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Industry Overview

Jute Overview Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse and strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae, more recently with Malvaceae, and has now been reclassified as belonging to the family Sparrmanniaceae. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibres and is the second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibres. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (ma or component of plant fibre! and lignin (ma or components of wood fibre!. It is thus a ligno"cellulosic fibre, which is partially a te#tile fibre and partially wood. It falls into the bast fibre category (fibre collected from bast or s$in of the plant! along with $enaf, industrial hemp, fla# (linen!, ramie, etc. The industrial term for ute fibre is raw ute. The fibres are off"white to brown, and %&' metres ((&%) feet! long. Cultivation Jute needs a plain alluvial soil and standing water. The suitable climate for growing ute (warm and wet! is offered by the monsoon climate, during the monsoon season. Temperatures from )*+C to '*+C and relative humidity of ,*-& .*- are favourable for successful cultivation. Jute re/uires 0&. cm of rainfall wee$ly, and more during the sowing period. White jute (Corchorus capsularis) 1istorical documents (including 2in"e"2$bari by 2bul 3a4al in %05*! state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of ute. The weavers, who used to spin cotton yarns, used simple handlooms and hand spinning wheels. 1istory also states that Indians, especially 6engalis, used ropes and twines made of white ute from ancient times for household and other uses. Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius) Tossa ute (Corchorus olitorius! is a variety thought to be native to India, and is the world7s top producer. It is grown for both fibre and culinary purposes. It is used as a herb in Middle 8astern and 2frican countries, where the leaves are used as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called 9molo$hiya:. It is very popular in some 2rab countries such as 8gypt, Jordan, and Syria as a soup"based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. The 6oo$ of Job, in the ;ing James translation of the 1ebrew 6ible mentions this vegetable potherb as 9Jew7s mallow9. It is rich in protein, vitamin C, beta"carotene, calcium, and iron. <n the other hand, it is used mainly for its fibre in India, in other countries in Southeast 2sia, and the South =acific. Tossa ute fibre is softer, sil$ier, and stronger than white ute. This variety astonishingly shows good sustainability in the climate of the >anges ?elta.

2long with white ute, tossa ute has also been cultivated in the soil of 6engal where it is $nown as paat from the very beginning of the %5th century. @ow, the 6engal region (Aest 6engal in India, and 6angladesh! is the largest global producer of the tossa ute variety. History 3or centuries, ute has been an integral part of the culture of 6engal, in the entire southwest of 6angladesh and some portions of Aest 6engal. ?uring the 6ritish Ba in the %5th and early )*th centuries, much of the raw ute fibre of 6engal was carried off to the Cnited ;ingdom, where it was then processed in mills concentrated in ?undee. Initially, due to its te#ture, it could only be processed by hand until it was discovered in that city that by treating it with whale oil, it could be treated by machine. The industry boomed (9 ute weaver9 was a recognised trade occupation in the %5*% C; census!, but this trade had largely ceased by about %5,*, due to the appearance of synthetic fibres. Margaret ?onnelly, a ute mill landowner in ?undee in the %.**s, set up the first ute mills in 6engal. In the %50*s and %5D*s, when nylon and polythene were rarely used, one of the primary sources of foreign e#change earnings for the erstwhile Cnited =a$istan, was the e#port of ute products, based on ute grown in the 8ast 6engal, now 6angladesh. Jute has been called the 9>olden 3ibre of 6angladesh.9 1owever, as the use of polythene and other synthetic materials as a substitute for ute increasingly captured the mar$et, the ute industry in general e#perienced a decline. ?uring some years in the %5.*s, farmers in 6angladesh burnt their ute crops when they did not get profitable price. Many ute e#porters diversified away from ute to other commodities. Jute"related organi4ations and government bodies were also forced to close, change or downsi4e. The long decline in demand forced 2dam ee Jute Mills, the largest ute mills in the world to close in 6angladesh. The government nationali4ed Eatif 6awany Jute Mills, the second largest mill in 6angladesh. It was formerly owned by the businessperson, Fahya 6awany. 3armers in 6angladesh have not completely ceased growing ute, however, mainly due to its demand in the internal mar$et. 6etween )**'&)*%*, the ute mar$et recovered and the price of raw ute increased more than 0**-Gcitation neededH. Jute has entered many diverse sectors of industry, where natural fibres are gradually becoming better substitutes. 2mong these industries are paper, celluloid products (films!, non"woven te#tiles, composites, (pseudo"wood!, and geote#tiles. In )**D, the >eneral 2ssembly of the Cnited @ations proclaimed )**5 to be the International Fear of @atural 3ibres, so as to raise the profile of ute and other natural fibres. Production Jute is a rain"fed crop with little need for fertili4er or pesticides, in contrast to cotton7s acute re/uirements. =roduction is concentrated in some parts of India and in 6angladesh. The ute fibre comes from the stem and ribbon (outer s$in! of the ute plant. The fibres are at first e#tracted by retting. The retting process consists of bundling ute stems together and immersing them in slow running water.

There are two types of rettingI stem and ribbon. 2fter the retting process, stripping beginsJ women and children usually do this ob. In the stripping process, non"fibrous matter is scraped off, then the wor$ers dig in and grab the fibres from within the ute stem. India, =a$istan, and China are the large buyers of local ute while the Cnited ;ingdom, Spain, CKte d7Ivoire, >ermany and 6ra4il also import raw ute from 6angladesh. Genome <n %D June )*%*, =rime Minister Shei$h 1asina declared that 6angladesh successfully completed the draft genome of ute. 2 consortium of researchers from Cniversity of ?ha$a, 6angladesh Jute Besearch Institute (6JBI! and private software firm ?ataSoft Systems 6angladesh Etd. in collaboration with Centre for Chemical 6iology, Cniversity of Science Malaysia and Cniversity of 1awaii were involved in this pro ect. ses Jute is the second most important vegetable fibre ne#t to cotton. Jute is used chiefly to ma$e cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to ma$e sac$s and coarse cloth. The fibres are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs, hessian cloth, and bac$ing for linoleum. Ahile ute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses, some uses ta$e advantage of ute7s biodegradable nature, where synthetics would be unsuitable. 8#amples of such uses include containers for planting young trees, which can be planted directly with the container without disturbing the roots, and land restoration where ute cloth prevents erosion occurring while natural vegetation becomes established. The fibres are used alone or blended with other types of fibre to ma$e twine and rope. Jute rope has long been popular in Japan for use in bondage Gcitation neededH. Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to ma$e ine#pensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads of ute can be separated out and made into imitation sil$. 2s ute fibres are also being used to ma$e pulp and paper, and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to ma$e most paper, the importance of ute for this purpose may increase. Jute has a long history of use in the sac$ings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale!, and construction fabric manufacturing industry. Traditionally ute was used in traditional te#tile machineries as te#tile fibres having cellulose (vegetable fibre content! and lignin (wood fibre content!. 1owever, the ma or brea$through came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use ute and its allied fibres with their non"woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical te#tiles, and composites.

Therefore, ute has changed its te#tile fibre outloo$ and steadily heading towards its newer identity, i.e., wood fibre. 2s a te#tile fibre, ute has reached its pea$ from where there is no hope of progress, but as a wood fibre ute has many promising features. Jute is used in the manufacture of a number of fabrics such as 1essian cloth, sac$ing, scrim, carpet"bac$ing cloth (C6C!, and canvas. 1essian, lighter than sac$ing, is used for bags, wrappers, wall"coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Sac$ing, a fabric made of heavy ute fibres, has its use in the name. C6C made of ute comes in two types. =rimary C6C provides a tufting surface, while secondary C6C is bonded onto the primary bac$ing for an overlay. Jute pac$aging is used as an eco"friendly substitute. ?iversified ute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. 2mong these are espadrilles, soft sweaters and cardigans, floor coverings, home te#tiles, high performance technical te#tiles, >eote#tiles, composites, and more. Jute floor coverings consist of woven, tufted, and piled carpets. Jute Mats and mattings with 0LD metres width and of continuous length are easily being woven in Southern parts of India, in solid and fancy shades, and in different weaves li$e, 6oucle, =anama, 1erringbone, etc. Jute Mats M Bugs are made both through =owerloom M 1andloom, in large volume from ;erala, India. The traditional Satran i mat is becoming very popular in home dNcor. Jute non"wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more. Jute has many advantages as a home te#tile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, colour and light"fast fibre. Its CO protection, sound and heat insulation, low thermal conduction and anti"static properties ma$e it a wise choice in home dNcor. In addition, fabrics made of ute fibres are carbon"dio#ide neutral and naturally decomposable. These properties can also be used in high performance technical te#tiles. Moreover, ute can be grown in '"D months with a huge amount of cellulose being produced from the ute hurd (inner woody core or parenchyma of the ute stem! that can meet most of the wood needs of the world. Jute is the ma or crop among others that is able to protect deforestation by industrialisation. Thus, ute is the most environment"friendly fibre starting from the seed to e#pired fibre, as the e#pired fibres can be recycled more than once. Jute is also used to ma$e ghillie suits, which are used as camouflage and resemble grasses or brush. 2nother diversified ute product is >eote#tiles, which made this agricultural commodity more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibres, which is used for soil erosion control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and landscaping uses. The >eote#tiles can be used more than a year and the bio"degradable ute >eote#tile left to rot on the ground $eeps the ground cool and is able to ma$e the land more fertile. Methods such as this could be used to transfer the fertility of the >anges ?elta to the deserts of Sahara or 2ustralia Gcitation neededH.

Other ses ?iversified byproducts from ute can be used in cosmetics, medicine, paints, and other products. !eatures Jute fibre is %**- bio"degradable and recyclable and thus environmentally friendly. Jute has low pesticide and fertili4er needs. It is a natural fibre with golden and sil$y shine and hence called The >olden 3ibre. It is the cheapest vegetable fibre procured from the bast or s$in of the plant7s stem. It is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton, in terms of usage, global consumption, production, and availability. It has high tensile strength, low e#tensibility, and ensures better breathability of fabrics. Therefore, ute is very suitable in agricultural commodity bul$ pac$aging. It helps to ma$e best /uality industrial yarn, fabric, net, and sac$s. It is one of the most versatile natural fibres, that has been used in raw materials for pac$aging, te#tiles, non"te#tile, construction, and agricultural sectors. 6ul$ing of yarn, results in a reduced brea$ing tenacity and an increased brea$ing e#tensibility when blended as a ternary blend. The best source of ute in the world is the 6engal ?elta =lain in the >anges ?elta, most of which is occupied by 6angladesh. 2dvantages of ute include good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and moderate moisture regain. <ther advantages of ute include acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with no s$in irritations. Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, and pigment dyes. 2s the demand for natural comfort fibres increases, the demand for ute and other natural fibres that can be blended with cotton will increase. To meet this demand, some manufactures in the natural fibre industry plan to moderni4e processing with the Bieter7s 8lite# system. 2s a result, uteLcotton yarns will produce fabrics with a reduced cost of wet processing treatments. Jute can also be blended with wool. 6y treating ute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Ei/uid ammonia has a similar effect on ute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flame"proofing agents. Some noted disadvantages include poor drap"ability and crease resistance, brittleness, fibre shedding, and yellowing in sunlight. 1owever, preparation of fabrics with castor oil lubricants result in less yellowing and less fabric weight loss, as well as increased dyeing brilliance. Jute has a decreased strength when wet, and becomes sub ect to microbial attac$ in humid climates. Jute can be processed with an en4yme in order to reduce some of its brittleness and stiffness. <nce treated with an en4yme, ute shows an affinity to readily accept natural dyes, which can be made from marigold flower e#tract. In one attempt to dye ute fabric with this e#tract, bleached fabric was made mordant with ferrous sulphate, increasing the fabric7s dye upta$e value. Jute also responds well to reactive dyeing. This process is used for bright and fast coloured value"added diversified products made from ute.

, Bangladesh may lose market in diversified jute products India investing in new mills, research and development

Sajjadur Rahman Bangladesh is missing out on the opportunity to earn foreign currency from the export of diversified jute products, industry players said. India, on the other hand, is taking advantage of this opportunity by investing in new mills and research and development in line with global demand, they added. ! ban on the use of plastic bags in different countries " from the #S to $urope, !frica, !sia and !ustralia " has opened new opportunities to export diversified jute products,% said Rashedul &arim 'unna, general secretary of Bangladesh (ute )iversified *roducts 'anufacturers and $xporters !ssociation. +he global demand for shopping bags is estimated to be ,-- billion pieces, worth around .,-- billion a year, according to International (ute Study /roup. +he #S, $urope and 0hina would be the biggest markets for shopping bags, once the ban on the use of plastic bags would fully come into force in a few years. 1ocal manufacturers and exporters fear they would lose the market to India, as entrepreneurs in the neighbouring country have

built factories that are able to produce 2uality yarn, fabric and diversified products. India exported more than 3- million jute shopping bags in 4-54657, against around 5 million by Bangladesh. $ntrepreneurs in India received grants from the government to set up advanced mills to produce diversified jute products, they said. Bangladesh8s manufacturers and exporters said all the governments in the country had paid little attention to develop this sector. +he cost of producing 2uality yarn is 9percent higher in Bangladesh than India because of technological disadvantages,% 'unna said. India has set up composite jute mills with modern machinery and technologies to make fabric, dyeing or lamination under one roof, he said. Bangladesh has nearly 4,- jute mills, but none with dyeing and lamination facilities, which are essential to producing diversified products. :istorically, Bangladesh and a part of India are the main producers of jute accounting for more than ;< percent of the total jute production globally. In 4-55, global jute production was 4.=< million tonnes, of which Bangladesh8s share

was 5.4 million tonnes. >nce Bangladesh was known as the country of ?golden fibre8 because of the 2uality of jute it produced. (ute and jute goods accounted for ;percent of the country8s total exports in 5;34637. @ow, the contribution of this sector to Bangladesh8s export earnings has dropped to less than , percent, even though it has more than ;, percent local value addition. Bangladesh exported raw jute and jute goods worth .5.-7 billion in fiscal 4-54657 " jute sacks and bags accounted for .473 million and jute yarn and twine over .,-- million " according to data from $xport *romotion Bureau. In (uly6 >ctober this year, data shows a negative trend in the export of jute sacks and bags " .94.<5 million against the target of nearly .;7 million for the period. India is enjoying the cream of jute diversification. It has 2uality mills, professionals and designers to produce diversified products,% said 'ahmudul :a2ue, deputy managing director of (anata (ute 'ills, one of the two biggest private mills. +he largest one is !kij (ute 'ills. Investing in dyeing and lamination is yet to be

feasible in Bangladesh as the market is not so big. !n absence of designers is a major concern here too,% :a2ue said. +he good news is that Bangladesh (ute 'ills 0orporation AB('0B is set to convert a couple of its mills to produce raw materials to make diversified products instead of traditional ones. Ce are converting &arnaphuli (ute 'ills and hope to go for commercial production next month. +he world is demanding diversified products and we have to get out of making traditional things,% said 'aj /en :umayun &haled, chairman of B('0. (ute is a rain6fed crop with little need for fertiliDer or pesticides. +he production is concentrated in India and Bangladesh. +he jute fibre comes from the stem and ribbon Aouter skinB of the jute plant. +he fibres are first extracted by retting. +he retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in low, running water. +here are two types of rettingE stem and ribbon. !fter the retting process, stripping begins. Comen and children usually do this job. In the stripping process, non6fibrous matter is scraped off, then the workers dig in and grab the fibres from within the jute stem. India, *akistan, 0hina are the large buyers of local jute while Britain, Spain, Ivory 0oast, /ermany and

BraDil also import raw jute from Bangladesh. India is the worldFs largest jute growing country. (ute is the second most important vegetable fibre after cottonG not only for cultivation, but also for various uses. (ute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. +he fibres are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum. +raditionally jute was used in traditional textile machineries as textile fibres having cellulose Avegetable fibre contentB and lignin Awood fibre contentB. But, the major breakthrough came when the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries started to use jute and its allied fibres with their non6woven and composite technology to manufacture nonwovens, technical textiles, and composites. +herefore, jute has changed its textile fibre outlook and steadily heading towards its newer identity, 1e. wood fibre. !s a textile fibre, jute has reached its peak from where there is no hope of progress, but as a wood fibre jute has many promising features. (ute can be used to create a number of fabrics such as :essian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth A0B0B, and canvas. :essian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall6coverings, upholstery, and home

furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibres, has its use in the name. 0B0 made of jute comes in two types. *rimary 0B0 provides a tufting surface, while secondary 0B0 is bonded onto the primary backing for an overlay. (ute packaging is used as an eco6friendly substitute. )iversified jute products are becoming more and more valuable to the consumer today. !mong these are espadrilles, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance technical textiles, /eotextiles, composites, and more. (ute bags are used for making fashion bags H promotional bags. +he ecofriendly nature of jute make it ideal for corporate gifting. (ute floor coverings consist of woven and tufted and piled carpets. (ute 'ats and mattings with , I < mts width and of continuous length are easilly being woven in Southern parts of India, in solid and fancy shades, and in different weaves like, Boucle, *anama, :erringbone, etc. (ute 'ats H Rugs are made both through *owerloom H :andloom, in large volume from &erala, India. +he traditional Satranji mat is becoming very popular in home decor. (ute non6wovens and composites can be used for underlay, linoleum substrate, and more. (ute has many advantages as a home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, color and light6 fast fibre. Its #J protection, sound and heat insulation,

low thermal conduction and anti6static properties make it a wise choice in home decor. !lso, fabrics made of jute fibres are carbon6dioxide neutral and naturally decomposable. +hese properties are also why jute can be used in high performance technical textiles. (ute, a natural fibre used universally, is the bark of a slender shrub of tropical and subtropical origin. It belongs to the family of +iliaceae. Kibres of two species of this family viD 0orchorus 0apsularies and 0ochorus >litorius are used to produce jute goods. +hese two fibres yielding agricultural plants need alluvial land and heavy rainfall alternate with high temperature and windy air to grow well to give lustrous and strong fiber. Bangladesh is uni2ue in providing for centuries all the physico6climatical elements for rich and luxuriant growth and high yield of jute crop because of its geographical location as an alluvial plate crisscrossed by innumerable rivers and tributaries sandwiched between the :imalayas in the @orth and $ast and the Bay of Bengal in the South. Blessed with this specialiDed habitat and climatic condition, every year about half a million hectares of land is cultivated to yield about 5.- million tons of jute fibres of different grades to meet the local industrial and domestic needs as well as for export to other countries for their consumption as industrial raw materials. +he cultivation of jute and its use as utility products in the life

of peoples of this region dates back to some centuries. +he great break6through made in textile technology at the dawn of industrial revolution helped jute come out as an amaDing fabric from its age6old usages as cordage and rope. Since then innumerable additions and modifications took place in its form and structure to groom it into materials those in times became indispensable for human life all over the world for their many specified and unspecified uses. (ute is being ideally used for manufacturing (ute can transform our future 'd. Shah !mran *h.). Kellow )epartment of *harmacology Lamanashi medical #niversity (apan e6mailE amranMres.yamanashi6med.ac.jp ! few days before I was walking through a Nhundred yen shopN to buy some small but essential household materials. !s similar to !merican N>ne dollar shopN, in (apan there are Nhundred yenN shops almost in every supermarket that sales goods at hundred yen only. In (apanese these are called Nhyaku yen miseN. In a corner I noticed some jute bags and I rushed to that corner. +hese were nice woven bags. Kirst I thought these have been imported from Bangladesh and I decided to buy some to offer my (apanese friends as gift. But in the bottom it was written Fmade in IndiaF. !ccording to the

known statistics Bangladesh is the largest manufacturer of jute but the (apanese supermarkets are filled with the jute goods of India. So I abandoned the desire to buy these bags. @ext day after comeback to my laboratory I searched for jute and jute goods. +here are thousands of websites from both India and Bangladesh. I selected some from both Bangladesh and India and read these meticulously. I was astonished to see the enormous usage of jute and jute goods. But India is far ahead of us in respect multiple use, plans and future projects. I also browsed the website of NBangladesh (ute Research InstitutesN. It is also filled with bright prospect of jute but reality is different. Ce do not have much resources but surely there are some precious and prospective assets. (ute is among one of them. It is such a plant that each and every part of jute is usable. Loung and tender leaves, for example can be eaten as vegetable. $ven in (apan young and tender jute plants are available in the supermarkets as vegetable. I myself bought these small whole plant vegetable items many times. +he jute fiber is used to make rope, sacks, yarn, fabrics and carpets. +he long stick Aknown as pat kathi or sholaB is used as fuel, and also fencing and thatching of the houses in the rural Bangladesh. +he hairy part in the bottom of rotten jute tree, when dried, used also as a good fuel. Chen these are cleaned enough and processed, can be used as alternative of cotton A+ulaB to fill the pillow. +he root of tree remained during

cutting may be collected in summer season and used as good fuel. Some of the usage of jute both in Bangladesh areE 0ommon #sageE 5. :andicrafts6bamboo basket with braided jute interwoven, jute and jute cotton appli2ue, photo frame, ornament box Anew item may beE +issue boxB 4. Bags6Beach bags, Sling bags, transparent braided bag used for university, college and school bags by students. 7. Kootware61adies clogs, sandal AchotiB and jute6leather sandal 9. Kabrics6 (ute and cotton at a ratio of 3-E7- used for home decoration ,. !ccessories6!pron for use as kitchen wear, cushion for home furnishing <. 0omposite6jute6plastic pellet for multi6purpose , composite board for interior design for false ceiling, yarn composite Aplate , glass, paposhB multipurpose use. Special useE 5. /eo6(uteE (ute for the Kuture Jersatility usage of jute is coming to light as the world looks for natural options to save the environment. (ute is now offering better and ideal solutions for conserving the soil and environment and also in applications like civil engineering. +he distinguishing features that make jute more and more eco6friendly areE high moisture

absorption capacity, flexibility and drainage properties. /eo(ute finds application inE erosion control, separation, filtration and drainage in civil engineering works, agriculture uses. !dvantages that /eojute offer areE abundant availability, superior drapability, greater moisture retention capacity, lower costs compared to the synthetic geotextiles, ease of installation and bio6degradable properties. +he prospect for jeo6jute is enormous. (eo6jute can be a good source of earning of the foreign currency by exporting to the foreign countries like (apan and $uropean countries if appropriate measures are taken in governmental level. !fter Corld war II (apan was a devastated economy. >n the other hand they have no natural resources to mention and the goods now they export all over the world, like car, electronics, films etc none of then were invented in (apan. But in one point they ac2uired excellency is the technology to produce these materials in a comparatively less price but better 2uality. If we can produce jute goods in a comperatively less price but better 2uality, then we can ac2uire world market of jute and jute goods 4. Kood grade bags 0urrently jute is used as sacks for food products that are not consumed as such. But the jute bags and clothes, if processed under proper technology can be used as the best and safest packaging materials for food products in general, especially for coffee, cocoa beans and edible nuts that are

consumed directly. 7. *harmaceutical aid !ccording to the demand in the B(RI website, they established the chemical process for the production of cellulose derivarivessuch as 'icrocrystalline cellulose A'00B, 0arboxymethylcellulose A0'0B, oxalic acid, cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrates and activated charcoal from jute and jute wastes. +he process for the production of '00 has been leased out to B$OI'0>. !n '># has been signed between B(RI and &amrul $ngineering and trading for commercial production of 0'0. It is well known that both '00 and 0'0 are widely used pharmaceutical aid or auxiliary substance to manufacture medicines. +here are about 45- pharmaceutical industries in the country. 0ellulose acetate is used as a tablet coating material. 0'0 is also widely used in cosmetic, toiletries and chemical industries. +herefore, if these cellulose derivatives can be prepared in a Ncost6effectiveN way then it will save crores of currency now used to import these materials. Bravo to B(RI and B$OI'0> for their endeavor. 9. (ute6plastic combination products !lso according to the demand in the B(RI website, they established the chemical process for the production of blankets from jute6acrylic blend developed simultaneously B('0 and B(RI. +o commercialiDe this process a '># has been signed between B(RI and /rameen #ddog of *rofessor )r. 'ohammad Lunus.

Role of the @/>sE @on governmental developing agencies can take various projects based on jute. +hey can make, for example, good 2uality jute bags for school, college and university studentsF use, foot wares, photo frame, jewelry box, tissue box frame. >ne of the @/>s started working with jute in 5;37. It is 0>RR6+he jute works, Bangladesh. It began working with jute in 5;37 with special mission to rehabilitate war6affected poor rural women of Bangladesh. @ow, in Bangladesh the @/>s are increasingly involving in commercial activities. +hey can put a eye on jute and jute products as their commercial activity. I already mentioned about /rameen #ddog. In this respect one thing must be ensured and that isE !vailability of jute yarn H fabrics and other raw jute goods at mill gate price in desired 2uantity at different locations of the country. *aper from (uteE Recently I saw a documentary in the @:& A(apanese national Broadcasting authorityB on Bangladesh and I also have a Jideo tape of that program. In that documentary they showed how Bangladeshi women manually manufacture paper from water hyacinth using locally developed technology. I re2uest the Scientist of B(RI to look at this point. If paper can be manufactured from jute by such locally developed technology, it will be great contribution to the nations. !nd @/>s can, hopefully, be involved in this project.

Chat Bangladesh can doE Bangladeshi jute products are of good 2uality and suitable to use. But we have to increase the awareness of peoples of all file and rank to avoid foreign goods and use our jute goods as prayer mate, blankets, yarn and fabrics, school bags, sandals, kitchen aprons, jewelry box cover, tissue box cover, cushon. In (apan I have noticed that up to college level, the school and college authority choose bags for the students. +hese bags are available in particular shops. *arents of the students are compelled to buy those particular bags. AI also have to buy this bag by 54---PQ+k <---I, because my son is a elementary school studentB. In Bangladesh, the school and college authority can select our jute bags as school I college bags for the students. Recently, jute bags are being used as substitute for thin poly bags. +his is a very good sign because these jute bags are biodegradable whereas polybags are bot biodegradable and are a threat for environment, drainage system, soil fertility and also for health Awhen burnt for recycling purposeB. I want to draw the attention of the ministry of jute, ministry of textiles Aincluding Ready 'ade /arment sectorB and ministry of industries to work together and allocate sufficient money in the research in jute sector and evaluate the scientists now working in this field. 1ast but not the least, the related bodyIorganiDations of the government can do the following to increase the awareness of

the mass peoples of the countryE AiB +elecast and broadcast eye6catching advertisements on jute goods using electronic and print media AiiB $ncourage students of universities, colleges and schools to use jute bags AiiiB $ncourage and appeal on the good sense of ladies to use jute bags as fashion bags, jewellery box cover, tissue box cover, photo frame, cushon, kitchen aprons, sandals, etc. AivB !ppeal on the good sense of artists, designers, +J H Kilm actor Iactress to use jute goods in public functions AvB 'otivate textile A0lothB shop owners to keep jute made fabrics and not to sale smuggled foreign cloths however profitable those may be. AviB 'otivate and involve the @/>s and Kemale organiDations for the promotion of jute goods AviiB !llocate big amount of money for research and encourage the present researchers in B(RI by giving them various incentives such as higher salary, cash priDe, awards for their current contribution and telecast those in electronic and print media. !nd also develop a system for yearly evaluation of the creative activity of these scientists. AviiiB $xpand the marketing system of jute goods so that peoples can buy these products at mill gate price Aor, possible lowest priceB in desired 2uantity at different locations of the country along with textile AixB 'ake arrangements for Kair, $xhibition in all district and #poDella head2uarters at 7 months intervals

AxB 0reate new concepts and designs using and involving B(RI, B('0 experts and use these new concepts and designs by developing and training women in remote and rural clusters with cooperations of @/>s.