r u m r o t a t e s o n a s l o p i n g axis, so t h a t t h e test t u b e s are m o v e d in a h y p e r b o l o i d p l a n e . W h e n t h e t u b e s have c o m p l e t e d a h a l f c i r c u i t t h e y are f o r c e d u p i n t o t h e m a g a z i n e . If m a x i m u m surfaces are used f o r t h e d r u m , w e get a design l i k e t h e one b o t t o m l e f t in F i g u r e 5 3 . A m i n i m u m s u r f a c e w i l l be c o m p l e t e l y analogous t o t h e c i r c u l a r c o n v e y o r in F i g u r e 5 4 , as i t is s u f f i c i e n t t o have t w o p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t above a n d t w o b e l o w as w e l l as a p o i n t in t h e m i d d l e a n d o n e at t h e b o t t o m . mum. In t h e m a c h i n e , t h e d r u m is reason is t o prevent designed w i t h f u n c t i o n a l surfaces close t o t h e m a x i Here again, t h e m a i n damage t o t h e test t u b e s .

1. Areas

ditioned

e l e m e n t s m u s t n o t be h a m p e r e d ( t h i s applies t o b o t h stationary and movable elements). 2. Areas in space w h i c h must not be are f u n c t i o n a l l y conditioned water). 3. Areas in space w h i c h are o p e r a t i o n a l l y must not conditioned be o b s t r u c t e d (e.g. r o o m o b s t r u c t e d , (e.g. t h e

o b j e c t s in t h e process, rays o f l i g h t a n d jets o f

f o r a h a n d , r o o m f o r an o p e r a t o r , e t c ) . O n t h e basis o f these b a n n e d areas o n e can n o w d r a w u p a n u m b e r o f f o r m design suggestions t h a t r o u g h l y s h o w w h e r e in space t h e c o n n e c t i o n s m u s t be p u t . T h e n e x t step is t o d e c i d e o n t h e f o r m geom e t r y a n d t h e d i m e n s i o n s f i r s t as r o u g h sketches and, thereafter, Chapter 3). It is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g c o m m e n t s t h a t t h e f o r m design o f an e l e m e n t c o n t a i n s both a qualitative how the and a quantitative will part. Any e.g. d e c i s i o n o n d i m e n s i o n s is i r r e l e v a n t u n t i l i t has been decided material be a r r a n g e d , w h e t h e r a f u n c t i o n a l surface w i l l be s u p p o r t e d at o n e p o i n t o r at several. T h e n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s a n d t h e relative a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s b e l o n g t o t h e q u a l i t a t i v e p a r t o f t h e f o r m d e s i g n , w h i l e geom e t r y and dimension belong t o the quantitative one. The f o l l o w i n g section explains h o w the variation of in d e t a i l drawings, judged on for instance t e c h n o l o g i c a l o r a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a (see also

Restrictions

on form design

p a r a m e t e r s can be a p p l i e d .

Let us i m a g i n e t h a t w e have a p r o p o s a l f o r t h e f o r m design o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces o f an e l e m e n t . H o w t h e n d o w e m o v e o n f r o m t h e r e ? A s has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d , t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces m u s t be The variation parameters: number, arrangement f o r m geometry and dimension, are general f o r m parasurm e t e r s , a n d w e have a l r e a d y s h o w n h o w these m a y be used in t h e search f o r possible f u n c t i o n a l faces. T h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e f o u r p a r a m e t e r s w i t h the f o r m of the material that connects the functional surfaces is i l l u s t r a t e d in Figures 5 4 a n d 5 5 . c o n n e c t e d t o g e t h e r . T h e p r o b l e m is n o w t o arrange t h e c o n n e c t i o n s so t h a t t h e e l e m e n t can f u n c t i o n i n use. T h e role o f t h e e l e m e n t w h e n in use m u s t t h e r e f o r e be assessed a n d t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t m a y have t o be t a k e n a c c o u n t o f in t h e f o r m design o f an e l e m e n t can be f o r m u l a t e d as f o l l o w s :

The form variation

method

Methods

used in form

design

61

Number

Figure

54 The variation parameters area to connect the functional

of number and arrangement surfaces. The examples show

can be used in connection with arranging the materia/ two sprinkler valves and two motor lawn mowers

62

Dimension

Figure

55

The variation parameters of form geometry and dimension can be used to specify the form when area (see Figure 54) has been chosen. The examp/es show two nutcrac/cers and two c/amps

the

materia/

Methods T a k i n g a t y p i c a l exannple d r a u l i c press the frame in a hy-

used in form

design

63

In o t h e r w o r d s t h e f r a m e m u s t be designed so t h a t t h e t w o f u n c t i o n surfaces are c o n n e c t e d i n a w a y w h i c h t a k e s a c c o u n t o f t h e b a n n e d areas, a n d w h i c h allows it t o fulfill necessary f o r c e s . Figure and 57 shows h o w the variation of of elements may be number used to arrangement its f u n c t i o n t o t r a n s m i t t h e

w e n o w observe h o w t h e v a r i a t i o n

parameters can be used in d e s i g n i n g an e l e m e n t . T h e f r a m e o f t h e press c o n t a i n s t w o f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, namely the fastening areas for respectively the h y d r a u l i c c y l i n d e r a n d t h e pressure p l a t e , see F i g u r e 5 6 . W h e n d e s i g n i n g t h e f r a m e t h e r e are t h r e e b a n n e d areas: 1. T h e r e m u s t be r o o m f o r t h e p i s t o n in all its positions; 2. T h e r e m u s t be r o o m f o r an o b j e c t o f a c l o s e l y d e f i n e d m a x i m u m size; 3. T h e r e m u s t be r o o m f o r t h e o b j e c t t o be p u t i n t o a n d t a k e n o u t o f t h e press.

examine where t h e material can lie. A f t e r t h a t , t h e variation it of f o r m geometry to detail and dimension of rough make design possible a number

suggestions o r f o r m c o n c e p t s . F o r c o m p a r i s o n . F i g u r e 5 8 s h o w s t h e design o f a n u m b e r o f e x i s t i n g presses.

FUNCTIONAL

SURFACE

A f f i x i n g of hydraulic c y l i n d e r BANNED AREA

Room for t h e object t o be p r e s s e d , and room f o r the piston

FUNCTIONAL SURFACE A f f i x i n g of p r e s s u r e plate BANNED AREA

Room f o r the o b j e c t and f o r h a n d s a n d a r m s w h i l e loading and unloading

Figure

56

Functional

surfaces

and banned

areas in connection

with

the form

design

of a frame

for a hydraulic

press

64

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation parameters : Number -Arrangement -Form geometry -Dimension

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

FORM GEOMETRY

DIMENSION

On

o;
Figure 57 Form concepts for a frame for a hydraulic press

65

Figure

58

Hydraulic

press. See also Figure

57

66

Methods

used in form

design f o r m p r o p o s a l s as s h o w n In F i g u r e 6 0 . N o t e t h a t i t is useful to work at two levels of abstraction, n a m e l y , w i t h a series o f s o l u t i o n s w h e r e n u m b e r a n d a r r a n g e m e n t are v a r i e d ( F i g u r e 5 9 ) a n d o n e w h e r e f o r m g e o m e t r y a n d d i m e n s i o n are v a r i e d ( F i g u r e 6 0 ) . N o t e also t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n i l l u s t r a t i o n technique. T h e f o r m p r o p o s a l s m u s t n o w be f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d , a n d i t b e c o m e s necessary t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the example of the fork joint, the design, c o m p a r e Figures 6 0 a n d 9 8 . manufacturing double

A m o r e d e t a i l e d use o f t h e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s is possible t h r o u g h a closer i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l areas b e t w e e n t h e f u n c t i o n surfaces. T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e . F i g u r e 5 9 s h o w s t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces i n a f o r k j o i n t w i t h a single b e a r i n g a t o n e e n d a n d i t is a p p r o p r i a t e line for bearings a t t h e o t h e r . I n v a r y i n g t h e m a t e r i a l area t o use t h r e e sorts o f s y m b o l s ; a that is a p p r o x i m a t e l y a rod something

( s t r a i g h t o r c u r v e d ) , a h a t c h e d p l a n e f o r s o m e t h i n g t h e f o r m f a c t o r s (see p. 9 8 ) t h a t a c t u a l l y e x i s t . I n f l a t , a n d f i n a l l y a h a t c h e d area f o r s o m e t h i n g s o l i d , i.e. m a t e r i a l i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s . Va^-iation o f f o r m geometry and dimension can r e s u l t i n a series o f process b e c o m e s a decisive f a c t o r f o r t h e c h o i c e o f

FUNCTIONAL FORM CONCEPTS V a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s : Number^ arrangement

SURFACES

:.

RODS

PLANES

SOLID

COMBINATIONS

Figure

59

Form

concepts

for a for/< Joint

at the most

abstract

level,

where

the number

and arrangement

of the

material

areas are

examined

67

FORM CONCEPTS

RODS

PLANES

SOLID

i 1 1 , * 1

COMBINATIONS

Figure

60

Form

concepts

for a forl< joint

drawn

up on the basis of Figure (See also Figure 98)

59 and variation

of form

geometry

and

dimension.

68

Methods

used in form

design m a t e r i a l m a y be a r r a n g e d f r e e l y in space a n d F i g u r e 6 2 s h o w s a n u m b e r o f suggested f o r m designs d r a w n u p b y v a r y i n g t h e n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s a n d arrangem e n t . A d i v i s i o n i n t o r o d s , planes a n d s o l i d shapes has been m a d e , as in t h e p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e . maximum and m i n i m u m Note t h a t f o r some o f the parameters one can consider values. F i g u r e 6 3 s h o w s f o r m concepts arising o u t o f v a r i a t i o n o f t h e f o r m geometry and the dimension. I n F i g u r e 6 2 a n d 6 3 i t c a n be seen t h a t v a r i a t i o n of number and arrangement varying can form be c a r r i e d geometry out and q u i t e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , w h i l e it is u n r e a l i s t i c t o w o r k systematically when d i m e n s i o n . Here t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e c o u r s e is t o c o m b i n e t h e suggestions a r i s i n g f r o m v a r y i n g n u m b e r and arrangement Figure with different basic geometric form existing shapes a n d use t h i s as a s o u r c e o f ideas f o r suggestions. microscopes. 6 4 s h o w s a series o f

F i n a l l y t h e f o r m v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d w i l l be illustrated by a slightly more complex example, a m i c r o s c o p e . We have a l r e a d y s t u d i e d t h e q u a n t i f i e d structure for a microscope designed o n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , see F i g u r e 2 3 . If t h e t u b e is m a d e v e r t i c a l o r s l i g h t l y s l a n t i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e design o f t h e f r a m e m a y be illustrated as s h o w n in Figure 6 1 . The most imknob p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n a l surfaces o f t h e f r a m e are surfaces f o r f i x i n g t h e t u b e , t h e stage, t h e a d j u s t i n g a n d t h e m i r r o r as w e l l as t h e s u p p o r t i n g base. T h e b a n n e d areas are t h e t u b e , t h e stage, t h e a d j u s t i n g k n o b , t h e m i r r o r a n d t h e t a b l e t o p as w e l l as t h e rays f r o m t h e l i g h t source t h r o u g h t h e m i r r o r t o t h e o b j e c t a n d o n t o t h e t u b e . T h e r e are also b a n n e d areas over t h e t u b e ( w h e r e t h e o p e r a t o r is l o o k i n g ) a n d o p p o s i t e t h e stage a n d t h e a d j u s t i n g k n o b ( w h e r e t h e o p e r a t o r ' s hands m u s t have r o o m t o w o r k . ) W h e n t h e above c o n d i t i o n s are f u l f i l l e d t h e f r a m e

69

Functional surface for the

frame

Banned a r e a s for t h e

frame

Figure

61

Functional

surfaces

and banned

areas for the frame

of a

microscope

70

FUNCTIONAL FORM CONCEPTS

SURFACES Tube

Variation p a r a m e t e r s : Number -Arrangement

- Stage

S u p p o r t i n g base

RODS

^cy

PLANES

-7
SOLID

COMBINATIONS

Figure

62

Form

concepts

for ttie frame

of a

microscope

71

FORM

CONCEPTS parameters: Form g e o m e t r y , d i m e n s i o n

Variation

RODS

3 ^
PLANES

5 5
7

SOLID

COMBINATIONS

4 J

Figure

63

Form

coricepts

for the frame

of a

microscope

72

Figure

64

Various

types of microscope

(See also Figures 62 and 63). (Courtesy Leitz, Ealing Beck, Vickers)

of Olympus,

Carl Zeiss, Carl Zeiss

JENA,

73

Figure

64

(continued!

74

Methods

used in form

design

The form division

method
t h e d i v i s i o n m a y be d o n e f o r reasons o f f u n c t i o n , s e c o n d l y f o r p h y s i c a l reasons, i.e. w h e t h e r t h e elem e n t s c a n be separated f r o m each o t h e r , a n d t h i r d l y f o r visual reasons. A deliberate variation o f the n u m b e r o f elements may be s u i t a b l y c a l l e d t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n method, b e a r i n g i n m i n d , t h a t i t m a y be a q u e s t i o n o f a d i v i s i o n more elements or not lead to more i n t o m o r e e l e m e n t s as w e l l as an i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a f e w p o s s i b l y i n t o a single w h o l e o n e . In the examples the it on the following are pages the physical and visual divisions considered.

If t h e e x a m p l e s i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n are s t u d i e d c l o s e l y o n e m o r e p a r a m e t e r can be i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s , t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s v a r i a t i o n , c a n give rise t o ideas f o r a n u m b e r o f suggestions f o r t h e design. If t h e m i c r o s c o p e s i n F i g u r e 6 4 are c o m p a r e d i t is o b v i o u s t h a t o n e m i c r o s c o p e f r a m e consists o f m o r e e l e m e n t s than another. This choice of dividing i n t o integrating available. The division need i n t o a f e w is a c h o i c e w h i c h is a l w a y s

p h y s i c a l l y separate e l e m e n t s , as i t m a y be caused b y a visual d i v i s i o n o f a p h y s i c a l l y w h o l e e l e m e n t . F i g u r e 6 5 illustrates t h e points o f view f r o m w h i c h a p r o d u c t o r a m a c h i n e m a y be d i v i d e d i n t o e l e m e n t s . F i r s t l y ,

Incidentally

is n o t s t a t e d w h e t h e r t h e e l e m e n t s

are p h y s i c a l l y separable o r n o t , as e i t h e r t y p e m a y be possible w h e n a s p e c i f i c design is c o n s i d e r e d .

PRODUCT

ELEMENTS Functional division

ELEMENTS Visual division

ELEMENTS Physical division

Figure

65

Different

points

of view according

to which

a product

may be divided

into

elements

Methods F i g u r e 6 6 s h o w s a p a w l w i t h f o u r f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, t h e area o f t h e b r e a k i n g f u n c t i o n , t h e area o f t h e b e a r i n g , t h e area o f f i n g e r pressure a n d t h e area o f pressure f o r a m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m , w h i c h m u s t be m o v e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e p a w l b e i n g released. If i t is assumed t h a t t h e p a w l m u s t be f o r m designed a p p r o x i m a t e l y as s h o w n in t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n , t h a t is t o say t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l areas are laid d o w n , t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m e t h o d m a y give rise t o t h e f o r m

used in form design

75 of

design p r o p o s a l s s h o w n . N o t e t h a t t h e n u m b e r

p a r t e l e m e n t s goes f r o m 1 ( c o m p l e t e i n t e g r a t i o n ) t o 5. I t m u s t be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n has n o f u n c t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , b u t i t m a y be v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process a n d so f o r the economics. In F i g u r e 6 6 p a w l 4 w i l l be t h e cheapest o n e i f only o n e is t o be m a d e , w h e r e a s p a w l 1 m a y be cheapest i n mass p r o d u c t i o n .

FUNCTIONAL SURFACES

APPROXIMATE

DESIGN

FORM CONCEPTS V a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r : Form d i v i s i o n

2 ^ L=rHi
Figure 66 Form concepts for a pawl based on variation of the form division

76

Methods

used in form

design f i g u r e c o n t a i n s a n u m b e r o f ideas t o w h i c h t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m e t h o d gives rise. Here a g a i n , an essential factor in the choice of form design w i l l be the m a n u f a c t u r i n g process.

We w i l l n o w d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m e t h o d o n an e l e m e n t b y o n e m o r e example. The b e a r i n g in Figure 67 contains two areas o f b e a r i n g a n d a s u p p o r t i n g s u r f a c e , a n d t h e a p p r o x i m a t e f o r m design is s h o w n . T h e rest o f t h e

APPROXIMATE FORM CONCEPTS

DESIGN

Variation p a r a m e t e r : Form division

Figure

67

Form

concepts

for a double

bearing

Methods In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r , i t was m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e m e t h o d s in q u e s t i o n m a y be used in d e s i g n i n g e i t h e r e l e m e n t s o r c o m p l e t e p r o d u c t s . T h i s also applies t o t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m e t h o d . A s an e x a m p l e let us s t u d y t h e tea m a k e r in F i g u r e 3 5 . I t is assumed t h a t w e w i l l e x a m i n e t h e f o r m s t h a t are possible if b o x s h a p e d c o n t a i n e r s are

used in form

design

11

c h o s e n , p l a c e d side b y side as s h o w n i n t h e inset i n F i g u r e 6 8 . ( I n t h e same w a y o t h e r shapes o f c o n tainer number or may of be examined). of the three In the illustration a possibilities are i l l u s t r a t e d f o r elements division

integration

comprising

b o i l e r , b r e w i n g vessel a n d p l i n t h .

ARRANGEMENT ELEMENTS FORM CONCEPTS Variation parameter: Form division

OF

APPROXIMATE DESIGN

Figure

68

Form

concepts

for a teamal<er.

(See also Figure

35)

78

Methods

used in form

design f o r d e c i d i n g t h e c h o i c e o f f o r m design w i l l be t h e manufacturing process, t h e appearance, cleaning, number e t c . (see also C h a p t e r 3 ' F o r m f a c t o r s ' ) . A 70 and 7 1 .

A more flexible application of the f o r m division m e t h o d is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 6 9 , w h e r e a c a l c u l a t o r is b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . T h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r v a r i a t i o n are n u m e r o u s , as a n y p l a n e w h a t s o e v e r can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o o r separated f r o m t h e o t h e r planes. T h e c r i t e r i a

o f c a l c u l a t o r s are s h o w n , f o r c o m p a r i s o n , i n Figures

APPROXIMATE FORM CONCEPTS Variation p a r a m e t e r : Form d i v i s i o n

DESIGN

Figure

69

Form concepts

for a

calculator

79

Figure

70

Types

of calculator.

(See also Figures

69 and 71).

(Courtesy

of Olympia,

.Facit

and

Cannon)

80

Figure

71

Types of calculator.

(See also Figures

69 and 70).

(Courtesy

of Olympia,

Diefil

and

Facit)

Methods If i t is c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n , v a r i a t i o n o f t h e f o r m d i v i s i o n m a y f o r a given p r o d u c t p r o d u c e m a n y d i f f e r e n t a n d e x c i t i n g designs. I t w i l l t h e r e f o r e be u s e f u l t o s h o w a n u m b e r o f e x a m p l e s o f p r o d u c t s p r e s e n t e d i n pairs, so t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n f o r m

used in form

design

81

d i v i s i o n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c t s m a y be n o t e d , (see F i g u r e s 7 2 t o 7 6 ) . I t is o b v i o u s f r o m t h e exampies that a change cause in the form division may occasionally a radical a l t e r a t i o n of a well-

known product.

Figure

72

Pneumatic

motors

with a different

form division,

(A tias Copeo L td.)

82

Figure

73

Motor

bicycles

with

different

form

division

Figure

74

Watering

cans with

different

form

division

83

Figure

75

Petrol

pumps

with

different

form

division.

(Danish

Industrial

Syndicate

Ltd.)

Figure

76

Hole punches

with

different

form

division

84

Methods used in form design

A coherent example: a pulley


It is u s u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o v a r y t h e f i v e f o r m variat i o n p a r a m e t e r s in t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : n u m b e r a n d arrangement; f o r m geometry and d i m e n s i o n ; f o r m d i v i s i o n . I t is, h o w e v e r , n o t c e r t a i n t h a t i n a given situation all five parameters can be used. For instance, t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f a m a t e r i a l area m a y be r u l e d b y so m a n y c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h e r e is o n l y one place f o r i t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , f o r m g e o m e t r y m a y and c o n d i t i o n s that apply be d e c i d e d in advance. B u t t h i s takes us o n t o t h e c r i t e r i a in a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h is t h e s u b j e c t o f C h a p t e r 3 . A n e x a m p l e o f t h e general s i t u a t i o n , w h e r e all f i v e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s can be used, is s h o w n b e l o w . T h e o b j e c t t o be e x a m i n e d is a p u l l e y , e.g. a c o n v e y o r b e l t . T h e p u l l e y has t w o f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, t h e r o l l i n g surface a n d t h e bearings. V a r i a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces has been c a r r i e d o u t in F i g u r e 7 7 , w h e r e f o u r v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s as w e l l as m a x i m u m a n d m i n i m u m surfaces are illustrated. T w o g r o u p i n g s o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces have been chosen f o r f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n , a n d in F i g u r e 7 8 possible m a t e r i a l variation of areas are s h o w n based o n a A

numbers and

relative a r r a n g e m e n t .

d i v i s i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l areas i n t o t h e f o r m o f r o d s , planes o r solids is u s e f u l . F i g u r e 7 9 s h o w s h o w , b y varying the f o r m geometry and the dimension, a a few of these largely n u m b e r o f m o r e s p e c i f i c f o r m design ideas c a n be g i v e n . Possible f o r m divisions f o r ideas are s h o w n in F i g u r e 8 0 . T h e final decision o n the f o r m depends o n t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g process (see s e c t i o n 3 . 4 ) a n d p o s s i b l y also o n an e v a l u a t i o n of t h e appearance. B y using s k e t c h e s , m o d e l s are t h e n d o c u m e n t e d i n a set o f and scale d r a w i n g s o n e can d e c i d e o n all t h e which details, working Figures

drawings w i t h the a c c o m p a n y i n g assembly d r a w i n g . Naturally this plan, w h i c h corresponds t o 7 7 t o 8 0 , is v e r y s c h e m a t i c . T h i s is in o r d e r t o u n d e r line t h e steps o n e m u s t basically t a k e in d e s i g n i n g . A more relaxed attitude to this will probably be more realistic, as can also be seen f r o m t h e case

h i s t o r y in C h a p t e r 5.

85

FUNCTIONAL

SURFACES Number -Arrangement -Form geometry -Dimension

STARTING Pulley and

POINT: bearings

Variation paranneters :

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENT

FORM GEOMETRY

DIMENSION

MAXIMUM

SURFACES

MINIMUM

SURFACES Possibly

Figure

77

Variation

of functional

surfaces

for a pulley

on a conveyor

belt

86

FORM

CONCEPTS

FUNCTIONAL

SURFACES

V a r i a t i o n p a r a n n e t e r s : Nunnber, a r r a n g e m e n t

RODS

SHEETS

SOLID

FUNCTIONAL

SURFACES

RODS

SHEETS

SOLID

Figure

78

Form

concepts

for a pulley

at the most abstract are

level,

where

the number

and arrangement

of the material

areas

examined

87

FORM CONCEPTS

Variation

parameters:

Form geometry,

dimension

7ZZZ

1
^ ^ ^ ^

^ 3

F/^yre 7 P

F o r m concepts

for a pulley

arrived

at by varying the form geometry Figure 78

and dimension

of selected

solutions

from

88

FORM CONCEPTS Variation parameter: Form division

V/

y//

7777

x^xvwv yyyy

x^xxVVS yyyuu^

7/y/ y
y

y yy y y / / / y/ /

/ / / / / /

^ /

//.y^A

^ZTZZZ.

2a

V2ZZZZZZZZ2L

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
IZZZZZZZZZZZZI

yyyyyyyy^yyy.

y////////yyyr

I
Figure 80 by varying Form concepts for a pulley. Two of tfie suggested solutions in Figure 79 have been detailed to a certain level the form division. For the final detailed design the design engineer must first decide on the manufacturing processes to be used. (See also Figure 95)

l\/lethods

used in form

design

89

The application

of form synthesis

methods

m a k e t h e basis f o r an a t t i t u d e o f m i n d w h i c h results in a s h a r p e n e d awareness o f w h a t o n e is w o r k i n g w i t h in a real s i t u a t i o n (structure, functional surfaces,

H a v i n g s t u d i e d t h e basis o f f o r m synthesis m e t h o d s , i t is n o w possible t o l o o k a t t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h e methods for varying the structure, functional situations, for i n s t a n c e , (as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d ) surin faces a n d f o r m m a y all be a p p l i e d i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t deciding o n b o t h the total f o r m and the details o f p r o d u c t . T h e m e t h o d s also m a y be used f o r c o m p o u n d products (machines, apparatus, etc) and f o r products consisting of only one element (bottle o p e n e r s , f i t t i n g s , jugs, e t c ) , e x c e p t t h a t in t h i s case t h e s t r u c t u r e v a r i a t i o n m e t h o d is e x c l u d e d . Of course, in d e m o n s t r a t i n g these m e t h o d s it has n o t been t h e i n t e n t i o n t o argue t h a t t h e y m u s t all be a p p l i e d t o all t h e e l e m e n t s in a p r o d u c t . T h i s is u n r e a l i s t i c . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e m e t h o d s c a n give rise to a conscious systematic approach to s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s , so t h a t these p r o b a b l y are designed as w e l l as possible. T h e m e t h o d s m a y also be used t o great advantage in a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e o n e has g o t s t u c k i n d e s i g n i n g a given e l e m e n t . I n t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e design e n g i n e e r a n d t h e process t e c h n i c i a n , t h e idea o f functional surfaces can be especially v a l u a b l e . If, f o r i n s t a n c e , a f o r m d e t a i l is discussed because t h e f o r m a n d t h e manufacturing process might have been better

f o r m ) , a n d w h i c h leads t o a greater w e a l t h o f ideas t h r o u g h a m o r e o r less s u b c o n s c i o u s f o r m v a r i a t i o n .

Making

models

W h a t e v e r t h e p r o d u c t , t h e f o r m design w o r k can be carried o u t w i t h the help of different kinds o f models. F o r a design e n g i n e e r t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t k i n d o f m o d e l s are g r a p h i c a l ones, i.e. sketches a n d d r a w i n g s . We have, t h e r e f o r e , so f a r e x c l u s i v e l y used these when describing the f o r m variation methods. Other categories o f m o d e l s , h o w e v e r , are also r e l e v a n t f o r t h e design engineer. Form models can be used in many different s i t u a t i o n s i n a design p r o j e c t . The decisive factor is: decided:

w h a t t h e m o d e l w i l l be used f o r . On the basis of this can be h o w d e t a i l e d t h e m o d e l m u s t be, a n d o f w h a t m a t e r i a l i t m u s t be m a d e . A c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n o n t h e degree o f d e t a i l a n d t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l is necessary f o r an o p t i m u m m o d e l , i.e. o n e w h i c h as c h e a p l y as p o s s i b l y expresses w h a t is n e e d e d . T h e use t o w h i c h t h e m o d e l is p u t t o a f f e c t s t h e c h o i c e o f degree o f d e t a i l a n d o f m o d e l l i n g m a t e r i a l a n d t h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s pages 9 0 - 9 2 . on

m a t c h e d , i t is easier t o a l t e r t h e f o r m o f t h e c o n n e c t i n g m a t e r i a l t h a n t h a t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, because these are a d j u s t e d t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g surfaces in o t h e r elements. Apart f r o m t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d occasions f o r variation methods, the l a t t e r can also using f o r m

90

Methods

used in form

design

Figure 81 Model of a diesel engine mounting constructed in foam rubber, Witt) rough models such as these it is possible to obtain a first impression of the correlation stiffeners between rigidity and the different

F i g u r e 8 1 s h o w s s o m e m o d e l s t h a t have been used for an evaluation of the relative rigidity of diff e r e n t l y designed m o u n t i n g s f o r diesel engines. T h e m o d e l s are used in t h e e a r l y design stages w h e n i t has t o be d e c i d e d w h e r e in space t h e m a t e r i a l m u s t be c o n c e n t r a t e d (in t h e f o r m of ribs). Relatively r o u g h m o d e l s o f f o a m r u b b e r s are t h e r e f o r e s u i t a b l e , p a r t l y because t h e y are q u i c k a n d c h e a p t o m a k e , and partly be seen. F i g u r e 8 2 s h o w s a m o d e l o f t h e tea m a k e r discussed in C h a p t e r 1. T h e m o d e l has o n l y been used t o assess t h e c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g use a n d i t is, t h e r e f o r e , v e r y r o u g h l y c o n s t r u c t e d in p l a s t i c f o a m . T h e m o d e l was n o t t o be used f o r j u d g i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e , as i t w o u l d t h e n have h a d t o be m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d so bec o m e t o o e x p e n s i v e . T h e appearance was j u d g e d o n the background of another type of model, namely, t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l sketches. because t h e degree o f rigidity can be assessed b y s l i g h t f i n g e r pressure, as t h e b u l g i n g can

Figure 82 Model of a teamaker in plastic foam. This model can be used to evaluate the conditions during use

Methods used in form design 9 1


Figures both been 83 and 84 show t w o used Both to are assess models that space have and test tube filling and the machine Figure 84 (Figure shows 50) a previously of a

operation,

mentioned, machine tubes. for

model of filled

appearance.

made of

plastic f o a m , card-

automatic

labelling

test

board and w o o d .

Figure 8 3 shows a m o d e l o f the

Figure materials used Institute

83

Model

of test tube foam,

filling

machine during

(see Figure

50). The is of The Denmark)

used are plastic for Product

cardboard Technical

and wood. University

The model of

for evaluation

of conditions Development,

use. (Courtesy

Figure 84 Model of a machine for the automatic labelling of filled test tubes. It is made of plastic foam and cardboard and used for an evaluation of conditions during use as well as appearance. (This was a student project from the Laboratory of Engineering Design, University of Denmark)

92

Methods

used in form

design demonstrate the instrument t o potential customers before i t was i n p r o d u c t i o n . I t is m a d e o f plaster o f paris a n d is so d e t a i l e d as t o be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e real t e l e p h o n e .

T h e m o d e l in F i g u r e 8 5 has been used t o e v a l u a t e t h e basic f o r m o f a c o i n - o p e r a t e d t e l e p h o n e ; i t is made of clay. Figure 86 shows a model latter has been of the used t o finished telephone. The

Figure 85 Mode/ of a pay te/epfione made in clay. It is used to evaluate tfie basic shape of the telephone. (See also Figure 86). (The model Andreasen for GNT was made by Henning Automatic Ltd)

Figure 86 Mode/ of pay te/ephone made in p/aster of paris. It is so detai/ed as to be indistinguishable from the finished te/ephone. (This Andreasen) model was a/so made by Henning

3 FORM FACTORS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 The origination of form requirements 95 97

The interdependence of the basic properties Design factors Production factors 99 102 116 118

Sales and distribution factors

Factors concerning the product in use Destruction factors 140

Evaluation of form design suggestions

140

93

3. Form Factors
3.1 The origination o f f o r m requirements
T h e great m u l t i p l i c i t y that either may be d r a w n chapter the how to or o f f o r m design up possibilities through middle form, in t h e criteria the are criteria that are formulated. surface In the

in a s p e c f i c s i t u a t i o n by The intuition question may

t h e f i v e basic p r o p e r t i e s dimension synthesis and

structure, which the the

b y s u c h m e t h o d s as w e r e d e s c r i b e d in t h e simply unprepared. quickly solutions. be-

material, product

previous frighten arises of

s p e c i f y t h e p r o d u c t . These p r o p e r t i e s are s p e c i f i e d in s u c h a w a y t h a t From are f u l f i l l e d as f a r as p o s s i b l e .

reject t h e u n s u i t a b l e by a continuous

It was seen earlier h o w t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s m a y be c h a r a c t e r i s e d alternation t w e e n s e a r c h i n g f o r a n d s e l e c t i n g ideas, a n d i t was m e n t i o n e d t h a t o n e o u g h t o n l y t o select i f s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n are present. T h e c r i t e r i a used are f o r m u l a t e d b y t h e designer o n t h e basis o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f r o m t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . As all t h e stages i n t h e life o f t h e p r o d u c t ( F i g u r e 4 ) can give rise t o d e m a n d s a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s in respect o f t h e p r o d u c t w e can get a general idea o f w h e r e these o r i g i n a t e . T h e s i t u a t i o n m a y be d e s c r i b e d as a f o r c e f i e l d w h e r e a n u m b e r o f f o r c e s t r y t o p u l l t h e p r o d u c t in d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . T h e f i n a l p r o d u c t w i l l t h e n r e p r e s e n t an e q u i l i b r i u m a c o m p r o m i s e w h e r e t h e f o r c e s b a l a n c e d each o t h e r . F i g u r e 8 7 i l l u s t r a t e s these c o n d i t i o n s . O n t h e o u t s i d e are a number of requirements, product factors, stemming from the life o f the p r o d u c t , w h i c h influence it

basic p r o p e r t i e s are d e r i v e d all o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e p r o d u c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f u n c t i o n , w h i c h is t h e c e n t r a l p r o p e r t y i n t h e process o f use. If one we consider the from the basic p r o p e r t y product factors of form in p a r t i c u l a r , w e f i n d t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e s arise, o n t h e hand, mentioned a b o v e , a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , f r o m t h e o t h e r basic p r o p e r t i e s , as these are n o t i n d e p e n d a n t variables. T h e d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e f o r m o n t h e o t h e r basic p r o p e r t i e s w i l l be discussed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The remainder o f t h e c h a p t e r deals w i t h t h e dep e n d e n c e o f f o r m o n t h e p r o d u c t f a c t o r s , w h i c h in t h i s c o n n e c t i o n are c a l l e d f o r m f a c t o r s . T h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s are o n l y i n t e n d e d t o h i n t at t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e separate f o r m f a c t o r s i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e the interplay. A more p r o f o u n d study of certain of t h e f a c t o r s , e.g. ' t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y c o r r e c t ' d e s i g n , c a n be f o u n d in o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e .

95

96

DESIGN 1. D e s i g n e n Ability/knowledge Imagination Creativity Habit Attitude Personal taste Expenditure of time PRODUCTION FACTORS 2.

FACTORS 3. Society: Laws Norms/standards Possible f i n a n c e Resources Patents Registration of patterns

Company: A i m s of the c o m p a n y Know-how Working conditions Economics Contracts Licences Service p o l i c y P r o d u c t series Company's identity

1. M a n u f a c t . process: Feasibility Economics Operator situation Assembly: Feasibility Economics Operator situation

U s i n g process: Input Output Nature of function Quality of function

2. User: F i t t i n g a n d r u n n i n g in Normal operations Occasional operations

Environment: Influence of p r o d u c t on environment Influence of environment on product

Feasibility of f u n c t i o n Emergency operations F a c t s a p a r t f r o m d i r e c t use Economics P r e c o n d i t i o n s o f user Subjective conditions

Figure

87

Survey

of the life of the

product

Form factors 9 7 3.2 The interdependence o f t h e basic properties


have been c o n s i d e r e d . I t is t h e r e f o r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t to recognize The the interplay between the basic properties and the f o r m .

STmrm
FOltM MATERIAL -blMENSIOSJ

i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o n t h e f o r m is

d i r e c t , as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d (sections 2.1 a n d 2 . 2 ) and illustrated in Figure 8 8 . T h e dependence o f t h e f o r m o n t h e m a t e r i a l , d i m e n s i o n a n d s u r f a c e is a l i t t l e more difficult to identify, because it takes place indirectly. The interaction o f the material and f o r m occurs in t w o w a y s . F i r s t l y , t h e f o r m d e p e n d s o n t h e p r o duction processes by which the material can be

T h e f a c t t h a t t h e basic p r o p e r t i e s are n o t i n d e p e n d e n t can be seen in practice until by the the impossibility of the deciding o n t h e m separately. T h e structure c a n n o t be f i n a l l y determined chosen until consequences t o f o r m have been e s t i m a t e d , a n d t h e f o r m c a n n o t be material, dimensions and surface

s h a p e d , a n d so t h e f o r m d e p e n d s i n d i r e c t l y o n t h e material. Secondly, the properties of the material p l a y a m a j o r role in d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f o r m e.g. t h e s t r e n g t h , e l a s t i c i t y a n d w e i g h t o f t h e m a t e r i a l (see Figure 89).

Figure

88

Two drawing

instruments

with different

structures.

This illustrates

the dependence

of form on

structure

Figure

89

Springs made of two different materials - rubber and steel. The different materials result in very different form designs

properties

of the

98

Form factors
T h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o n t h e f o r m is e.g. t h e p r i c e o f t h e m a t e r i a l a n d t h e w e i g h t , also change. T h e influence o f the surface o n t h e f o r m t a k e s place i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e c h o i c e o f p r o d u c t i o n process.

i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 9 0 . W h a t c o u n t s here is t h e f a c t that, with t h e change o f size o f t h e o b j e c t , t h e p r a c t i c a b l e p r o d u c t i o n processes a l t e r . T h e c r i t e r i a ,

Figure 90

Cog-wheels showing the influence dimensions (size) on the form

of the

Figure

91

The separate products in a product series are usually so designed that greatest possible number of common form features (Danfos Ltd.)

they

have the

Form

factors

99

3.3 Design factors The designer


T h e designer has a decisive i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f o r m o f t h e p r o d u c t , as he is t h e o n e w h o m u s t b o t h p r o d u c e the ideas and choose the design. The designer affects t h e f o r m p a r t l y t h r o u g h a b i l i t y , k n o w l e d g e a n d i m a g i n a t i o n as f a r as s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s is c o n cerned. Choice is influenced by the designer's personal t a s t e , a t t i t u d e a n d h a b i t s . E v e n w h e n t h e s t i p u l a t i o n s f o r t h e f o r m design are b i n d i n g , t h e r e is always some freedom for the imagination of the designer t o c o m e i n t o p l a y .

The

company

A m o n g the m a n y p r o d u c t factors that stem f r o m the c o m p a n y t h e f o l l o w i n g m a y be m e n t i o n e d c o m pany objectives, know-how, working conditions, e c o n o m i c s , c o n t r a c t s , licences, service p o l i c y , e t c . N o n e o f these have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f o r m . A l l t h e same, i t w i l l o f t e n be t h e case t h a t t h e f o r m o f a greater o r lesser p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t s have a c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r . T h i s f a c t is m o s t c l e a r l y seen in p r o d u c t series, i.e. g r o u p s o f p r o d u c t s w i t h t h e same o f r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s . A n e x a m p l e is s h o w n in F i g u r e 9 1 .

Figure

92

A group

of products

with common form features can help to make up the identity company (Bang and Olufsen)

of a

100

Form

factors a firm tries c o n s c i o u s l y t o m a i n t a i n a N o r m s a n d s t a n d a r d s e x i s t i n areas w h e r e s a f e t y f a c t o r s are decisive, o r w h e r e f r e q u e n t use m a k e s standardisation bolts, containers. Pattern r e g i s t r a t i o n is a legal p r o t e c t i o n , w h i c h says t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e have n o r i g h t t o s i m p l y c o p y an o r i g i n a l l y designed p r o d u c t . T h e l a w o n p a t t e r n s says a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s : A p a t t e r n means i n t h i s l a w t h e m o d e l f o r a p p e a r a n c e o f an a r t i c l e o r f o r a n o r n a m e n t . T h e p e r s o n w h o has p r o d u c e d a p r o t o t y p e , o r t o w h o m t h e p e r s o n ' s r i g h t has been t r a n s f e r r e d , m a y in accordance w i t h this law by registration acquire a monopoly for commercial exploitation of the the necessary, for example: nuts and and washers, fish boxes, railway carriages,

Sometimes

c e r t a i n i d e n t i t y . T h e a i m o f such a c o m p a n y i d e n t i t y is t o create f a i t h i n t h e c o m p a n y , as w e l l as t o m a r k its p r o d u c t s as against o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e p r o d u c t s , so t h a t t h e user e x p e r i e n c e s t h e c o m p a n y a n d its p r o d u c t s i n t h e same w a y each t i m e . T h i s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e user i n m a n y cases uses several c o n n e c t e d o r r e l a t e d p r o d ucts from the same company leads to the e x p e d i e n c y o f a i m i n g a t c o m m o n f e a t u r e s in appearance. S u c h a ' h o u s e s t y l e ' m a y be based o n c o m m o n f o r m t r a i t s as w e l l as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s a n d surfaces.

Ttie society
T h e r e are t w o aspects o f t h e s o c i e t y in w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t w i l l be u s e d , t h a t m u s t be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e f o r m design ( a n d , o f c o u r s e , also e a r l y o n i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t ) . These are f i r s t l y , c o n sideration of the members of the society, and s e c o n d l y , c o n f o r m i n g t o its n o r m s a n d laws. A m o n g t h e m e m b e r s o f s o c i e t y t o be c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t is t h e user, a f a c t w h i c h w i l l be discussed later i n this c h a p t e r . T h e r e are also all t h e p e o p l e w h o c o m e i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r o d u c t . These m a y be p e o p l e w h o have to listen to their neighbour's motor lawn m o w e r , t o an a e r o p l a n e o r a s p e e d b o a t , a n d all t h o s e w h o each d a y have t o l o o k a t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s cars, e x c a v a t o r s a n d cranes, buses, t r a i n s , e t c .

design. The pattern will only from be registered if its is essentially different w h a t was k n o w n be-

fore the date o f application. In designing a p r o d u c t , p a t e n t registration come into the picture in t w o ways partly limitations o f t h e design p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i f may as

registered market,

products o f a similar

nature exist in t h e

a n d p a r t l y as a p r o t e c t i o n f o r o n e ' s o w n p r o d u c t . F i g u r e 9 3 s h o w s an e x a m p l e o f a r e g i s t e r e d p r o d u c t . Patents m a y also p l a y a p a r t as c o n d i t i o n s in d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t , so t h a t c e r t a i n f o r m p o s s i b i l i t i e s m u s t be l e f t o u t , i f t h e y are d e s c r i b e d i n a n e x i s t i n g patent. Normally, patents concern principles and structures.

101

Figure 93 A patented photocopier. The characteristic of this particular photocopier is the fact that the original is put in from above and the copy is produced vertically (Zeuthen and Aagaard Ltd.)

102

Form

factors

3.4 Production factors


O n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t o be f a c e d w h e n designing a p r o d u c t is h o w t h e production w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t . P r o d u c t i o n c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f t h e p a r t s , t h e assembly a n d t h e testing and control. The are manufacturing very closely and linked the to assembly processes Figure pulley 95 shows different Figures 77 d e t a i l e d designs f o r to 80). From a

{see also

these

d i a g r a m s i t c a n be seen t h a t t h e r e is a close r e l a t i o n ship between elements, the m a n u f a c t u r i n g and the a s s e m b l y processes. F i g u r e 9 6 s h o w s t w o bearings w h e r e t h e h o u s i n g o f o n e b e a r i n g is m a d e in o n e piece (cast) a n d , t h e s e c o n d is m a d e o f pressed sheet i n t w o p a r t s t h a t are s u b s e q u e n t l y a s s e m b l e d . F i g u r e 9 7 s h o w s t w o versions o f a f r a m e f o r an e l e c t r i c i t y m e t e r . Here again o n e v e r s i o n is m a d e i n o n e piece (pressure d i e c a s t ) , w h i l e t h e o t h e r o n e is m a d e o f s t a m p e d o u t p a r t s t h a t are assembled b y s p o t - w e l d i n g . I n b o t h cases there are d i f f e r e n c e s in c h o i c e o f material, form design d i v i s i o n , m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d a s s e m b l y processes. If we return t o the model o f the f o r m stages i n F i g u r e 9 4 i t m u s t be a p p r o p r i a t e t o give an e x a m p l e o f h o w t h e s y n t h e s i s m a y l o o k i n t h e last stages. In F i g u r e 9 8 w e have t a k e n as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e earlier m e n t i o n e d f o r k j o i n t (see Figures 59 t o 6 0 ) . The f o r m concept on w h i c h the detailed design p r o p o s a l s are b u i l t is s h o w n t o p l e f t , a n d i t is assumed t h a t t h e j o i n t is a p p r o x . 1 0 0 m m l o n g a n d t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l is steel. We f i r s t e x a m i n e b y w h i c h processes o r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f processes t h e f o r k j o i n t can be manufactured as one element. Next, we

t h e f o r m o f t h e parts. In s e c t i o n 2.3 o n f o r m v a r i a t i o n , t h e different e x a m p l e s d i d n o t e n d w i t h d e t a i l e d design suggest i o n s , b u t w i t h a series o f f o r m c o n c e p t s . T h e r e is a n a t u r a l reason f o r t h i s , n a m e l y t h a t a p r o d u c t o r a part cannot chosen the be designed in d e t a i l u n t i l o n e has manufacturing process and material,

assembly process. T h e stages in t h e design o f an e l e m e n t are s h o w n in Figure 9 4 , starting f r o m considerations o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces over t w o f o r m c o n c e p t levels t o t h e c h o i c e o f processes a n d a f i n a l design o f d e t a i l s . T h e l o o p r o u n d t h e c h o i c e o f processes means t h a t , a t any point, part i t is possible t o s p l i t t h e e l e m e n t elements which are later it is s o m e t i m e s into several assembled.

Correspondingly,

possible t o i n t e -

grate several e l e m e n t s i n t o o n e . T h e stage o f f o r m d i v i s i o n / f o r m i n t e g r a t i o n m u s t t h u s be t h o u g h t o f as a last level o f ideas, w h i c h m a y be used i f o n e cannot easily produce a n d assemble o n e ' s elements.

FUNCTIONAL

SURFACES

FORM CONCEPTS: M a t e r i a l areas (number, arrangement) FORM CONCEPTS: Form geometry Main dimension F o r m d i v i s i o n -f choice of material Choice of manufacturing processes a n d assembly processes

FORM DIVISION FORM INTEGRATION

DETAILED
Figure 94 Ttie form

DESIGN
The stages are gone through for each element

design stages in a design project

Form

factors

103

A L T E R N A T I V E FORM DESIGNS D i f f e r e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l processes

Cast 77W/////ZZZZZZL EZZZ V/yyy/y/yy/777777. Vz//////7?7/77^ Welded/turned/bolted /////// SS VZZZZZZ^^ZZZZZZ VzzzzzZ2zzzzzA ^ZZZZZZZTZZZZZZ

Turned VZZZZZ 777777. V77ZZ77. V7VZZ. 7ZZZZ 7777. 7 ^72Z^

Welded/tu rned/screwed

VZZZZ. Turned/bolted ///////////?. Welded/turned/bolted ^///777/7/77l

7ZZZZZZZZZZZZL

^ ^ Turned/screwed/bolted

I
Turned/screwed/bolted

>///

/ /

///////.

7^ZZ2ZZZ1 221

~V

'

///////7ZZZ2.

^^ZZZZZZZZZZ^ ^ZZZZZZZZZZSZ2

Turned/pressed/bolted ^ZZZZZZZZZZZZ wzzzzzzzzzzz 72ZZZZZZ7ZL ///^//////. - 77ZZZZZZZ71 -m

Turned/shrink fitted/pressed 777/////77777?.

%///7//7////7/\

Figure 95

DiffererJt detailed designs for a pulley. (See also Figures 77 to 80)

104

Form

factors n o t all are e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , T h e c h o i c e d e p e n d s o n s u c h f a c t o r s as t h e n u m b e r to be produced, the tolerance required, surface in t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d m a n y o t h e r f a c t o r s . These r e q u i r e ments will be d e a l t w i t h more thoroughly f o l l o w i n g section.

suggest f o u r n e w f o r m c o n c e p t s b y f o r m d i v i s i o n , a n d f i n a l l y each o f these is e x a m i n e d f o r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h e elements and f o r t h e assembly process. A l t o g e t h e r t h e e x a m p l e gives f o u r t e e n p r a c t i c a l w a y s in w h i c h t h e j o i n t can be p r o d u c e d . O b v i o u s l y

Figure 96 Two bearings where the casings are respectively cast and made from pressed sheets assembled with bolts (Courtesy SKF)

Figure 97 Two frames for an electricity meter. One frame is pressure die cast and the other is punched out, bent and spot-welded

Form

factors

105

Milled

Milled

Milled

Cast/milled

Extruded/sawn/milled

NEW F O R M CONCEPTS BY F O R M

DIVISION:

Figure

98

Examples

of interplay

between form processes.

concept, form division and choice (See also Figures 59 and 60)

of manufacturing

and

assembly

106

Form

factors

The manufacturing

process
n o t excuse t h e designer f r o m k n o w i n g the existing processes. T h e designer intimately know

A c o n d i t i o n f o r b e i n g able t o c h o o s e an o p t i m u m manufacturing process is that the best possible a g r e e m e n t can be a c h i e v e d b e t w e e n t h e design a n d t h e process r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s means t h a t t h e o r d e r shown in Figure 94 form concept, choice processes, design drawn up, then of of the the manufacturing first the form and assembly are

must

a b o u t t h e f o r m g e o m e t r i e s t h a t c a n be c r e a t e d w i t h a given process, i n c l u d i n g t h e t o o l s a n d f i x i n g s . He m u s t also k n o w w h a t m a t e r i a l s c a n be used i n t h e process a n d t h e t o l e r a n c e s w h i c h c a n be a c h i e v e d a n d t h e s u r f a c e f i n i s h . U s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n as a b a c k g r o u n d t h e designer m u s t be able t o design his o b j e c t so t h a t i t is c h e a p t o m a n u f a c t u r e . H o w in p r a c t i c e is i t possible t o c h o o s e t h e best possible f o r m c o n c e p t a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g process? O b v i o u s l y t h i s c a n o n l y be d o n e f r o m a n u m b e r o f criteria which categories: situation. may be d i v i d e d into the and following operator feasibility, economics

details m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d , b e a r i n g i n m i n d t h a t concepts process p o s s i b i l i t i e s are e x a m i n e d , a n d f i n a l l y

f o r m c o n c e p t a n d t h e processes are c h o s e n as f a r as p o s s i b l y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I t is t h u s u s u a l l y n o t e n o u g h t o adjust the detailed f o r m t o t h e process, i f an o p t i m u m p r o d u c t is t o e m e r g e . The problem of choosing the manufacturing process b e f o r e t h e design o f t h e details has been t a k e n too far often occurs in discussions between the designer a n d t h e process t e c h n i c i a n . T h e f o r m e r o f t e n t e n d s t o f o r g e t t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process so t h a t t h e l a t t e r has n o p o s s i b i l i t y o f o p t i m i s i n g his c o n t r i b u t i o n . T h e ideal w o u l d be if t h e process t e c h n i c i a n c o u l d c o m e i n t o t h e p i c t u r e e a r l y so t h a t he c o u l d t a k e p a r t in assessing t h e f o r m c o n c e p t s at t h e f i r s t stage. In a possible discussion of proposals for a l t e r a t i o n s based o n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process, t h e idea o f f u n c t i o n a l surfaces is v a l u a b l e . A f u n c t i o n a l surface can o n l y be a l t e r e d if o t h e r a l t e r a t i o n s are m a d e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y elsewhere in t h e s y s t e m , w h i l e an a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e areas b e t w e e n t h e functional surfaces can be m a d e w i t h m u c h greater f r e e d o m . A s a rule t h e designer m u s t have an i n t i m a t e k n o w ledge o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g processes available. T h e f a c t t h a t (in t h e bigger f i r m s ) t h e r e m a y be process t e c h n i c i a n s w h o can assist in t h e d e t a i l e d design does

Tfie manufacturing
The factors

process:

feasibility
in connection

concerning

feasibility

w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f process are as f o l l o w s : form geometry, material, size/dimensions, surface r e q u i r e m e n t s , tolerance requirements, f o r m (availability) of the i n p u t materials. The first three factors decide w h e t h e r a given process is at all possible. Each process has its o w n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s , as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 9 9 . When initially considering various processes one s h o u l d n o t c h o o s e t h o s e a t t h e e x t r e m e s , so t h a t t h e size is t h e o r e c t i c a l l y possible b u t in p r a c t i c e d i f f i c u l t t o achieve.

R ( m m ) = 0.4,0.8, 1.0,1.2
R

m
Dimensions Possible Usual
1 - - 1 0 . 0 0 0 -101 . 5 0 0

Drnrr)
0 , 5 1 5 0 0
3 6 0

a -

Figure

99

Possibilities

concerning

form geometry

and dimensions

that can be realised

by

turning

Form

factors

107

Force a c t i n g d u r i n g

manufacture

S t i f f e n i n g rib

Figure

100

Bearings

bracket

where

the forces acting on it during manufacture the tolerances can be maintained

have been taken into consideration,

so that

T h e f a c t o r s o f surface a n d t o l e r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s m u s t also be i n c l u d e d w h e n c h o o s i n g t h e process. I t is n o t e n o u g h t h a t these r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n t h e o r e t i c a l l y be m e t , b u t t h e y m u s t also a p p l y t o t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t . T h e e x a m p l e in F i g u r e 1 0 0 s h o w s a b e a r i n g b r a c k e t , t h e design o f w h i c h is s u i t e d t o t h e f o r c e s t h a t act o n it d u r i n g p r o d u c t i o n . T h e o n l y purpose t h e s t i f f e n i n g r i b serves, in t h i s case, is t o r e s t r i c t t h e flexibility during the production sufficiently for t h e desired t o l e r a n c e s t o be a c h i e v e d . T h e last f a c t o r m e n t i o n e d in t h e list is t h e f o r m of the materials used. It is necessary t h a t t h e rein the quired m a t e r i a l s e x i s t o r c a n be o b t a i n e d

Tfie manufacturing process: economics involved in tfie choice of process


E c o n o m i c f a c t o r s in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f process are: t h e n u m b e r o f processes r e q u i r e d , materials: supply, price, q u a n t i t y or o w n manufacture; q u a n t i t i e s t o be p r o d u c e d ; machinery; i n v e s t m e n t in n e w m a c h i n e r y ; special t o o l s . A n o b j e c t m a y be p r o d u c e d d i r e c t l y i n o n e p r o cess, i f o n e is l u c k y , o r in several successive processes.

desired f o r m .

108

Form factors

Figure

101

Two versions of control wfieels in a pfiotocopier. in tfie final version it is die-cast (rigfit).

In tfie prototype tfie wfieel is turned and milled (Courtesy of Zeuthen & Aagaard Ltd.)

(left),

wfiile

The economics of the manufacture depend on w h i c h a n d h o w m a n y processes m u s t be gone t h r o u g h bef o r e t h e o b j e c t is f i n i s h e d . O n e m u s t also c o n s i d e r t h e necessary t r a n s p o r t , h a n d l i n g a n d ' f i x i n g s ' bet w e e n t h e separate processes. T h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e desired m a t e r i a l s m u s t be examined. be b o u g h t conditions, I t s h o u l d be d e c i d e d w h e t h e r t h e y c a n in the required f o r m , and under or whether the company itself what must

machinery, special tools

investment are

in

new

machinery with

and the

closely

connected

q u a n t i t i e s t o be p r o d u c e d .

77?^ manufacturing

process: tfie

operator

A t t h e same t i m e as a n o b j e c t is d e s i g n e d a n d a p r o cess d e c i d e d o n , a j o b f o r an o p e r a t o r is l a i d d o w n . T h i s m u s t be d o n e as a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t , w h e r e t h e operator's situation is used t o i n f l u e n c e t h e form design a n d t h e c h o i c e o f process. O n e m u s t ensure t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r c a n c a r r y o u t t h e process a p p r o priately and, without unnecessary w o r k load and risk f o r instance, w i t h o u t unnecessary demands f o r

produce them. T h e q u a n t i t y i n w h i c h t h e o b j e c t is t o be p r o d u c e d is decisive when deciding which manufacturing processes w i l l be e c o n o m i c . Processes t h a t r e q u i r e b i g i n v e s t m e n t s i n t o o l s a n d m a c h i n e r y (e.g. d i e c a s t i n g a n d d r o p f o r g i n g ) can o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d w h e r e large numbers of objects are involved, while those processes t h a t are i m m e d i a t e l y available (e.g. t u r n i n g , m i l l i n g a n d w e l d i n g ) are w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f single o b j e c t s o r series o f o b j e c t s . F i g u r e 1 0 1 s h o w s an e x a m p l e o f t h i s . A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , t h e last t h r e e f a c t o r s

p r e c i s i o n o r speed. B u t even i f i n p r i n c i p l e t h e o p e r a t o r ' s c o n d i t i o n s m a y be a l l o w e d f o r , t h e r e is s t i l l a decisive f a c t o r rem a i n i n g . Has t h e c o m p a n y t h e necessary k n o w - h o w , c a n o t h e r s be t r a i n e d , o r m u s t n e w w o r k e r s be e m ployed?

Form

factors

109

77?^ manufacturing process: tfie of tfie detailed design

economics

A f t e r the f o r m concept and the manufacturing process are c h o s e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a o f f e a s i b i l i t y , e c o n o m i c s a n d o p e r a t o r s i t u a t i o n t h e r e is s t i l l the d e t a i l e d design t o be d e c i d e d (see F i g u r e 9 4 ) . T h e last t a s k is t o design t h e d e t a i l s in such a w a y t h a t t h e o b j e c t c a n be m a n u f a c t u r e d in t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e way by the chosen process, a n d t h a t t h e d e s i r e d f u n c t i o n m a y be s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l realised. F o r m design g u i d e l i n e s f o r all t h e usual processes can be f o u n d in t h e specialist l i t e r a t u r e , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v a r i o u s processes w i l l n o t be discussed here. A f e w general g u i d e l i n e s c a n .

h o w e v e r , be l a i d d o w n w i t h a v i e w t o as e c o n o m i c a f o r m design as p o s s i b l e . T h e y a r e : n u m b e r and nature of 'fixings', number and nature o f tools, n u m b e r a n d e x t e n t o f processes, accessibility f o r tools, c o n s u m p t i o n o f materials. These g u i d e l i n e s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 0 2 t o 106. Figure 107 shows a c o m p l e t e e x a m p l e in w h i c h many of the economically important factors are mentioned.

ECONOMICS: N u m b e r and n a t u r e o f ' f i x i n g s '

y//////////A

mm/.
Milled F l a m e cut

Figure

102

Form

designs

that ta/<e into account

the economics

of

production

110

ECONOMICS: Number

a n d n a t u r e of t o o l s

N\

r
2 different parts

2 identical parts

+ 1

rrl////

Figure

103

Form

designs

that take into

account

the economics

of

production

111

ECONOMICS: N u m b e r

and

extent

of

processes

-2L

w///////\

'// V

/ / / /

7/7//4'7 / / / / / / ,

standard

bushes

,
//

J 1 1. I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I /'

1
^

Figure

104

Form

designs that

ta/ce into account

the economics

of

production

112

ECONOMICS: A c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r

tools

3
la

7>77,

m m

Figure J 05

Form

designs that take into account

the economics

of;fig:^uction

ECONOMICS:

C o n s u m p t i o n of

materials

F/^/re 106

Form

designs that take into account

the economics

of

production

113

5 OOP pieces a y e a r starting material: manufacture: P2P brass r o d turning thread cutting milling consumpt. of material: o b j e c t 2 5 gr. shavings 7P gr. investment: p r o d u c t i o n cost: nil 5Pp

5 0 OOP pieces a y e a r starting material: manufacture: P2P brass r o d h o t pressing turning thread cutting Consumption of mat: o b j e c t 2 5 gr. shavings 2 5 gr. investment: production cost: 2PP PPP pieces a y e a r starting material: 1 2 m m h e x a g o n a l brass r o d 1.5 m m brass s t r i p manufacture: turning thread cutting punching assembly consumption of material: o b j e c t 2 P gr -H 3 gr shavings 2 P gr c u t 2 gr investment: p r o d u c t i o n cost: 36PP 25p 9PP 35p

Figure

107

Three versions of a thread

spindle

corresponding to different factors are listed

product

quantities.

The most important

economic

114

Form

factors

Assembly
T h e close c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e assembly process a n d t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g processes was m e n t i o n e d o n page 1 0 5 a n d is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s . T h e assessments t h a t m u s t be m a d e b e f o r e c h o o s i n g an assembly process are (as in t h e case o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process) f e a s i b i l i t y , economics and situa t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t o r , a n d t h e f a c t o r s are c o m p l e t e l y parallel t o t h e f a c t o r s in c h o o s i n g t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g process (see pages 1 1 0 - 1 1 2 ) . F i g u r e 1 0 8 s h o w s e x amples f r o m a p h o t o c o p i e r w h e r e t h e p r o t o t y p e a n d the final m a c h i n e are c o m p a r e d . T h e illustration recognise grasp m o v e t o c o n t a c t area orientate line u p f i t in m o v e a l o n g c o n t a c t area secure s h o w s , a b o v e , an e x a m p l e o f t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e n u m b e r o f o p e r a t i o n s in f i t t i n g a m i r r o r c a n be red u c e d i f o n e goes t o t h e expense o f a d i e cast t o o l . T h e l o w e r i l l u s t r a t i o n shows an e x a m p l e o f h o w a t r a d i t i o n a l w a y o f f i t t i n g a p i n c a n be s i m p l i f i e d i f t h e assembly process is c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t o u t . A f t e r t h e a s s e m b l y process has been c h o s e n ( a n d t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g ones as w e l l ) t h e p r o d u c t d e t a i l s m u s t be designed i n s u c h a w a y t h a t an o p t i m u m a s s e m b l y c a n be a c h i e v e d . A s a c h e c k t h e f o l l o w i n g list o f general s u b - o p e r a t i o n s i n a s s e m b l y m a y used: be

PROTOTYPE

FINAL

VERSION

Mirror Clip

Cog w h e e l Loose p i n

Figure

108 Comparison between form design details in a prototype (function model) and the final version of a photocopier. Above, fixing a mirror to a frame; below, fixing a cog wheel on an axle (Courtesy Zeuthen & Aagaard Ltd.)

Form Figure 109 shows examples o f the w a y in w h i c h some form sub-operations can be made easier apply by the 110 design. These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s whether

factors

115 STOP,

s w i t c h . O n t h e b u t t o n is p r i n t e d t h e w o r d up, the b o t t o m

a n d i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t i t is p u t o n t h e r i g h t w a y is designed w i t h a g r o o v e t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o a k n o b o n t h e edge o f t h e h o l e .

the assembly

is m a n u a l o r a u t o m a t i c . F i g u r e

s h o w s t h e assembly o f a s t o p b u t t o n in an e l e c t r i c

ASSEMBLY : To ease o r i e n t a t i o n

To ease i n s e r t i o n

'/////'/,

Figure

109

Form

design details

that illustrate

how the assembly

is taken into

account

Figure

110

Form

design details

that ensure a stop button

is fitted

in the correct

position

(Danfoss

Ltd.)

116

Form factors

3.5 Sales and d i s t r i b u t i o n factors


Factors that influence distribution a n d sales c o n d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p r o d u c t are t o o great f o r i t t o be economically transported and on whether, for i n s t a n c e , i t c a n pass t h r o u g h a d o o r . A n example o f t h e w a y in w h i c h a suitable f o r m design c a n m a k e f o r c o n v e n i e n t t r a n s p o r t m a y be i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e l a w n m o w e r in F i g u r e 1 1 1 . B y f a r considerations mean that one must t h e biggest p a r t o f s u c h a l a w n m o w e r is t h e h a n d l e , which i f m a d e i n o n e piece w o u l d t a k e u p a disamount o f space. T h i s w a s , i n d e e d , proportionate

s t i t u t e a large a n d m i x e d g r o u p m a d e u p p a r t l y o f t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s s u c h as p a c k a g i n g , p a c k i n g , transport and warehousing, partly of market conditions and partly of the sales s i t u a t i o n of the company. Transport t h i n k a b o u t possible results o f s h o c k s a n d s h a k i n g . D e l i c a t e p a r t s m a y have t o be s e c u r e d ; d a m p , d i r t , c o r r o d i n g f u m e s , etc m u s t also be c o n s i d e r e d . If t h e w e i g h t o f t h e p r o d u c t c a n cause p r o b l e m s i t m a y be necessary elements. to divide must big heavy parts i n t o on smaller the One also c h e c k whether

t h e case i n m a n y e a r l y m o d e l s . A s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m m a y be seen i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n , as t h e h a n d l e is d i v i d e d in t w o places, so t h a t i t c a n be p a c k e d w i t h o u t taking up more room than the cutting unit.

Figure 111 Lawn mower where the handle is divided in two places solely for reasons of packaging and transport (Courtesy of Ginge Fabrikker Ltd)

Form M a t t e r s t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t in w a r e h o u s i n g nnay, f o r i n s t a n c e , be r e d u c i n g t h e space o c c u p i e d , nnininnising t h e s e n t i t i v i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t t o d a m p a n d d i r t e t c , a n d t o ensure t h a t several o b j e c t s o f t h e same s o r t c a n be s t a c k e d . F i g u r e 1 1 2 s h o w s h o w s t o r i n g c o n d i t i o n s c a n i n f l u e n c e t h e design o f p l a s t i c b u c k e t s . T h e r e are here t w o p r o b l e m s i n c o n n e c t i o n

factors

117

w i t h storage, o n the one hand t h e objects must take u p as l i t t l e space as possible (i.e. t h e y m u s t be stacka b l e ) , a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y m u s t be easy t o separate. A l t e r a t i o n o f t h e angle gives m o r e c o m p a c t s t a c k i n g . S q u a s h i n g i n t h e s t a c k can be p r e v e n t e d b y a vertical rib.

A l t e r a t i o n of a n g l e g i v e s m o r e c o m p a c t

stacking;

S q u a s h i n g in t h e s t a c k can be p r e v e n t e d by vertical r i b :

Figure

112

Form

design details on a plastic bucke t, where storage is taken in to accoun t (Courtesy

Superfos

Emballage

L td.)

18

Form

factors

3.6 Factors concerning the p i o d u c t in use Process evaluation: function Input, output and

W h e n a p r o d u c t is b e i n g used t h e user o f t h e p r o d u c t achieves a desired process (see also page 6 ) . S u c h a process m a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , be t h e d r i l l i n g o f holes (electric d r i l l ) , t h e m i n c i n g o f meat (meat m i n c e r ) , the moving of water (pump) and the moving of f o o d ( f o r k ) . T h i s is t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t ( t h e m a i n f u n c t i o n , see also page 9 ) ; o n e can t h i n k o f t h e usage a n d t h e f u n c t i o n as t w o sides o f t h e same c o i n ; t h e usage m a y be d e s c r i b e d b y t h e o b j e c t t h a t alters a c o n d i t i o n , w h i l e t h e f u n c t i o n describes t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t (or t o o l ) . We t h u s get p r o d u c t f a c t o r s f r o m b o t h t h e o b j e c t i n t h e s t a r t i n g state these are c a l l e d i n p u t a n d i n t h e f i n a l state o u t p u t - a n d f r o m t h i s f u n c t i o n . If w e f i r s t e x a m i n e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n p u t output o f t h e f o r m design o f a p r o d u c t w e and must

o f i r o n s f r o m d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s . Here t h e shape o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l s u r f a c e against t h e m a t e r i a l has been preserved a l m o s t u n a l t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e ages. T h i s shape has t w o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f i r s t t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e s a f l a t , s m o o t h s u r f a c e area against t h e m a t e r i a l , i n order that this may itself be m a d e s m o o t h , and secondly t h a t i t is p o i n t e d so t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l is

s p r e a d o u t b e f o r e i t is pressed s m o o t h . N e x t , let us l o o k a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f u n c t i o n o n t h e f o r m . F u n c t i o n s c a n be f o u n d a t m a n y levels i n a product and the main f u n c t i o n may thus affect the total form of the product and the sub-functions the f o r m o f the elements. The influence o f the funct i o n s is, h o w e v e r , v e r y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n s . In c e r t a i n cases t h e r e is a n connection (top). In o t h e r cases a c e r t a i n c o n n e c t i o n e x i s t s , even though there is s o m e f r e e d o m . T h e p r o p e l l e r and t h e t h r e a d are e x a m p l e s o f t h i s . F i n a l l y t h e r e are s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e t h e r e is n o c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e function a n d t h e f o r m , as f o r instance, the case r o u n d a meter or a c o m p u t e r . between function and unambigous as for 114 form,

r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e areas w h e r e i t is in c o n t a c t w i t h its s u r r o u n d i n g s are t h e e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n a l surfaces (see page 4 8 ) . I t is o n these surfaces t h a t i n p u t a n d o u t p u t have t h e i r greatest i n f l u e n c e . C o u n t l e s s exa m p l e s o f such an i n f l u e n c e m a y be m e n t i o n e d , f o r e x a m p l e , n u t s t h a t a f f e c t t h e f o r m o f an o p e n - e n d e d o r a b o x s p a n n e r , a p u n c h i n g t o o l t h a t t r a n s f e r s its f o r m t o the object, etc. Figure 113 shows a n u m b e r

instance in the cam and the m i r r o r in Figure

119

Figure

113

Irons

from

different

periods. (The

The

functional illustrations

surface

which

rubs against of Rowenta

the material and

in all these designs is

unchanged.

two lower

are by courtesy

Philips)

120

Figure

114

Interaction

between

function

and

form. Above, below, no

absolute connection; connection

centre,

a certain

degree

of

connection;

Form

factors

121

Process realisation: function

Realisation of tfie

I t is o b v i o u s t h a t t o m e r e l y state t h e r e is a m o r e o r less close connection between function a n d f o r m , as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , is n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s t r u c t i v e , but a description of the factors that come into play m a y i l l u m i n a t e i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s f o r t h e designer. The functional factors may be d i v i d e d into two categories: realisation quality of function.

T h e f o r m e r m a y i n v o l v e s u c h f a c t o r s as: f u n c t i o n i n t e r v a l (can t h e f u n c t i o n be realised in t h e d e s i r e d size?) quality of the output exactness ( p r e c i s i o n ) capacity speed o f t h e process effectiveness. E x a m p l e s o f t h e d e p e n d e n c e o f s o m e o f these f a c t o r s o n t h e f o r m o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l surfaces are s h o w n in Figure 115.

UNLOADING MAGAZINE IN TEST TUBE M A C H I N E

The g l a s s e s r u n up and f a l l d o w n B E N D I N G TOOL FOR A COIL

Interrupting projections give s m o o t h f i l l m g

Shape o f c o i l

unacceptable

Shape o f coil g o o d

Figure 115 Examples of the way in which the feasability of a desired function is tied in with the form design of a functional surface. Above, an unloading magazine in a test tube machine (see also Figure 53); below, a bending tool for a coil of thick copper wire

122

Form

factors

Process realisation:

Quality of tfie

function
These factors can be t a k e n into account by c h o o s i n g a n d b u i l d i n g - i n s u i t a b l e q u a l i t i e s such as: strength rigidity hardness elasticity, etc. F i g u r e 1 1 6 s h o w s e x a m p l e s o f f o r m designs t h a t take the above-mentioned quality of f u n c t i o n factors into consideration.

W h e n i t has been d e c i d e d t h a t a given f u n c t i o n is possible, t h e n e x t stage is t o establish u n d e r w h a t c o n d i t i o n s t h i s w i l l be d o n e a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e d e s i r e d f u n c t i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d . T h e f u n c t i o n a l f a c t o r s at t h i s stage m a y be c a l l e d q u a l i t y o f f u n c t i o n factors, f o r example: is t h e f u n c t i o n r e p r o d u c i b l e parameter sensitivity reliability safety stability.

Fiaure 116 1 A bolt where deeper bends reduce the slot sensitiv i tity. 2. Connection between mo mechamcal parts fbere the sJmbly is most rigid if th^ through the middle 3 and 4. Form designs that g,ve strength. 5 and 6. Form designs that provide rigidity (a truck body and supporting frame for a diesel engineer)

Form

factors

123

User or operator: A survey of tfie factors


T h e user n a t u r a l l y that the product its use m u s t demands certain things of must the t h i s k n o w l e d g e t o g e t h e r w i t h a general a p p r e c i a t i o n of the interplay between 'man and the machine' ( w h i c h is c o v e r e d in e r g o n o m i c s ) , so t h a t t h e p r o d u c t is d e s i g n e d as s u i t a b l y as possible. If a designer overlooks this very important background knowledge t h e r e s u l t is o f t e n a p r o d u c t t h a t m a y be e i t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o use, o r gives a b a d w o r k i n g p o s t u r e ( a n d r e s t u l g i n g in b a c k t r o u b l e ) , o r t h a t m a y h o l d risks o f w r o n g o p e r a t i o n , e t c . A n e x a m p l e is s h o w n in F i g u r e F i g u r e 1 1 7 . Here t h e design o f t h e l a t h e is such t h a t an o p e r a t o r w i t h n o r m a l b o d y d i m e n s i o n s s t r a i n o n his b a c k . cannot a v o i d an u n r e a s o n a b l e p o s t u r e , w h i c h p u t s a great

p r o d u c t . O n e o f t h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l o f these is be s i m p l e t o use, i.e. t h a t the be easy a n d u n c o m p l i c a t e d w i t h

least possible m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l e f f o r t . In o r d e r t o t a k e a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t o f such req u i r e m e n t s t h e designer m u s t a c q u i r e o r at least be able t o f i n d senses, perception, of etc, information on the dimensions, muscular performance, tiredpeople, to

ness, e t c o f t h e h u m a n b o d y . If t h e r e are special categories children, users, such special as h a n d i c a p p e d must attention be given

t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I t is t h e n t h e designers j o b t o u t i l i s e

Figure

117

A lathe in which

the design does not take into account

the requirement

of a good

working

posture

124

Form

factors The interaction between man and the machine

F i g u r e 1 1 8 s h o w s an exannple o f a p r o d u c t w h e r e t h e design t a k e s t h e greatest possible a c c o u n t o f t h e user's s i t u a t i o n . T h e noise m e t e r is b u i l t so t h a t a t the top t h e r e is a d i r e c t i o n a l microphone which p i c k s u p a n d r e c o r d s t h e noise c o m i n g i n . T h e t o p part of the instrument almost a bottleneck t o avoid r e f l e c t i n g surfaces t h a t m a y have a n e f f e c t o n t h e exactitude of the microphone. T h e noise m e t e r is also designed so t h a t i t is c o m f o r t a b l e t o h o l d w h e n m e t e r i n g . H a n d l i n g is t a k e n i n t o consideration by a suitable arrangement o f such e l e m e n t s as c o n t r o l k n o b s , d i a l s , e t c . These are designed i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e y are easily accessible when the instrument source. is d i r e c t e d t o a given noise

w i l l n o w be s t u d i e d m o r e c l o s e l y . W e can t h i n k o f a m a c h i n e a n d a n o p e r a t o r as a s y s t e m t h a t c a n a c t o n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s i n a d e s i r e d w a y , i.e. t o m a k e use o f t h e p r o d u c t . Figure 1 1 9 shows such a m a n / m a c h i n e system, where the interplay between the and the operator The operator interaction may r o u n d i n g s is s h o w n . between the machine and the be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r categories, ininstalgood and machine a n d b e t w e e n t h e m a n d t h e sur-

volving a number of factors: handling normal working conditions operation, in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e.g. nature of job, lation and running in. p o s t u r e , s a f e t y , easy movements

accessibility. o c c a s i o n a l o p e r a t i o n , e.g. c l e a n i n g , m a i n t e n a n c e , adjustments a n d repairs. e m e r g e n c y o p e r a t i o n , e.g. e m e r g e n c y s t o p fire. A p a r t f r o m these f o u r categories w h i c h c o n c e r n the operation o f the machine under various c i r c u m stances t h e r e are f o u r a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , t h a t have no direct connection w i t h the operation. T h e y are: circumstances outside direct economics, preciation, user r e q u i r e m e n t s , e.g. a d v a n c e struction, training, education, subjective ance. F r o m the above eight categories, t h e have a close connection with the operation, occasional operations and following normal subjective circumstances, e.g. psychological c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n o p e r a t i n g t h e m a c h i n e , appearknowledge, ine.g. i n i t i a l o p e r a t i o n , e.g. i n and

s t a l l a t i o n , m o b i l i t y , storage space, c o s t , r u n n i n g c o s t s , de-

form:

c i r c u m s t a n c e s . These w i l l be f u r t h e r s t u d i e d i n t h e following section.

Figure sideration

118 of

A noise meter the

designed

with

conwhich

circumstances

under

it will be used

Form

factors

125

SYSTEM

MACHINE

OPERATOR

J
SURROUNDINGS

Figure

119

l\^a /machine

system

User or operator:
Among the factors

Normal
which

operations
concern the normal

o p e r a t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e m u s t be m e n t i o n e d : nature o f the j o b (aim: a meaningful j o b ) , good w o r k i n g posture, safety, easy m o v e m e n t s , accessibility, convenient communication w i t h the machine, n o u n p l e a s a n t noise, h e a t , r e f l e c t i o n s , e t c . The three factors of w o r k i n g posture, movements a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y are c l o s e l y t i e d i n w i t h t h e d e s i g n . T h i s is p r i m a r i l y a q u e s t i o n o f t a k i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e h u m a n d i m e n s i o n s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e p o s s i b i l i t i e s , so t h a t o n e c a n a v o i d b a d l y designed p r o d u c t s s u c h as t h e l a t h e i n F i g u r e 1 1 7 . T h e r e are a n u m b e r o f b o o k s o n e r g o n o m i c s a n d a n t h r o p o m e t r y (i.e. t h e s t u d y o f the measurements o f the h u m a n b o d y ) w h i c h cover this subject. Communication machine worthy involves of further between the operator and many design aspects that examination. Without the are the one hand i n f o r m a t i o n m a y be l o s t , o r wrong i n f o r m a t i o n m a y be a d d e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g pages o u t line a n u m b e r o f circumstances t h a t can c o n t r i b u t e t o clear a n u n a m b i g o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e operator and the machine. L e t us t a k e as o u r s t a r t i n g p o i n t t h e m a n / m a c h i n e system be in Figure of 119. A more detailed three model is s h o w n in F i g u r e 1 2 1 . T h e o p e r a t o r c a n , i n p r i n c i p l e , thought as c o m p r i s i n g sub-systems, n a m e l y t h e s e n s o r y a p p a r a t u s (eyes, ears, e t c . ) , t h e decision apparatus (the brain), and m o t o r apparatus ( h a n d s , a r m s a n d legs). T h e m a c h i n e m a y be d i v i d e d i n t h e same w a y i n t o t h r e e s u b - s y s t e m s ; t h e process system, the supervision system and the system. operating
Figure 120 The two possibilities information from for errors A to in transferring

suitable

c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e p r o d u c t c a n n o t be used as des i r e d . W h e n i n f o r m a t i o n is c o n v e y e d f r o m o n e place t o a n o t h e r t h e r e is a l w a y s t h e risk o f e r r o r . T h i s can h a p p e n in t w o w a y s , as s h o w n in F i g u r e 1 2 0 . O n

126

Form

factors

MAN/MACHINE SYSTEM

MACHINE OPERATOR

"supervisin
system

p
^

Sensory apparatus

Process system

Decision apparatus

Operating

Motor apparatus

I
Figure 121 The most important elements and relationships in a man/machine system

T h o s e parts o f t h e m a c h i n e w h i c h are i n d i r e c t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e o p e r a t o r ( t h e h a t c h e d areas i n t h e f i g u r e ) are k n o w n as t h e s u p e r v i s i o n s area, t h e o p e r a t i n g area a n d t h e o p e n process area. T h e m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e b e t w e e n t h e sub-systems is d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n . T h e t h r e e areas are s y m b o l i c a l l y

illustrated

in

Figure

122.

Supervision

areas

and

o p e r a t i n g areas are o f t e n p l a c e d t o g e t h e r in a c o n t r o l area, w h i l e t h e o p e n process area is k e p t a p a r t f r o m these. E x a m p l e s o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e areas are s h o w n in Figure 123 and 1 2 4 .

C o n t r o l area

Figure

122

The three areas of a machine

with which

the operator

is in

contact

127

Figure and

123 open

Control process machine

area area and a hydraulic press

in a grinding

128

Figure 124 Control area and open process area in a copying camera and an electric cooker (Courtesy of Esk o fot Ltd. and S.A.G. Ltd)

Form O n a m a c h i n e , t h e c o n t r o l areas a n d t h e t h e y are c l e a r l y and from the separated. This is h e l p f u l to open the

factors

129

o p t i m i s e d . T h i s does n o t m e a n t h a t t h e c o n t r a s t must be as g r e a t as possible ( b l a c k / w h i t e , r e d / On the contrary, be a d a p t e d it means that the the green e t c . ) as t h i s m a y m a k e e v e r y t h i n g seem t o flicker. contrast must so t h a t figure

process area s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d i n such a w a y t h a t operator and furthers communication between h i m machine. Sometimes the control either area is p l a c e d i n a separate u n i t w h i c h is p h y s i c a l l y a p a r t the machine. This may be d u e t o a n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n , as e.g. in n u m e r i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d m a c h i n e t o o l s , w h e r e t h e c o n t r o l u n i t is separate f r o m t h e rest, o r i t m a y also be because s p e c i f i c advantages in use m a y be g a i n e d . T h e l a t t e r m a y be q u i c k e r a n d m o r e c o n v e n i e n t h a n d l i n g , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e m o t e c o n t r o l , greater s a f e t y f o r t h e o p e r a t o r o r perhaps o n l y greater f l e x i b i l i t y all r o u n d . A n e x a m p l e is s h o w n in F i g u r e 1 2 5 . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f t h e c o n t r o l area is p l a c e d i n o r o n t h e m a c h i n e i t m a y be e m p h a s i s e d in v a r i o u s w a y s . A n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r in t h i s c o n n e c t i o n is t h e so-called ' f i g u r e o n g r o u n d e f f e c t ' , w h i c h is a f u n d a m e n t a l e f f e c t in a n y visual p e r c e p t i o n . T h e ' f i g u r e o n g r o u n d e f f e c t ' tells us t h a t w h e n w e l o o k we a l w a y s n o t i c e o b j e c t s o r f i g u r e s , w h i c h t h e r e b y become significant, while the background dwindles and perhaps h a r d l y leaves a t r a c e i n o u r consciousness. If o n e w a n t s t o d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o s o m e t h i n g , i t m a y t h u s be d o n e b y u s i n g a f i g u r e t h a t stands o u t c l e a r l y against t h e b a c k g r o u n d . O n t h e basis o f these facts o n e can f o r m u l a t e s o m e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e design o f the c o n t r o l area: T h e contrast in f o r m , c o l o u r and surface ( t e x t u r e ) b e t w e e n t h e f i g u r e a n d t h e b a c k g r o u n d m u s t be

stands o u r c l e a r l y f r o m t h e b a c k g r o u n d w i t h o u t distracting and t i r i n g the eye. Dimensions between the individual figure and the remaining figures must be a d j u s t e d . There m u s t n o t be f i g u r e s t h a t g e t l o s t in t h e c r o w d . G o o d l i g h t i n g m u s t be assured. D i s t r a c t i n g e l e m e n t s m u s t be m i n i m i s e d . These may be e.g. r e f l e c t i o n s , a f t e r images, powerful sources near a n d d o m i n a t i n g f i g u r e s v e r y close t o . Figure 126 shows a p h o t o c o p i e r where the figure g r o u n d e f f e c t is u t i l i s e d t o e m p h a s i s t h e c o n t r o l area a n d m a k e i t clear. T h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s o f a c o n t r o l panel c o n stutute two categories, namely the signalling i n s t r u m e n t s ( t h e s u p e r v i s i o n area) a n d t h e o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ( t h e o p e r a t i n g a r e a ) . We have p r e v i o u s l y seen h o w t h e m a c h i n e m u s t be designed in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e c o n t r o l areas s t a n d o u t as a clear a n d w e l l d e f i n e d p a r t o f t h e m a c h i n e . T h e f o l l o w i n g pages outline some principles f o r arranging the individual c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e c o n t r o l panel w i t h regard t o effective c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the operator and the machine. T h r e e m a i n p o i n t s m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e layo u t o f a c o n t r o l p a n e l , n a m e l y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f use

Figure 125 Electric scales, where the control area is separate from the process area (the tray). (Courtesy of Bizerba)

130

Form

factors a n d t h e i n n p o r t a n c e o f t h e separate elennents, as w e l l as t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e l a y o u t . T h i s means t h a t t h e m o s t o f t e n used e l e m e n t s , a n d , f o r i n s t a n c e , an e m e r g e n c y s t o p are p l a c e d c e n t r a l l y . W h i l e , g e n e r a l l y , i t is n o t d i f f i c u l t t o decide w h i c h elements belong t o the t w o f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d g r o u p s i t is a m o r e d e m a n d i n g t a s k t o a r r a n g e t h e e l e m e n t s i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r i n a m a n n e r t h a t is clear a n d s i m p l e t o grasp. H e r e , h o w ever, p e r c e p t i o n p s y c h o l o g y m a y h e l p us, e s p e c i a l l y t h e b r a n c h c a l l e d gestalt p s y c h o l o g y . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n are t h e ideas o f g r o u p a n d p a t t e r n c r e a t i o n o n t h e basis o f closeness and similarity. On control these into panels w i t h m a n y s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s , groups t h a t are easy t o scan. e.g. l i g h t s , s w i t c h e s a n d h a n d l e s , i t is u s e f u l t o d i v i d e smaller V a r i o u s means m a y be used f o r t h e g r o u p i n g , n a m e l y either collecting the elements i n t o smaller groups by arranging them closer t o g e t h e r , or differentiating t h e m b y g r o u p s , e.g. each g r o u p its o w n c o l o u r . I t is also p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e t o f o r m g r o u p s b y d i v i d i n g t h e area o f t h e c o n t r o l panel i n t o d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e a i d o f lines a n d c o l o u r s . F i g u r e 1 2 7 s h o w s s c h e m a t i c a l l y a c o n t r o l panel

Figure

126 A photocopier emphasised (Courtesy

with the Oce-Helioprint

control Ltd)

w i t h 5 0 e l e m e n t s . If these are a r r a n g e d as i n ( a ) , t h e y w i l l f o r m a n area o f a u n i f o r m s t r u c t u r e , w h e r e i t is d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y a given e l e m e n t . In ( b ) t o (e) t h e

O O o o o

o o o o o

o o o o o

o o o o o

Figure

127

A control

panel with many similar

elements

131

Figure

128

Grouping

the elements

on the background

of closeness

and similarity

(Courtesy

IBM)

Figure

129

An

element

that stands

out in an otherwise homogeneous row catches the attention. of a control panel on a computer (Courtesy IBM)

The picture

showspart

132

Form

factors t h e m . Figure 128 shows yet another example o f this, If, o n a c o n t r o l p a n e l , t h e r e is a r o w o f s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s t h e y w i l l be p e r c e i v e d a s a h o m o g e n o u s r o w w h e r e n o e l e m e n t stands o u t . O n e does n o t n o t i c e the separate elements. Now, if one of these is a l t e r e d , i t w i l l a t o n c e be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e o t h e r s . T h i s f a c t m a y be used in t w o w a y s ;

g r o u p i n g is d o n e r e s p e c t i v e l y b y d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e , different colour, division b y line a n d d i v i s i o n b y c o l o u r e d areas. These d i v i s i o n s m e a n t h a t o n e c a n q u i c k l y w i t h o u t c o u n t i n g p o i n t t o a given elem e n t . In o t h e r w o r d s , b y g r o u p i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o n e can ensure much quicker identification of the separate e l e m e n t s t h a t i f o n e h a d t o c o u n t t o f i n d

Figure 130 A control panel with groups sections (Courtesy DISA Electronic Ltd)

formed

on the basis of proximity,

similarity

and

framed

Form A r o w o f s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s o u g h t t o have t h e same ' n o r m a l ' p o s i t i o n , i.e. all p o i n t e r s are v e r t i c a l a n d all lights are o n d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n , e t c . If o n e o f t h e e l e m e n t s gets o u t o f t h e n o r m a l p o s i t i o n i t w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n , and thus ensure t h a t t h e a l t e r a t i o n 129. If o n e o f t h e e l e m e n t s is especially i m p o r t a n t i t c a n be p l a c e d i n a r o w o f o t h e r s t h a t are s i m i l a r t o each o t h e r . T h e o n e t h a t is d i f f e r e n t w i l l s t a n d o u t . A s an e x a m p l e m a y be m e n t i o n e d a d i a l w i t h a d i f f e r e n t shape f r o m t h e o t h e r s , o r a red emergency stop placed between black c o n t r o l knobs. G r o u p i n g b y f u n c t i o n is o f t e n used as a basis f o r control panel layout. The elements t h a t belong is n o t i c e d . See Figure together

factors

133

in a f u n c t i o n a l u n i t are c o l l e c t e d in one

group o n the panel, either by placing the elements in the individual f u n c t i o n a l groups closely together (proximity), colour sections by making them by similar in f o r m panel o r areas. or into An (similarity), or indicated by dividing the lines, c o l o u r s

e x a m p l e is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 3 0 . A n operationally-determined layout of a control panel m a y be e x p e d i e n t if t h e e l e m e n t s are used each time in a c e r t a i n s e q u e n c e . In t h i s case i t w i l l to place t h e e l e m e n t s in an o r d e r be natural corre-

s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s e q u e n c e , so t h a t b y m o v i n g o n e ' s f i n g e r s f r o m o n e b u t t o n t o t h e n e x t t h e sequence is f o l l o w e d correctly (Figure 131). A p r o c e s s - d e t e r m i n e d l a y o u t o f a c o n t r o l panel is

Figure 131 Operationally determined layout of a control panel. The elements of the panel are arranged in the order in which they must be operated (Courtesy Ltd) Watson-Marlow

Figure 132 Process-determined of a control panel. The layout picture shows the control panel of a grass drying plant (Courtesy of Atlas Ltd)

134

Form

factors H o w m u c h regard o n e s h o u l d p a y t o these f a c t o r s depends o n b o t h the p r o d u c t and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e designer m u s t r e m e m b e r t o c o n s i d e r f r o m w h i c h points of view t h e f a c t o r s s h o u l d be t a k e n into a c c o u n t , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h e t h e r t h e p r o d u c t m u s t be easy t o c l e a n , o r w h e t h e r i t s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d so that cleaning is unnecessary. Also whether the p r o d u c t m u s t be easy t o a d j u s t a n d r e p a i r , o r w h e t h e r

n a t u r a l if t h e e l e m e n t s o n t h e panel c o n t r o l a n u m b e r o f c o m p o n e n t s i n a process s y s t e m . T h e panel m a y in t h i s case, as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 3 2 , be designed as a s i m p l i f i e d d i a g r a m o f t h e process w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s o n t h e panel so a r r a n g e d t h a t i t is easy t o see t o w h i c h p o i n t i n t h e process s y s t e m t h e y c o r r e spond.

User or operator:
Occasional operations,

Occasional

operations
in connection con-

it must systems

be b u i l t i n s u c h a w a y t h a t parts o r subare replaced instead. Easy cleaning is

a c h i e v e d f i r s t o f all b y e n s u r i n g easy access a n d b y o p e r a t i o n s are a c t i v i t i e s but which a v o i d i n g slots a n d holes t h a t c a n c o l l e c t d i r t Figures taken 133 and into 134). The consideration b y a design w h i c h (see also of w i t h the machine, which d o not concern the normal are necessary f o r t h e t i n u o u s use o f i t . These are: cleaning, maintenance, servicing, adjusting, repairs. r e m a i n i n g f a c t o r s are

gives a c c e s s i b i l i t y , s i m p l e a s s e m b l y / d i s m a n t l i n g a n d s a f e t y w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g these j o b s .

c o m p o n e n t s , c o n v e n i e n t w e i g h t a n d size o f these

Figure

133 Meat mincers with suction feet. On the left is a design where meat juices and liquid may run down into the foot which cannot be taken apart. On the right a new design where cleaning has been taken into consideration

Form

factors

135

Figure ment,

134 Suggested designs for the ho/der of a dia/ysis ceil (artificial kidney). The equipment is used in a hospital environwhere easy cleaning is an important requirement. The design shown in the lower illustration is therefore preferable

136

Form

factors

User or operator: Subjective

circumstances
Figure 135 shows t w o microscopes f r o m d i f f e r e n t periods, which The particular b o t h give an a e s t h e t i c conditions concerned experience. in aesthetic

S o m e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , most difficult factors in d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t conc e r n t h e user's s u b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e t o i t : psychological facts, appearance. T h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t s c o n c e r n t h e user's r e a c t i o n to the product; t h e user m a y , f o r instance, feel repulsed/attracted, unsure/confident, oppressed/free w h i l e using i t (see F i g u r e 1 9 0 ) . These f a c t o r s m a y b e d i f f i c u l t t o assess at t h e design stage, b u t if o n e feels that there may be p r o b l e m s , a three-dimensional m o d e l m a y be n e e d e d . F r o m t h e user's v i e w p o i n t t h e appearance o f t h e product plays an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . W h e n evaluating style, t h e a p p e a r a n c e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c a n be m a d e b e t w e e n the aesthetic element a n d the influence o f f a s h i o n a n d h a b i t . T h e a e s t h e t i c side is t i m e l e s s a n d universal b e a u t y , w h i l e s t y l e , f a s h i o n a n d h a b i t dep e n d o n t i m e a n d place.

design w i l l be discussed in greater d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 4 , w h i c h deals e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e product. It is d i f f i c u l t t o draw the line b e t w e e n style, f a s h i o n a n d h a b i t . W h i l e s t y l e is a s o r t o f c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r f o r w h a t is c u r r e n t i n a c e r t a i n p e r i o d w i t h regard t o t h e design o f p r o d u c t s in i n d u s t r y , a p p l i e d a r t s , a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d a r t , f a s h i o n is s h o r t lived and o f t e n attached t o certain products. T h u s t h e f a s h i o n in cars, f o r i n s t a n c e , has n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e f a s h i o n in t h e design o f d o m e s t i c a p p l i a n c e s . Figures fashion. A l s o , h a b i t m u s t n o t be o v e r l o o k e d w h e n d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t . If t h e r e is a w i d e s p r e a d h a b i t u a l idea o f w h a t t h e design s h o u l d b e , i t c a n be c a t a s t r o p h i c f o r a c o m p a n y t o i g n o r e t h i s . O n e o f t h e best k n o w n 136 and 137 show examples of style and

Figure

135

New

and

old microscopes. microscope

However,

they

both

provide

an aesthetic Ltd.)

experience.

(New

is by courtesy

of Wild Heerbrugg

Form e x a m p l e s o f t h e f o r c e o f h a b i t is t h a t o f s h i p s , w h i c h even t o d a y are m o s t l y b u i l t w i t h a f u n n e l , t h o u g h these b e c a m e unnecessary w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e diesel e n g i n e . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e is t h e t r a n s i s t o r radio s h o w n in Figure 1 3 8 ( l e f t ) . In spite o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t was t h o r o u g h l y was too remote from

factors

137

researched b o t h t e c h n i c a l l y the traditional idea which

a n d o p e r a t i o n a l l y i t d i d n o t s e l l , because t h e f o r m people had o f w h a t a transistor radio should look like (Figure 138, r i g h t ) .

Figure

136

The influence

of style on form illustrated

by telephones LK-NESLtd)

and switches

(Courtesy

of G NT Automatic

Ltd, and

Figure 137 Fashion: Three makes of car having almost iden tical designs

138

Form

factors

Environment
T h e e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h t h e p r o d u c t w i l l be used is i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e design in t w o w a y s . O n t h e o n e hand the environment may have t o be p r o t e c t e d against t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o d u c t a n d , o n t h e o t h e r , t h e p r o d u c t m a y have t o be p r o t e c t e d against t h e effects o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . In cases w h e r e a p r o d u c t m i g h t p o s s i b l y d a m a g e o r p e r h a p s r u i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h e design m u s t be s u c h t h a t t h i s does n o t h a p p e n . If a p r o d u c t is t o be d i r e c t l y o p e r a t e d b y a user, o n e m u s t be a w a r e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s t o w h i c h t h i s p e r s o n is e x p o s e d t o and t a k e these i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e d e s i g n . If i t is a p r o d u c t

Figure

138

Habit.

Two transistor radios showing traditional and unusual designs. The design on the right is recognisable as a transistor radio (Courtesy Bang & Olufsen)

immediately

Figure

139

Two oil-fired

boilers

for different environments, namely anda cellar without particular

a utility room which requires cleanliness requirements

and

muffling

Form t h a t w i l l be used in a f a c t o r y o n e m u s t t h e r e f o r e , t h r o u g h t h e d e s i g n , ensure t h a t t h e r e is n o d e t e r i o ration of the w o r k i n g environment. Obviously, the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m u s t be s h o w n i f p e o p l e , m a y have t o pass near t h e p r o d u c t . In t h e instances m e n t i o n e d t h e p r o d u c t m a y have t o be s h i e l d e d against

factors

139

heat, m u f f l e noise, d a m p v i b r a t i o n s , etc. A n example is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 3 9 . T h e p r o d u c t is e x p o s e d t o a n u m b e r o f m o r e o r less u n c o n t r o l l e d i n f l u e n c e s s u c h as h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s , c o r r o d i n g l i q u i d s a n d gases, f o r c e s , v i b r a t i o n s , e t c . T h e r e f o r e i t m u s t be d e s i g n e d so t h a t i t c a n resist these f a c t o r s a d e q u a t e l y .

Figure protect

140 A pressure switch on three different covers to it from damp - normal, drip-proof and ray-proof (Courtesy Danfoss Ltd)

140

Form

factors a given s o l u t i o n . W h e n e v a l u a t i n g a n u m b e r o f f o r m design suggestions (see C h a p t e r 2 o n ' F o r m s y n t h e s i s m e t h o d s ' ) o n e gets a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e d i f f e r e n t suggestions f u l f i l l t h e c r i t e r i a i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . T h e problem may be i l l u s t r a t e d by the following exa m p l e . W h i c h o f t w o suggested s o l u t i o n s is t h e best o n e , w h e n o n e s o l u t i o n is c h e a p t o p r o d u c e , r e l a t i v e l y complicated to operate, expensive t o run and of g o o d a p p e a r a n c e , w h i l e t h e o t h e r s o l u t i o n is dearer t o p r o d u c e , easy t o o p e r a t e , c h e a p t o r u n a n d o f an u n f o r t u n a t e appearance? T h e answer m u s t n a t u r a l l y d e p e n d o n w h a t o t h e r c r i t e r i a s h o u l d also be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , as w e l l as w h a t w e i g h t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c r i t e r i a m u s t be given c o m p a r e d t o each o t h e r . T h e

T h e design is i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l and consequently by the choice of manufacturing process. It w i l l also be a f f e c t e d b y t h e possible need f o r special c o v e r i n g , p r o t e c t i v e shields, e t c . A n example is s h o w n in Figure 1 4 0 , w h e r e a pressure s w i t c h is designed f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s . A t t h e t o p , is a n o r m a l s w i t c h f o r o r d i n a r y f a i r l y d r y r o o m s , in t h e c e n t r e a design t h a t is d r i p p r o o f , i.e. p r o o f against d a m p a n d d u s t , a n d a t t h e b o t t o m a ray p r o o f t y p e s w i t c h locations. i.e. a c o m p l e t e l y enclosed a n d v e r y t o u g h v e r s i o n f o r use i n s p e c i a l l y e x p o s e d

3.7 Destruction factors


T h e f i n a l process t h a t a p r o d u c t goes t h r o u g h d u r i n g its l i f e ' (see page 6 ) is d e s t r u c t i o n . A l l p r o d u c t s are d e s t r o y e d e i t h e r b y a gradual b r e a k i n g d o w n t h r o u g h environmental influences or by destruction by m a n , i.e. i n c i n e r a t i o n , c r u s h i n g , m e l t i n g , c u t t i n g u p , e t c . T h e d e s t r u c t i o n f a c t o r s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o e n v i r o n m e n t considerations, possibilities f o r recycling and the consumption of resources i n t h e destruction process. E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m a y be decisive as t o w h e t h e r active d e s t r u c t i o n is c o n t e m p l a t e d . I f t h e p r o d u c t , a f t e r i t has served its p u r p o s e c o n s t i t u t e s a danger, an eyesore o r s o m e o t h e r n u i s a n c e , i t m a y be designed in such a w a y t h a t i t is easy t o d i s m a n t l e o r d e s t r o y , o r m a t e r i a l s m a y be used w h i c h ensure t h a t t h e n a t u r a l d e s t r u c t i o n is speeded u p . Possibilities f o r recycling material, components o r sub-systems o u g h t t o be c o n s i d e r e d in t h e d e s i g n . F o r i n s t a n c e i t m a y be t h a t a t i n y a l t e r a t i o n in t h e design given makes possible or a simple dismantling an easy separation of of a two take component

evaluation

of a number

o f suggested s o l u t i o n s

is

therefore a d i f f i c u l t task. E v a l u a t i o n m a y be c a r r i e d o u t b y a n u m b e r o f m o r e o r less f o r m a l i s e d t e c h n i q u e s . These r u n f r o m a quite informal after evaluation which based o n i n t u i t i o n evaluation to is o n e w i t h several b a l a n c e d c r i t e r i a t h a t are w e i g h e d separately, a complete m a d e a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n rules. T h e c h o i c e o f t e c h n i q u e f o r e v a l u a t i o n d e p e n d s o n t h e level o f d e t a i l i n g at which t h e suggested s o l u t i o n s are formulated. These t e c h n i q u e s w i l l n o t be discussed here as t h e r e is a great deal o f l i t e r a t u r e a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d o n t h i s subject. C o m m o n t o all e v a l u a t i o n s i t u a t i o n s is t h e f a c t t h a t t h e suggested s o l u t i o n s m u s t be m o d e l l e d (in t h e w i d e s t sense, e.g. i n a s k e t c h o r i n a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l , see C h a p t e r 2 ) , so t h a t o n e c a n e x a m i n e t h e q u a l i t i e s t o be e v a l u a t e d , such as space, o p e r a t i o n , appearance, etc. The various suggested solutions w h i c h m u s t be e v a l u a t e d c o n c u r r e n t l y , m u s t necess a r i l y be m o d e l l e d w i t h t h e same degree o f d e t a i l , so that a solution that might possibly be more t h o r o u g h l y w o r k e d o u t is n o t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y given preference over the others. W h e n a series o f suggested s o l u t i o n s has been e v a l u a t e d t h e r e w i l l u s u a l l y be m o r e o r m o r e s o l u t i o n s t h a t t u r n o u t t o be b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s . T h e best one, or possibly a f e w o f t h e best o n e s , m u s t be f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d , w h i c h gives rise t o a n e w series o f solutions must at a m o r e d e t a i l e d l e v e l . Here again o n e and make other (more a choice, but this detailed) criteria. time After evaluate

m a t e r i a l s . A s t h e s u p p l y o f o u r r a w m a t e r i a l s becomes shorter i t m a y b e c o m e m o r e usual t o this factor i n t o account. T h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f resources in d e s t r u c t i o n is m a i n l y a question o f using m a n p o w e r , energy and equipment.

3.8 Evaluation or f o r m design suggestions


O b v i o u s l y n o t all t h e f o r m f a c t o r s o r f o r m c r i t e r i a p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d c a n be f u l l y a c c o m o d a t e d in

according to

t h i s , n e w details are a d d e d , a n d so t h e process c o n t i n u e s w i t h f u r t h e r s o l u t i o n s u n t i l all t h e d e t a i l s have been d e c i d e d .

4 APPEARANCE OF THE PRODUCT


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 T h e idea o f appearance F o r m elements 147 151 166 143

C o m b i n i n g f o r m elements Means o f e x p r e s s i o n

141

4. Appearance of the Product


mPOZJANCE THE OF

f o r e c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d a n d , o f c o u r s e , i t is t h i s f a c t w h i c h gives rise t o m u c h d i s c u s s i o n w h e n a n o b j e c t l o o k s pleasing. W h e n d e s i g n i n g a p r o d u c t o n e c a n n o t leave its appearance o u t o f a c c o u n t , b u t t h e degree t o w h i c h t h i s influences the f o r m depends o n the t y p e of p r o d u c t i n q u e s t i o n . F o r c e r t a i n p r o d u c t s , a p p e a r a n c e is a basic q u a l i t y . T h i s a p p l i e s f o r i n s t a n c e t o j e w e l l e r y , c l o t h e s a n d f u r n i t u r e . T h e r e are also p r o d u c t s w h e r e the appearance is immaterial, e.g. other carburettors, products are f e r r u l e s , nails a n d screws. A l l in t h e table o n the left. What exactly characteristic for is g o o d a p p e a r a n c e , a n d w h a t is a product that we would call

APPA/^AMC

JeoueiCery CLothes Furniture Domestic


appLiOinces

(^adio, TV tape recorders Offcce mackcues


U(>\chLne tooLs

s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n these e x t r e m e s , as suggested

Contractors
pLarit BLectrLCaL

Values
aiS, sere s

b e a u t i f u l ? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a s a t i s f a c t o r y a n s w e r has never been f o u n d . T h e nearest o n e c a n get is t h a t i t is possible t o i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s t h a t t o g e t h e r give us an idea o f w h y s o m e t h i n g s are u g l y , w h i l e o t h e r s are b e a u t i f u l . A e s t h e t i c s , i.e. t h e s t u d y of b e a u t y , is c o n c e r n e d w i t h these q u e s t i o n s . I t is n o t possible t o d r a w u p rules t h a t w i l l ensure a b e a u t i f u l p r o d u c t , b u t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d w e c a n give s o m e g u i d e l i n e s , w h i c h a designer c a n use w i t h a c e r t a i n probability o f a reasonable r e s u l t . T h e rest o f t h i s c h a p t e r deals w i t h s u c h g u i d e l i n e s . S p e c u l a t i o n o n w h y c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s c a n give a n

4.1 The idea o f appearance Aesthetics


T h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a p r o d u c t is a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e choice of structure, f o r m , material, dimension and surface ( i n c l u d i n g c o l o u r ) , in o t h e r w o r d s e x a c t l y t h e f i v e basic p r o p e r t i e s t h a t w e r e discussed i n C h a p t e r 1 . A p p e a r a n c e can o n l y be e v a l u a t e d as i t can be equated with t h e visual subjectively, impression

o n l o o k e r an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e has a l w a y s engaged h u m a n i t y . S o m e p e o p l e have f o u n d b e a u t y in n a t u r e , o t h e r s i n s t r i c t g e o m e t r i c shapes a n d o t h e r s again i n s w e l l i n g curves a n d garish c o l o u r s . These p e o p l e m a y all be r i g h t i n t h e i r o w n w a y . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i n taste o f d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e c o u l d o f t e n be t h e reason w h y s o m e a r t i c l e s are f e l t t o be b e a u t i f u l , w h i l e o t h e r s are n o t . However, if s o m e t h i n g is r e a l l y beautiful m o s t p e o p l e c a n agree. T h e r e f o r e , i t m u s t be possible t o f i n d c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t are c o m m o n t o t h e f e e l i n g w h i c h gives o n e an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e .

given b y t h e f i v e basic p r o p e r t i e s . A p p e a r a n c e t h e r e 143

144

Appearance of tfie product

Figure

141

An aesthetic

product

characterised

by unity

and order

(Courtesy

Bang &

Olufsen)

B e a u t y m a y i n t h e f i r s t instance be c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y its o p p o s i t e ugliness. W h e n an a r t i c l e is f e l t t o be u g l y i t m a y be because i t is d i s c o r d a n t , s h o d d y , careless, b i t t y , d e f e c t i v e o r b a d l y m a d e . B e a u t y is t h e c o m p l e m e n t o f ugliness, a n d f r o m t h i s w e m a y get an i n d i c a t i o n o f w h a t b e a u t y is. O n e m u s t , h o w e v e r , r e m e m b e r t h a t b e t w e e n ugliness a n d b e a u t y lies t h e neutral a n d u n i n t e r e s t i n g . So b e a u t y m u s t possess other qualities apart f r o m n o t being ugly. T h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are u n i t y a n d o r d e r , (see Figure 141).

harmonic

unit

may

be a c h i e v e d i f t h e c o m -

ponent

e l e m e n t s are r e l a t e d in s o m e w a y , e.g. b y and in t h e choice o f c o l o u r s ,

c o m m o n f o r m (basic shapes, c u r v e s , e t c . ) , s i m i l a r i t y in s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e (see F i g u r e 1 4 2 ) .

Order
T w o o f t h e qualities already m e n t i o n e d in connect i o n w i t h ugliness w e r e carelessness a n d d i s o r d e r . I t is t h e r e f o r e n a t u r a l t o e x a m i n e h o w f a r t h e idea o f O r d e r ' belongs t o t h e aesthetic p r o d u c t . Sometimes o r d e r in i t s e l f m a y s a t i s f y a n a e s t h e t i c n e e d .

Unity
A p r o d u c t o u g h t t o appear as a f i n i s h e d c o m p l e t e u n i t , w h e r e t h e separate e l e m e n t s a n d details bel o n g t o g e t h e r i n a logical a n d h a r m o n i c w a y . T h e r e m u s t be n o e l e m e n t s t h a t s t a n d o u t as i f t h e y d i d not b e l o n g , a n d t h a t arouse q u e s t i o n s o r s u r p r i s e . I t w i l l also be u n f o r t u n a t e i f t h e p r o d u c t l o o k s as if s o m e p a r t is m i s s i n g . I t c a n be g e n e r a l l y said t h a t a n y d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n mars t h e appearance.

T h e h i g h e s t degree o f o r d e r - s t r i c t r e p e t i t i o n

will, however, often become t o o m o n o t o n o u s , while a freer and more varied order can make the p r o d u c t an e x c i t i n g sensual e x p e r i e n c e . T h e degree o f o r d e r t h a t is m o s t s u i t a b l e d e p e n d s o n t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t , i n t h e sense t h a t t h e m o r e c o m p l e x t h e p r o d u c t t h e h i g h e r a degree o f o r d e r is n e e d e d . H o w e l e m e n t s c a n be a r r a n g e d w i t h a c e r t a i n v a r i e t y is m o r e closely e x a m i n e d in section 4 . 3 . T h e i m p o r t a n c e of order f o r aesthetic experience is i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 143.

145

Figure 142 Unity and Vilh. Pedersens Machine

iack of unity. Factory Ltd.).

Above, a programmable machine tool that constitutes a harmonic unit Below, a car where the superstructure and the chassis do not seem to belong

(courtesy together

146

Figure 143 Order and disorder. Above, an offset writing machine where the separate form elements express order in respect of both form and arrangement. (Courtesy of Helioprint Ltd). Below, a typical prototype that bears the stamp of disorder. In this case one does not worry about appearance but about function

Appearance

of tfie product

147

4.2 F o r m elements
Most industrially m a n u f a c t u r e d p r o d u c t s are built t h e m a i n visual d i r e c t i o n s , a n d i t is n a t u r a l t o t h i n k i n t e r m s o f these directions. Models. W h e n i t is necessary t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t h i s m a y be d o n e by using a m o d e l . By far t h e m o s t widely used t y p e o f m o d e l In this sort that of is a prod r a w i n g , m o s t o f t e n in r i g h t - a n g l e d projection. sketch consist Technologies. the are of j e c t i o n m u c h t h e easiest o b j e c t s t o those broadly to the planes parallel processes

up of a n u m b e r o f elements o f a relatively simple g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m . In t h e m o r e c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s a n d m a c h i n e s t h e e l e m e n t s are p u t t o g e t h e r i n t o subs y s t e m s , w h i c h again are o f t e n i n t h e f o r m o f k n o w n g e o m e t r i c a l shapes. T h e p r o d u c t is t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y a number of ' f o r m elements', which together make u p t h e o u t e r f o r m . These f o r m e l e m e n t s h e l p t o give t h e p r o d u c t its c h a r a c t e r , w h e t h e r t h i s f a c t has been t a k e n deliberate advantage o f or n o t . T h e f o r m e l e m e n t s t h a t are m e t m o s t o f t e n are t h e basic shapes o f t h e c u b e t h e c y l i n d e r , parts o f t h e s e , see F i g u r e 144. The sphere, t h e p y r a m i d , t h e c o n e a n d t h e e l l i p s o i d o r box and the c y l i n d e r are t h e f o r m e l e m e n t s m o s t o f t e n u s e d , w i t h the result t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r o d u c t s consist o f lines a n d planes a t r i g h t angles t o each o t h e r . Several reasons f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n m a y be m e n t i o n e d : The Mind. ' T h e e y e ' is n a t u r a l l y u s e d - t o perc e i v i n g v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l as

p r o j e c t i o n planes. Manufacturing favour o b j e c t s w i t h planes at r i g h t angles t o each o t h e r a n d t h o s e t h a t c a n be t u r n e d o n a l a t h e . The above c o m m e n t s must n o t be r e g a r d e d as arguments f o r t h e f o r m elements always having t o be s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m s , f o r n a t u r a l l y t h e designer has a l w a y s his f r e e d o m inside t h e l i m i t s o f t h e

BASIC SHAPES

O o
/7\

PARTS OF BASIC S H A P E S

Figure

144

Form

elements

148

Appearance of the product


used as means o f g e t t i n g ideas, b o t h w h e n w o r k i n g on the total f o r m and w h e n deciding o n the f o r m of t h e e l e m e n t s (as d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 3 ) . I t is, h o w e v e r , n o t e n o u g h t o m e r e l y emphasise t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e idea o f f o r m e l e m e n t s . T h e designer must k n o w that the correct integration of the f o r m elements product. be is The essential to the appearance of the following section, therefore, shows

c r i t e r i a . H o w e v e r , if a n u m b e r o f p r o d u c t s are s t u d i e d o n t h e basis o f t h e f o r m e l e m e n t s t h e y consists o f , i t w i l l be f o u n d t h a t t h e basic shapes i n F i g u r e 144 have been used. F i g u r e 1 4 5 s h o w s t h i s f o r a n u m b e r o f s m a l l c o m p o n e n t s . In t h e m o r e c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s s h o w n i n Figures 1 4 6 t o 1 4 9 t h e basic shapes are used i n t h e f o r m design o f t h e smallest e l e m e n t s u p to the construction of the total system. T h i n k i n g in t e r m s o f f o r m e l e m e n t s is i m p o r t a n t t o t h e designer, because t h e basic shapes can

w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n several f o r m e l e m e n t s are p u t t o g e t h e r , a n d w h a t can be d o n e t o achieve a harm o n i o u s result.

Figure 145 A number of smaller components in which the form elements 144 can be from Figure recognised

149

Figure 146 Fresh water plant. clearly defined fornn elements the total form and in the details of Atlas Ltd)

Note the both in (Courtesy

Figure

147

An automatic

lathe

with many

form

elements

(Courtesy

of

Boehringer)

150

Figure 148 l\nicroscope built geometric basic forms (Courtesy

up of of Carl

simple Zeiss)

Figure

149

Excavator

built

up of pronounced

form

elements

(Courtesy

of J. C. Bamford

Exc.)

Appearance

of tfie product

151

4.3 Combining f o r m elements Visual balance


L e t us e x a m i n e t w o elements and isolated f o r m units or form form central l i n e . V i s u a l b a l a n c e is i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure

try to combine

them.

If t h e

1 5 0 (c) t o ( e ) , w h e r e (c) s h o w s i t a c h i e v e d b y s y m m e t r y , ( d ) an a s y m m e t r i c a l balance a n d (e) a visual imbalance. I f a g r o u p o f f o r m e l e m e n t s are n o t i n balance t h e y m a y ' o f f e n d the eye'. One m u s t especially guard against cases w h e r e t h e t o t a l f o r m is v e r y n e a r l y s y m m e t r i c a l , b u t n o t q u i t e . A g o o d rule o f t h u m b is, t h a t t h e f o r m m u s t be e i t h e r s y m m e t r i c a l o r s u f f i c i e n t l y a s y m m e t r i c a l f o r i t t o be c l e a r l y d e l i b e r a t e a n d n o t s i m p l y lopsidedness. Figures balance 151 and 1 5 2 s h o w e x a m p l e s o f visual of t w o meters. Figure 153 on the f r o n t

e l e m e n t s are m o v e d t o w a r d s each o t h e r w e n o t i c e t h a t , a t a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e , t h e y seem t o b e l o n g t o g e t h e r a n d have f o r m e d a g r o u p (see F i g u r e 1 5 0 (a) a n d ( b ) ) . T h e idea o f g r o u p is f u n d a m e n t a l t o o u r visual p e r c e p t i o n . If w e s t u d y a n u m b e r o f e l e m e n t s i n a g r o u p t h e y w i l l a f f e c t each o t h e r , a p a r t f r o m j u s t s e e m i n g t o b e l o n g t o g e t h e r . We w i l l feel t h e e l e m e n t s are v i s u a l l y m o r e o r less i n b a l a n c e . A visual balance m a y be a c h i e v e d b y s y m m e t r y , or it m a y be a s y m m e t r i c a l . In t h e l a t t e r case t h e c o m p o n e n t e l e m e n t s m u s t be s h a p e d a n d a r r a n g e d i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e r e seems t o form be t h e same ' w e i g h t ' (a c o m b i n a t i o n on both sides o f an of and colour) imaginary that

s h o w s a v a c u u m p u m p i n visual i m b a l a n c e ( i t l o o k s as i f i t w i l l t o p p l e o v e r ) , a n d F i g u r e 1 5 4 a v i s u a l l y balanced vertical drill.

Figure

150

The group

effect

between

two elements

(a and b), visual balance imbalance (e)

(c, symmetrical;

d, asymmetrical)

and

visual

152

Figure

151

Visual balance

through

symmetry

(Courtesy

of Bruel

&

Kjaer)

Figure

152

Visual balance

without

symmetry

(Coutesy

of DISA

Electronic

Ltd.)

153

Figure

153

Vacuum

pump visual

which gives an impression imbalance

of

Figure

154

Vertical

drill in visual

balance

154

Appearance of tfie product

Rfiytfim
In the section that that of one the aesthetics (page 143) it was of c o n s t i t u t e an u n i n t e r e s t i n g r o w . H o w c a n w e m a k e the g r o u p o f elements m o r e exciting? We can i n t r o duce a certain variation This which we repeat with or suitable intervals. 'order with variation'

mentioned emphasised

important degree of

characteristic necessary

b e a u t i f u l p r o d u c t s is o r d e r . A t t h e same t i m e i t was order d e p e n d s o n t h e degree o f c o m p l e x i t y . T h e idea o f o r d e r is t h u s m o s t p r o n o u n c e d w h e n m a n y e l e m e n t s are p r e s e n t . L e t us c o n s i d e r a great n u m b e r o f s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s as s h o w n in Figure 155a. The arrangement where t h e y are e q u a l l y spaced represents t h e h i g h e s t degree o f order, b u t p u t together in this w a y t h e elements

' R h y t h m ' m a y be c a r r i e d o u t b y u s i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s f r o m s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . These are a r r a n g e m e n t , d i m e n s i o n , n u m b e r and f o r m o f elements (this includes their c o l o u r ) . Figure 1 5 5 b shows t h e elements i n g r o u p s w h e r e r h y t h m is i n t r o d u c e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways.

NUMBER

ARRANGEMENTS

DIMENSION

O ^

S H A P E A N D COLOUR

^ *0 O Q O Q O O ^ O O

Figure

155

Rhythm

through

variation

of arrangement,

dimension,

number

and form

of the

elements

Appearance T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r h y t h n n is i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a g r o u p o f e l e m e n t s d e p e n d s , as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , not only on the c o m p l e x i t y (number and dissimilarity of t h e e l e m e n t s ) b u t also o n p e r s o n a l t a s t e . F i g u r e helps to make the appearance exciting, 1 5 6 s h o w s a design o f a s h i p ' s t r a n s m i t t e r w h e r e rhythm R h y t h m has been a c h i e v e d b y v a r y i n g t h e arrangement and the dimensions.

of the product

155

R h y t h m based o n v a r y i n g t h e f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s c a n also be a p o w e r f u l t o o l . I n t h e cars s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 5 7 t h e shape o f w i n d o w s a n d d o o r s is e m phasised b y t h e s y s t e m o f lines w h i c h t h e y f o r m . T h e a r r a n g e m e n t , shape a n d angle o f t h e lines t o g e t h e r f o r m a r h y t h m , t h a t has a d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t cars,

Figure 156 A ship's transmitter. The rhythm is achieved by varying the arrangement and the dimensions of the deals; alternating between rectangular and round elements and making the module heights different

156

Figure

157

Three cars where

the prominent

lines give different

rhythms

Appearance

of tfie product

157

Proportions
The idea of u n i t y , m e n t i o n e d in the section on A rectangle with this ratio between its sides is

aesthetics is an i m p o r t a n t /ya/zY/. T h e f o r m e l e m e n t s m u s t be s u i t e d t o each o t h e r i n a logical a n d harm o n i o u s w a y , a n d c o m m o n f e a t u r e s in t h e i r s u r f a c e , s t r u c t u r e a n d c o l o u r are t h e r e f o r e necessary. O n e o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s t h a t can h e l p t o u n d e r l i n e t h e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n is t h e p r o p o r t i o n . M a n has a l w a y s been p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e idea of a connection are between p r o p o r t i o n and of ideal beauty. for There examples measurements

characterised by another sides, see F i g u r e tion.

b e i n g d i v i s i b l e i n t o a square a n d 1 5 8 . T h r o u g h o u t t h e ages m a n y

r e c t a n g l e w i t h t h e same r a t i o b e t w e e n its

p e o p l e have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s r e c t a n g l e t o be p e r f e c R a t i o s such as 2 : 3 , 3 : 5 , 5 : 8 , 8 : 1 3 e t c are even c l o s e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t o t h e G o l d e n S e c t i o n . These p r o p o r t i o n s are a p p l i e d i n a great m a n y areas. F o r instance, textbooks on photography teach the advisability of placing the most i m p o r t a n t part o f t h e p i c t u r e i n s u c h a w a y t h a t i t d i v i d e s t h e sides i n the ratio 2:3 o r 3 : 5 . These p r o p o r t i o n s m a y be recognised in m a n y p r o d u c t s .

b e a u t i f u l h u m a n beings, a n d f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e G o l d e n S e c t i o n , w h i c h is a m a t h e m a t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d r a t i o b e t w e e n t w o lines A a n d B, d e f i n e d b y A A-B.

T h i s gives: 2 = i / 2 ( i + / 5 ) - 1 . 6 1 8 .

Figure

158

Above,

division

of a line by the Golden Section. Below, Golden Section

a rectangle

in proportions

corresponding

to the

158

Appearance

of tfie

product i s a t i o n , a n d also f l e x i b i l i t y , b u t a d i s c u s s i o n o f these is o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f t h e b o o k . U s i n g m o d u l e s t o d i v i d e an area i n t o s e c t i o n s , e.g. o n c o n t r o l panels, is a convenient way sizes as a w h o l e . F i g u r e 1 6 0 s h o w s a h a e m o d i a l y s i s a p p a r a t u s , i.e. a c o n t r o l u n i t used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n a r t i f i c i a l kidney for treating patients w i t h chronic kidney c o m p l a i n t s . D i a l s , c o n t r o l l a m p s , e t c are g r o u p e d in s e c t i o n s c r e a t e d b y d i v i d i n g t h e o u t e r area i n t o 3 , respectively 5, parts. T h e modules o f height and w i d t h are i n t h e r a t i o o f 5 : 3 . of f i t t i n g elements o f different

R e p e a t e d use o f c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n s in t h e elements o f a p r o d u c t m a y , a m o n g other things, result i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s . T h i s m a y also contribute where greatly t o the p r o d u c t are f o u r similar a p p e a r i n g as a two harmonious unit. Figure 159 shows a g r a m o p h o n e , there rectangles a n d squares. A c o n v e n i e n t aid t o d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n s is t h e use o f m o d u l e s , t h e basic size o r a basic area, w h i c h i n v a r i o u s w a y s c a n be a s s e m b l e d i n t o larger e l e m e n t s . M o d u l e s can n a t u r a l l y have m a n y other advantages such as r e d u c i n g costs t h r o u g h s t a n d a r d -

Figure

159

Division

of the surface

of a record player. The division contains (Courtesy of Bang & Olufsen)

rectangles

and two squares

159

Figure 160 Use of modules in dividing up tfie front (Courtesy of the Institute of Product Development, Denmark)

of a haemodialysis apparatus The Technical University of

160

Appearance

of the

product

Lines and planes


O c c a s i o n a l l y , w h e n f o r m e l e m e n t s are p u t t o g e t h e r unexpected visual effects will arise. The visual i m p r e s s i o n o b t a i n e d w h e n l o o k i n g a t a u n i t is n o t just t h e sum of the impressions f r o m the elements. These i n f l u e n c e each o t h e r v i s u a l l y . T h e visual e f f e c t is t h e reason w h y o n e m u s t p a y a t t e n t i o n t o the lines a n d planes i n a p r o d u c t , so t h a t a f o r m design c a n be c r e a t e d w h e r e these are in r e l a t i o n t o each other. The qualities of u n i t y and order depend on the r u n o f t h e lines a n d planes. O n e t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y t r i e s t o give t h e p r o m i n e n t lines i n t h e p r o d u c t t h e same c h a r a c t e r , e.g. s t r a i g h t lines, curves a n d lines a t a c e r t a i n angle, see F i g u r e s 1 6 1 a n d 1 6 2 . Continuity in t h e r u n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l lines is also s i g n i f i c a n t . F i g u r e 1 6 3 s h o w s e x a m p l e s o f t h e w a y i n w h i c h a d i s c o n t i n u o u s r u n o f lines a t t r a c t s attention unfavourably.

Figure

161

Pumps

and scales marked

by, respectively, curved Scales Factory

and flat planes Ltd)

(Courtesy

of DAE Pumps

Ltd and Rex

161

Figure

162

A perfusator of similarly

(a box inclined

for preserving

and transporting of the Lab.

living

kidneys

before

a transplant).

In the form University of

are

found

a number

lines (Courtesy

of Engineering

Design,

The Technical

Denmark)

162

Figure

163

Examples

of lines which

attract

unfavourable

attention

Appearance

of the product

163

Joints
J o i n t s b e t w e e n f o r m e l e m e n t s c a n give rise t o b o t h constructional a n d visual problems. If t w o planes dividing o r edges m e e t t i g h t l y w i t h an uncovered 2. The joint is e m p h a s i s e d a n d d e l i b e r a t e l y methods which the groove used

as p a r t o f t h e f o r m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p r o d u c t . T h e r e are several achieve grooving the joint this c a n be used t o dark covering similar. of distance staining with 164 to between the elements or something different

line i t w i l l o f t e n d e m a n d u n r e a s o n a b l e from a visual point of view

exactitude two

a n d p a r a l l e l i s m . It is, t h e r e f o r e , w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t one can a d o p t attitudes t o joints:

a moulding 167 show

Figures 1. T h e e l e m e n t s are so designed t h a t t h e j o i n t m a n d f o r e x a c t i t u d e is a c c e p t e d o r t h a t t h e is h i d d e n , e.g. b y p a i n t . on t h e w h o l e i s u n n o t i c e d , t h a t is t o say t h a t t h e dejoint

examples

ways of solving the p r o b l e m of joints.

Figure

164

Different

possibilities

for joining

two elements

end-on

Figure

165

Different

possibilities

for joining

two elements

at right

angles

Figure

166

Examples

of joints.

(See also Figures

164 and

165)

165

Figure

167

Examples

of joints.

(See also Figures

164 and

165)

166

Appearance of tfie product

4.4 Means o f expression Lightness


Based there can o n associations w h e n l o o k i n g a t t h e f o r m are c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s w h i c h are e x p e c t e d i n express something. This fact m a y be c o n In t h e first example, t h e lower part o f t h e object has been s h a p e d as a p l i n t h the a impression that heavily o r legs, w h i c h gives t h e object does n o t rest so

a p r o d u c t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t is f e l t t h a t t h e f o r m s c i o u s l y used b y t h e designer, e i t h e r t o emphasise certain o f t h e p r o d u c t ' s characteristics o r t o m i t i gate possible u n d e s i r a b l e ones. One quality that c a n be stressed t h r o u g h t h e f o r m is lightness. F i g u r e 1 6 8 s h o w s t w o s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e a n o b j e c t seems t o have been m a d e l i g h t e r .

o n t h e f o u n d a t i o n . T h e o t h e r e x a m p l e is part which c a n be m a d e l i g h t e r b y

projecting

sloping the b o t t o m line upwards. Figures 1 6 9 a n d 1 7 0 s h o w h o w t h e d i a g r a m m a t i c e x a m p l e s i n F i g u r e 1 6 8 c a n be a p p l i e d i n d e s i g n i n g products.

W///////

/}//////hr
//} / ///7f7

/y>////y/. 7*

\jyy//^/7

Figure

168

Two situations

where

the object

appears

to have been made

lighter

167

Figure meter.

169 Products where the form expresses lightness (see also Figure 168). The objects shown are: top left, a (Courtesy of Bruel and Kjaer); top right, a teamaker. (Courtesy of Lab. for Engineering Design, The University of Denmark). Below, a workbench. (Courtesy of Brown and Sharpe)

vibration Technical

168

Figure 170 Further products where the form expresses lightness (see also Figure 168). The objects shown are: top left, a photocopier. (Courtesy of Eskofot Ltd); middle and bottom left, front of car and side view of car front (Courtesy of Sunbeam and Opel); middle right, a TV set (Courtesy of Bang and Olufsen); bottom right, an operating console (Courtesy of Digital Equipment Corp.)

Appearance

of tfie product

169

Weight and

stability
s h o w s e x a m p l e s o f w a y s i n w h i c h these t w o e f f e c t s c a n be used t o a c c e n t u a t e t h e s t a b i l i t y o f a b o x s h a p e d b o d y . I n s o m e o f t h e suggestions t h e f o r m is d i v i d e d i n t o t w o f o r m e l e m e n t s , w h i c h at t h e same t i m e gives g r e a t e r f r e e d o m i n c h o o s i n g p r o p o r t i o n s . P r o d u c t s , w h i c h as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n are h e a v y a n d s o l i d , c a n be s h a p e d so t h a t t h i s is expressed i n t h e f o r m . F i g u r e 1 7 2 s h o w s s o m e m a c h i n e s that convey stability and strength.

T h e means t h a t c a n be used t o express w e i g h t a n d s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h the f o r m , aim at placing the centre o f g r a v i t y l o w d o w n . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e s l o p i n g lines o r ' h e a v y ' curves are u s e f u l . I t is a f a c t , as f a r as s l o p i n g lines are c o n c e r n e d , t h a t each shown how other in a single l i n e expresses i n s t a b i l i t y , w h i l e t w o lines l e a n i n g t o w a r d s express a h i g h degree o f s t a b i l i t y , as Figure 171a. Figure 171b slightly demonstrates c o n c a v e sides are h e a v y

bodies w i t h

c o m p a r e d t o b o d i e s w i t h c o n v e x sides. F i g u r e 1 7 1 c

//////////

//////////////

Figure

171

l\/leans of expressing

weight

and

stability

170

Figure Crown);

172 top

Products right,

designed

in a way

tfiat

accentuates

weight

and

stability, right,

left,

two

fork

lift

trucks.

(Courtesy

of

a lathe

(Courtesy

of Drehbank,

Colchester); Excavators

bottom Ltd)

an excavator

(Courtesy

of J. C.

Bamford

Appearance

of tfie product

171

Movement
An impression of movement a n d speed c a n , like s l o p i n g o r s l i g h t l y c u r v e d lines at a r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t angle t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m o v e m e n t , see F i g u r e 1 7 3 . The movement may be further emphasised by a c c e n t i n g lines i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m o v e m e n t , as w e k n o w f r o m 'speed s t r i p e s ' o n w h i c h are p a i n t e d o n s o m e cars a n d r a i l w a y carriages, e t c .

s t a b i l i t y , be a c h i e v e d b y using s l o p i n g lines, a l t h o u g h i n a n o t h e r w a y . T w o lines t h a t m e e t in a p o i n t give associations w i t h an a r r o w , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e angle b e t w e e n t h e m is n o t t o o great. I t is t h e r e f o r e possible to let the form underline movement by using

Figure

173

Products

designed

in way tfiat emphasises

speed

5 CASE HISTORY: CHROMOSOME APPARATUS


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Introduction to the project Basic structure 179 182 186 196 175

Quantified structure Form of the total system Form of the elements

173

5. Case History: Chromosome Apparatus


5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the project
ProUem In the previous chapters we have attennpted to e s t a b l i s h a systennatic approach a n d an organised

s y s t e m b y w h i c h i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o g o t h r o u g h t h e f o r m d e s i g n stages o f a p r o j e c t . T h e e x a m p l e s , b y a n d large, have been t a k e n o u t o f t h e s e t t i n g i n w h i c h t h e y have o r m i g h t have b e l o n g e d . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t has n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o give a m o r e


and means

d e t a i l e d p i c t u r e o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t is p o s s i b l e t o a p p l y t h e s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s in a design p r o j e c t . I t is o b v i o u s l y u n r e a l i s t i c t o w o r k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t h r o u g h all t h e e l e m e n t s i n a c o m p l e x p r o j e c t . B u t i f o n e has a b s o r b e d t h e s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s t h e r e is a basis f o r an a t t i t u d e t o t h e w o r k o f d e s i g n i n g w h i c h , i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , results i n a m o r e o r less c o n s c i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e system u p t o a certain manageable stage, w h i l e for especially difficult o r c r i t i c a l elem e n t s o n e uses t h e t h o r o u g h s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e .

31
m Basic
striActure

Total Jorm
Element

B y m o r e c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f o r m design stages i n a single design p r o j e c t i t s h o u l d be possible observe, how in different situations one to changes

b e t w e e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d r a w n u p series o f s o l u t i o n s and a m o r e free and relaxed w a y o f w o r k i n g w i t h f o r m design ideas. T h e p r o j e c t , w h i c h is d e s c r i b e d b e l o w , is t h e design o f an a p p a r a t u s f o r c h r o m o s o m e a n a l y s i s . T o e n a b l e t h i s case h i s t o r y t o be seen i n the right perspective the table o n the left shows w h i c h p a r t s o f t h e c o m p l e t e p r o j e c t are b e i n g s t u d i e d . C h r o m o s o m e s carry o u r inherited characteristics. I n each cell i n t h e h u m a n b o d y is a c o m p l e t e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e . T h e y are f o u n d in t h e so-called genes, w h i c h n o r m a l l y e x i s t in a cell n u c l e u s separate f r o m t h e rest o f t h e c e l l . W h e n t h e cell d i v i d e s , w h i c h o f c o u r s e is a c o n d i t i o n f o r a n y g r o w t h a n d l i f e , t h e 175

176

Case history: chromosome apparatus


genes g a t h e r i n t o l o n g t h r e a d s t h a t n o w f i l l t h e w h o l e c e l l . These t h r e a d s are w h a t w e call c h r o m o s o m e s . I n a m i c r o s c o p e t h e c h r o m o s o m e s m a y l o o k as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 7 4 . W h e n t h e cell d i v i s i o n is c o m p l e t e d the chromosomes divide lengthwise, whereby the n e w cell n u c l e i are c r e a t e d , t h a t f o r m t h e basis f o r

t w o n e w cells. N o r m a l h u m a n beings have 4 6 c h r o m o s o m e s , b u t t h e r e m a y be a b n o r m a l c h r o m o s o m e c o m b i n a t i o n s , which some result analysis in is various carried diseases. out, In cases where a s o m e b o d y ' s c h r o m o s o m e s are e x a m i n e d a c h r o m o which produces so-called k a r y o t y p e d i a g r a m , w h e r e p i c t u r e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h r o m o s o m e s are a r r a n g e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ,

1 1
Figure 174 Miscoscope pictures in a cell of

see F i g u r e 1 7 5 . C h r o m o s o m e analysis is used i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g diagnosis a n d e x a m i n a t i o n o f embryonic f l u i d as w e l l as research. T h e reason w h y c h r o m o s o m e analysis c a n be used i n diagnosis is t h a t t h e r e is the a connection patients. between certain of diseases (e.g. of is mongolism) and the chromosome Examination composition fluid

chromosomes

embryonic

u n d e r t a k e n i f t h e r e is a s u s p i c i o n t h a t an e m b r y o m a y have a n a b n o r m a l c h r o m o s o m e c o m p o s i t i o n . I n a slide p r e p a r e d f r o m t h e e m b r y o n i c f l u i d o n e c a n observe t h e c h r o m o s o m e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d so

ii II If II Ir II nil I II II II
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10

11

12

13

14

IS

17

18

t i 19 20

t i 21

22

ti

Figure 175 Karyotype diagram

Case history, ascertain w h e t h e r t h i s is n o r m a l o r i f t h e r e is s o m e t h i n g w r o n g . E x a m i n a t i o n o f p a r e n t s - t o - b e is m a d e i f t h e r e is a p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a c h i l d m a y be b o r n with a chromosome abnormality. From such an e x a m i n a t i o n o n e c a n e s t i m a t e h o w great t h i s p r o b a b i l i t y is. C h r o m o s o m e analysis is used i n research examine whether diseases w i t h comprises so f a r the unknown A following causes m a y be d u e t o c h r o m o s o m e a b n o r m a l i t y . chromosome analysis

chromosome

apparatus

177

a n d g l u e i n g o n t o a s t a n d a r d d i a g r a m all t h e c h r o m o somes. A f t e r t h a t t h e k a r y o t y p e is r e a d y , a n d an a c t u a l assessment o f t h e c h r o m o s o m e c o m p o s i t i o n c a n be m a d e . T h e p r o c e d u r e i n t h e m a n u a l process here d e s c r i b e d is i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 1 7 6 . I n assessing t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f m a k i n g t h e c h r o m o s o m e analysis a u t o m a t i c , o n e w i l l realise t h a t t h i s may be d o n e at m a n y levels. In m a n y places, f o r i n s t a n c e , p e o p l e are d e v e l o p i n g a s y s t e m t h a t a u t o m a t i c a l l y carries o u t all t h e p a r t i a l processes, f r o m s e e k i n g o u t a s u i t a b l e cell u p t o t h e f i n i s h e d k a r y o type or similar may computer technically material. Even if function they such a systems have

stages: t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f s u i t a b l e cells, p r e p a r a t i o n of the cell, staining (to make the chromosomes more d i s t i n c t ) a n d a n a c t u a l analysis, i n w h i c h t h e k a r y o t y p e is m a d e . O n l y t h e a c t u a l analysis w i l l be discussed h e r e . T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t is a p r e p a r e d s l i d e , w h i c h is p u t i n t o a m i c r o s c o p e . T h e slide c o n t a i n s several cells, a n d i t is t h e f i r s t j o b o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y assistant t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e cell (i.e. o n e w i t h d i s t i n c t c h r o m o somes t h a t d o n o t o v e r l a p ) . W h e n a cell has b e e n f o u n d a p h o t o g r a p h is t a k e n . F o r s a f e t y , o n e u s u a l l y takes one m o r e p h o t o g r a p h o f a n o t h e r suitable cell. L a t e r , w h e n t h e l a b o r a t o r y assistant gets t h e p h o t o graphs b a c k f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e k a r y o t y p e c a n be p r e p a r e d . T h i s is d o n e b y c u t t i n g o u t , a r r a n g i n g

n u m b e r of drawbacks. For one t h i n g , they require t h a t a c o m p u t e r is a v a i l a b l e , also t h a t an o p e r a t o r is p r e s e n t , w h o possible. The was basis for the present project that the would manual was t h a t with it a considered than probable either a solution or depending on the system must c a r r y o u t v a r i o u s assessments f o r t h e process t o be

s m a l l e r degree o f vantageous

automation

be m o r e adthe fully

a u t o m a t i c process. So t h e basic idea f o r t h e p r o j e c t b e c a m e t o design an a p p a r a t u s w h i c h b y i t s e l f c a n

SUde

Kiicroscope

Photogrfipk

7 7 a cr L7

an

17 a

y ^

k(^roti)pe

Figure

176

The manual

process

in mal<ing

Karyotypes

178

Case history: chromosome apparatus

SUcLe

Ckromosome

kar

Figure

177

The chromosome

apparatus

as a black

box

carry

out

the

operations

that

the

laboratory

be a k a r y o t y p e d i a g r a m p r i n t e d o n d u r a b l e m a t e r i a l s u i t a b l e f o r a r c h i v e storage. H o w t h e process i n F i g u r e 1 7 7 c a n be s p l i t i n t o p a r t i a l processes w i l l n o t be f u r t h e r discussed h e r e . The division may be made in many ways, and Figure 178 shows the preferred procedure. It w i l l the figure that i t has b e e n clearly

assistant h a d p r e v i o u s l y p e r f o r n n e d , b u t w h i c h m a k e s use o f his a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y t h e c h r o m o s o m e s . I n t h i s w a y i t b e c o m e s possible t o p e r f o r m t h e c h r o m o s o m e analyses i n c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r t i m e , as w e l l as t o m a k e t h e a p p a r a t u s c h e a p e r , because t h e c o m plicated operations chromosomes are t o seek o u t a n d recognise t h e performed by the operator,

be seen f r o m

d e c i d e d w h i c h p a r t i a l processes t h e o p e r a t o r a n d t h e a p p a r a t u s each w i l l p e r f o r m . T h e m a i n f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e c h r o m o s o m e appara t u s m u s t c a r r y o u t m a y b e seen i n F i g u r e 1 7 8 . These are t o c r e a t e a visual p i c t u r e , t o d e l i m i t t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f t h e slide, t o o r i e n t a t e i t , t o c l a s s i f y i t ( i n t h e k a r y o t y p e ) , a n d t o e x p o s e i t . I t has been d e c i d e d t o perform the function o f c r e a t i n g a visual picture w i t h a traditional microscope, and the f u n c t i o n of e x p o s i n g as i n an o r d i n a r y c a m e r a w i t h a s h u t t e r . The three central main functions remain: delimitat i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e slide p a r t . I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n these t h r e e f u n c t i o n s are t a k e n as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e search f o r basic s t r u c t u r e s .

while the trivial, troublesome and t i m e consuming m o r e m e c h a n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s are c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e apparatus. A further advantage over the manual m e t h o d is t h e f a c t t h a t t h e k a r y o t y p e is o b t a i n e d w h i l e t h e slide is i n t h e m i c r o s c o p e i n t h e p o s i t i o n w h e r e t h e cell i n q u e s t i o n is s h o w n . T h i s m a k e s i t possible t o compare the karyotype with the cell p i c t u r e in a n y cases o f d o u b t . T h e task can n o w be f o r m u l a t e d in m o r e d e t a i l . We want to design a s y s t e m w h i c h , b y using h u m a n a b i l i t y t o recognise p a t t e r n s , m a k e s possible an increase o f t h e analysis c a p a c i t y o f a c h r o m o s o m e l a b o r a t o r y . T h e o u t p u t f r o m t h e analyses m u s t

APPA/^ATUS

^^

APPAKAIUS

Mark in store 5e*k and recognise cMrom.


picture

In/or on wkctke^r used Infor on. cLassLJLcation Inf or. on pos and orientation

DeCimit slide part Orientate slide part Classify slide part

SUde

Create

Visual pUtiAre

feed in pas and orientation

Information FUm

on ex posare
Expose

Figure

178

Chart showing

the main functions

which must be carried

out by the chromosome

apparatus

Case history:

chromosome

apparatus

179

DeUkKit ckosen ckrom.Jirom total muroscope p/ct.

5.2 Basic structure


T h e t h r e e f u n c t i o n s t h a t fornn t h e basis f o r d e v i s i n g basic s t r u c t u r e s are i l l u s t r a t e d In t h e t a b l e o n t h e l e f t . The nneans t h a t c a n realise these are s h o w n in Figure 1 7 9 . I t is a s s u m e d t h a t o p t i c a l o r o p t i c a l / ones (see page 182). The methods in

p h o t o g r a p h i c s o l u t i o n s are u s e d , a n d n o t f o r i n s t a n c e electronic F i g u r e 1 7 9 are s h o w n a t a r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t l e v e l , w h i c h keeps t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s d o w n t o a reasonable n u m b e r . T h e n e x t step w i l l n o w be t o c o m b i n e t h r e e functions but other many into different basic s t r u c t u r e s . A great n u m b e r o f c o m b i n a t i o n s are t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e , o f t h e s o l u t i o n s are c o m p l i c a t e d , a n d These m a y be r e j e c t e d is d o n e by straight several have o t h e r o b v i o u s d r a w b a c k s c o m p a r e d t o solutions. a w a y . I n o r d e r t o progress i t is necessary t o d e t a i l

CUsslJ^ chrotn.

the solutions further. This Figure

examining

h o w a p e n c i l o f l i g h t c a n b e m o v e d , as s h o w n i n 1 8 0 , a n d also h o w i t c a n be t u r n e d , w h a t can only be assessed after various m e c h a n i c a l m o v e m e n t s are necessary, e t c . T h e m a n y possibilities

Q D QB D
q a a

calculations and experiments, and the criteria which comes into t h e p i c t u r e a t t h i s stage a r e , p i c t u r e q u a l i t y , space r e q u i r e m e n t s , m e c h a n i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s , special c o s t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t i m e t a k e n , e t c . T h e f i n a l c h o i c e is o n l y m a d e a f t e r a n u m b e r o f basic s t r u c t u r e s have been d r a w n u p .

KJew ptciure

\PAPEI^lFim

1
paper MampuLeite cut out part picture

>^3

OKIEkllAlE
PAPflC/F/LU ]

01

03

CLASSIFY

PnnUnj

\papei^Jfilm]
K1

Figure

179

Means of realising

tfie functions

of delimitation,

orientation

and

classification

180

Case history: chromosome apparatus


d e l i m i t a t i o n w i t h t h e a i d o f a s l i d i n g lens, a n d classific a t i o n b y means o f a t i l t i n g m i r r o r . O r i e n t a t i o n is performed by Abbe's prism. O n e i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e basic s t r u c t u r e has n o t y e t been m e n t i o n e d , n a m e l y t h e p a r t w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e o p e r a t o r . A m o n g a n u m b e r o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s i t has been d e c i d e d t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r w i l l have a p i c t u r e o f t h e slide o n a screen i n f r o n t o f h i m . T h e i n p u t t o the apparatus will t a k e place i n s u c h a w a y t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n o n d e l i m i t a t i o n a n d o r i e n t a t i o n is given t h r o u g h a mechanical viewfinder, w h i c h t h e operator points at t h e desired c h r o m o s o m e , w h i l e i n f o r m a t i o n o n - t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is passed t h r o u g h a k e y b o a r d .

F r o m o u r knowledge o f the partial solutions in F i g u r e 1 8 0 t h e n u m b e r o f basic s t r u c t u r e s m a y be r e d u c e d t o f o u r t e e n realistic suggested s o l u t i o n s as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 8 1 . In t h e p u r e l y o p t i c a l s o l u t i o n s we part have n o t distinguished between the different solutions w i t h m i r r o r s , lenses a n d p r i s m s i n

Figure 180, b u t solutions t h a t include optical fibres are s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y , as t h e y are essentially d i f f e r e n t f r o m the others. T h e basic s t r u c t u r e w h i c h w a s f o u n d t o be m o s t s u i t a b l e is s h o w n i n d e t a i l i n F i g u r e 1 8 2 . T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t is t h e s o l u t i o n n u m b e r 2 i n F i g u r e 1 8 1 , a n d the following part solutions from Figure 180

M//^J^0KS

77777 2co-ord
LENSES

1
2co-ord
-T7777?
2 CO-Ord

////

2co-ord P/^/SUS

2 co-ord

2 co-ord

^r9rr -iTTzr 2 CO-ord FIBKB OPT/CS

-rrrrr 2CO-ord

777^

TTTTT

2 co-ord
Figure 180 /\/leans of realising the function of "moving" a ray of light

181

OPTICAL

W
1^

5
ra
/////////A

FIR'E OPTIC BUNDLE

\ OPTICAL/PHfQI^APHIC
fJicroscope

fjam

^ Pkoto^rapUic peeper hAorabU Lens (d^UmUation)

Figure

181

Showing

the fourteen

best basic

structures

rf > FUm

Abhe'^s presto (onentatonj

Tiltit^' mirror (cvtsst/icatioti)

Figure

182

The best basic

structure

182

Case history:

chromosome

apparatus

5.3 Quantified structure


O n t h e basis o f t h e c h o s e n basic s t r u c t u r e i n F i g u r e 182 a n u m b e r of crucial specifications and the main d a t a m u s t be l a i d d o w n , so t h a t a k a r y o t y p e o f t h e d e s i r e d q u a l i t y c a n be p r o d u c e d . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d a t a o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s u b - s y s t e m s are e x a m i n e d a n d d e c i d e d o n ( t y p e o f m i c r o s c o p e , f i l m cassette, l e n g t h o f l i g h t rays, e t c ) a n d a f t e r t h a t , m o d e l l i n g of v a r i o u s q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s c a n t a k e p l a c e , as in Chapter 2. In the first instance a described n u m b e r o f sketches are m a d e , as s h o w n i n 183. Figure

T h e s e , h o w e v e r , c a n o n l y give a c e r t a i n general of the quantified structure requires a

impression of the possibilities, while a m o r e detailed assessment t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e m o d e l . T h i s is m a d e o f p l a s t i c f o a m i n s u c h a w a y t h a t all t h e e l e m e n t s c a n be easily m o v e d a b o u t . F i g u r e 1 8 4 s h o w s a n u m b e r o f t h e best q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e s .

SYMBOLS ffl

Kiicroscope

o 1

Film cassette
F5

EM
5

K^ovinj system

or

Ys

Figure

183

Quar)tified

structures

on ttie basis of the best basic structure

shown

in Figure

182

Case history The three-dimensional structure models make it possible t o evaluate s u c h aspects as w o r k i n g space f o r t h e operator, mechanical c o m p l e x i t y , heat ( f i l m n o t t o o close t o t h e l a m p ) , h e i g h t , w i d t h a n d d e p t h of the instrument etc. On t h e basis o f s u c h an e v a l u a t i o n t h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e m a r k e d B9 i n Figures 1 8 3 a n d 1 8 5 is c h o s e n . T h e c h o s e n s t r u c t u r e is s h o w n in greater d e t a i l in Figure 184. The operator has in f r o n t of him a screen o n w h i c h is p r o j e c t e d a p i c t u r e o f t h e cell w i t h the chromosomes. Information on the position a n d o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e c h o s e n c h r o m o s o m e is t r a n s ferred mechanically to the movable lens (three

: chromosome

apparatus

183

d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t i n g lenses) a n d t o t h e A b b e ' s p r i s m . In this w a y t h e picture o f the desired c h r o m o s o m e is f o c u s s e d a n d o r i e n t a t e d . T h e t i l t i n g m i r r o r , w h i c h performs the classification of the chromosome p i c t u r e , is p o s i t i o n e d t h r o u g h a m o v i n g s y s t e m t h a t is a c t i v a t e d b y a k e y b o a r d w i t h a c o n t r o l k n o b f o r each c h r o m o s o m e . Apart from the karyotype, the chromosome a p p a r a t u s m u s t also be able t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e w h o l e c e l l . T h i s t o t a l p i c t u r e c a n be t a k e n w h e n t h e d i a p h r a g m is r e m o v e d a n d t h e t i l t i n g m i r r o r is p u t in the mid position.

Tilting

mirror Abbe's prism

Moveable lens

Film cassette

Keyboard

Moving system

Figure

184

The ciiosen

quantified

structure

184

Figure

185

Quan ti fied three-dimensional fixed on spikes,

structures

modelled

in plastic

foam. Some of the elemen ts are around

so that they can be easily moved

185

Figure

185

(continued)

186

Case history:

ctiromosome

apparatus

5.4 Form o f the total system


D u r i n g the w o r k o f f o r m designing the c h r o m o s o m e a p p a r a t u s t h e r e is i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e w o r k o n t h e o u t e r f o r m a n d t h e f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s , as is g e n e r a l l y expressed in t h e p r o d u c t s y n t h e s i s . T h e description on the following pages o f t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e f o r m o f t h e t o t a l s y s t e m is d e c i d e d o n , m u s t t h e r e f o r e be seen as parallel t o t h e n e x t s e c t i o n on the f o r m of the elements. T h e q u a n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r e in F i g u r e 1 8 5 is t a k e n as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t . As t h e f i l m cassette m u s t n o t be e x p o s e d t o false l i g h t , a n u m b e r o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s m u s t be e n c l o s e d i n a l i g h t p r o o f s c r e e n i n g . T h e v e r y f i r s t r o u g h design p r o p o s a l s are a r r i v e d a t by varying the f o r m geometry and the f o r m division, as s h o w n in Figures 1 8 6 a n d 1 8 7 . T h e pages f o l l o w i n g Figure chosen. 194 describe how t h e design is gradually The ideas are m o d e l l e d scale drawings, i n v a r i o u s w a y s as t h e and three-dimensional and cardboard important are in

w o r k progresses. D e p e n d i n g o n t h e s i t u a t i o n r o u g h sketches, models in plastic f o a m , w o o d the choice

used. These m o d e l s have been v e r y connection with Figures 1 9 0 a n d 1 9 4 .

o f f o r m c o n c e p t , see

The criteria that c o u n t w h e n choosing between a l t e r n a t i v e designs, s t e m f i r s t o f all f r o m t h e user a n d f r o m t h e p r o d u c t i o n . A s f a r as t h e user is c o n c e r n e d , i t is a q u e s t i o n factors (how of working posture, accessibility, and the procleaning, adjustment and maintenance, psychological is t h e apparatus experienced?) in c o n n e c t i o n of with a p p e a r a n c e ( u n i t y , o r d e r , visual b a l a n c e ) . F r o m t h e production come criteria manufacturing process, choice material,

d u c t i o n quantities and assembly.

187

SCALE

1:10

Operativy area

Figure

186

The starting point for form designs is obtained by drawing contour lines closely around screened. Varying the form geometry gives the first rough form design suggestions

the elements

to be

188

FOm

DIVISIOKJ Starting point

Figure

187

Variation

of form

division.

These sl<etches form following

the starting

point

for a number

of the suggestions

on

the

pages

Figure

188

The first series of form

concepts

Figure

189

A general

problem

is examined, namely the form design of the screen around geometry and form division are used as variation parameters

the operator's

mirror.

Form

Figure bottom

190 A number of detailed form concepts which appear right showed, however, the unfortunate psychological like a wall in front

fairly realistic. A three-dimensional effect that the apparatus is felt of the operator

model of the suggestion to be oppressive, almost

192

Mecessarif arefis of mteal 6H open design

Figure 191 open form

On the basis of the experience gained from the previous suggestions we can examine the possibilities of more designs. At the top can be seen the areas the elements occupy, and three possible areas of material are shown

Figure

192

Examination

of tfie problems

surrounding

a partly below

open

framework.

Variation

of the form

division

is

shown

194

Figure

193

Two

realistic

design

suggestions

195

Figure 194 form model

Form models corresponding to the two suggestions in Figure 193. Before the final choice can be made must be painted. This makes it possible to assess whether the problems of the visual balance indicated Figure 192 can be overcome by an appropriate choice of colour

one in

196

Case history:

chromosome

apparatus

5.5 Form of the elements


T h e design o f t h e e l e m e n t s c o n s t i t u t e s a v e r y c o m plex series of activities, partly details because t h e r e are m a n y elements o f w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t character, p a r t l y because their are designed simultaneously w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s , d i m e n s i o n s a n d surfaces, a n d f i n a l l y , as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , because t h e ext e r n a l f o r m is c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t s . F i r s t , i t m u s t be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t t h e r e is an intermediate stage i n v o l v i n g d e c i s i o n s o n subview the in systems, such as a t r a n s f e r m e c h a n i s m f r o m transfers tilting say a information These goes from the keyboard are to point for a number of suggestions, where the

a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e areas o f m a t e r i a l is v a r i e d . T h e f r a m e is an e x a m p l e o f t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e f o r m o f an e l e m e n t is c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l form o f t h e a p p a r a t u s , as p a r t o f t h e f r a m e is v i s i b l e a n d even c o n s t i t u t e s form. T h e f u r t h e r o n e advances i n d e t a i l i n g t h e e l e m e n t s of the c h r o m o s o m e apparatus, the more the character o f t h e f o r m design w o r k is a l t e r e d t o w a r d s d e c i d i n g on a number of details in connection with the of functional surfaces. I t is f i r s t o f all a q u e s t i o n an essential part of the external

f i n d e r t o p r o j e c t i n g lens, a n d a c o n t r o l s y s t e m t h a t mirror. one sub-systems through on the treated of

d e c i d i n g o n t h e p o i n t s w h e r e t h e e l e m e n t s are t o be j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , as s h o w n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n Figure 1 9 9 , w h i c h deals w i t h t h e base b o x a n d t h e c o v e r i n g screens. O n e o f t h e e x t e r n a l f u n c t i o n a l areas o f great i m p o r t a n c e is t h e v i e w f i n d e r s h o w n in F i g u r e 2 0 0 . T h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e design o f t h e e l e m e n t s are m o s t l y concerned w i t h t w o things. First the f u n c t i o n , i.e. precision, reliability, stability, strength and rigidity, and secondly the p r o d u c t i o n , manufacturing

e x a c t l y t h e same w a y as t h e t o t a l s y s t e m , t h a t is t o that stages basic An structure, q u a n t i f i e d structure, etc. corresponding t o new product synthesis a s m a l l e r scale. e x a m p l e is s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1 9 5 , w h i c h deals w i t h transmission mechanisms t o the t i l t i n g m i r r o r . Figure 1 9 6 s h o w s h o w s t r u c t u r e v a r i a t i o n can be a p p l i e d t o such a s u b - s y s t e m . The form design o f t h e f r a m e is i l l u s t r a t e d in Figures 1 9 7 a n d 1 9 8 . These s h o w h o w t h i n k i n g i n terms of functional surfaces gives a clear s t a r t i n g

process, p r o d u c t i o n q u a n t i t i e s , a s s e m b l y , a n d as a consequence of these an essential criterion p r o d u c t i o n costs.

197

PUr\ of siiniir(f

The mirror mtAst

be

tcUabCe in two directions at nykt tingles.

If tke mirror CS tdbed io the extent of finite V the ray is (ottered2V

filhi

cassette

TKANSMISSIOKJ SJECHAKJISMS: Transmission of a morement in the fiimpLfine to tke m error-with tke tutrnin^ angle halted

Figure

195

Basic structures

for transmission

systems

for a tilting

mirror

198

Figure

196

Variation

of quantified

structure

for a tilting mirror. Ttie chosen the final version

structure

is shown

at the bottom

right

on

199

130

Space needed f(?r kands Possible arrangement of tke lomr part of tkefrange o.^.

Figure

197

The first stages in the form design areas made clear. Bottom,

of the frame. Top, the functional surfaces are indicated arrangement of the areas of material are examined

and the

banned

200

Figure a total

198 form

The form design of the frame and the total form design are closely connected. design is chosen where part of the frame in the shape of a column is visible. column are shown above. Below, the chosen frame

In accordance with Figure 193 Various areas of material with a

201

J'

1
CT Joint here

Fram-e nsMe from mfronet

Figure

199

base box

and

covering

screens.

Examination functional

of possibilities surfaces

of lightproof

joints

tfirough

varying

the

202

Variatton

of

JtAyictoyicil

surfaces for

/infers form.

parffinneters: number, arran^enierit^

dLmenscon^

Arranqetyfenb Porous/sponji) umber/firranfiement

o)mo)C)o io)

Dimenscon

Fotm

qeometrti

Figure

200

Variation

of functional

surfaces

for tfie viewfinder.

Tfie design cfiosen

is shown

in the

photograph

203

Figure

201

Tlie completed

chromosome

apparatus

(Courtesy of Lab. of Denmark)

of Engineering

Design,

The

Technical

University

204

Case history: chromosome apparatus


t h e b o o k , e s p e c i a l l y i n C h a p t e r 2 . T h r o u g h a case h i s t o r y i t is possible t o s h o w t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e search f o r ideas a n d e v a l u a t i o n , a n d t o s h o w h o w s i t u a t i o n s arise i n w h i c h t h e f o r m m e t h o d s c a n be applied. Finally a difference in the technique of m o d e l l i n g m a y be o b s e r v e d (especially d r a w i n g t e c h nique). T h e examples o u t of c o n t e x t must illustrate a m e t h o d as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , w h i l e i n t h e a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e m e t h o d s i t is i m p o r t a n t t o be able t o h u n t d o w n s o l u t i o n s as q u i c k l y as possible. F r o m the study of the creation of the chromos o m e a p p a r a t u s i t is e v i d e n t t h a t i n t h e f i n a l i n s t a n c e the systematic methods described in Chapter 2 m a y be a p p l i e d i n t w o w a y s . O n e is e x a c t l y as d e s c r i b e d i.e. f o r a s y s t e m a t i c s u r v e y o f t h e possible s o l u t i o n s . The other a n d perhaps m o s t i m p o r t a n t w a y is t o a c q u i r e t h e a t t i t u d e b e h i n d t h e m e t h o d s , so t h a t o n e a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h i n k s i n t e r m s o f t h e ideas a n d variation methods patterns described, in and only uses the or consciously particularly difficult

T h e design o f all t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e c h r o m o s o m e a p p a r a t u s is d e c i d e d a f t e r d r a w i n g u p sketches a n d plans, a n d t h e e l e m e n t s are f i n a l l y s p e c i f i e d i n a set o f w o r k i n g a n d assembly d r a w i n g s w h i c h f o r m t h e basis f o r the production. When the apparatus is assembled t h e t i m e has c o m e f o r t e s t i n g , a n d f o r a realistic e v a l u a t i o n o f w h e t h e r i t a c t u a l l y possesses the expected qualities. Small corrections and i m p r o v e m e n t s are a d d e d , a n d t h e c o m p l e t e d c h r o m o s o m e a p p a r a t u s appears f i n a l l y as s h o w n i n F i g u r e 201. I t m u s t o n c e m o r e be e m p h a s i s e d t h a t n o t all t h e stages i n t h e p r o j e c t have been d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s case h i s t o r y , (see t h e d i a g r a m i n t h e m a r g i n o n page 1 8 3 ) . A number of the experiments electrical concerning system, physical various feasibility, omitted. T h e case h i s t o r y as o u t l i n e d a b o v e has a n essential a i m w h i c h is t o f o r m a c o n t r a s t t o t h e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y drawn up but unconnected examples throughout control

c a l c u l a t i o n s , as w e l l as w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s have been

critical situations.

Index
Abacus, 19 Abbe's p r i s m , 180, 185 Accessibility t o machine, 126 Aesthetic criteria, 12, 6 0 , 134, 143, 144, 154 A n t h r o p o m e t r y , 124 Appearance, 5 , 4 2 . 7 8 , 8 4 , 9 0 , 9 1 , 100, 134, 140, 143, 1 7 1 , 184 A s s e m b l y processes, 1 0 2 , 1 0 6 , 1 1 4 , 1 1 5 , 1 8 4 sub-operations, 114, 115 A u t o m a t i c lathe, 169 Automatic teamaker, 9 - 1 3 , 1 5 , 4 2 - 4 6 , 7 7 , 9 0 , D i m e n s i o n s , 7, 9 , 1 3 , 2 2 , 3 6 , 5 2 . 6 0 - 6 2 , 6 6 , 6 8 , 8 4 , 9 5 , 9 7 , 107, 116, 130, 153, 154 Dirt, 116, 117, 138 Distribution factors, 116 Durability, 7

Economics criteria, 1 3 , 7 5 , 99, 106, 108, 109, 114, 125 Effectiveness, 4 2 Elasticity, 122 Electricity meter, 104 Elements, arrangement of, 32, 34, 4 2 , 4 6 , 60, 6 8 , 1 5 1 , 154, 155 design o f , 13, 2 2 , 2 4 , 2 6 , 2 8 , 3 2 , 3 4 , 3 6 , 4 8 , 6 3 . 7 7 , 8 9 , 118,196 division of, 7476, 102 Emergency stopping, 125, 130 E n v i r o n m e n t , 3, 1 3 7 , 139 Ergonomics, 123, 126 Excavator, 4 0 , 4 1 , 150, 170

167

Baling p u m p , 3 6 , 3 7 B a n n e d areas, 6 0 , 6 3 . 6 8 , 6 9 Bearings, 7 6 B e a u t y , 1 4 3 , 144, 157 Boilers, 137 Bottle opener, 48

Calculators, 19, 7 8 - 8 0 Car j a c k s , 1 9 Chromosome apparatus, 175204 Clamps, 6 2 Cleaning, 7 8 , 1 2 5 , 1 3 2 Coffee makers, 2 1 - 2 3 Cogwheels, 9 8 Colour, 154 Company identity, 100 Contracts, 99 C o n t r o l areas, 1 3 0 - 1 3 4 design o f , 1 3 3 - 1 5 8 Conveyor belts pulleys, 8 5 - 8 8 , 103 Corroding fumes, 116

Fashion, 135 Fire, 125 Fork joints, 66, 67 F o r m , 3, 4 , 7 , 9 , 13, 15, 3 6 , 4 8 , 9 5 , 9 8 , 9 9 . 118. 1 2 1 . 143 concepts, 64. 66. 67, 70, 7 1 , 75, 76. 86. 87, 88, 102, 104, 105, 106 design, 1 9 , 9 4 - 9 6 , 1 0 0 , 108, 109, 1 1 5 - 1 1 7 , 1 2 2 , 196, 200 division m e t h o d , 7 4 - 7 8 , 8 1 , 8 4 , 104, 105. 193 elements, 13, 147, 148. 1 5 1 . 160, 163, 186 restriction o n , 6 0 synthesis m e t h o d s , 2 1 , 8 9 variation, 48. 50. 6 1 , 66, 68, 89, 90, 102 F u n c t i o n (of p r o d u c t ) , 5, 7, 9 , 19, 2 1 , 3 6 , 6 2 , 7 4 , 9 5 , 1 0 9 , 118, 1 2 1 , 122. 132 sub f u n c t i o n s , 19, 2 6 Function factors, feasibility o f , 121 interval, 121 quality of, 1 2 1 , 122 F u n c t i o n a l surfaces, 4 8 - 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 6 , 5 7 , 6 0 , 6 1 , 6 3 , 6 6 , 6 8 , 69, 75, 8 4 , 8 5 , 8 9 , 106, 118, 1 2 1 , 196 arrangement of. 5 2 - 5 6 , 6 1 , 8 4 , 8 5 , 86 dimension of, 5 2 - 5 6 , 6 0 , 6 1 , 6 2 , 66, 68. 84, 85, 87

Damp, 116, 117, 138 D a m p vibrations, 137 Delimitation, 177, 180 Design, 6 , 7, 1 2 , 13. 2 1 , 4 2 . 5 0 . 6 0 , 6 6 , 9 6 , 9 9 . 1 0 6 . 1 2 3 . 124, 126, 137, 138 solutions, 2 1 , 22 Designer, 6 , 1 4 , 8 9 , 9 0 , 9 5 , 9 9 , 1 0 6 , 1 2 1 , 1 2 3 , 1 4 3 , 147 Destruction, 6. 9 6 . 139 Dialysis ceil, 1 3 2

205

206

Index
continued Operation of machinery, emergency, 125 normal, 1 2 5 - 1 3 3 occasional, 125, 132 Operation of product, 9 2 , 187 Operator situation, 106, 108, 114, 125, 126, 180 Order, 144, 154, 186 Orientation, 177, 180

F u n c t i o n a l surfaces

external, 48, 50, 5 2 , 1 2 2 geometry, 52, 53, 55, 56, 60, 6 1 , 62, 66, 68, 84, 85, 87 internal, 48, 50, 52 maximum, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 84, 85 m i n i m u m , 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 84, 85 number, 5 2 - 5 6 , 6 1 , 84. 85, 86 variation parameters, 5 2 , 5 5 , 6 3 , 6 6 , 77, 84

Geometry of f o r m , 106, 107 Grinding machine, 129 Packing, 116 Parameter sensitivity, 122 Parts, 1 0 2 Pattern registration, 100 Pawl, 75 Perception, 130, 133 Petrol p u m p s , 8 3 Photocopier, 1 0 1 , 108, 114, 168 Physical d i v i s i o n , 7 4 Planes, 1 6 0 Pneumatic motors, 81 Precision, 196 Prices, 4 2 , 9 8 Process t e c h n i c i a n , 8 9 , 1 0 6 Product, design o f , 7 7 , 8 9 , 9 9 , 1 0 0 factors, 9 5 , 9 6 , 9 9 , 118 life of, 6, 9 5 , 9 6 properties o f 7, 9 5 , 9 7 , 143 quality of, 107, 108 synthesis, 8 , 9 , 1 4 , 2 1 , 9 5 , 186 weight, 116 Production, a s s e m b l y processes, 1 0 2 costs, 1 9 6 factors, 9 6 , 102 manufacture of parts, 102 Proportions, 157, 158 Psychological factors, 134

Habit, 135, 136 Handling, 7 , 4 2 , 125 Hardness, 1 2 2 Heat, 137 H y d r a u l i c press, 6 3 , 6 4 , 6 5 , 1 2 9

Input materials, 107, 108 installation, 125 Investment, 108 Irons, 119

Joints, 1 6 3 - 1 6 5

Karyotype, 176, 177, 182, 185

Labelling machines, 39 Licences, 9 9 Lighting, 130 Lightness, 1 6 6 - 1 6 8 Lines, 160

Machinery, 107, 108, 124, 125, 130 Maintenance o f machine, 125, 132 M a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s , 5, 6 , 6 6 , 7 5 , 7 6 , 7 8 , 8 4 , 8 9 , 1 0 2 , 106, 107, 109, 114, 138, 145, 147, 187, 196 economics o f . 1 1 1 , 113, 1 1 4 - 1 1 7 Market conditions, 116 Materials, 7, 1 3 , 8 4 , 9 0 , 9 7 , 9 9 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 2 , 1 0 5 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 1 , 113, 146, 1 5 1 , 195 M a x i m u m f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, 5 5 , 5 6 , 5 8 , 5 9 , 6 0 , 8 4 Microscope, 26, 27, 6 8 - 7 4 , 134, 150 M i n i m u m f u n c t i o n a l surfaces, 5 5 , 5 6 , 5 8 , 5 9 , 6 0 , 8 4 Models, 4 6 , 9 0 - 9 3 , 134, 140, 148, 147, 182, 186, 196, 203 Modules, 158 M o v e m e n t , 171

Recycling material, 139 Reliability,7, 122, 196 Repairs, 1 2 5 , 132 R h y t h m , 154, 155 Rigidity, 122, 196 Road rollers, 2 8 - 3 3

Noise, 1 2 6 , 141

S a f e t y , 7, 1 0 0 , 1 2 2 , 1 2 6 Sales, 9 6 , 1 1 6 Service p o l i c y , 9 9 , 1 3 2 S h a p e , see F o r m Society, 100 Solutions, 14, 1 5 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 28, 3 4 , 3 6 , 4 2 , 66, 9 5 , 140, 180 range o f , 3 4 Space, 4 2 , 6 0 , 9 2 , 117 Springs, 103 S p r i n k l e r valves, 6 1 Stability, 124, 169, 196

Offset w r i t i n g machine, 146 O p e n process area, 1 2 7 , 1 3 0 Operating area, 1 2 7 , 130

Index
Storing c o n d i t i o n s , 117 Strength, 122, 196 143 V a c u u m cleaners, 2 4 , 2 5 V a c u u m p u m p , 153 Valve, 3 Variation parameters, 52, 55, 63, 66, 77. 84 Vertical d r i l l . 153 V i b r a t i o n meter, 167 Visual balance, 1 5 1 - 1 5 3 , 160, Visual division, 74 186 197 S t r u c t u r e , 7, 8, 9 , 13, 19, 2 2 , 3 6 , 8 9 , 9 5 , 1 0 3 , basic, 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 2 , 4 4 , 4 8 , 1 7 9 , 1 8 0 , 1 9 6 , modelling, 46 quantified, 12, 2 1 , 22, 24, 26, 28, 3 4 - 4 4 , 4 6 - 4 8 , 6 8 , 191,194, 205, Style, 135 207 variation, 2 1 , 22, 24, 26, 36, 38, 42, 89 U n i t y , 144, 158, User, 1 1 8 187

207

Telephone, 93 Test t u b e f i l l i n g m a c h i n e , 4 6 , 4 7 , 5 6 , 5 7 , 5 8 , 5 9 , 6 0 , 9 2 . 121 Thread spindles, 113 Tolerance requirements, 107 Tools, 1 0 7 - 1 0 9 Transporting p r o d u c t , 116

Warehousing, 116, 117 W a t e r i n g cans, 8 2 Weight, 116, 132, 169, 170 Working posture, 123, 126

Related Interests