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SCOTTISH MERCENARIES IN THE SERVICE OF

DENMARK AND SWEDEN 1626 1632

James A. Fallon

Ph. D.

University

of Glasgow_

1972

CONTENTS

CHAPTER Summary ONE TWO THREE FOURFIVE six SEVEN EIGHT NINE TEN Scottish Sources Recruiting Volunteers Study of Contracts and Pressed Modern Areas Surnames and'the Man' by Areas Enlis tment of Officers 0 0 Mercenaries

PAGE

10 34 57 93 115, 158 1626-7 1628-9 0 0 00 -nu a and MeldrumOs Regiments 0 0 1637-40 Military Life Aspects of Military 000 00 Life . 0 0 0 0 288 216 248 251" 261 276 287 302 309 346 382 391

Recruiting ''Transportation -Danish Danish Swedish (a)

Service Service Service

Spensc

Regiment

(b)*Ramsaygs'Regiment (C)'Alex'ander (d) (e) ELEVEN TWELVE Mackay0s Swedish Hamilto Regiment Service of

Martial Domestic Appendices

Aspects

Administrative 0000 .o00a

Bibliography

MAPS

PAGE i. ii. iii. iv., Blair 0s Recruiting Areaq Early 1627 to Recruiting Area. -Late Colonels 1627 00 0 0 0 1627 94 96 98, 101 116 204-, 0 211 220220 222 1628-9 , 2251 "239 253 0 1630-1,. 262 262 268 291 0a0 00 a 294 297

Ogilvyos Allocation BlairOs

Recruiting'Area of Shires Recruiting

1627.9

V. ' 'Mackay and Monro Recruiting vi. - - Lower'Saxony viio viii* ix. x. '--xi. ": xii., Xiii. xiv. xv. xvi. xvii. xviii. XiX0, , Mecklenburg Kiel and Holstein 1627-. " 0" Islands

Areas 1626-7 1626-7 0a00 1627-8

and S. Danish 1628

Zealand

"Stralsund_1628 -Copenhageng Malm6 and Stralsund Schleswig-Holstein Livonia 1625-6 1626-30

and the Elbe Estuary-1629

East Prussia Pomerania

and East Prussia

Rhine and Main Rivers Oder and Peene Rivers -Brandenburg

1631-2 1630-1

and Saxony 1631-2 0

S. Germany 1632-3

SUMMARY This'study
frequently an the

opens with
against

an assessment
mercenaries. and printadq being and in half of the paid

of the validity
A detailed both to British material

of the criticisms
follows, with in Stockholm., The rsprs-

lavelled sources,

evaluation

manuscript close attention

and Scandinavian to be found in

particularly Rigearkivat The rest entire-process

the

in

Copenhageng of is the first

Riksarkivet this original work

and Krigsarkivst concerns recruiting. between

traced

from

contract

foreign

santative rendezvous recruiting

and British port. process

colonel

to the arrival of ties

of the recruits

in

the

foreign

The importance is consideradq

of, family for

and friendship enlistment men-are

in the. -

and motives

by volunteers_ also noted in mer-,

are investigated, detailt canary origin this areas and thus units for problem is these

Methods of a picture constructed. Scottish

QpressingO, unwilling of. people

of the types

who served

In these

In order. to help soldiers (there a study

to. clarify

the areas evidence

01,

boing, little

to. resolve relation to

from Scottish_sources), was undsrtakeno, with

of, modern, surnames in of the results

of Scotland taken

On the basis

of this

research in

together rolls

the other

source-svidance,

the names of man the

company mustar areas

of mercenery. regiments for the men. Finally

were used to suggest the problems foreign which

probable guarding studied,

of origin

of feeding, are

and transporting and a calculation

enlisted

men to their

campaign areas a recruiting

made of the manner in expenditure. actual

colonel

managed to balance The second half details postulated of service of

income against of this for

work concerns

service

abroad.

The

Christian of this

IV of Denmark are tracadq contribution service for to Danish

and an estimate

the value range

and European history.

From the broad

of Scottish

Sweden between 1620 and 2640

ii

five

specific

items

were selected

for

close

scrutiny.

Among these

were

the regiments and Donald

of James Spens, The service these

James Ramseyq AlexanderlHomiltang rendered Scots by Scots

John Meldrum' 1640,

Mackay.,

between 1637and

and the extent of-the

to which

returned this

to their section., of life

homeland at the time

CoVenanting In the final

troubles

concludes

two chapters is

the quality Firstly

experienced

by recruits mattial,. -,

in

a mercenary aspects

regiment

portrayed.

the more strictly trainingg

of life

are investigatedg by various turnover

s. go equipmentp officers

day-to-day and the

workp duties reasons aspects for

performed the large

and, under-officars, Secondly

in personnal..,

the more OcivilianO, food to

of life

are-reyealedp

sago the arrangements

made for, billatingg, The final that item

and drink, ) religious be studi9d a recruit well-paid that is in in

nesdag and the writing one of pay. regiment with other -It is in

of letters. there theory in fact

the crucial a mercenary comparison

demonstrated,

though

should

have been relatively he was so poorly Adolphuswhich he: was paid

workeraq

the mercenary a true

Scot who served mercenary

Christian-XV,

and Gustavus with

was hardly rewarded

at a119 since that

the currency of honour

was fr9quently

no more than

and reputation..,

1.

CHAPTER ONE Throughout highly religious suitable ambition not honourable life the ages the profession calling which if not of arms has been regarded comparable with's vacation with as a to, law as a

or the art for

of medical younger

healing

at least

ranked

employment

sons. - The height

of many a young manes as a trade the soldier has is

has been promotion been generally

to a commission. despised.

Thus warfare hand if

in itself

On the other

a mercenaryg i. e. if
worth is greatly

he serves primarily
and he finds

for pait

public'estimation
detested., '...factorsp

of his

altered for this

himself

widely

The reasons of which 0 ne of'his Dugald were well

change of outlook by Sir Walter Scott

stem from various, in his

some

voiced in

Legend of Montrose. assessment of

characters

the bookp Lord Menteith, Oa pitiful payt mercenary, who transfers of fortune

in his

Dalgetty

deplored but his

who knows neither his allegiance

honour from biddert, -

nor principle standard

month's at'the thirst $

to standard,

pleasure for

or the highest,

and to whose insatiable much civil dissension.

plunder

and warm quarters principle

we owe to have was of

The same lack'of,

would appear his course

been in James Turnerls'mind 'decided my'duetie that Owithout examination I prince

when he-made out that of-the justice ")

of'action or regard

of the quarrelIq It'is also

to either

or countrayO. strict

believed

by some. the the so

mercenaries

have a less

code of martial areesq whereas

behaviour'in others despise

treatment mercenary

of prisoners because-he is

and occupied foreign.

Even Gustavus

Adolphus

who-employed

many mercenaries dangerous

described

them on one occasion

in 1629 as Ifaithless,

and expensive.

9(2)

(1)
(2)

Turner,
'Robertap

Memoirs, 14
Gustavus Adolphus, iiv 205

2.
in reply not true of all Adolphus to these criticisms it may be contended who served that'it Christian in his was certainly IV and Ex pedition

the Scottish that they

mercenaries lacked

Gustavus shows that sensitive asseTtion be replied

honoug.. highly

Xndesd Man= and that on their

many of them valued an matters that that could is but which

hanour

they

were very To the-' payp it may

seemed to impinge valued only

hanour. of his

the meTcanary all men expect be said

the principle

regular

payment of their principles his

wages. -Whether will be discussed to another monarchs_, -

a mercenary later. It

to have no other him for

easy to criticise the Scats

changing

allegiance

paymaster,

were notably behavioux the hiTing

loyal

to the Scandinavian sides.

and were not after If that all

guilty

of fickle between not

in changing government wages it

There was Z -' '

a contract did

and the soldier,,,, could well'be-&Tgued,

the government the soldier

pay the agreed

was hardly

bound by the original man would not be expected it

contract, to remain

In any other working this for was

employment

a pro? easional not

an employsT who did because the hiring His desire aroangements


He sought skilla are

pay gegular left

wages.

he sought

plunder

government

him no alternative by the

source inadequate

o?. -income.. billeting airmles. -where did special not

fox warm quarters

was occasioned of early


employm8nt when national

of the commissariats
abTvad At because a time

sewente&Ath-centuTy
is always regular sought armies

s8rvic8, in

demand.

exist Wered natural

and when the relative no pToopect for soldiers

domestic

calm in exitain

In the 2620a and 1630s at home It was -, whIle excesses

of employment

in a military abroad.

capacity Their

to seek service seldom descended agmiss

code a? conduct and baTbaric yeaTs. to be that

Far-ftom c? which

exemplary national

to the atrocities In recent

have been guilty

The weakest principle. This

paiet of, the mercenarygs Is not to say that

case appears

a? lack

o?

he had no standards,

-The per? oTmence

3.
in the field Their that

of good mercenary courage

units

often

outshone

of conscripted as those to

forces.,

and endurance of true

were frequently

revealed

that, would sacrifice

be expected their lives and in

professionals.

Nor did A, consIdemable

many hesitate,

on ToreIgn-ftelds. this respect-it

number of. them mezrenaoy orce unit

were volunteers which-is consisting motive, it All

way be held to'a

that-a

genuinely

voluntary

Is prefezbls or pressed men.,

national'?

largely, of

a? conscripted soldiers

The crucial

point

is'that

?ight.?

oT pay., and the danger regularly. the. thinking belleves. Assessment

of-mutinysoon"agises, of the extent toview

wages sire not

forthcoming entirely

which taken mainly idealist that

pay dominated

of, a mercenary anost people

qn depends/the to be-Lnfluenced largeo.

c? 'human natugeo by base motives, credits

The cynic,

of eel? -seeking motives solely

in which

pay would bulk

-Thet

many men with would enlist

of a higheg, stamp and would. hold-.. from desivs. fog, pey., CeRtainly-% a, century',. not, been -Mis of'sida, '

taw mercenaries cannot

the mercenary

claLm, to be patriotic-in army could beginning asserto' to evolve

the dLTect, way that In the2early seventeenth

member of a national nationalism established. doubtful was only

and national'armlealhad could not be, expected. in their-choice.

Hence fervent most Scots

patriotisin

whether

were as unprincipled The vast

as TuTnexOs comment would -a fact eTvs the Protestant that-this side-in

suggest,

majoiLty

of them optedto unewsze of the

the Thirty

Years War and were not piincess

was also

the cause of the Scottish Bohemia, It

Elizabeth,

married that

to the exiled

king-o?

must however also. be admitted which were presented period in wage almost by the, raithout-, The Scots 293a-

the opportunities captains

of'militavy

service this side classed

Tacguiting ouception

in Scotland.., during

IFor powers on the Protestant have resented being

the struggle.

would certainly p? lnzip2ed

alongside centuzy

the appzisntly who ftught in

marcenaTies

of the mid-twentieth

the Congo

14. ,,

and Biafga

troubles. times of classical Greece mercenagy In, hia soldlei txoops have been MeTcancriesa', when a or

From the x-ecruitedo and Absolute ubiquitous government unwilling decision that,

V. G. Kiagnan -As, Mcnagchygq type in

stated

&Tticle'gFogeign enlisting

Othe fogeign

fm pay is aTises

hietamrg(3) to'pursus

The need fog mexcenaTien a military tRoopa.. policy which It

determines tocargy

is"unable

out with in

native

In some cases a positive soldlegs Incuraed because it is felt-,

may be taken losses

favoux

of fogaIgn axe beat of natIve t

militagy hired

In pegsonnal at that

at the expense a?, It may enough mey'

foreign be, that.

?oxces then

%goops. - Alternatively concerned by: 'the in not large

the native.

population

of the country plans'envimaged againat, with

to cope wLth theambLtious be the cTitici@as. uanr governmenU often preferred

governmento of

'Whatever

levelled

the reliability mercenaTy'soZdlers that"the

to deal

especlal2y

when

disoTders

acDuvxed at homeo-'KleRnan'believed well sulted'was

task

to whfththey (4)

weTe, opagUcularly

the, auppras@ion tools

a? TabO211098-subjectou. of Ita2lan zulegz 'the

Me2menaojea had however been valuable In, the MiddIL8 Ages when @ecuRity could

In the'handa

depend upon the TellabLILty'a? to be-ImpaTtant In the'sIxteenth

continued and, eaTlyseventeenth the second half nezessaz-y. centuries

but with, the growth century they

cT national

azomles in

of the. seventeenth

gzadually

became 2eea wwm-inthe

But even-in-2558

at the battle Regiment unit'. while

of the Dunes there that

TuIr9nne0z Foench army a Scottish Smadish a2my and also contalned'thxse (3) (4) Irish an ITIsh gogimentso

had asan meTvice-Ln

the Spanish

comy appeaLng them

as well

am: ons`Srat. U@h and-ons*English

1957)p'66 Past !! Lnd Presentq XL'(ApAl Vo Go KiezP-ang gFoReIgn Megcenciies-and'Abaolute'MonaTchygg-"''-'----Past and pinsent", XI (Apill 1957) g,,74

51 (5) regiment.
Scotland European possessed a long, had

%
tradition served in of milltaTy contact days 1418. yeaTa (6) A of the Military such late 1620a with of-the certain Auld Scats

countries. the

Scats Scots

France there In the

ftom-the since, eaxly, French not

Allianceg-and Brigade

Guagda

had existed in, Holland

was firmly century with tradition, were not the

established and augvLved

seventeenth connection lasting and 1630s ruler, into were troops proved soon ? aced. attempts, the

thege. till-the did

Revolution. any In the

Scandinavlancountvies But the the. yeags first

develop

a? geoguiting Scats of

activity had served

tlmethst a fogce

a Scandinavian men they

Patrick, pay of

Ruthyan King

brought, III

betw9en

39 00 0 and 39500 Dow remarked Scottish that

3ahn

o?: Sweden, JLn 1573o Qunlike, all previous

predominantly in SwedenO

inftntiyg. (7)

mercenary JLnfantoy_sa2dIers RuthvenOs Scota units in the

CoxteLnly In the. time

the, pattern a? Gustavus which later

o? large2y, Adolphus, Scattish. ahogt,

to, be, the expegienced-the Supplies-ftr to, take

rule

diTftcultles the Revel Estonian in

wercenamy and. failure between

ctmpaign 1574 led to

were

early

recriminations

theconflict 0V Scats

German and ScatU@h broke 10500 several Svediah out Scats of between_the and thirty. their

troops Scots

in, the

Swediah

aray,

On 27 Mavch-1574 in, the death@

and Gevmang, and resulted To complete -,, accused the sorry the

Germana. were Balftur.

Tatelof-the overthrow Ruthven

leaders Gilbert years in

OT platting

of-the died led cut In by,

king,. four

was. beheaded N=

and Patrick was the ? ate,,

JL573 after Alexander

imprisonmentol8) 1612 in blessed with

Scottish They

force were

Ramtey

a happier shortly havecomaenced

down

by Norwegian

peaaants

Gudbrandsdal appeago to

A new phaze

however.

with

the

succeases

(6)
(7) (8) (9)

3. W. FaTteacueg W, F=bse-Lelthp

3. B. A. Dowq Ruthvsnos Ax-my in 0. So Ao Dawg Ruth-ven0a Aimy in -- Flschei, Scotain Sweden, 76

(London Histmy 2899)v io 270-IL BTitish kr_FX of (EdinbuTgh Scott 1882) 0A1 GuaTda In Frangs
Sweden Sweden and and Eathonla Eathanlaq (Stackha2m 379 79p 64

2865)v

22

6,
of British forces in Swedish pay against the Russians, in the second

decade of the seventeenth become respected in the Baltic.

century. military

The name. of Samuel Cabron (Cockburn) circles prowess (10) and Poles. for his In the campaigns By the early climbing part

in Swedish

provinces Leslieq

against Patrick

the Russians Ruthven

1620a Alexander to high in rank in

and John Hepburn were elan troops played until a valuable

the Swedish Poland

army.

Scottish

the war against

which

lasted

intermittently

1629,, but the

most notable Adolphus dominated served recruiting in for Scotland soldiers Evaluation and 1632 in

contribution

made by the Scots

to the schemes o?, Gustavus., two years, still

occurred

when he landed central

in Germany in 1630 and for Though Scottish

the scene in

Europe,

soldiers

Sweden in tended

the later to be for

1630a and 1640s the peak had bean passed and service in France until the domeatic, plenty tToubles, -

and England in their

during

the Civil country.

Wars offered

of, emplayment

native

of the paTt played story

by Scottish

mercenaiiez service unlike

between 1626 ?or foreign the deacription powaz ', ., -The Scats-

the complete that their -but

of Scottish

military

powers reveals *given of the

work for brief

Gustavug we@ not

to the glorious first rank in

existence

of Sweden as a military, that of a metear.

the seventeenth of-seTvice the period

centuryg with

had no permanent considerable the epic assisted


the

tradition in

Swedeng but they

expeilenced

success

between 1620 and 1640D-especiallyin,

campaigns his armies


monarch

of Gustavus and in
in

in Germany in 1631and 2632 when they gained reflected. glaTy, from the, xenown a?
service by the prevent, for Seats his Swsden

return

Swedish

Europe,

-Their

earlier and the aid

and later rendered did not

was comparatively to Christian IV of

undistinguishedg Denmark between

1626

and 1629

complete surpassed

defeat that

in, the. field. performed Krion

service -The officers

of the Scots

for. Sweden certainly thq EapLireg

by Scottish

and men Tog Spaing

Sveriges

i and li,

70

Russia-or

Poland

during-the.

first

half

of the seventeenth military brief, flurry skill,

century,

though

all, --these countries_profited, ,,,It. may be questioned , with Sweden was-more

from Scottish this

manpower. -and service by-the-,. ''-, -The'betWeen, , short of

however-whether valuable-than-the

of brillient, rendered, service.

years

of., Ioyalty,

Scots. Brigade. exploits

in Holland

or by the Scots

troops-in

French

of first

Hepburn and later highly in scale

Douglas

on. behalf

of France and fall

1633 and 1645 were rated Ahe Swedish service only

by the French

government timing,

of numbers: and in flood-tide

Service

with:

a military ,, a rewarding Charles goal-of, ,, , actual XII

commander of genius experience. - S4'rvice

in the full

of his, successes-is, Napoleonq,,,

with, Alexander himself, All

the Greatp

of Swedent, or Gustavus soldier.

before_, their turn'to,

decline goldg if

was the not. in, -

the contemporary coin at least

seemed-to

in reputation. this

Those Scots who served sense privileged. -indeed. for

Gustavus

between 1624 and 1632 were in The main, facts, concerning

the service recountedq recruiting soldier like battles is. found

of, the Scots but no attempt procedure

Gustavus

between

1629 and 1632 have often'been , detailed a life the. %of. the'early of, , information 1630s, lesser. Cavelier reconstruction experienced seventeenth about

has been made at nor at a closestudy Various chronicles provided

of_the bythe century.

in the. ranks., the Swedish and-troop

Intelliq

ncer

the important detail

movements of,, tha'early.:,,, and toa_,,, -,,,

but, more personal degres injurner's,

in Monrogs Expedition Defoe published story his

Memoirs, that

Daniel,

Memoirs of a, manuscript. the

in 1720 and claimed

he based, his of. fact-in his

upon a, real

The many inaccuracies credibility. real ca-vali", of his

in. matters. c1laim,

book however undermine his story, hiswork

Nor. does it-appear-that 'In-fact

wasl1based on a is primarily

Andrew Newpgrt. of. Shropshir. a., Monro and'Turner-with 7

dependent-upon

a seasoning'of'information"from'the-

8.

other

more general in Scott's

chronicles IRRSnd of

of

the time.

The same is Scott admitted

true his

of Dugald debt to the

Dalgetty

ontroi". _Vq_ in his

works of both Monro and Turner specific of twelve book. take instanbes hours did in

Introduction, For exampler is taken

and he made use of Dalgetty's directly description from Monro's the punishment that the

from the Exqedition. duty

sentry

as a punishment the facts

Scott place

however alter frost hot. literature mainly therefore Scottish

slightly

by making

bitter

and ice

whereas Monro had stressed article in

weather-was

fiercely in

B. Hoenig's

German in 1902 concerning officers Turner in Gustavus (11) any

the importance Adolphus' Monro's

of the memoirs of with

6ritish

army dealt Expedition with

the works of Monro, source

and Defoe. for

must be the major mercenaries

in English

work dealing 1632.

in Scandinavian

pay between 1626 and

On the other never combed it

hand the many wxiters thoroughly to collate

who have used Monro's the small details which

work have together reveal

much of the life to knit together in

of the soldiers. Monro's both narrative

Nor has there with the other

been any extensive source This material traces

attempt relevant the and

to the subject entire officers came from, recruiting

Scotland

and Scandinavia. signed

study

system,

how colonels how the man in

the original

contract

were gatheradp and how they not

the ranks Life

were enlisted in

and where they

were moved abroad. only in terms

the army on the Continent the light.

has been explained of the records letters relating

of Monro's

comments but in and also

of the Danish to Scots. in

and Swedish From this

governments

of contemporary life the

study

emerges the quality-of Years War and also few realised their

experienced price paid


8.

by Scots

the armies while

of the Thirty

by the majority

the fortunate

hopes
Adolfs Philologie

'Memoiren im Heere Gustav Officiere Honnig, englischer in der Literatur$, Beitrge zur neueren und Ihr Fortleben (Leipzig J. Schipper 1902) dargebracht

10.

CHAPTER, TWO

The study early

of Scottish century

mercenary suffers interested failed1to

troops

on the Continent disadvantages,

in the British for a

seventeenth

from two major in those return;

historians military European with its

have been less career scholars

Scots

who went abroad on the other

and sometimes haveltended

while on, theirl,

hand, history to

to concentrate without

own national

wars and military in their armies

figures unless

devoting

much attention, outstanding.

foreigners references

they were really scattered. lie in four

Hence_

to mercenaries details documents to recruiting for

are widely this

In Britain (a) official

subject with

main sources, letters, (c) contem-

dealing

recruitingg on military

(b), contemporary action abroadq

referring porary works In the


in both the the

or reporting late

narratives, including first


printed

and (d) general '

nineteenth-century reference

and twentieth-century and family are contained histories. primarily


of, of and

histories,

volumest

category
volumes

records,
of the

concerning-recruiting
decisions richness of taken of by the detail (First

Privy

Councils, in, the xii

Scotland Register

and England. of the Privy

_-The Council

varies Series

volumes --xiii

Scotland

Second Series
parallel process

viii),
in

but, the beat documented


Englandt and. at Acts present of the Privy

year was 1627.


Council, * is still

The
in

collection of compilation,

has reachadonly

1631,

Nevertheless

a great found

deal there. there

of excellent Indeed than

material

concerning procedure levying

recruiting in England

for is

Denmark is more clearly

to be

the recruiting the Scottish

depicted The latter

arrangements about

are in

the RPC volumes.

are particularly

lacking

in details for their

the movement of enlisted abroad. ' 'These


proved impossible to

men in Scotland
deficiencies are

and the arrangements


rendered more serious

transportation
fact that it

by the

ill

remedy them to any considerable records yielded period. Lanarkq volumes printed each. period that it might little. have been expected Relatively volumes

extent

from any other

sources. but from

Local they have

to contain

many referencest records

few burghs of extracts

have extant

the 1620-40 Peeblesp

The printed

from the records

of Glasgowj

Dunfermlineg , Paisleyv for Dundeeq Culrose for Edinburgh

Dundee and Stirling(l) (2), and Dysart produced and Aberdeen merely

and the manuscript. nothing at all, and the

volumes This is

one mention

of recruiting this

Surprising

since and it

the number'of may suggest

men recruited that recruiting sources

during

was considerablep required

was so frequent for the

no-comment. troops

The situation is

regarding

embarkation survivedg troopships.

of Scottish e. g. at Leith ' Possibly, but

even more bleak.

Such port

books as have of military was done

and'Dundeeg as in England

are few and make no mention some of this might transportation

by the Dutchp to list

even so the port

authorities

have been expected were on board. letters is of course

departures

when so many Scottish among the collections Paperl. all

individuals of contemporary volumes for

Outstanding the Calendar and for generally, Scots. formg

of State

The printed provided

the Domestic, series about recruiting about in manuscript contained troops

Ireland

and Venice

some information

but none of them carried The other foreign for series

much specific

information

of State

Papers are still These also mention

ecigo those

Denmarkp Sweden and France. of morcenariesp but again

occasionally was rare.

details

of Scottish

(1)

for all valuable Detailed reference be found in the bibliography.

sources

note d in th is

chapter

will,

(2)

The manuscript volume for Dundee is lodged in the City Chambers of Dundee and those of Culross and Dysart in the Scottish Record Office.

12, One of the main'sources is the collection little of Gift for Deposits Scottish is seventeenth-century'letters-in in'the Scottish Record Office. Scotland

Relatively there. Donald

concerning

mercenaries--in that of-the

Europe-was'discovered I 'ReayPpersg'since colonel for both Denmark

-t useful ' The mos Mackay, 'Lord

collection

Reayq was himself taken

a recruiting

and Sweden. ' These letters have formed the basis

inconjunction-wiWftnrols by Grant,

chronicle and --,

of later * This is

works

Mackay# Grimblel'Terry the Reay lettersand-, of the history

Berg and Lagercrantz. MonrolS regiment Family abroad, are book together

inevitable'since account

present'a'detailed

of the

and complement. each other contain but seven letters I are of very three items

admirably.,

The papers from'other

of the Airlie commanders

to Lord Ogilvy limited--value* of value for

Scottish

they

In the Lord Forbe , s"Collection the story of the mercenaries, for-Alexander one letter from a, Forbes

included'only contract,

recruiting from

a 1632 memorandumv and a discharge In the Seafield recruitingt concerning Munimonts lies

Queen'Christina.

Tullibardine'regarding includes , nine items

but'ths-Garden Major Alexander

of'Troup'callection' Garden, Commandant of'Brix, to the-late are two Ruthven, Scottish Oxenstierna unknown, and

The earliest 1640s. useful Finally boxes.

however is

dated'1635,

and the majority Whytbank and'Yair items regarding

referred letters Patrick

among the Pringle'of Box 26 containsfour a series

Sir

Box 26 comprises -commanders

of notebooks transcripts

about, Ruthven of. letters

and other

in Sweden with

to Chancellor

and translations but the standard

of some of them.

The writer'of-these

notebooks-is

of research below). '

facility_of-translation', and gen'eral field of s. -cholarshipt' (see" the T. A. Fischer work of strongly are suggest'that-they

Other, letters series of family

lie

in various compiled

printed

collections.

Fraser

in his

monumental

histories

at the'end'of

the nineteenth

century

13. endeavoured Among these, discussed Sutherland. useful Laing's Ancram, Letters , of all edition and his in to include references for each family a volume devoted in the Thirty LqMlas, to correspondence. Years. War were grant, Lelville,

to Scottish of

service

Volume i. i ofeach Annandale,,. Luccleuch, was his

the following, Pollok

and Haddinntong, information Robert Ker,

but, the. most was found Ist Carl l875). of in

Carlaverock.

Some slight of Sir

of the Correspondence son William. 3rd Earl

of Lothian,

(Edinburgh

to and from the marquislaf-Hamilton Commission letters Report (Hamilton), officers

are noted and a further

in the Historical collection is hold of at-..

Manuscript manuscript Lennoxlove, strictly references

from various

on the Continent showed that they

but consultation in subject troops.

of these matter,

tended

to be

military

and to contain

few interesting

to Scottish

The third contemporry proved very

main field records printed Jhe

to yield in, the major

material

of value

was that This

of area_

seventeenth

century.

fruitful.

work is

unquestionably

that. of Robert from

Monro whose Expedition 1626 to 1634. observations, life

described

the history in full classical

of Mackay's. regiment allusions and moral

Though abounding the work is also

of fascinating recards,

information

about

in a marcenary'regim3nt
of the unit., Danish

and clearly
and Swedish he was the

the geographicalbear out soldier the accuracy to, -,, -

movements of, Monrols

documents only

statements-

Because

Scottish

Jeave

a really

detailed

account

of his early

adventuresq

his

book is

an

essential . mercenaries production pages_refer

elemant serving

of any, study-of,

seventeenth-century Slight by comparison only the first in Scotlandt

Scottish with Monro's

Denmark and Sweden.

is, James Turner'Is to service abroad.

Memoirs in which

fourteen, especially by

Comment on events 16309 and early

in Aberdeenshire SpaldinglB History

in the later

1640sp is

provided

of the Troubles

and by Gilbert

Blakhal's

Narration.

14.
Detail Earldom in the far Sir Scotland Urquhart-in is in Gordon's listed

of of

events

north

of

copious his

Suthorland.

Thomas

'Ekekubalaion'

all

those

Scottish

colonels

who had served in acope than in 1636.

on the Continent compiled

upto

1652,

and this his in

was much broader to his

the list

by Monro in situation and, Ithe

appendix England

Expedition

The contemporary Historical the type in Collectionst

emerged from 0. RushworthIs illustrates, Europe which clearly

Swedish military 1630s.

Tntelligencer events in

of news about London in the early

was circulated

Among the authors


of in His with giant Sweden, stature Scots is in that

of printed
ofIT. A.

works
Fischer Scots

in more modern times


wit h his in Eastern three

the

figure

VOIUM3Sp LCOtS Prussia. him

GermanX. -and background

and Western to

German-Scottish the motive linguistic and Adventures two years with to

waslan into the

ideal subject than

combination and Fischer in 1851 to equip

furnish him with'the

research skills. of Sir

necessary Memoirs Swedish

Earlier John

had been translated

Oames--Grantt into and and of Leven,

Hepburn Gustaf Mackay, Alexander in the

later, Fischer

as Konunq were 3. of

Adolfs, - Skottska An Old Scots lst

Krigarep Brigade,, Earl field

contemporary C. but the S.

Terryp'Life all of

and Campaigns these of

Laslieg

though

weralworking and Mackay

same general subjectlof in

as'Fischert

contributions original one individual in Britain. to

Grant

to. the

mercenaries-were that, to he dealt Leslie's in his workpand isl, Fischer only'

seldom with

and Terry's

was obviously a good there deal

narrowl of his

and devoted Nor undertake is

book

campaigns Chief for for of

any attempt

by Ian of

Grimble Fischer's MackaYt

Mackay

an extensive

expansion

he also the most

concentrates part the full

mainly with of of

on one characterj_Donald, the domestic sce'ne,

concerned range life

By comparison in the. military, of

illustrated ecclesiastic

Scottish Germany

participation and Sweden.

and civil

' The work

Professor

15.

Michael

Roberts

in

his

two

volumes

on Gustavus

Adolphus

touches

on the

subject diplomatic

of Scottish

mercenaries.

His chapters

on the army and on the

and military

movements between 1626 and 1632 are most

valuable
history of similar has stated since

and emphasise the lack of any comparable source for Swedish


in the later scholarship however that period of 1632-48 and also the, absence of, a study. Professor on printed into Roberts' sources, manuscript

on Christian he relied

IV of Denmark, almost entirely

these

were a xtensiveg

and that

he did not research

sources.
Family them would I good sources tendency histories be a vast for are so numerous that undertakingg military is but in figures to write of the any comprehensive general in survey of

such volumes are not service. The ''

Scottish

foreign their which

of family

historians

about family

own predecessors remained material. in is Tuch

and to concentrate their native land.

on the branches This is

inevitableg

since

British

more readily little younger history


their Rogers

accessible or failed

and thus in-their

many genealogists efforts, writers to trace

appear

to have made of

attempt,

the history

sons who went abroad. directed their

Several

specialising

in, family confines of

investigations
four

beyond the narrow


are worthy of

own surname., concentrated

Among these mainly

mention.

Charles

on families

from

Perthshire

and the'north

eastq

but in-only,

one instance military

did service

he mention

any connection Sir

with, William

---

seventeenth-century Fraserls volumes nothing northern importance

on the Continent.

has already

been noted,

but even though of his turned

he made his

as comprehensive about mercenaries. familiesp

as possible Alexander not

the majority Mackenzie

books contained attention his to

his

and while contain

as detailed detail

as FraserOs than those

volumes

books more frequently

useful

of, Rogers,

16.

e, g. his

studies

of the Chisholms, The fourth range

Frasers,

Mathesonsq

Monroe of Foulisp did not rival himself

and Clan Mackenzie. the other three

writer,

3ohn M. Bullochq (in fact

in his

of families

he restricted to follow evident

almost of the

exclusively family

to the Gordons),

but he tried This is

the history

members who went abroad.

in House of Gordon. Unfortunately

Volume iii,

Gordons in Poland,,, and Gordons in served

Germany.

Gordons more frequently was not

the crown of Francep in this present

and such service

the main area of research Scottish

work. work is that

For the study-of Of George F. Blackq Paragraphs varies

family

names the standard The value

Surnames of Scotland. the particular substantiated for source

of Black's comments on the whereas he

with

name, e. g, his

name Of Hamilton

are not

by many referencesp

adduced numerous sources volume is an invaluable

the surname of Baird. for information

Nevertheless Scottish of British suffer

his

as regards

surnames and quite Su. rnames, Other

overshadows works connected Either

P. H. Reaney9s Dictionary with they surnames in Scotland are studies of only

from

one of two deficiencies. and are therefore show little Surnames, (Edinburgh Transactions but he dealt obviously

one family

limited their

to that

surnamep or the writers eog. Buchanangs

evidence (Edinburgh 1865). 1892-3 with

to support 1775),

assertionsp Genea

or Anderson's

nd Su name

3ames Shawce contribution is useful six study is'not for several

to the Dumfriesehire names in Kirkcudbightshire,

only

of them.

Nor have modern works contributed with areas of

much to the scientific Scotland. Scottish Scottish The subject Borders

of surnames in connection studied 1967) in any detail

in Kermack0s for survey

(Edinburgh

or in D. J. Stee 109 Sources The statistical

(Chichosterg GeneaLog_X,

Sussex 1970).

of the names of parishioners

in Wigtown and Stzanraer

in 1684 carried

17.
out for by G. M. Stewart comparison with in his lists Galloway Records provides useful raised in figures in the

of soldiers further the volumes

who were probably frequency of Scottfs of surnames Fasti

same area. parts

To clarify the

various

of Scotland

eight

Ecclesiae for of

Scoticanae every parish

were investigated in Scotland

to ascertain between Irish

the names of ministers For the study

1550 and 1800. authority is Dr.

Scots-Irish

names the best while

Edward MacLysaght's iurnames

Surnames of Ireland, and Christian

a useful

handbook to the Gaelic

names in Ireland was found to be that Gaeilge (Belfast 1966). An, tAinmnecir An : Sloinnteoir/agus The 'Scotland of Old' Clan Map produced by Bartholomew the areas by Sir

`5 11 of M. 0 Droighneain,

Iain

Moncreiffe-and source surnames Black. It

Don Pottinger for information acts

and published regarding

& Son is with

a valuable particular in

associated

and thus

as a means of corroboration in 1960 after especially clan areas


all

of the material research in

was published Record Office superimposed


before the they

much detailed

the Scottish He

by Don Pottinger an one-inch


down'to

of the Lyon Office. regional


the that final the

scale
give claim

maps of Scotland
completed areas shown map of on their and that

were

scaled

whole'country. much more earlier this In the

-Bartholomew's reliable than-the

map are though clans

suggestions an the areas works

made by Black areas the eight they of the

clan,

maps had concentrated first to'include reference investigationt about clan

Highland also. of

was the field

for the but

Lowlands volumes are

of

general merit

Scottish lacking

Peerage in reliable of

always

normally

information National

military' includes

service articles

on th`e Continent. an merely and Douglas' source"" a few

The Dictionary of the

Biography like

Scottish-commanders Scotland,

Ramsay and Douglasp very-little.

13-aronage of

contributed

No more helpful

is.

for

the location

of placenames

was found eog. for

than

Johnstons

Gazatesir Ross

of Seotland, and Cromarty, the One-Inch British Scottish Historical 1627-9. was largely useful

but on occasion, Aberdeenshire Ordnance Survey articles

farm names in it proved areas.

Sutherland,

and Angus, maps for

necessary

to search

these

making a-positive have been relatively dealt thoroughly

contributiDn few. with

to the

study

of

mercenaries

EoA. Beller.

in E2RLish

Revi9w, q x1iii, His information

Morgangs expedition forces but primarily it and a west

concerned

the English Papers

drawn from the State for the Scots written

(Donmark)p in

provides

background Seller

serving

the same area of north article on the history

Germany.

has also

the concise Modern

of the Thirty volume is and Warfare


G. A. Review

Years War, in Sa brii

isto: rEX0 Iv.

In the same 9MIlitary Forces

to be found 1610-480,
A. F.

a most informative from the late


Steuart positive and E.

contributiong

Dr. Wijn.
E. Etzal

The-azticles
in to the the Scottish subjectq,

by 0. D. Mackay$
Historical nor did

Sinclairg, have

made little

contribution

Grant Robertsongs Dalgettyl article in

attempt

to ascertain

the identity 1898, Ian

of the nor did

OReal Dugald a similar

Blackwood's

Edinburqh__Mjgqazine 1906. in

in the

GentlemanOs Magazine

Grimblaga Gaelic

account Studies,,

of ix

the (1961)

9ROyal Payment of Mackay9s; Regiment' includes information drawn'from

Scottish

the letters,

of the Danish

Chancellor, records and One.

but he appears in Copenhagen.

to have made little V. 'G. Kiernan2s

use of the detailed article on OForeign was noted

financial

Mercenaries

Absolute JoanThirsk sons in but

MonarchyQ in Past andeavoured OYounger Sons in

and Present

above in Chapter open to younger, Histoxr liv

to trace

the - opportunities Ce'ntury9q

the Seventeenth

(1969)9 about

she had little serwics.

to say on the subject,

of the army and nothing

mercenary

The National

Library

of Scotland

in

Edinburgh

contains

several

items

19. relevant Lexikon, Forbeso for this topic. which English It houses the volumes of the Svensk Bioqrafisk Drummandt appears of to the below). in 1632. to

a series and the

has articles Colonel unit. in

in Swedish but

an Douglast none of these

Fleetwoodq This library

have commanded a Scottish photostats payment There is of records of Scottish also held

also

holds

a series relating

Krigsarkivetp in Swedish

Stockholmo service in

regiments list

1630 (see Military

a typed

produced

by the

Swedish

Attach6

London in

1932 showing taken

Scots from

who were serving Muster are Rolls of

Gustavus 1632, in

in September and are in

These names are accurately the in original. Swedish in noted,

the

general from

though

there

some mistakes

transcription series

The Manuscript about 1845. are no Muster Rolls though a few individual

Room has a handwritten Scots in

of notes for Sir G. W.

Sweden compiled

Dasent

There Scots the lists

in Scotland the Public at in with Terry

bearing Record

the names of in

the

who went abroad, of Sir the

Office

London holds company sources

rolls for

Thomas Hope's Army in

troops Ireland

Newburn in 1642. the in listed

1640 and the of these who had of the

Scottish

Neither

seemed to have any direct returned the from Continental

connection service.

mercenaries his study the

Army of regimental of

Solemn Leanue and Covenant those no closer

1643-1647 that detail

Scottish

commanders and indicated European warfare, but

Rushworth

believed

had experience

was given. especially as regards in numerous the original in 1647,

For social buying-power sourcesp

and economic

historyq

of moneyt

information accounts

may be found of

e, g. the

household

Oames Mure of Caldwell anonymous account Brareton during

Fynes Morison's Busses the of in 1615,

Itinerary the Travels

of 16179 the of Sir noted

of Britaine's 1634-5, or of some has

William

various the detail

burgh in

records 3.

previously. History

Though the of Aqriculture

accuracy

E. T. Roger's

and Prices

20. been called and prices century in question over in recent no better for

years,

source in early

wages

a wide range was discovered. with

of goods and services

seventeenth-

Britain

In contrast profusion of these

the situation for Scottish

in

Scotland,

there

is

in Sweden a the number

of sources sources

mercenary

soldiers. an obstacle

Indeed

constitutes of the Scots

to some extent in Sweden.

to the exposition records but also various

of the history are scattered in Krigsarkivet. it

Letters mainly

and military

throughout

many collectionag is a plethora

in Riksarkivet for

Though there is difficult

of references for tend spent

individuals, individualp different letter all

to find with

many sources one Scat the time often

any particular to lie in many in these are or

and letters letter-collections.

connected

Nor is records

searching

collections too frequently

and military merely

profitable.

Letters

complaints troop

about

shortages

of provisions Though military

wage39 or reports records contain

of small-scale many items

movements. Scots,

connected records

with far

their

value

is

slight,

For example, small monthly

the financial receipts

East Prussia

include

numerous

signed

by Scottish

company commanders or. their yet is the labour

representatives. of-finding
Letters 2620a

These are hardly

of much importance, indijoes

them in manuscript
to and from are the

volumes without
Swedish found in

considerable.
in with source time is for the the

governmental collections 'The most

authorities associated important at Axel of the this

and 26309 Adolphus military of printed ach the

normally

Gustavus Scottish series SkrifteT contain to

and Axel participation volumes

OxenstL81M6. in letters

Swedish

history

of

Rikakanaleren volumes the king of

Oxenstiernes First Series reference published

Brefvaxling, Chancellorgs units. In

The fifteen letters the Second to

and make frequent; twelve volumes are

Scottish

Series

21.

letters Scots in

to the Chancellor. the communications Gustav

Again

there

are

frequent

references

to the in those of and

of Gustavus

himselfp

and occasionally Volume ix Patrick three

of Johan Baner, letters

Horn and Bernard including though

of Saxe-Weimar. Alexander Leslieq

consists Ruthven

from various In fact by Scots

generals however they

James King. were signed officers , -about

the letters

of the latter to Scottish

generals because these

make few references

troops, forces

normally military

wrote

as commanders of multi-national of supply and movement. but

mainly all

concerned these

problems

The indices'to letters 08ref till after

volumes in

are very

comprehensive,

the Oxenstierna collection

1636 are still II

manuscript tids

form. over

In the manuscript appear

Kanungen Gustav The letters Mackayq

-Adolfs

150 letters

to have been written (marquis)p Robert

by Scots. Monrot collection letters not

of Alexander and Francis ORikskansleren printed Scottish written

Hamiltong Sinclair Axel

James Hamilton were investigated.

Donald of in

The manuscript includes

Oxenstiernas

Brefvaxling' letters noted

the

volumes writers

of Chancellor's is considerable. soldiers

abovep and here the number of 500 letters associated seem to have been with their service,

More than closely

by Scottish

or those

e. g. Englishcolleagues Alexander Cunningham,

or Scottish Alexander Hamilton,

diplomats.

Those of William Alexander

Baillie, Forbes,

Dicksong

George Douglasp (marquis)o

John Forbes. -Alexander Ludovick Robert sampled. Leslieq Monro,

James Hamilton

John Hamilton, Monrog John Monro, Sinclair proved were extremely

Alexander

Lindsayq

James Lumsdenq Hector

Alexander

Ramsayp James Ramsayq and Francis information found there

The amount of valuable

disappointing. Other containing surnames which


The

letter

collections letters

are of some limitedvalue. arranged in alphabetical

A series order

of boxes

manuscript is called

of authorsO surnames under B.

OBiographicaD'. may be filed


in Riksarkivet

The list is

of 137 Scottish

Scottish

material
index

included
gives

below in Appendix
of the

08iographicaO

no indication

number of letters

under a particular

surname or the dates

involved

22.

and thus to belong Affleckq

it

is. probable,

that

many ofIthe descent.

Scottish

names will

turn

out

to Swedes of Scottish Barclayp Bordon,

The latt_ers_listed,

the. re unde_r Mackayq. mention of

Cuninghameg Ennesq Lesliep Two further the strict Samlingg seriesp

Lumsdaineq deserve

Monro and Ramsay were consulted. here this though particular Wrangel they were rather study. consists lie twenty 250,

collections chronological of letters

outwith

dates to Carl

The QSkokloster of two separate six. letters, ninety also

Gustav

the Bound and the Unbound. commandersp but Douglas. in its ninety the,

In theformer latter

from Scattish,

has more than

of which includes

are from Robert

The uHorn/Sielke'Samlingg three eight. at sections (Bielkeq

similar

communications in all, numbering

Skoklosterg

and Wijk)q

Over half,

of these, were letters

from qololnellThoTas

Knninmonth

NeumOnde Skans.
Primary source material concerning political discussions but will thebe

discovered, detailed, generally notes

in. the-, QAnglicag__ section. military to information, in period. in the

of-the,,

QDiplomaticagi, collection a box, of

OMilitariag

refers manuscript from, the

the. post-1640,

is, also, -ThE3re, Sweden which written

on Scottish, of the

commanders, twentieth_century

appears

to. date

beginning appear,

by HammerskjOldg-but e below.,

these

much less-useful sources.

than-the at

work. of-aDRd r noted I-I. IT Stockholm,

Two, further

Riksarkivetq

merit

consideration.,

The first Omilitgra manuscript

is

the, collation och-deras

of sources Skrivelserv. biographical the letter commander. in Appendix

PI in 1915 by Per Sonden and entitled it exists in both of. all which is typed and

Chafer

formp gives, brief, and lists

details colle ctions This

colonels-in contain material that

Swedish. regimantsg concerning this gation present

each individual study contains

information

so. useful for

C the, names of, value officers being

the investi-

of'Scottis.

h mercenari. es.., (a, few, English

included

23.
whose activities troops). were clbsely interwoven worth This noting series with is those of the Scottish Elgenstiernat volumes,

The second source Attartivlor. the earlier source for

the work of Gustaf nine printed It

Svenska Adelnq and has replaced standard noble Scots

c omprises

books produced information are helpful ancestors.

by Anrep.

is, now, the-. of Swedish native-born its

reference

about for

the descent distinguishing

families.

These volumes Scottish

from Swedes with tend

As-might material

be expected

shortcomings

to be in while-in

the Scottish

and not In

the acti vities Scottish -

of the individuals names noted

Swedish service. are noted later

-The relevant, in Appendix[Y., is

in Elgenstierna held

The material than that held

in Krigsarkivetv-Stockholm though some military

much more specialised records areq for, no cards

in Riksarkivetq kept in

apparent in

reason#

the latter

archive.

The boxes of index are extremely


On, the per other box),

the biographical
little of i

section
information index Serien cards

of Krigsarkivet
about (over Scots. 19000

disappointing
hand the

and contain fifteen *over Military information but from nor well the

boxes Officerare Rolls,

cards

'Namn Regist., from the -

Rullor

1620-17231, value. Muster

compiled

directly, merely, draw

have

a limited

These. cards Rolls collated. Staff the and seldom

recard, on other

the sources.. -

shown information up to

on various is

conveniently.

The, ranks officers ranks. the

includedrange, are not recorded,., were

ensign are over

colonel.

General Thus nor men in recorded number

company 19000

under-officers Scottish

Even period

so-there 1620-48,,

surnames

inside each

and in nine

many cases

a considerable -, source of for

under

surnamep

eogo, thirty

under

OHamilton@. reference is the

The only in the'ranks

information Rolle of

about ('Rullorg).

indiv

idual This.

soldiers--,,. manuscript__., company

Military. rolls

_series collection contains the

actual

names submitted

by the

24.

scribes

to the Swedish regions

paymasters. grouped

It for

is

arranged

chronologically, and there are usually town

geographical between concerned thirty

being

each month,

and forty

volumes all

per year. the rolls

Sometimes the actual bear the date and included

was noted

and nearly staff

of writing. most of the and

The regimental personnel noted

was listed

separately

belowp

though ranks

the numbers of some of them varied might be in Englisho Swedish, twenty

the names given German or Latin. Three major), perforces, a further services master, listed posts eight

to these This

French, men. and (four while

staff

normally

numbered at least

were strictly

military

(colonel,

lieutenant-colonel of discipline

or more concerned

the enforcement clerk

two stocknightst nine

a court-martial administrative

and a hangman)t functions auditorg

or more performed clerk, and four

or provided provisionwas

(regimental drum major, in companies. (captaint

one or two ministers, surgeons). The rest usually

of the regiment numbered eleven

The company officers lieutenantq ensignt

or twelve

two sergeantst

furriert'fo"rare% a piper). The captain by

captain-of-arms, was usually (the one each

scriverp

two drummers and sometimes by two pages, referred in sixes and his

accompanied

lieutenant

and ensign

young men being

to as 'muster with the first

boys').

The rest being and

of the men were then arranged ranked the corporal trot' or rotmaster. leaders

of each group

Six corporals rotmasters.

were the normal (3)

allocation,

other

were called

Below the company officers This figure appears for

was listed

the number of passevolants. addition Roberts that it of non-existent has described was paid it men as a

to have been a permitted of extra pay.

to the roll

the purpose

form of cost-of-living

allowance

and states

to the colonel.

(3)

A complete

muster

roll

is

listed

in

Appendix

E.

25.
The fact however that the passevolant on his muster number was written roll may indicate several that this times additional from

a month by each scribe

payment was made to the captain. time to time, but in the period

The number of passavolants 1629-30 the normal allocation

varied

to each

Scottish

company was fourteen. rolls


customary sick. or

Muster
It had was not fallen

seldom carry
for notes

more information
to be added brief the unless

than
to

the above details.


indicate have of been those inserted individuals, rare cases who

Occasionally German 'till hand to

a few explain

comments location

by a Swedish e. g. special roll in IpS

particular In

Stockholm#, details 1638 were seven instance

Skotlandh At

medh Of. Lt. the end of

Letzlet.

recorded.

Captain

James Stewart's on 10 September in German Scottish Thomson provide to their of of fellowl, #a tall

new recruits there has e. g.

were been John

listed added

as reporting a brief note 'a

and in their Nicholas Scottish positive land muster and in

each personal

appearancep 'a little

Sutherland' one eys1q the

young

Hartell man with proof 1639 rolls in of

man with hair'.

and William rolls Scots

blond the

Though of the large appeal

muster of the

little native two

return to

numbers from of

response the

Committee four army

Estateq, officers time. (4)

mention

destinations from series the for

twenty

Scottish at that

under-officers The limitations

discharged of this

Swedish the

Scottish

historian

are

these: not (c) fact

(a) -

reasons givenp

for (b)

the disappearance the actual locations

of soldiers of units and script,

from the lists are often

are

normally

missing, in

when the scribe a German himself, (d)

adopts it

German spelling

or when he is Scottish

soon becomes impossible are far from complete

to recognise specially

surnames, (4)

the Rolls detail is

- being 10.

fragmentary

Further

recorded

below in Chapter

26. for likely the later of 1631 and for if the Stettin Scottish 1632.

part

In generalq concerned with

records served

are more mainly armies in

to be extant town like

regiment Units

a garrison

or Elbing.

the field

have seldom left

useful

records. series in Krigsarkivet


This if the vast

The second manuscript


Military contains geographical there Prussian receipts appeared certainly controlled of till are Accounts information location no detailed records signed of very for

is

that

of the
certainly, knows but of the the

('Militier5kningare). about Scots

collection already unitq A sample seven small but

research-worker for the Scottish

and date indices August

relevant to provide uncovered of Similar months More in

assistance. twenty

1629

monthly documents must Swedish-

by Scots limited for of

on behalf value.

their

companies, signed

these

receipts this area

by Scots all be the over the

exist parts to

many other Germany.

and in to

interesting in 1630-1.

proved

record betald men sold

money paid v9rv.

mercenary 1630-11.

troops These

'Rkenskaper volumes listed

trupper

manuscript

the

of the twenty The register

two foreign was marked for

mercenary every

regiments montht at

during

these

two years.

and at the

end of 1630 the total is the material Attach's 1631 and No

pay of each company was calculated which has been photographed Library

the back.

This

and sent

by the Swedish Military in Edinburgh. no financial

to the National is

of Scotland It

The volume for information,

however disappointing. are not recorded

contains

most units records years. unfinished system.

beyond the first for the rest

few months of 1631. of 1631 or for missingp suggests

of this It is

type are unlikely

extant they

1632 and later

that

are merely

because the abandonment of the

nature

of the 1631 volume strongly

The Viggo Keys Collection sources bought

in Krigsarkivet

is

a disjointed It

group of muster

at the Hammerska auction

in Stockholm.

includes

27. rolls throughout but the period appears 1601-53,

spread

military

accounts,

and a

few lettersq really bond in belong this

in general 'Rullor' is

to be a collection

of oddments which The only refer common

in the collection

and'Militiargkningert. that almost all the items

to Scottish

companies. Regimental
when units transferred are

history
frequently

tends
being

to be a confusing
amalgamated A valuable the typed

study,

particularly
officers changes being in for

and senior guide to in

between

regiments. Sweden regiments first is of section their with the

these

seventeenth-century foreign gimentent. and his mercenary In regiments are to of other listed the

index

held

Krigsarkivat

infantryt each

'Utlandska colonel added. is In

Varv8de listed the

Infanterire-

alphabetically second part is the thus

and

locations their of colonels the

regiments possible movements that any

and locationsp amalgamations there is

and it

follow at

course the

complex

and the no evidence the 'Rullor'. of r8r. Sv.

least sources

colonels. used for

Once again this in

were reference

compilation for the

than

The standard regiments Kriqsmaqtens possible listv

printed

work that of

Sweden

location Uppgifter

and their Styrka, and then to

sizes

is

Julius och

Mankellt

Sammanslttning thus the his 'Rullor' information alone between

Fordalninq. about Scottish

He collected units even is

every more found in

comprehensive it impossible and later For

can provider individual

but Scottish

Mankell

distinguish

regiments

1633

years. military history between 1611 and 1632 the eight volumes

Swedish

of Sveriqes The detail intricate

Kriq in

published six

by the Swedish General volumes dealing with

Staff military volumes

are incomparable. affairs is

the first

and rewarding,

while

the supplementary collection

on shipping, material

arms and armaments provide

a profuse

of background

ZU 0

for

the Scottish these

mercenary military

scene.

The geographical used for

range of archives manuscript material is

which

Swedish

historians Uppsala, Brussels

extremely in

impressive, London,

Stockholm, Paris,

Gothenburg,

Copenhagen and Helsinki Europe; Marburg,

Scandinavia;

and the Hague in western Dresden, Magdoburg, Berlin, Dorpat#

Friedland, Munich, G9ttingen Elbing, east. the

Zurich, Schwerin,

Prague, Weimar,

Vienna, Stralsund, in central

Augsburg, Stettin# Europe;

Nuremberg, and Riga,

and WolfenbUttal Kdnigsberg, Pillau, with

Oreunsberg, the by

Danzig, the field in

Cracowp Lemberg and Posen in armies has been further History section

Military researches Military

life

revealed of the

of officers High School

the Military

Royal

in Stockholm. for

In particular a useful X written

their appraisal

publication of the Tersmeden.

of Aktuellt

och Historiskt in

1969 contained time of Charles histories


high these ranks,

work of company officers In addition


the but been progress in Swedish of

the

by Lars

certain
Scats

regimental
to

of Swedish units
not with units Kalmar outdated Tidskrift 1623 are also and 1648 prominent 09sto6tadal) with Scots, Scottish appear regiment. the

indicate
troops, to have Folks on and

who rose

regiments. attractive Kalmar

Some of to

Swedish e. g. the has

particularly in his

Scots, Historis the Scats

Rudelius this lists posts Noreen's unit

Regementes recorded in

material of in 1907,

previously than

Personhist. between

no fewer for this work

thirty

nine Scottish

command in Arvid 1625-1910. to judge in

regiment. Anteckn. regiment seven

surnames Hallands have been

om Kunql. appears Scottish to

Regiment popular

The VArmland from the

twenty

surnames

noted true

by C. 0. of

Nordensven

Vlrmland

Regamentes Kronoberqs Kunql. has

Historia. Reqiments

The same is Officerskgr Histaria.

Gunnar

Hylten-Cavalliusts Bergstrom's

book. Kunql. Bidraq unit's till history

1623-1896

and Otto

Uplands been

Reniments

The Usterbotten Kungl.

compiled

by both

Bergenstrahlo,

29.

V11sterbottens Officerare biographical the captains References plentiful information in detail is till

Krigshistariag Ar 1841. material, of this

and Birger The latter's

Steckze"nt book is

Vosterbottens

Reqiments for

the more useful ten Scottish

and Steckzen regiment during

has listed the Thirty

names among

Years War period. normally contain the

Swedish regimental on these very Scottish

histories

do not

individuals,

and in most cases

fragmentary. in Rigsarkivett No Muster Copenhagen have been thoroughly Rolls could there be found there and

The Danish investigated relatively in for

references this study.

few letters, issued

but as in Stockholm by the Chancellor operated internal in both,

was much information in the Military sectionso Accounts. Danish affairs).

the letters

and also

Christian (dealing Scottish filed itself not in

IV1s Chancellery primarily material the latter with lies

as two distinct

matters)

(for German and

foreign

because letters details former

from Scotland units

are usually in Denmark was

section, found

while in the

of Scottish section.

are normally a distinguishing records

Care of documents

feature is

of Christian's small

government, in comparison

and the quantity with those of

of surviving Gustavus

relatively

Adolphus

and Oxenstierna Chancellery


called for the

in Sweden. the main source


especially It

In the Danish
of printed the the king volumes volume and

collection

is

the series
for this letters

Kancelliets 1627-9 edited

Brevbpfqer,

subject from

by E. Marquard. twenty

contains Scottish them. to

Chancellorp

and mentions who fought

three

commanders of in at these Danish all.

besides Scots units

English turn in

colleagues out fact are of

alongside

Some

however and not

an closer directly sufficient his

investigation connected references and to with to

be officers troops Monro's the

British confirm

Nevertheless in the first

there part

statements

Expedition

complement

30.

financial in

accounts

in the

military

records.

The major Rolls

disappointment of the Scots, was Indlaen

Rigsarkivetp

apart complete

from the absence of Muster lack of any Scottish letters

the virtually til Reqist.

in Denske Kano. indices collection in this indicate which respect

1481-1650. to those

These two volumes

of typed

letters sent

similar

in the Swedish Oxenstierna but the contrast in quantity

were

to the Chancellor,

between Stockholm only three letters for

and Copenhagen is from Scots the study during

striking. the early

The Danish seventeenth and three

records century others in

showed (none

of any value slight collection 1626-9. The part which yielded

of the mercenaries)

with this during

references

to the Scots. Nithadalet

There were no communications Mackayp Monro or other

from Spynia,

Scots

of the German Chancellery valuable Scottish material

(Inland

Division)t

i. e. TKIA9

was Section

A (up to 1670).

Incoming Indk.

letters

from recruiters Here lay

were gathered nine useful

in TKIA A. 93 (XII-XIII (one from Adam from Lord Spynie). between

Breve 1625-30). three is

letters, and five sent

Dickson, Dicksonts

from the earl

of Nithsdaleq were all dated

undatedq 1627,

Nithsdale's while Spynie would

from Edinburgh

May and October 12 June 16291. or 1629. The section bore

only

one of hisp

'Westminster in 1628

The others

appear

to have been written

of TKIA which title

turned

out to be unexpectedly Rantsau m. fl.

valuable om

the unpromising

'Order

af Frands o, l.

Udfaerdigelse

af Restedlert Rolls

Obligationer could

1628-32's together Sinclair

Yet here in part of

the absence of Muster the regimental rolls

be pieced

at least

of the Nithsdaleq of pay settlements and frequently

Spyniev with

and Mackay units. company officers duration of

The volume consists and under-officersp service

individual is

mention

made of their are the

and even location.

Most useful

of all

two dozen detailed

31.

reckonings

which

in

some cases

list

by name ten or more of the men an includes sixteen discharge passes similar

the company staff. signed letters Reay. Many other but their is of only value by Spynie

The volume also and dated

'Copenhagen of the

28 September

162B19 and four signed

of recommendation

same approximate

date

by Lord

references was usually itemg

to Scots minor. a receipt

existed

in oth3r

sections

of TKIA9 there

In 'Regnskabssager signed

1623-461

one Scottish

by Thomas Home. og Manskabt

The title Lister 6ver

tMjnstringruller,

Fortagnalser

Bver Officerer a false

indkvarterede rolls. their It did

m. m. 1612-291 in fact yield

suggests one list

promise

of Scottish

muster

of Mackay's more. Material

officers in

who took 'Optegnelser 1625-58, for og

discharge

in 1629,

but nothing

Bestemmalser includes

om Sold,

Afregningerg from the in earl

Obligationer of Nithsdale along

og Restsedler and three with one for

one letter

receipts the

money received

by Scots

GlOckstadtq 'MilitaerB to colonels

English 1610-45, and

company of Francis contains includes commissions two for

Hamond. granted

Bestallinger and certain Sinclair,

og Reverser captains, Spynie,

Mackay,

and one each for and Captains

Nithsdale, Monro.

Lieutenant-Colonel In addition
known found as TKUA, a $Special plans work that of

Seatong

John Lindsay

and Robert

to TKIA there
i. e. Tysk. Kanc.

is a subdivision
Udland. Afdalingg

of the Danish
in which is details

records
to be of there, matter

Part' for Lord the

which Scotland. Spynie

has

among other There are five

information manuscript but or of their early

recruiting all the

letters subject

and all period for

undatedt is 1626

indicates negotiations Danish

approximate taking place

1627 when regiments for

were

the

levying

Scottish

service. The second main manuscript source in Rigsarkivet, Copenhagen for

32.
this Though helpful in topic the at is the Military in Accounts Riksarkivett satisfactory (IMilitaere Stockholm than in is that

series of it

of

Regnskabere). far from

system times,

ind6xing is vastly for

more the title, in

encountered is

Copenhagen. printed however

The index volume

Military author this in

Accounts or date.

Rigsarkivet Considerable contains Two the war A. notes and minor material in

a slim material

without

was uncovered to that were of the of held rich

collection

which of

information sources The first Commissaries. Krigs. ing the in

similar particular consists

Krigsarkivat documents records which kept

Stockholm. related to Danish

in

Scots.

financial Arenfeldo

by the

Those I

Axel

'Goneralkrigscommissar 16271 this contain

Arenfeldts concern-

Regnsk. payment to detail Krigs of Spynie of

January, of Mackay's

1626 -

31 December during

regiment Scots. accounts

period of

references greater N. Krags statements those the of

other

individual in the

The same type of Nils Kragt

much

appears Ragnsk. the wages

'Generalkrigscommiss. 16291 for but here also are to of

31 December paid not

1627 only to main

31 December Mackay's deficiency but

regimentp is these valuable page the

and Sinclair. men in the

Their individual of any kind.

absence

numbers also

companies#

manuscriptsource in

volumes the

lack

indices of

The second is the huge

Military of the

Accounts GlOckstadt 1625-91 in

Rigsarkivet

1,800

manuscript Proviant og

record Penge end

provisions-accounts, giving GlOckstadt is normally details of

'GlOckstadts supplies Again but there issued to

Regnskab

the

Scottish of index the of

English of

troops

and Stade. given,

no indication is a short

numbers officers'

men involved names.

By contrast Stralsund Rachnungs. mentioned Accounts

disappointingly kept by Heinrich certainly

little

of Holckq served

value

emerged

from

the

'Stralsunds there in

Belagerungs 1628, but Holck seldom

Scottish them

units

and used

Scottish

names on only

seven

occasions.

A few

33.

minor

itemst

receipts Anthoni

for

money

received

at v.

Hamburgt Suchwald of wages 16281 requests

were Proviant

found

in o. are

'Krigscommiss. Beviser grouped from 1627-91. in

Detlef

og Daniel for Militaere these are

Regnsk. which fourteen give who

The petitions fra of

payment Betiente detailed

however, include which

'Ansjgninger and several about these their requests apparent the could Danish with included and of

Scots,

information submitted It material printed books stand Danish is

writerst were that Scats

military Mackay (one)

service. and Spynie quantity Rigsarkivetq

Among those (two). of

thus

a considerable is housed in

manuscript but very of little

concerning information dealing comparison series with

be discovered noble families,

there.

The series Adels

small cannot The Dunbar thin. to

'Danmark for

Aarbogiv

Elgenstiernals only the four

work Scottish given

Swedish (Mowat, all

families. Sinclairp was very

names

and Cunningham)t In Beitrgqe noted of the in the zur field

information articles 3.

on them

foreign PhilolDQiO Gunnar for

B. Hoenig's Schipper

contribution in trace 1902 the

neueren 1.

darqebracht to in

was origins Jauns, internationale

Chapter

Nordstr6m Swedish

andeavoured regiments Armee

colour-names Rouge militairs, troops in Bt

certain

#Refgiments Revus the i

Bleu, 'Vert, d'Histoire of British

Blanc

do I'ancienne 1950). in Studio

Suedoiselp studied Szkoci Kultury before

8 (Paris Polish

W. Borowy 'Anglicyt z dziejow period

importance w

service 1111,

Irlandczycy Polskisj

Wojsku (Warsaw little dealing written Is

Polskim 1949), comment mainly

za Zygmunta but

he concentrated remaining later

on the years of the

1624

and made Though Gouhier has do (1968).

on the with

Sigismund's Thirty Years

reign. War P.

the

part article d'histoire

of

a detailed 1635-16641,

valuable Revue

'Morcenaires moderns et

Irlandais

au Service xv

France

contemporains,

34.

CHAPTER

THREE

The extent for foreign

of

projected between for

recruiting 1620 and 1642

for

mercenaries impressive l3t7OO Mansfeld for

in

Scotland on paper.

powers were issued

looks 5wedenp with lOt32O for

Warrants ing those

19,560 for

men for service IV)9 and 200 were the of

for but

Denmark

(includ-

originally to the

intended pay 800 of for Gray required

who were 29800 for the

transferred United

Christian Spaing in 1620 for figure is

Francep In the

Provincest Sir

Russia. for

addition Bohemian

1,500 (') struggle, to Rh6 in is

men under

Andrew were

earmarked of for This

and 2, OCOScots 1628. (2) If the these for

oarl 8,000

Morton's Poland figure

expedition discussed makes it in clear

the

unlikely

1623 that of

included during manpower tion difficult the that tion. time,

maximum total twenty armies for the years intended early at using

589880.

Scotland for

was considered the continent. century for are the

an important Though lacking accurate

source

populait is at

figures to

seventeenth figure

and hence of has Scotland

arrive

a definite Webster's

population census,

Pryde,

eighteenth-century would

suggested approximaof the of male 1/14.

a total (4 ) This

between would

800,000 suggest sought for

and 900,000 at first the

be an acceptable that the percentage the

glance European than for

Scottish It

population been in the

wars 1/20

was in of the

region

has also

estimated year hand 1627

that

no less

Scottish (5)

population On the full official number

was required to

service did not

abroad. guarantee that the

other

permission levied.

recruit

was actually to

The frequent would seem to

references point to

made in in

records

desertions

difficulties

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

RPC Ist Series, 273 footnote xii, APC Sep. 1627-Oune 1628,67 RPC Ist Series, 364 xiii, G. S. Pryde, Scotland 1603 to present RPC 2nd Series, ip p. lxxxiii

day

(Edinburgh

1962),

78

35. the full

attaining of Scottish considered Sinclair reported Poland, totals their tion lp200 force

numbers of units, falling later, his short but

yet

there

are few extant totals. This that

cases is

regiments

in their there total. is

problem Sir

in more detail failed to levy

no doubt

James was of

required

Though Robert 8,000 men for

Stewart

in 1623 to be attempting there is no evidence

to raise

Sigismund

of many enlisting. Rolls revealed Hamilton that

Investigation several units

of the exceeded obliga-

shown in Swedish required in full figuresq in 16299 Gustavus (6)

Muster

e. g. Alexander

more than met his

men for

to provide and James Spensp who bound himself (7) in 1624, sent over lg270. Sir John Meldrum's have totalled of his 19200 reached first that its highest abroad. regiment
the men

however which

should

figure (8)

of 10051 a month after It


consisted recorded and vice

the arrival

companies a 'Scottish'
the

would also
solely in the of

be mistaken
Scots. In

to consider
fact Rolls Spenst in to judge

from

names of contained eventually in 1625 (9)

Swedish For

Muster

English regiment 16299

regiments of but 1624 even England. levying

Scots became three of the

versa.

instancet

known eight the

as Ramsay's original

Scottish

regiment were drawn

companies of Hamilton's to of

mainly

from the

Though 69000 men in these

marquis this

warrant the the whole

permitted of Britain Border. Irish in there

of least

163&-1, men were English certainly regiment

referred south also

and at (10)

4tDOO of and

raised units

Scottish on occasion

Both

Scottish Robert Colonel

included some of and later five of

companies. Ireland for

Stewart Oohn Meldrum's 1637

gathered in 1629 than

his

soldiers

recruited his

for

his mainly

own command in Irish. (")

when no less

companies

were

Captain

Hannay's (6) (7) (a) (9) (10) (11) (12)

company in Ramsay's

regiment

in 1628 included

Irishmeng

(12) and

1629/14/180-215 KA Stockholm, Rullor, 1625/3/87-141 KA Stockholm, Rullor, KA Stockholm, 1629/16/150-72 Rullor, Fischer, Scots in Sweden, 91-92 KA Stockholmp Rullort 1629/11/55 KA Stockholm, 1638/3/182 Rullor, S. Francisp Hannays of Sorbie (London

1961).

74

36.

Sir

George Hamilton for the earl

and Sir

Frederick

Hamilton regiment at least

Ireland

of Nithsdale's contained

were levying (13) in 1627.

troops

in

The Seaton/

Cunningham-unit in Irelando that

in 1629-30

of Lieutenant-Colonel of the marquis Captain

one company which originated (14) Hugh Hamilton, and in the army there which remained largely the both space in Duration themselves in Irish. (15)

Scottish

section

of Hamilton's

1632 a company under A further extent before the

Andrew Hamilton defies

was very

problem,

and one which

solutionp

concerns

of re-enlistment embarkation

by the same man. arrival

Reports occupy

of desertion a substantial and England. but even units

and after

abroad of both

records

of the Privy naturally a short

Councils with

Scotland

of service possessed native seldom

varied existence.

the individualp

In the Swedish army regiments a more permanent years without identityp massive

based on regiments or oness in the

provinces lasted

retained

but mercenary new recruiting of renewing length

as long with

as three units.

amalgamations contract

other

As the opportunity every year,

or of taking tended

one's

pass arose

of service

same regiment involved proof as the the

to be short. within

In many cases however re-enlistment the service soldier being of the same country. as ubiquitous to have served No

change of regiment

has emerged of any Scottish fictitious Spain, Dugald Dalgettyr and the United evident

in loyalty Sweden,

who claimed Provinces from English

Empire, It is

of the Netherlands. records that for officers their armies for entire existed. the Spanish up did not

nevertheless in

always career.

remain This

the employment hardly

of the same country

military

could

be expected for five

when no regular as a lieutenant

Thomas Melville king

had served

years

in the Netherlands in the English

and then king's

employment (13) (14) (15) (16)

of Charles I to take sought the permission (16) If the date of October 1625 army.

105 11,97-1009 Fraser, Carlaverock, KA Stockholm, 1630/23/327' Rullor, KA Stockholm, 1632/30/494 Rullor, CSP Domestic 1625-6,139

37. is imply interest

accurate

this

would

in

the

troops

bound for

Mansfeld. officer (17)

Spens recommended Thomas Hamilton who had seen service Captain in in Holland

because he was an experienced and now wanted to enter

Swedish ranks.

Humes had served of Sweden's from the

the king

in many foreign countries as captain and also (18) Edward May and Simon Hayman who had wars. to drill the trained bands in England, and in 1631 bound for and had

been recalled later served

Low Countries in

as lieutenants

the expedition as lieutenants had been active

to La Rochelle, for the troops

were proposed by Lord Poulatt (19) Sweden. Sir John Caswell also participated in the Cadizt regiment

under

Count Mansfeld

Rhe and Rochelle in Germany for to levy in July for

operations.

He next

commanded an English 1633 was seeking Privy Council in

the king

a further

licence decided

of Sweden, and by (20) Sweden. When the the size permission 'if they of the infantry was granted are willing a

of England Ireland

to reduce

companies for

from 150 man to 50 man each, to join course the king of lyfe. 1

the redundant

troops

of Sweden,

to continue similar

a militarie

The Councillors in 1627 that

had taken

attitude

when they

were informed

#divers served in

souldiers these wars

in and about

the citty

of London ...

have heretofore (21) in re-enlistment. Strachan's

and are desireous Scottish indicated served

to goe thither were also

againe. involved

troops

Lord Ogilvy men had already

to Nithsdale

on 21 June 1627 that

in the Low Countries for transportation

and were at the date into Danish service. Lieutenant

Edinburgh later
(17) (18) ('19) (20) (21) (22)

of writing ready in (22) Almost two months George Ogilvy who

Ogilvy

commended to the same earl


95

Fischer, Scots in Sweden, CSP Domestic 1629-31,431 1629-Nl-, 507 CSP Domestic 1629-31,354 CSP Domestic 11,82 Frasert Carlaverock, Frasert Carlevarock, 11,91

38.

'has

bein

ane soldier regiment

in

Holand first

tua with

yeiris.

1(23

Robert

Monro and many of the

Mackay's Swedish in 1637.

served

the Danish another

army and then with for with

forces,

and Monro recruited

regiment enlisted

Queen Christina Richelieuts often to another.

John Hepburn and Sir leaving type

John Hamilton pay.

French

army after to this

Swedish

Reorganisation

of units

gave rise Uchtreid regiment Captain

of movement, in Captain was almost

especially Alexander certainly

from one regiment Hannay's

MacDowallensign in June 1628, Uchtreid (24).

company of Ramsay's as the

the same person

who appeared with his own company in Sir John (25) Meldrum's unit in August 1629. In July 1629 one of Hannay's sergeants (26) Houston. Patrick was named Alexander MacDowall and one of his rotmasters MacDowall They were not August listed with Hannay's company in following is months, called It but in

1629 and thereafter and one of his

MacDowall's sergeants is

lieutenant Patrick company.

Alexander is very likely

MacDawall that these

Houston.

are the men from Hannay's but their discovery is

Many similar

instances

must abound, mative statistical obvious viding that useful

difficult

due to the absence of inforAny assessment of the but proit is

annotation extent

in the original of re-enlistment

records.

would involve

random guessworkt warrants, and soldierso actually while

the totals guides

of men shown on the original of statesmen

to the intentions for

cannot levied

be regarded in Scotland.

as sound statistics

the numbers of recruits

The original Britain lay

initiative

for

the levying

of a mercenary

force

in Mercenaries by

in the foreign when

commitments military

of Continental plans could

countries. not

became desirable (23) (24) (25) (26)

ambitious

be affected

APC May 1629-May 1630,79 APC Jan. -Aug. 1627,182 1629/11/51 KA Stockholmq Rullor, 1629/10/353 KA Stockholmq Rullor,

39.

existing pursued ing of in their

sources of utilising

of native foreign territory,

recruitst soldiers while

or when a deliberate for invasion native purposes troops

policy

was

and campaignfor defence to

the enemy's homeland. financial fact

retaining

Willingness contracts should

to pay such mercenaries also certain officer

and ability

honour but in

have been an essential and even the out of his in the levy

prerequisite, money was with to

regular provided

pay was never by the recruiting of being levying,

sometimes little

own pocket field

likelihood further

reimbursed. while failure

Success led Adolphus

tended

encourage fewer this

to dwindling was left

numbers and in no doubt of

recruiting when after

attempts. his long

Gustavus unbroken

run of successful Feste

engagements

from 1630

to 1632 he was at last Though foreign procedure, their

checked

at Alte normally

in the summer of 1632. the recruiting were quick of colonel far to volunteer

governments of

initiated

many gentlemen

fortune coveted

in Britain the title

services it.

because they

and the pay which from reyarding. in his pay claim

accompanied Indeed

In the event

some found which

the prize

the catalogue

of misfortunes

Mackay listed a considerable

to Christian His affairs soldiers

IV on 10 May 1627 would at home were embarrassedp

appear his for

deterrent. and his

captains

blamed himt

demanded food posts frequently

and pay while

to bad tactics and knights without

were being earned appearing

want of powder and shot and due (27 ) Nevertheless surrendered. nobles wages by their their units recruiting in the field. efforts Thus regior

their with

ever actually

ments were in many cases militarily even majors, Prussia service (27) e. g. William Robert Baillie Monro for for for Sir

commanded by lieutenant-colonels Sir Alexander Hamilton in East

1629-30,

Donald

Mackay in Danish

and Swedish

1628-32 . Hugh Hamilton SRO, Reay Papersp

James Sadton and George Cunningham

GD 84/2/160

4a.

in

East Prussia

1629-30.

It

also

seems that senior

financial if

bargains the

may stated and the to money

occasionally in 1632 in

have decided the Forbes

certain

command posts held that in

views

memorandum of conversations Forbes was convinced British troops

in Stralsund

London are to be believed. position Reay for would given that

Spans had sold Swedish service that Reay's

of supreme commander over L20,000 Scots. since This But Forbes the marquis

was of the of Hamilton

opinion

be wasted, the post.

was more likely but Forbes

to be

may have been mere rumour, own letters the hiring about

he had seen Spans' A key figure

the bargaining

contended (28) with Reay. colonels for

between

government

and the potential David

in

Britain

was often Sir

the agent

at courto

e. g. Captain Robert for

Learmonth for regiments

Mansfeld, Denmark. during

Oames Spens for

Swedenp and Sir

Anstruther full

Spens and his 1624-9.

son were responsible

three

the period Charles

Spens had been sent

by the king

of Sweden to

encourage

tend new levies in the preliminary

I to support him in the Thirty (29) in England. The procedure arrangementsmade wrote for

Years War and to superinis seen in more detail of Hamilton's army in

the marquis

1629-30. embracing made, first Colonel

The Swedish king 'with a sincere

to the marquis the generous at London,

on 12 December 1629 declarations and again he had cousin, of

heartiness

to the Swedish ambassador Hamilton,

to his

Alexander

whom he had sent

to Sweden with

assurances Scots Sweden

his. resolution and English. and returned pressure join agent (28) (29) (30)

body of forces, of coming in person with a gallant (30 ) Alexander Leslie and Alexander Hamilton left to London to assist Council with the recruiting,

but eventually to compel soldiers

official to

from the Privy

had to be applied found himself found time

the marquis. for

Lord Reay also Gustavus

in

the position

of an

Sweden in 1631.

to write

to him from Werben

SRO, Lord Forbes Collection, GD 52/94 Scots in Sweden. 91 Fischer, HMC, Eleventh Report App ndix vi, Hamilton

(London

1887),

69

41.

on 14 Ouly approving
John three Monro for four (31) regiments.

highly
companies

the agreement
and with Sir

Mackay had concluded


Pierce Crosby of

with
for

Ireland

The next
prospective contract, with choose in various officers,

stage

was normally
to draw

for

the two parties,


(or Heads) of the of

the agent

and the
This dealt to

colonel, frequently matters, date included

up a Letter in the

signed (pay of of

presence

Agreement. I in London, witnesses of his freedom

the

colonel,

extent of

embarkation of

and place financial

rendezvousp involving

shipping)and penalties

soma cases

a series

clauses

for the firstq

shortcoming total being

in

the numbers agreed

and extra

payments

in

the event

of

surpassed. David Learmonth

Two of these acted

manuscripts

are extant.

In the

Captain

on behalf

of Count Ernest

Mansfeld 1626, (32)

by virtue while

of a commission

granted

to him at Lauenburg

an 24 January It

Donald Mackay was represented

by Oamest Lord Ochiltree.

was

Bishop in London an 4 March 1626 by Patrickt witnessed (33) In the second contract John Stewart of Traquair. granted
In two

of Ross and Sir General Sir James Spens 1629. (34)

Alexander
other written

Hamilton

a commission
it to is

for
apparent but

19200 men on 20 April


that a colonel himself document. concluded for service and

agreements his their powers

occasionally against On a contract in

delegated the

some of of

others,

safeguarded sealed Conway of Master foot of from

possibility 1631 the In two

failure Lord in

by a writteng Thomas

25 August concerning Sweden. colonel (35)

Donaldt raising the

Reay and Sir of

England document by virtue-of

a regiment

other

Alexander,

Forbes Gustavus

of

regiments

a commission

Adolphus

(31)

SRO, Reay Papers, GD 84/2/184. between 120 and 200 men, while and 2,000 men. SRO, Reay Papersp CD 84/2/148 SRO, Reay Paperst GD 84/2/149 11,92-93 Fraser, Haddington, SRO, Reay Papers, -GD 84/2/106

Companies normally ranged in size varied between ltOO0 regiments

(32) (33) (34) (35)

42.

reached

various

agreements

with

Sir

Arthur Sir

Forbes Arthur

and Captain 500 men. in

John Baillie, The contract

among which was subscribed

his lieutenant-colonel I to provide undertook at St. Fowler Martin's Lane (36)

and sealed William

London on 29 July At this stage to carry

1631 before

witnesses

and P. Lumsden. of England

permission out

was sought

from the Privy It than

Council might

or Scotland expected but this that

the necessary would

recruiting. later

have been

such a licence

be dated

the agreements 1626 was

was not standard two weeks later arrived

practice. the written

The warrant agreement, being

to Mackay is and his dated

issued

than

commission 9 April 162C. (37)

from Mansfeld

some time

afterwards,

'Zerbst

But in Alexander than the written

Hamilton's contract.

case his warrant was dated five days earlier (38 ) from the Privy Council Reay's warrant

on 2 Oune 1631 was issued almost three months before the agreement with (39) Conway, four whereas the Forbes document noted above was finalised (40) It would appear therefore weeks before the Council licence was issued. that both no definite written order of procedure and Council Privy 1620-42 Ia was formalised permission at the time, though

agreement

would appear

to have been Only

necessary once during

at some stage. the period

Council

permission

was seldom refused. when following

was recruiting

prohibited,

an injunction of soldiers since Captain company. England, four

the levying was issued against proclamation (41 ) but its affect must have been limited, on 18 Oune 1635, from Charles further warrants were granted later in the same year and of his in I

Gordon managed to get an exception Even in 1642, Ireland a year

made for

the raising state

when the unsettled

of affairs to dater

and Scotland Estates

would have been expected

Charles

and the Scottish (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) SRO, SRO, RPC RPC RPC RPC

from countenancing Collection, GO 52/93 GO 84/2/151 111,136 iv, 219iv, 318-19 vit 28

the embarkation

of troops

Lord Forbes Reay Papers, 2nd Series, 2nd Series, 2nd Seriest 2nd Seriest

43.

for

foreign

service, men for at

a licence France. the English Richelieu's ltOOO

was awarded (42 ) This

to

Jamesq the in

earl

of

Irvine of years extent that of

to

recruit French of of

4t5OO influence 1638

indicates Already

strength troubled to the

Court. agents

the

16379 gaining

and 1639 for

had prevailed It also in

warrants

men each mooted

time. raising

appears Britain in for

the

French men in

government 1629-30 but

had earlier this

the

29000 (43)

had been regiment

officially by definition

discouraged fights

London. the

Since

a mercenary

money,

initial officers for but true paid dollars still

recruiting

moneyr offered

in hard cash,

by captains a prime

and their attraction be hanoured,

at the market-crosses volunteer. alone of would

must have constituted The promise

the potential experience intentions

of good wages might in later

indicate

to the recruit The rate

months the money rix

the hiring

government.

of recruiting

by the Swedish Crown to colonels

between 1620 and 1630 was eight to six dollar rix is dollars, a complex varied

(The following year it fell man. per (44 ) to four. ) The exact value of a rix later, but it was equivalent

and later problem between was

discussed 4/and 5/-

to an amount which money to which 40/sterling. money is

sterling. each recruit

Hence the enrolling totalled of this at best

the colonel

entitled individual certain. foreign would

for

How much the not his for known for men to a himself, there

recruit Since

received the colonel

enlistment

had to victual sought

and transport to make a profit

rendezvoust not be a great

and possibly deal left

to pay the recruit incurred

in cash when enlisted. in victualling it and in that men

A detailed shipping the total

investigation men is undertaken

of the charges later, for

but at this victualling

stage

may be noted

sums allocated

levyingy

and transporting

(42) (43) (44)

247 vii, RPC 2nd Seriest Los Ecossais en FrancS, (London Francisque-Michall 280-1 11,217 Robertso Gustavus Adolphus,

1862).

iiv

varied sterling offered for port. in

widely

between 1626 and 1631.

Mansfeld

allowed less than rix

Mackay 20/the Swedes dollars allowed

per man from Scotland in 1629. Possibly

to GlOckstadt, figure

Gustavus#

of eight that

the longer

sea Journey

to Sweden than

to the north

west German of Denmark

In 1628 the laird undertook

of Dun, operating to deliver in return to Blair for

on behalf of Balgillo

of the king 900 rix

Scotlandp

dollars (45)

and a captainb This is is

commission

the recruitment rix dollars

of 100 men.

approximately higher

the same as eight rates being offered

per man if

allowance By 1631 of between

made for Sir

to the company officers. to meet all the costs

however

Thomas Conway was expected

776 men and 800 men to be delivered to Pomerania or Mecklenburg for (46) (approximately four or five rix dollars for each man). only L700 was however supposed eight Sir rix Arthur for dollars Forbes to be paid an additional arrival his sum making abroad. the total

He

up to

each, obliged

one month after himself rix

In the same year Ireland rate to

to bring dollars.

500 men from This smaller involved.

Scotland rix dollars

a sum of 1,500

(47)

of three The Master the 500

per man was due to the shorter would still have to face

journey

of Forbes troops

the charges

of transporting

to Germany. Pressure to produce


clause. pay the sixteen actual per In rix

the required
the

number of soldiers
agreement man short, the

was applied
new colonel

by
was

the

penalty to

Spens-Hamilton for each

bound to

dollars

a sum which

amounted forwarded a colonel of for his

double rix forfeit

recruiting man for

allowance. recruiting to pay

As he had already purposes, this meant eight 30/-

been that

eight would

dollars that

sum and have contract

over

a further pain of

dollars

own money.

The Forbes

threatened

sterling

every

(45) (46) (47)

V. 3acoby Lairds SROp Reay Papers, SRG, Lord Forbes

1931)9 of Dun (London GD 84/2/185 Collection, GD 52/93

167-8

45.

man lacking A penalty time, receipt

(approximately of twice

twice

the levy

Money of three

rix

dollars). for the

the sum concerned the bond of Sir

appears

to have been normal

because in

Thomas Conway, in which

he acknowledged in the county Hamilton clause insertedp the agreed though

of E700 sterling,

he and Edward Read of Culbrell under penalty his of L1,400.

of Worcester

bound themselves the risk in

(48)

however bAlanced by which number.

case by having rix dollars that it for

a further every

he would receive It is further

eight

man over document, that

revealing have totalled

to find 1,200,

in this was agreed

the regiment need bring reasons appointed next', wilbe time. ' Hamilton reducing the full part for if

should only for the

the colonel able men. ' the time Midsomer it The

'a company of nyne hundred this special arrangement

and threescore were firstly,

given for

that

'landing that

in Spruse or thereaboutes 'because of the scantnes

was at latest

and secondly, difficill

of man in Scotland that of this by

to leavy could himself

and transport benefit against while

the whole number against arrangement

Both parties protected

from a special the danger

type.

of a heavy penalty ensuring

the required levy money if

number, the

at the same time

himself his

figure

of 1,200 was attained.

Spens for

had refrained a regiment not

from paying

out more recruiting since

money than was required it was always If difficultt Hamilton

of 960 man, a wise precaution to recoup funds

impossible, in raising at his

once outlayed 240 soldiers,

to colonels.

succeeded initially

the additional

he would have to do so by

own expense.

Hamilton would leave

would hope to be reimbursed the repayment initiative with

the Swedish Crownt but this Gustavus. contained 1,800, The draft a similar

form of contract concession, since

in the Hamilton the regiment if it

Correspondence

but in practice

would be acceptable

would nominally number (49) 1,620. totalled

(48) (49)

SRO, Reay Papers, GO 84/2/185 Haddington, 11,92-93,95 Fraser,

46.

Normally (In staff. certain. but allow This it practice

a colonel this it meant

wanted

a free

choice

concerning major,

all

officers. and regimental is not or policy ) ensigns, to

lieutenant-colonel, included

captains and ensigns

Whether In

normally

lieutenants

some cases more to

colonels likely

appointed that

particular thought within

lieutenants it the in sound

was probably each captain

a colonel

make his

own appointments that 'have it

company. original

was considered Mackay whole through officers, 'death

so important in 1626 was to

was inserted the free choice but would

the

contracts. of the

and disposition who lost their to

superior or (50) any

and inferiors, other accident'

those

places

be replaced

according

Mansfeld's

decision.

An interesting Colonel The king master place diminish to place Monro desired with the

encounter

arose Adolphus Captain

in

Swedish

service the

between

Lieutenantof officers. to quarter-

and Gustavus to royal promote army

regarding Bullion that of

appointment regiment fill

Monro's

and ordered Monro the

Captain floath by His were 1

Dumaine His

Bullion's should

as company

commander. having of the

objected freedoms

Majesty

my priviledge, the having Officers once

Majesty's vacant, He sought before that the

capitulation and not the His of

Regiment, of that

as they priviledga.

Majesty Sir John

disposed

backing

Hepburn, to not

and then bass his

made his argument

protest also upon the

personally the fact

Gustavus. proposed since tersely for of

Monro captain the that the

decided could

speak

German, of

which

Scot

considered monarch

essential commented

company Captain post.

was composed Dumaine Gustavus would went

Germans. soon learn inquire

The Swedish

as much German as was necessary whom Monro Monro. had been Upon which thinking (according

an to

promoting.

He answered

Lieutenant

David

(50)

SRO, Reay Papers,

GD 84/2/149

47.

to Monro's 'king turned thinke? It is

own account, to General

and ha must be complimented Baner and said his

on his

honesty)

the I

to him scornfully,

Hes would place clear that the royal

own Cozen, and not

'What shall (51) obey my Orders. '

command was obeyed. as insistent , 1.00 on their rights concerning Correspondence nommez par Is a caluy le dites

other the choice allowed dit qufil charges

colonels of officers.

were just

The draft

contract capitaines lea

in the Hamilton ... seront uacantes

broad scope to a colonel, 1equal Ilavoir estre pourra merits, aussi

colonell, jugera leur

donner

charges

sans qulaucuns puisse (52) deues par succession. ' Sir on 21 January to nominat 1630 the

pretendre Pierce

Crosby requested I formerlie In other

from the marquis

of Hamilton

1priuiledg (53) $

had from the Duke of Buckingham cases the colonel delegated in his

my officers. officers.

power to select is stated that

In the Thomas and

Reay-Conway agreement Conway shall officers

1631 it

#the sayd Sir of all save his

have the makeinge

and nominatainge to be rased

the captaines

of the regiment

intended

Lieutenant-Col'onel

(by Sir Thomas Conway's consent) and him the Lord Raye hath allready (54) in the detailed The arrangement was more closely appoynted. 1 Forbes shall Captain contract of 29 July 1631,1... 500 men wherof of the officers the said Sir Arthur

have the choose and disposing Baillie shall of 150 and the other think. #(55)

of 300 of them, as the said Master

50 to be disposed reached

of Forbes

In the agreement

between Lord Reay full freedom

and Crosby in London on 20 April (56) of choice of all officers. Complete a new colonel,
(51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56)

1631 Crosby was accorded

freedom

of choice

of officers he was often

was the ideal hedged about

aimed at by with restrictions.

but in practice

iiq 12 Monrot Expedition, ii, Haddington, 95 Frasert Hamilton Lennoxlovef Archives, T 72/14 C1/191 GO 84/2/186 SRO, Rsay Papers, GO 52/93 SRO, Lord Forbes Collections II Gustav Skrivelser tillkonungen RA Stockholm,

Adolfs

tid,

Reay 5.

4s.

He might to select when they future Whitehall this

wellq

like

Mackay in officers,

the instance

noted

abovet

have full

permission

the original

but have little Not only did Mansfeld

or no say in replacements claim the right of

became necessary. for

appointments

himself,

but Charles

I himself

James Sinclair

as Mackay's into

lieutenant-colonel. at this time,

nominated from (57) (In fact presumably because by Christian James Wilson IV. )

nomination

was not put

effect

Sinclair On 9 July

knew he was to be awarded 8 full 1627 the Danish for king insisted

colonel's that

commission

Mackay substitute whose services

and John Rudderhus (58) required. It whether colonel. is unlikely

two Forbes

captains

he no longer

that

there

was any strict prospective

procedure

which

determined the Crosby general had 1

the colonel No doubt

contacted

captains

or the captains

both methods were used. it appears with that

In the case of Sir

Pierce

and the marquis tender replied Crosby sought. of his

of Hamilton interest

Crosby had made a first To this Hamilton

in service

the marquis.

requiring in his (59)

Crosby

$to be more particular then listed

toutching

the condicions. he

second letter

the allowances

and privileges

Thera can be little


people Sir John frequently Vavasour Poulett posts of of as resulted held quoted officers also on 21

doubt
in

that
the

recommendations
granting from the of

from influential
to officers. which he and

commissions of

Charles Lord

a letter when they the

queen

Bohemia of

contacted troops

Secretary bound Sir and for Jacob she even

State

Dorchester (60) service. to her the support

regarding Elizabeth marquis

with wrote January

Swedish Astley gave

Bohemia

recommending 1630, (61)

Hamilton

(57)

SRO,

Reay

Papers,

GD 84/2/152

(58) (59) (60) (61)

SR09 Reay Papers, CD 84/2/165 Hamilton Lennoxlavev Archives, 1629-31,507 CSP Domestic Hamilton Archives, Lennoxlovet

T 72/14 T 72/14

C.1/191 C1/140

49.

to

the

petition

of she did

Mr.

Langley

for

service herself

with

the

same marquisp

though

she admitted opinion influence 1627 the that Earl given

not

know Langley Langley's It

and was relying (62 ) to The duke Venice

on the of Buckingham's

by one of

own kinsmen. was reported ... lately of

was also 'the of of duke

effective. (of

on 26 February his confidant but super-

Buckingham) not only in

appointed

Nithsdale, all the

Colonel the Danish

a Scottish (63)

regiment Villiers William

intendent also 'to his of his and all his got written gratify nephew Sir

Scots through of

service'. Conway to Bedchamber Sir

had Beecher seeking of A son added officert among that

earlier Mr. David Murray

Secretary Prince's in

the

by the Gray's

appointment regiment. Spans

Murray is

as a Captain also

Sir '

Andrew (64)

Arthur for

Gorges the

recommended. of

Ambassador

support Ensign Colonel captain the

promotions 'the officers. but that

Thomas Hamiltong experienced John the in help his to in Hull of letter

an experienced drilling revealed Sir recruits in

John

Campbell,

most

Rutherford's had died, (66)

1(65) through Stewart attempted

1629

Thomas Roo he had to Francesq himself duchess with her

company. of Lennox his to of best

Alexander and Richmond, commission giue to

dowager

ingratiate 'It hath ...

by attributing of Nithisdalle he hath the

the

late in his

duke,

pleased only 1(67) is out

my Lord of the

me a compania your Graces

regiment

respect

my lord

husbandes of

mamoria.

One of vital role

documented

aspects contacts bore

recruiting of or

procedure familyt rank which clan

the

played

by personal frequently unit more

and ties a title carried

or a degree for

friendship. of prestige to

Colonels their

gave

and therefore important could exert

some intrinsic fact that

appeal only or win

recruits. of some social

Perhaps

however the

was the

persons the

standing

necessary

influence

(62) (63) (64) (65) (66) (67)

Hamilton Archives, Lennoxlovet T 72/14 1626-8,130-1 CSP Venetian 1619-23,380 cSP Domestic Scats in Sweden,, 94-95 rischerv 1629-31,57 CSP Domestic 11,144 Sutherland, Frasert

C1/142

50.

the co-operation of Hamilton# the Master which led

of those

whose assistance Lord Gordont was no doubt earl

was invaluablet of Irvine, earl

e. g. marquis of Nithsdale, of Hamilton letters

Lord Spyniev of Forbes. It

the rank

of the marquis Sweden.

many to seek commissions from London early offers touts

in his

army for

In his that

to Gustavus inundated

in October

1630 he reported tant dlescose

he was

with

of service, les jours

Icavaliers leur

mlimportunent Lieutenant-Colonel Sir

en offrant appears

personnes

que d'Angleterre (68) et biens ... 1 of both

George Douglas envoyt

to have been a kinsman

Thomas Roe the English

became Swedish governor rank of knighthoodg Sir Sir

and Colonel Robert (69) Few colonels of Demmin. Hamilton, Sir

Cunningham who lacked at least Sir the Donald

Alexander

James Sinclair,

Mackay, Chancellor Swedish of Huntly

James Lumsdeng Sir Oxenstierna of his

John Meldrum. progress that

When Captain Scottish

Monro informed troops for

in raising

service

in 1637,

he stated

had both

promised for

assistance. Captain

the duke of Argyll (70) More positive

and the marquis aid appoars and

to have been forthcoming countess of Sutherland. the extent

Adam Gordon from the earl from Gothenburg help. 'For

Gordon's

letter

on 11 November not the earle and the be

1635 indicates wrytin

of Sutherland's off Scotlandt

haid

to the Chanceler of Traquhair, lordships

and to the Earle Registrert the counsell, yeir off

of Winton, and to all

to the Earle rest of his

and to the Clerk that are in this

friends

I would not off the

suffered

to taik that

any men from Scotland was last them that myself, for against

be reasone men.

proclamacione prevailed counseleris we pleased, (68)


(69) (70)

levying

His lordship with

has fyve

so with

I gat a permissione wyfe, children

subscreyvitt

hands for

and familis to transport II

to pass where us without Adolfs tid, incurring

and a warrand

any skipper till

RA Stockholmo Hamilton 4-5

SkrivBlser
Lexikon, Sweden,

kanungen Gustav

13iografisk _Svensk Scats in Fischert

369-71 xi, 121 footnote

51.

any danger to domestic Germany with Sir Francis

thereby.

(71)

of course Sutherland's

this

type letters

of influence had also

was not restricted aided Gordon in In 1631 that George,

recruiting. Sir David

Drummond and Colonels

Gordon and Graham.

Ruthven

of Carse in a letter request

from Memel told for

Lord Ogilvy his cousin,

in answer to his

lordship's

I&ne cumppany under Jamesp earl visited of

our Regiment. ' Irvine with also his

he had obtained (72)

made use of family recruiting captains brother-in-lawo

connections in 1642.

when he They called

Aberdeenshire

upon the marquis assistance. Campbell's Marischal Meanwhile Strathbogiet Robert in Keithq Forty Captain there, another

of Huntly, soldiers

Campbell's

were the, measure of their through Inverugiel

and sought his (73) success, greeting the Earl

Hepburn travelled before captain dining

at Ellon

and proceeding Fullerton, eight

to Peterhead. had passed through 'idle men# there. (74)

of the regimentt

Huntly's brother at this

own area,

and had enlisted r.arischalv

of the Earl time

was another

of the captains for France

the county

and shipping

busy recruiting (75) them at Aberdeen. of the Ogilvy a prominent

men in the county

In the recruiting Lord James Ogilvy, with


letters this

company in 1627 the captain's part. He was in constant of Nithsdale,


of fricnds

cousinv communication

played

the regimental
to the latter

commanding officert
leave no doubt a division own reputation awin creddeit of

the earl
the of

end his
in to this freindisp ...

importance the shires, risks

enlisting. that

When seeking more than his

he stressed 'seeing of your

Nithsdale maitter quha (71) (72) (73) (74) (75) ar

was at and the

concernes both willing

both to

your assist

creddeit also

your

Lordships

and 8r

oblished

Sutherland, Fraser, 11,159-60 SRO, Airlin Family Papers, CD 16/2/34/12a History iip 47 Spaldingt of the Troubles, 1631-49 Narration Blakhall Brief of Gilbert History 11,33 Spalding, of the Tro7les,

(Aberdeen

1844),

136p

168,

IBJ

52. (76) off the your capitaines. contribution essential

and cautions

for

lifting in like

of

the companies

Sir made

George Hamilton by his

manner emphasised when he protested

acquaintances, total further the that

his will

earnest

intention

the required Lord Ogilvy earl lotters total for

of man 'if counselled

my freends his friend

doe their

of furnishing (77) endeavour. 1 from the His the

Nithsdale

to seek aid

of Melrose, indicate

Lord Advocate

and the Clerk

of the Council. men to boost

Lord Gordon promised But Ogilvy's your next

to forward source

the company. 'I will

was a south

western

personagev gentillman wrettin Lordship's jurisdictions, Lordship England, wrattin

entreat

Lordship this

most ernestlis letterg togither

to send ans with for some lynes yowr

to young Lochinvar be your Lordship,

with

requysting

him to giue ...

my cousing boundis I will

service with

such men as ar inrolled such volonteris with him, ffor

in his

and requyst is in yowr

as may be had ... I heir that that auld

to be arnest but

Lochinvar yit

I haue not sons, for

perfyt his

assurance father

he is

thair;

I haus

to his

gaus him directions good number off

to be ceft-full Other
Lord

to send me ane resonable sought


to his

in my presence (78) men. '

recruiters
wrote from and at is your the

support
nephew, Court,

from friends
Sir saying 3ohn that

in the Highlands.
Grant of Freuchie, 'is on nowe

Tullibardine 1629

27 April

English for yet

Ewen Macgregor to but all my knowledge recommend men that get uppe

mad a capten merited your cane, well

goinge hands, that

Suedland I cane helps

and altho not chuise

he has him you his nomber of to

speciall and the full

cair rather

you will

him with words only that

the

than

I haws past

he will (79)

Macgregor's (76) (77) (78) (79)

total

was apparently

100 men.

' The marquis

Carlaverock, 11,80-81 Fraser# Carlaverockg 11,98 Frasert Carlaverock, 11,85,94-95 Fraser, Muniments, GD 248/46 SROf Seafield

53.

Hamilton earl in

also

expected

recruits

from the Highlands. intention

He informed of helping

the

of Sutherland

on 13 May 1631 of his

Gustavus $so many as however had

the German warsg and asked the earl ya may' to Leith in Scotland,

convenientlie little success

to assist by sending (80) His recruiters by I Ouly. the anonymous writer inclined. 'Ther

though

of the Forbes-Reay was mania wharoff the marquess that 1(81) in foreign in

memorandum in 1632 was sympathetically I was on' wold scorn Nothing records service regimental than eight (Forbes) to follow 'that him' wold think (Reay) for

no sham to follow my lord of clan

Spence other. ties

as impressive

in respect

was discovered

to rival in Ireland staff

the arrangement in 1642. of twelve

of the marquis

of Argyllts Campbells

regiment among his

He had chosen five men, and his Archibald

company leaders himselft

included

no less Sir John,

Campbells Williamv

(Colonel

Lieutenant-Colonel Inverliever,

Duncan, Colin

Major

and Captains

Duncanp Duncan of is

and Matthew).

(82 )

Even when allowance in Argyll, particularly

made for

the exceptional of so many and suggests Scottish a

frequency officers powerful

of the surname Campbell with clan the same surname is solidarity. it In other

the selection striking

seventeenth-century several companies though entire by Sir

regiments by captains

on the Continent bearing

was common for

to be led

the same surname as the colonelv within companies than within

frequency regiments. John,

of surname was Colonel James and James lieutenant-

more obvious Alexander of Parklie, colonel

Hamilton all

in 1629 was accompanied In his

Sir

Hamiltons.

second regiment captain

in 1632 his

was John Hamilton, Robert

and another

was named Andrew Hamilton. the services of Colonel of Captains John Ruthven Both Monro

In 1634 Colonel William

Cunningham had enlisted Cunningham. The regiment

and Alexander

in 1632 included (80) (81) (82) R. J. later SROt PRO,

two captains

named Ruthvenq

Jakob and Peter. (Due for

AdamI Catalogue of Dunrobin Muniments in 1972), 466 Lord Forbes Collection, GD 52/94 SP 16/492/58

publication

54.

regiments father appear certainly

in the same year

showed a similar and perhaps in

pattern.

Family

ties

between

and sonsp among brothers, to have been stronger common to find than

most of all

among cousins century. It is

the mid-twentieth

one particular regiment,

surname predominating firstly

in frequency and case later.

in the rolls his captains#

of any particular and secondly tend to vary

among the colonel In the latter be noted in-law

among the men in

the ranks.

the patterns

from company to company, reveal lists. the whole

as will for

Surnames alone, relationships with Alexander

howeverg cannot are hidden Innas

truth,

in muster

Though Lord Spynie informing him that that

communicated son had (Lindsay)

the Elder

of Cotts,

his

been made an ensign, their and Innes were in fact

surnames (83) cousins.

would not

indicate

Spynie

A colonel officers to provide to give these

was obviously that

bound to be influenced individuals

in his

choice

of able 'not

by the fact

he had to select number of men. Sir

who appeared

the required

Thomas Conway undertook for the raysinge for

any power or commission companies untill they

to any captayn shall give for

of any of

six

good suertia the levyinge

the performance

of what they of ther

are to undertake

as well

as transportinge

men in such manor and tyme and to such place as they shalbB ) in Germany adds Robert Monrots account of his experiences appoynted. 1(84 the following to levy detail for this stage for in the recruiting regiment in procedure. He had

wished

reinforcements

Mackay's himself.

1632 in Scotland though in his

and then assume command of the unit granting Swabia in (83) (84) him a commission southern as colonel

The Swedish king him a muster-place

assigned

Germany where he would receive (ed. Innes of GO 8-4-727186 C. Innesp

money to strengthen Aberdeen 1864)t 213

D. Forbes I Family SRO, Rosy Papers,

55.

regiment. at to to 'Webling recrue have

Monro

later ...

recounted giving their

that out

he stayed patents ' to (85)

there

at

his

muster-place and money

Cloister and strengthen handed

my Officers, Thus each in

companies. letter the of by his captain

captain most

appears cases re-

been

a patent In return number

colonel had to

and give

cruiting to that provide the

money also. the colonel required

a solemn it failure for they James

undertaking is clear by their thought

men,

and in their

some Instances possible Captains manner of if

protected bond

himself of caution

against being in

insisting part it his in the bound

on a legal their

signed. like

lieutenants Lord Ogilvy

and ensigns requested the

necessary. kinsmant 1627. fact for

substitution in Captain family

Balfour, company

Thomas Menzies his appeal

as ensign not only only for

Ogilvy's ties, but

He based that to

upon

also

upon he had 'Seing be ranks he

Menzies raise

had produced forty in return I think In

fifteen the

soldiers of haue

whereas ensignt the place their Boyle in Prussia

undertaken has not

position not officers 1632 to

performed of that

condition, (86) paction. their

he sould

vartew

some cases In August them

earned William

by raising to gather

men at

own cost. and to

promised for

100 soldiers under himself

transport in Sir John

Elbing

service all from David at

as captain (87 )

George Semple

Cunningham's sent fifty

regiment, five (88) recruits James for (89)

his

own expense. to GlUckstadt is known to

Ensign lauff have met

Scotland

maynem egen wakostningkl. raised the a company out of of his dragoons

Montgomery in 1629

Gustavus

and to

have

charges

own finances.

(85) (86) (87) (88) (89)

Monrop Expedition, 173 ii, rraser, Carlaverock, 11,92 (ed. Scots Peerage, 3. B. Paul, Edinburgh RA Copenhagent TKIA, Milit. IIb/23 regnsk. B. G. do Montgomery, Origin and History-of

1907)v the

iv,

193 (Edinburgh 124 1948)9

Montqomarys

56.

This relatively willing

initial

phase of the It

recruiting not prove

procedure difficult

tended to find

to present colonels appear to

few problems. to organise

did

the levying Of Officers certain these

arrangements, prepared

nor does there to serve in

have been any shortage It was however much less and pikemen under

the new regiments. of musketof

who would constitute The most crucial round this

the ranks

eers

officers. revolved soldiers

difficulties especially

the entire when large

recruiting

system all

problem,

numbers of unwilling

were required.

57.

CHAPTER FOUR

When colonels of the officers task for

had

signed

the

contract recruiting serve

and had

decided in

the

identity with would the be

a new regiment, of or finding pressed men to men.

began the

earnest These

more either

onerous

in

ranks.

volunteers For obvious

reasons

recruiting

officers

preferred

volunteers

and

resorted required letter thereof bit (I

to impressment totals. to Sir his thank any. '(') This Robert

only point

when this

became necessary stated

to make up their Adam Gordon's

was expressly

in Captain

Gordon in 1635,1. (GLarl of Sutherland)

if -. .

I pleased

to accept men, not

lordship'

'offered

me sum prest me that I neided

Cod)'men was so willinge The warrant, 300 men for granting

to go with permission

preass

to Captains 1629,

Muschamp

and Douglas

to raise

Sweden in

September

restricted

them to voluntary not otherwise' (2 ) . Provinces captains allowed 'to normally

soldiers,

summoned 'by for pattern in the

the sounde of the drumme'and', bound for the United and

The procedure followed this

levies

closely. service

When colonels of the States

of the English to levy their

regiments

were ordered as

new forces drummes ... to take

in February and take

1625 they

were explicitly

beate

shalbe noted

willing later

entertainement upon their

upp such voluntarie souldiers (3 ) As will be under them' . friends to help

captains but appeals

called

them by providing at the a

recruits, mercat
(1) (2) (3)

were also recorded

made to the

general

populace

cross.

Spalding

on Wednesday 15 June 1642 that

Sutherland, ii, 161 Fraser, May 1630,140 APC. May 1629 APC June 1623 Mar. 1625,482

58.

proclamation Aberdene since detail for

printed

in

the king's of four

name was read thousand and fyve

'at

the cross hundreth

of New '

the levying stage it

soldiours, (4 ) Fuller 1627.

at this

was hoped they would instance dated

be volunteers.

was provided

by the letter

in Edinburgh the previous

on 25 September

In response 'Proveist, this rank guid burgh

to a royal ballies

month the Edinburgh to be maid through persounes of whatsumevir

and counsall

ordanis

proclaimatioun to all

be sound of drum makand mentioun that plaisis to pas in

or degrie Toun they Assessment

the said and inroll attracted


is

service their volunteers

cum to the Magistrattis of the motives


in the of

in name of the (5) names. ' to enlist


complex motives for the ranks

which

for

foreign

service

1620's

and 1630's involvedo of those their there displayed,

an extremely the

problem. will these have vary

When thousands considerably. regiments of

man are

obviously

The vast and the his of

majority

men who enrolled who served enlistment. is the for difficulty self-deception of in

mercenary left

especially for down,

no record has written the

reasons motive objectivity

Even when the of and motive. as a for some,

volunteer determining rationalisation The main volunteer patriotism, Others are

degree are for

extremely joining

common in the army of

personal the Ideals of the

assessments century

motives provide

twentieth are

a useful to

guide-line. hatred

important

devotion influenced

a cause$

enemy and his of

philosophy.

by personal ambitionj commandarg of training

considerations desire longing in for for specific or in of

self-development appeal of

and satisfaction, service under

heroic a famous

comradeship, travel skills by the

and adventure. lure example (Aberdeen 1626-41 some recruits, and 1792), (ed. M. Wood,

Pay and the while (4) (5) others

possibility are swayed

by family the of

tradition Troubles the Burnh

History 3. Spalding, of 33. iiq from the Records Extracts 34 1936). Edinburgh

Scotland Edinburgh

59.

enthusiasm

of their in

contemporaries. the strict sense, in

Finally, that

there they feel

are those themselves individuals

who are driven find it

not volunteers to enlist difficult problems ment. century patent skilled

by force to fit

of circumstances. into their types, noted is three likely contemporary

Some of these social

pattern housing,

and face debt

domestic

of various The motives also. It

e. g. women, family, above almost however ago. for all that

or unemployseventeenth

have relevance religious belief

to the

was a more was no the

influence technical

centuries useful could

On the other civilian that life,

hand there taught in

training, which not

seventeenth century.

century This is

compare with

of the art

twentieth in the 1630s the finer

to deny the extent

of military like

or the value points teers,

of learning

from a renowned leader and redoubts, cavalry,

Gustavus

of planning pikemen, Historians

sconces

and the best

use to make of muske-

dragoons,

or artillery. to unravel the truth about the motives Haldane, glory and a desire

have endeavoured but their conclusions

of recruits, describing

have differed imputed

widely. gain,

his

ancestor

from Gleneagles, factors

to escape from monotony as the the ranks inquiring of the Scots into Brigade

Haldane into which led an earlier (6) Barclay and Wilson-Fox, in Holland. ancestor, the important finances a captain influences ' commissioned were (7)

the motive

of Barclay's that

by Gustavus 'adventure, considered to pass into


partly writer to

in 1630,

concluded

employment, that Captain

embarrassed

and religion.

Gordon

Adam Gordon in 1631 assembled partly


the

a company 'resolved country


1(8) in 1626

Germany from a desire


distinction Donald under

to see that
monarch. levying

and
The same as being

obtain

Swedish in

ascribed

Mackay's

involvement

(6) (7)

Haldanes 3. A. L. Haldane, of & A. Wilson-Fox, H. F. Barclay

(8)

A.

C. M. Macgregor,

History

(Edinburgh 1929), 73 Cleneaglea (London Family the Barclay History of 1933-4), iii, 2 (Edinburgh 1901), Jig 17 of Clan Gregor

60.

due to to his his

'finding

himself

crossed

at home and matters own particular

not

succeeding or against to the views sources He was

expectations (9) neighboursl.

either

in his

estate

More attention steeped

however must be paid in seventeenth-century and northern

of Fischer affecting much better service. from that loyalty Elizabeth). being

who was thoroughly Scots, especially than

in Scandinavia other family

Europe.

informed In his

historians

on details soldier

of foreign differed of princess as of

opinion

the position

of the Scottish

of tha common mercenary towards the King also officers,

because of the Scot's wife' (the

'feeling Scottish

of Bohemia and his stressed but involved (10) influanced in religious emphasised military

Fischer for

and political most of all training

motives the spirit

important which

the time king,

he believed

under

an illustrious

pay,

and hope of booty. are seldom

Individuals by a single

the important interplay recruits.

decisions

of life motives.

motive,

but rather true

by a complicated

of various At best, figured he

The same was probably their honour motives

of seventeenth-century and idealistic.

were lofty

Among these

factors

and patriotism. soldier

Sir

Donald Mackay confided but that Charles he served

to Ramsay that abroad

was no trua his (This service loyalty points

of fortune, for

and affection the contrast largely Robert for

I and his

love

because of (11) of honour. Mackay sought personal and reputation, Edinburgh -

between the historians' practical set reasons great

view that

abroad )

and Mackay's by honour

explanation. (9) (10) (11)

Monro also

store

R. Gordon, Earldom 1813)p 401

of Sutherland

(original

1656,

published

1902)v T. Fischerp Scots in Germany (Edinburgh (Edinburgh Mackay House Clan R. Mackayq of and

73-76 1829)t

272

61.

'I

have seene other before their

Nations

call

for a

Guilt' thing

(geld, very

i. e. money) disallowable

'being in either 1(12)

going Officer,

enemie to fight, to preferre he wrote, 'let

or Souldier, occasion for 1(13)

a little

money to a world and glad

of credit. povertie

On another with than Scots credit, others.

me have health, not, if factor of that

riches

I desire

I may have more of credit that some

Allied

to this Elizabeth

was the patriotism the Palatinate. in normal these against these

expressed could serving

in assisting not

Obviously circumstances, were

a mercenary but Scots

be credited

with

patriotism argue struggle with that

Denmark or Sweden did and Elizabeth in their

nations the

aiding forces

Frederick in

Imperial

Germany, and therefore way of helping

enlistment the Scottish

powers was the Monro spoke of of our

most effective 'fighting King, 'For estate

princess.

in a good cause,

against

the enemies of the Daughter a similar Colonell motive did

the Queen of Bohemia. ' her sake I perswade

He ascribed

to Mackay, his good were

my selfe,

our noble

ingage Majesty motives

his person, and adventured (14) It seems unlikely service. ' of any more than The fact since it that secondary

to have don her sacred however that with these lofty

importance were called

the vast

majority

of volunteers. is revealing, as

mercenaries that

'soldiers were factors like

of fortune' of major

implies

pay and booty other

importance fame of

motives. respective mercenaries often

Though various commanders might chose to serve,

factors

religion

and the

be influential the initial motivated. what the troops

in determining decision Morgan's in the to take letter ranks

whom service must

have been financially 1627 made clear

to Carleton considered

on 24 July

(12) (13) (14)

Monro, Monro, Monro,

Expedition, Expedition, Expedition,

1,7 11,96 1,21

62.

important, hither

1...

most of them did with bread (15)

grumble

saying

they kings

came not provant, but they

to be fedd

and cheese or this

must have their Assessment the weight voiced in

pay. ' of

religion to

as a motive the sectarian century. religion With

involves points

the

problem

of

deciding

to be given the like early those

of view letters

so frequently of Gustavus are so closely

seventeenth of Cromwell,

In the

Adolphus, interwoven of the

and politics the thought artificially,

as to defy

separation. perhaps it is

and speech patterns moulded by

time

so effectively,

at times

religious the

phraseology, of

particularly

difficult The pattern Most of the of

to estimate service

accurately

influence is

religious

factors.

by individual

soldiers fought Sweden. those Six only Lord

scarcely

more helpful. side, for

Scottish

mercenaries Denmark or

on the Protestant

the

United

Provincesp

Monro commented, Potentatest

Catholique

'How few of our Nation are induced to serve (16) (the king of Spain and the Emperor). joined cause. brothers the Protestant armies, whereas

of the

seven Lindsay the three

cousins

one espoused Spynie, the

Catholic Lindsay

The former from along

group

included Alexander Alexander.

Balinshoe with his

(Johno brother

and Henry), The exception of

and George earl to the family

of Crawford tradition

was Ludovick aboveg but to for the

Lindsay,

brother served (17) major their

George and Alexander changing bidder armies

mentioned his in

even he first Spanish crown. since from

Sweden before was the status (15) (16) (17) leading involved

allegiance the market

Sweden power own

mercenaries, not raise

which

the Vases could

Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/226 State -PRO9 ii, Monrot Expeditiong 75 (25th Earl of Crawford), A. W. C. Lindsay iiq 53-55

Lives

of

the Lindsays

(London

1959

62.

important, hither

I...

most of them did bread (15)

grumble

saying

they kings

came not provant, but they

to be fedd with pay.,

and cheese or this

must have their Assessment the weight voiced in

of religion

as a motive sectarian century. religion With

involves points

the problem of view

of deciding

to be given the early like those

to the

so frequently of are Gustavus so closely

seventeenth of Cromwell, separation.

In the letters and politics the thought artificially,

Adolphus, interwoven of the

as to defy

and speech patterns moulded by accurately

time

so effectivelyg it is

perhaps

at times

religious the

phraseology,

particularly

difficult The pattern of

to estimate service

influence is

of religious scarcely

factors.

by individual

soldiers fought Sweden. those Six only

more helpful. side, for

Most of the Scottish the United Provinces,

mercenaries Denmark or

on the Protestant

Monro commented,

Catholique

tHow few of our Nation are induced to serve (the king of Spain and the Emperor). Potentates'(16) cousins joined cause. brothers the Protestant The former armiest whereas

of the seven Lindsay one espoused the

Catholic Lindsay

group included (John, brother Alexander Alexander.

Lord Spynie, and Henry), The exception of

the three

from Balinshoe along with his

and George earl to the family

of Crawford tradition

was Ludovick

Lindsayq

brother served (17) major their

George and Alexander changing bidder armies

mentioned his in

above,

but even he first crown. since from

Sweden before was the leading status (15) (16) (17) involved

allegiance the market

to the Spanish for mercenaries, not raise

Sweden power own

which

the Vasas could

PRO, State Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/226 11,75 Monro, Expedition, A. W. C. Lindsay (25th Earl of Crawford), 11,53-55

Lives

of

the Lindsays

(London

19!

63.

territories. so dependent and the were not thought.

By comparison on foreign generals

the

Austrian Spain

and Spanish

rulers

were not Italy Scots

troops,

drawing

men from northern Empire.

Imperial

from the wide expense of the Catholic for monarchs Cardinal

as unwilling

to serve

as might Richelieu's

have been France powers. in Scots

Whole regiments

enlisted

the 1630s and 1640s when France also figured as commanders for

was an ally the kings during did

of the Protestant and Poland, This

of Spain

the Venetian is not

Republic

and the Emperor himself the majority of Scots

the same period. range themselves

to deny that side. often

on the Protestant that of Sweden Indeed

Contemporary printed

religious

propaganda, exercised bias previous

in particular a powerful

by Dutch presses,

influence. in

Monro displayed

much more religious revealed Catholic side in in his like 1623,

when he served years of Argyll, with

the Swedish forces.

army than he ever Though a Scottish joined the Spanish

the Danish

the earl others

Archibald

Campbell, persuasion, and Ogilvy then moved

of the same religious aided Denmark, forces

e. g. the earl after into

of Nithsdale

and George Ogilvy, retiral of

the Peace of LUbeck and the

the Danish

the Swedish army where Catholics of high for his command.

John Hepburn and William religion

Gunn reached

positions reasons

Monro listed II

as the second of many and wished quarrell long .e0 Sovereigns, for the mortal of the yoke and to

own enlistment. wherein I might

was most willing my life

have seene a day, for the many reasons, distressed

hazard for

in this

but especially

the libertie

of our dread Issue; long nextq under

Queen of Bohemia,

and her Princely In Christ

libertie tyranny enemies); Armes, that

of our distressed

brethern

(Kept

of the house of Austria and thirdly for

and the Catholic instruction before

League their in

my better for

the profession

which is belong

my Calling; to our Calling,

having I longed

seene many occurrences fought

did

to have seen a Battaile

64.

in

the Fields

in

such a quarrell, that

being

led

by such a magnanimous King, that day than I had, who

of Heroick had onely hazard his

Spirit, to hazard Life, his

had much more on hazard and creditY reputation, while

but my life Crowne, his his

as he a King for

and all in

was to (18) strangers I. context. he using

Elsewhere Speaking stated

he displayed

religious carried

sympathies out by his

a different in with Bavaria

of the destruction that the Swedish

troops

army merely

frepaied

burning

burning,

the Papists also his mattered concern

at home, as they to Sir for Donald

used Protestants Mackay, for

abroade. 1(19) varied motives

Religion he listed

among his of which

the Protestant 'where of

religion

he had become more

appreciative the perfidy deter that if

in Denmark, and cruelty

to discover he had a better opportunity (20) This however did not the papistsl. his Danish service master;

him from threatening Christian IV topens ii an true

on 12 June 1627 during not his purse, I will

the King of Spain One of the


calling years renown, actor, of at least with and involvement respects of to the

seek another (21) man and a good payer' . above by Monro for taking
too,

reasons
profession

given
of

service

was a

arms. abroad

James Turner, because entered wars of

when eighteen for if military not of an appeal

age,

sought

service

a yearning to be, Part the

a restless a spectator the

desire of

my mind, ... 1(22)

these

the

service

Scandinavian of the

monarchs two kings

stemmed concerned, Both

from

martial with strikingly their

inclinations personal in these

talents with with

coupled

their

soldiers. I of England.

contrasted

Charles

(18) (19) (20) (21) (22)

11,62-63 Monro, Expedition, 11,127 Monro, Expedition, Mackay, House and Clan of Mackay, 272 1. Crimble, Chief of Mackay (London 1965), 109 0. Turner, Memoirs of his own Life and Times (Edinburgh

1829),

65. Christian was present Scotm-at Danish with IV frequently in person in headquarters Articles of the front out line

occupied when his 1627. genuine and during

near

and

Uar were read defeat

to the the

Rendsburg king displayed

After

the severe for

at Oldenburg Later

concern

the wounded.

he dined

Colonel

Mackayt

and the burgomaster though with not subjects

the same winter he was the guest of Monro (23) Scottish mercenary troops therefore of Maribo. of Christian shared IV could yet feel a sense of comradeship in the field. He

him,

when the king Adolphus

much of their an even closer with

own hardships bond with his

Gustavus

established along

armies. Monro's

was frequently billet in

quartered

the soldiers.

He shared

by him at Halle very cordially at Bernau, and the Scot was treated (24) 1631. immediate entourage normally Gustavus' consisted of senior like the marquis of Hamiltong General Ruthvent the leading but he nevertheless through science personal was so precise

officers

Swedish generals found it

and the most important contact aspects with

German princes, the troops

easy to make direct His own grasp illustration


II1

example. that

of all

of military

personal

appealed
fit at qufil do sea faire

to him at times
l1exercice

as the most affective


do sas qutil Rsgimens

means of hors

communication. ville. plus Is

a divers (sic) as

de la et

Cn y admira patience

so dextarits pronoit troupes, failloit so mettre serve

ordres

donnoit, chaval, espaules, genouil, postures

do descandre prendre tirer

IUY mesme do sur ou le sortes the do las

se- mattre leur ou Is

an tests

un mousquet

monstrar ventre

comme il a terra at

de compagnie, en toutes

promptement such

militaires.

1(25)

Soldiers

commanders

beyond

strict
(23) (24) (25)

line

of duty.

1,4,42 Monrot Expedition, ii, 42p 75 Monrot Expedition, (ad. Lo Soldat-Suedois F. S. Spanheimp Svsri2es 99-100 Krig, viii,

Rouen

1634),

293,

quoted

in

66.

Travel e nlistment Into

and agreeable with a mercenary late

company were also unit. Monro in that

advantages his

to be enjoyed

by

description marchg though is faces,

of the march In winter, who must

Franconia

in 1631 remarked unto us,

fthis travelling

was not Journey

so troublesome in forraine

as their for

to themt

needs lay were well Likewise convoles

countries, + heir out monies fo entertained, and did

to see strange

where they

entertainment,

some of us on this

march

get mony besides to hire

to spend at Francford. and sometimes to hire

when it for their

behoved travellers safetiest

guides, a King

we had Gustavus

under Godt our Leader,

and a powerfull society All of travel

Army to convoy

usp and at night,

of our countrimen recruits

and strangerst personally

and sociable (26) the one to season the other. ' from the broadening experience in a

the sweete,

would profit with

and contact sense.

foreignerso

but many sought writing to Lord

improvement Ogilvy

more practical on 6 July I could 1631,

George Ogilvy# about

from Memel IMy brother

had no doubts

the value

of enlisting. fortoune heir

wish

to be besyde me for ... Let him cum in ...

I knows no grytt good faschioun

honourable

he

can mak ther authoretie Scotland laird,

quher he may by the as in

of my Colonell he can never attain

be promoted to ...

to such honouris waiting himselff


was also

To turns or marie
advancement 1627.

man upone the baislie


the

tak

the pleuche
ther. 1 (27) in onet

be the stiltis
Personal September but the

is

all

he can expect offered in at of fact in

inducement was not for on the action part

Edinburgh

The regiment of Morton's with those of unit

concerned intended

a mercenary

earl

La Rochelle. the townspeople addition

The Burgh to to

Councilp

faced offered guarantee

a reluctance

come forwardp their pay the

who volunteered being 'maid

within

a week in

burgesis

(26) (27)

Monro, Expedition, SRO, Airlie Family

11,88 Papers,

GD 16/2/34/11

67.

and friemen eleven almost Guild

of this

burgh. '

The Incentive

did

not

tempt

many, only was kept, for

from Edinburgh eighteen

and one from Dalkeith. on 18 February and ressaive

The promise

months later tto

1629 the Edinburgh themet (six of

Dean of

was authorised

admitt

the above

28) twelve)S In Ireland


to Lord Falkland, with the the

in 1629 the Lord


! We have to reason join

Justices
to the think King

and Council
that of

of Ireland

reported

when Colonel he formed off his the his

Dowda was the regiment plan to for of

ordered taking join

a regiment spoil of of

Sweden

Londonderry, t (2 9) to

and then Though question itself warding of

carrying exalted of

King he did that

Spain. not the

Mackay those might

own motives of from 'the theas auin Scotland 1

service, He implied nefarious

hesitate British He kept

marquis danger

Hamilton. Hamiltonts marques war

Crown the King qhilk

be in but service out in

designs. to

vague,

sinister, bot its to

had no intention intendit qhat qhat the for

go to

the

Swedens break

leavis tym, and (30)

sum other meant

purpos

wold

marques his

be bringing so mania

hom so manie and muskets volunteers, of for

arms in

meant

making

canons

Scotland.

Some recruits, to eniist by the of

though magnitude these factors

technically of the

found private

themselves life. vital regarding

driven The for rates and their

problems need

their pay,

most those of

obvious whose will their

was the straitened but

especially Details of

circumstances be considered creditors protection

were later, figured from

by debt. protection in of of

pay

legal

recruiters records,

men from Privy

regularly the in pursuit the earl

contemporary creditors Morton's

Council

was granted regiment in

to January 1629,

James Melvillep

quartermaster from Records


Ibib-3Z,

(28

Extracts
USH Ireland

of
bul

Burqh

of

Edinbur T9 h 1626 -41p

34t

53

(30)

SRO, Lord

Forbes

Cilection,

GD 52/94

68.

Richard Davie, Captain Hepburn's

Carmichaelq general Collins clerk

commissary to Colonel 1633, French

of Sir

George Hey's

unit

in Plarch,

John (3.1)

Hamilton

in June of the same yeart of Lieutenant-Colonel (32) December 1634. by the lower or middle

in July for

and Thomas Lindsay service in

regiment

Nor was such legal alone, for examples class

assistance

sought

classes

occur (local

of requests gentry) for

made by important

members of the Sir Alexander (33)

upper middle Hamilton,

and even the nobility. required protection

while

recruiting

Denmark,

in June 1628, in March to his in obtaining no

and Sir David Home of Wedderburn was granted a similar (34) 'have 1629. The latter however must been a severe creditors less than for during the next two years he was successful

request trial

Even the of this original protection. extensions (35) Captain James Maxwell in March 1627 and his brother earl of Nithsdale (36) from liability to arrest in December 1634 needed to be shielded or seven further legal raising pursuit of his for debt, and indeed as against This the earl was granted L4pOOO for the

regiment

the allocations

of L2tOOO each to Spynie by his more pressing be-

and Sinclair financial

on the same day. liabilities.

may be explained

The large from Charles was stated for financial

sum appears

to have been inadequate, Privy Council on from

cause In the letter 27 November 1628 it any legal 'the forces penalties levyed

I to the Scottish that Nithsdale failure.

was to be discharged The reason said It given

was that

and transported the said

by him stood 1(37)

Earle

to a good deale many of the on 30 June 1629 not be

of more charges troops faced

then

VOO lib.

seems that for

the complication directed that

of some form of detenticnp soldiers enlisted 167 for

a Council (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37)

order

Sweden might

iii, 17-18,124-5p RPC 2nd Series, -Pc 2nd Series, v, 126,443-4 11,335-6 RPC 2nd Series, 111,124-5 RPC 2nd Series, 1,550-3 RPC 2nd Series, RPC 2nd Series, v, 443-4 11,12 Carleverock, Fraser,

69.

arrested

except

on ground

of

. horning.

(38)

Discordant men to volunteer. had a serious into French (39)

personal

relationships

provided

the motives

for

some he

In the case of Ewen MacLean of Treshnish with his chief, as a result returning could not

in Mull

disagreement service for

of which native

he went island with

tan years

before

to his live

in 1642. his

John Gordon of Birsemoir In Spalding's 'throw his evill account counsall for

harmoniously of the

brother.

June 1643 the elder hurt

Gordon brothers Johne Cordoun, pairtis


and his heir in

pitifullie german, at

and sore woundit hand and diverss bak yet,

awin and onlie upone slicht


wold in

brother

in his

of his
brother gryte

bodieg
thairefter miserie

occasioun,
not intertynne to

the bischopis
so that the

himg leave

he leivit and go

and

end was forsit

kingdom

in

service

with in

Captain

Hepburne

to France. '

(40)

Robert

Monro of Foulis not to

was entangled allow Foulis for

a bigamy case. in his his

Mackay was expressly

requested

to enlist deserting (41)

regiment English

in 1626 because he was being wife, Mary Haynes, and marrying despite His

prosecuted another

woman. directive,

Foulis

however did he never judged

embark with settled

the regiment again.

the Council cousin, differently. little being

though

in Scotland for travels

Robert

Monro the writer,

the reason in his his

Foulis'

enlistment a

tThe Baron of Fowlest in by his his spending, timely the best

being

in France

prodigall advised

reducted to look cure

estate

to a weeks point, house estatev he

friends

to the wounds of his off his

and family, having

and to foresee

to keep burthen to pay his

engaged his

Revenues for t nobly

teens Robert

yeares,

Creditors, also 'to

went beyond sea a voluntier. because he chose to (38) (39) (40) (41) 'live

Monro commended Foulis instead of deciding

abroadel

encroach

111,197 RPC 2nd Series, Clan Gilleen A. McL. Sinclair, C. 0. Skelton & 3. M. Bullach, 1,303-4 RPC 2nd Series,

(Charlottetown 1899), 332 Cordons under Arms, (Aberdeen

1912), 445

WO

(as the

many do) halfe In

on their (42)

friends

at

homep as we say

in

Scotland,

leaping

at

loafel. general filling wrote it

is

likely number

that of in that

all recruits March though few

officers in 1622, the

experienced the ranks with

a very

difficult

task

in

up the to with captains, are is

volunteers. the less get relatively totals. into is the of hard-

Chamberlain popular regiments few

Carleton Spaing

admittedly earl of Argyll

about

service of

'could Yet full lapsing

he finds of

(43) private failing lost stage penalties or of soldiers. to levy their

instances this

recorded

captains being to the

Whether obscurity to

due to being The fact for

documents brought that

such

problems

without

official were shows

complaint written that the into danger

determine.

financial

military shortcoming

contracts in

regiments was clearly of to these

and companies realised failures the full

numbers documented

and perhaps was that number of of 1629,

common. Sir 3,000 (44 ) James Sinclair for but the king

The best of of in Murkle, Denmark. fact bean royal (45)

who was unable This was finally

gather admitted

on 15 April for some time. I to recruit

he had 1627 figure he in

experiencing permission but of on 5 April the Peace in

difficulty from and in Charles 6 April

On 3 March 1,000 of lack Privy his

received England,

reports

indicated the

of

success. that

The Ousticas they

Northumberland for Sinclair.

informed

Council

had had no success by the mayor

levies

A similar of Newcastle.

communication (46) Sir James 1628 $for the

was sent was still Privy

and other with the sent

councillors problem a letter a year to

strudgling of

later

when on 25 July of Huntly

Council

Scotland

the

marquis

the

(42) (43) (44) (45) (46)

ip 3,35-36 Monrog Expeditiong CSP Domestic 1619-23,365 147 RPC 2nd Seriesq iii, csp Domestic 1627-89 77 CSP Domestic 1627-8,126,128

71.

apprehension 200 men' for later

or John Gordon or Ardlogie the king

who has failed Sinclair. Alexander the that

in his

duty

of raising

of Denmark under Colonel requested to Christian This Sir William

Three months to report recruiting as service

the same Council as possible Sinclair. this

favourably

IV concerning letter indicated

done by Colonel short, but that

he was 900 men Hey, Chirnside and

was due to the

failures 300.

Donaldson, Other

who should colonels

each have provided faced similar

of Captains (47) Sir for (48)

problems. many excuses from him.

George Hamiltonts his inability

letters

to Lord Ogilvy the full

in 1627 contained

to raise

number of recruits of Colonel

expected

On 14 November 1638 it legal complaint his full In Oune

was the turn

Robert

Monro to lay

official

Captain George Curror of Fenzies for failing against (49) total. The marquis of Hamilton was so unsuccessful 1630, greeted Privy that levying with Council only 400 men of the 6,000 he required,

to raise

in Scotland that

when he was he resorted to

the same disappointing pressure.

response

in England

The demands for were struggling with

recruits

were however so numerous of number deficiencies was that sent of the to

the Councillors too.

the problem 1627 letters lord

in England the earl county place

Typical

of many of their

of Nottingham of Surrey,

and Viscount that

Wimbledon, 'of the onely

lieutenants

complaining for their

200 there

are come to the

appoynted

imbarqueIng officers

the number of 48.1(50) unable other to levy sufficient

The more recruiting volunteers for their

found

themselves

companies, the required Council

the more they number of men. of Scotland

sought

more forceful

means of gathering widespread that

These abuses became so had to issue a proclamation

the Privy

(47) (48) (49) (50)

11# 4069 472 RPC 2nd Series, ii, 97-IGO Carlaverockv Fraser, 84-85 RPC 2nd Series, vii, APC Jan. - Aug. 1627,239

72.

on 16 May 1627 seizing of for facing it lieges the

'to for

stop

the

outrages (51)

on the But even

liberty in this number

of

subjects the

by those necessity

recruits. of that the finding a survey

document of all troops idle

problem

the

required

was admitted, and mastarless were is quick

was announced of

was to

be taken

of

men by Justices to exploit laterp of this but

Peace

and parish detailed here

ministers. study that of

Recruiters this survey arose

survey. it

A more

underthe

taken

may be noted were

many disputes A glaring have order forced that

over

assessment Captain to as sign

who exactly Maxwell of people (52) men'. apprentices captains$

Imasterless'. to in

instance-concerned the minister arrest of Buittle them

Edward a list

who was alleged in his parish

he could

Imasterless Genuine

were

lured

from

their This

masters is

by the

attractions by the

of

the

recruiting of

entertainment. Robert that near to of to release the have Drinkwater their the

revealed of fled

petition

Thomas Whatman, They St. contended

and others had

London to the

on

25 May 1632. captains Swedish warrants the land at

apprentices These

Katherina's refused Justices appear

Tower. the to very

captainsv or to

bound allow the

for

service, of the

apprentices be served effective to Sir

Pence been

on them. against William Morgan

The law such Balfour, who harboured L30 from an

of

does

not

abuse. lieutenant Barnaby his

The apprenticese of Conway the Tower.

case

was referred that

He reported

Captain

(Drinkwater's to

master)

had promised had been

had who also apprentice, had him upq but/failed deliver against Captain not

stolen to

do so. for (53) holding

Though John

a warrant

issued

Brouncker be found.

Lockierp Every

Whatman's possible

apprentice, source

he could

recruiting

was explored.

Even academic

colleges

(51) (52) (53)

1.603-4 RPC 2nd Series, 422 viii, RPC 2nd Seriesp 1631-2,336 CSp Domestic

73.

were not found outwith Scottish military without serious students Aberdeen it

secure easier the close Privy officers

against to tempt safe

recruiting

captains. off

These officers physically and friends. in July for those

may have who were At any rate the

away or carry

protection had to issue

of family

Council

an ordinance

1627 forbidding foreign service

from enlisting of parents

university or guardians. that it

students This

the knowledge in the College

abuse had become so to remove in Glasgowp

of Edinburgh less (54)

had been necessary centres of learning

to the apparently and St. Andrews.

vulnerable

Trickery
attempt to the to Privy

was alleged
enlist William of

to have been used by Captain


Lamb in Scotland in 1627. dated Edinburgh Lamb stated 29 November en route man, Borthwick, inquire the

Borthwick
in his that

in an

complaint he had been Borthwick a domestic in the

Council

1627 to but

arrested contended servent. house of

by Borthwick that denied

while

Dalkeith. Lamb, at

Lamb was a genuinely this. in Lamb explained Edinburgh, the

enlisted that

dinner the

a burgess paid

asked 18/-

Lamb 'to to

reconnyng'. he made (55) pay. resorted

When Borthwick out that It

over

sum of

Lamb for

dinner

when Lamb took is not surprising

up the to

money he had accepted that on occasion

enlistment recruiters

find

to violence. Alexander Innes

A clear

instance

is

provided

by the letter

written

by

Gordon of Dunkinty

near Elgin that

on 18 September Innes' son,

1626 to Alexander a captain and their sons and

the elder.

Gordon complained

Robert, of

in Mackay's struck

regimentg

had gone to the harvest tenants him. because they

fields

'Caldcottel

some of Dunkinty's to enlist with

would not permit could coast

(56)

or servants lead that

But violence of the Barbary

go further or Zanzibar,

to a situation of slave-trading.

more reminiscent Margaret

Steele

sought

1627 9 November a summons on

(54) (55) (56)

iiq 7-8 RPC 2nd Series, 439 viii, RPC 2nd Series, for be but this 1636, the an error must year as Forbes has recorded in the former latter in the one. not Mackay and 1626. was recruiting (original Innes, Aberdeen 1864), C. 1698, Innes Family ad. Forbeso D. of

226

74.

against off of

Nichol her

Rose of

Afflossen Brown,

and others their son been (57) U.

for

assault and for

and their

the

carrying

husband All for

Gilbert three service

Robert, sold (The 6.8d in

servant to is Captain presumit could of these default

James George able also affect men. in the

Forbes. Ogilvy Scots

men had then in Denmark. equals for less the of

L40 each

sum mentioned sterling numbers for each. which each per

in

currency that the

and thus penalty was not with contract

suggests Captain This

shortcoming than figure 1629,1) of St. in the of

Ogilvy well

sum paid L4 sterling

agrees

man for

Sperys-Hamilton of

The experience law-abiding Adamson in Fife order civilian had to to go to

Andrew

Adamson

Andrews the

indicatas

how a net.

could

become near

enmeshed

recruiter's

Torryburn recruiters gait'. ship.

Dunfo, rmline to

on family along

business, the for coast

and of

aVoid

the

known But

be active

he went

by the

'over

he was anfortunate, however letter him, Privy occurred of

he was

captured (possibly Adamson and at

and put the

on board

A mutiny in Ogilvy's evaded to the

there (5B) and

mutiny

mentioned But luck still

29 June),

escaped. the time in of the

because Council

he was recaptured (27 June 1627) he

his

complaint of to

was detained Recruiters and furtherance' of it

tolbooth supposed

Kirkcaldy be given

as a deserter, 'best direccion, Lord counterparts who claimed complaint Kerr, bailie

(59)

were

assistance and

by local the Peace in

government England that

officers,

Lieutenants in

Justices Hence been bailie. alleged

and their those in Scots their

Scotland. they had and were

was to

be expected 'impressed' Robert seized

that recruiter of

unlawfully Captain to have

coupled Towers

and Andrew in

Roxburgh, Wilson

and imprisoned

the

Canongate

Matthew

(57) (58) (59)

431 RPC 2nd Series, viii, 11,84 Carleverock, Fraser, 400-1 RPC 2nd Series, vili,

75.

and others in the the

for

French

service

in 1642. Stirling,

A similar ensign

charge for Lord

was brought Saltounp and in

same year

against

Robert

bailies

Edinburgh. diligence arrest

servant of a cutler of the Canongate by Thomas Johnston, (60) Privy Council commended the In 1627 the Scottish of Francis Wilkinson, bailis of Lauder, for his attempts to

masterless

men of his

own burgh and nearby only

Newbiggingg

though (61) that and

he The

had succeeded fears they expressed might

in apprehending in 1627 by five away'

one of the seven man sought. by a bailie captain

men arrested

in Kelso cloud

be 'shipped

by a recruiting claimed

'under

silence

of night1p within

though the in that

they toun',

to be 'all

honnest

menis bairnes reaction when

and serwandis recruiters Thus it by military both central

was probably area.

a widespread (62) into the

were active is clear

a particular recruits

were forced

ranks

not

only

officers and local.

but also

by representatives

of governmental foreign

authority, wars

Service

in a company bound for in the early

appealed century actual

to the guardians as a convenient and potential policy, in

of law and order and effective

seventeenth of as from

way of ridding procedure I at least,

the country

criminals. the reign

That this of Charles

was established is evident

a definite the

decisions

of the Privy

Councils part

of Scotland

and England. raised for

Criminals service

are known to have formed between 1620 and 1642. with before landlords be spared (60) (61) (62) (63) RPC RPC RPC RPC their levies,

of the companies 1627 Charles to all

foreign

On 25 April a pardon

1, to help

captains

offered and he also

criminals 'Highland

who volunteered chiefs and Border

15 June,

recommended that families trouble'

move such of their or have got into Seriesp Seriesq Series, Seriesj

as might and kinsmen into service (63) he directed In 1629 November .

2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd

576,586 vii, 419-20 viii, 11,636 1,578-87

76.

that of the the from Five

English the earl

pirates of

should in

be pressed Sweden. (64)

into

service

with of

the

regiment where for

Crawford

The Tolbooth were confined, Cray in

Edinburgh, recruits

most

important

Scottish the his

prisoners period.

provided 1620 the Abroch 1626, under took

colonels that

throughout prison for

Andrew intended to

criminals of Bohemia. were (65)

regiment

succour Robert

queen

Tolbooth to

inmates Sir were Donald

including Mackay that

the for

notorious his exile unit In

Macgregor and explicit pain of

delivered instructions death. for years confined for foreign Sir (66)

August

added

their gave

was permanent MacCallum Holland in that of

The same jail

up James in

and Alistair April 'certain 1631.

MacInnes (67) Six

James Livingstone's later in Lieutenant the Tolbooth (68) service' for 1642 his . his James

regiment Lawder

petitioned House held the in not the

persons may be drafted

and Correction Two prisoners troops Wilson bound for

Edinburgh in wars

there French the

ward in of

were

sought 1642,

by Lord and in pleaded least

Saltoun December that if

December the

John

confined would to serve

Tolbooth him in

Canongate, then at

incarcerator be allowed

grant French

an allowance Lord Saltoun's

that

he might (69)

regiment. The Calendar same type tions were of of State Papers reveals followed of Assize in even more time detail in in that the Instructhat for wrote

procedure to the

was being Justices

at this in

England. July 1629

sent recently

Cumberland to

offenders Sweden. to for (70)

pardoned

should

be delivered as Sir

captains Spens if for three them

recruiting himself

Even of

as important Dorchester were

a person requesting

James

Secretary highway

State

reprieve

men arrested be enlisted

robbery

condemned,

and permission

to

(64) (65) (66) (67) (68) (69) (70)

111,356-7 RPC 2nd Series, House of Seton (Edinburgh B. G. Seton, 1,385 RPC 2nd Series, iv, 200 RPC 2nd Series, 520 RPC 2nd Series, vi, 573,582-3 RPC 2nd Series, vii, 1629-3; j, 555 CSP Domestic

1939-41),

1,365

77. for to for Sweden. the sheriffs His appeal was clearly effective for on 5 June 1629 the warrant them to deliver to him

of London and Middlesex no less than forty

authorised

Swedish service

seven prisoners and hold

(one of whom was a in Newgate and in a similar for

woman, Elisabeth Bridewell fashion gaols. on behalf

Leech) (71)

condemned of felonies

In May of the same year John Caswell,

Spens wrote

of Captain the discharge

who was also

levying

Sweden, seeking of the benefit

of the king's

of such condemned persons as were capable (72) in Nine other prisoners general pardon. Francis HamondIs officer ... (73) standing for Danish for

Newgats were delivered service

to Captain

in 1626 on a 'warrant and stealing was taken

of reprivall, onely'.

convicted

man slaughter the initiative convicted rospited

of horses by*the

On some'occasions

prisoners.

On 2 December 1630 five They had been but being so poor they for the (74)

thieves

in Newgats appealed

to the king.

because of the birth to seek pardons. under Captain

of the new princet Their request

were unable service

to be transported four

of Venice

Hamilton

was granted

months later.

Privy

Councillors mercenary

in the early regiments

seventeenth off

century from Britain

however intended not This only preventive Colonel for military, (75)

to use these convicted course

to drain likely the

criminals

but also involved and Sir units

future

malefactors.

of action Hamilton with their

especially

@idle and masterless'. sought to impress

Alexander service

James Hamilton

idle

and masterless

men in June 1629.

Masterless Stewart service


(71) (72)

men were in demand by Colonels Alexander Cunningham and Robert (76) for by sheriffs in September 1637, and were also to be arrested (77) 1642. in in France But the Irvine's regiment with earl of
1628-9f 1628-9p 395,568 546

CSP Domestic CSP Domestic

(73) (74) (75) (76) (77)

APC June-Dec. 1626,166 490p 543 CSP Domestic 1629-31,3979 RPC 2nd Seriesp 111,152 RPC 2nd Seriesp vi, 527-8,533 330 RPC 2nd Series, vii, f

78.

the most thorough in Scotland that all returns parishes in

investigation

into

this

source

of recruits decided

took

place

the summer of 1627.

The Privy of

Council

on 16 May of

had to be made by the Justices giving the number, their is and listing boundaries. known that in Urquhart fifteen

the Peace and ministers the idle

the names, or all Unfortunately there

and masterless lists Tarves eleven

men within but it

few of these in

have survived, (Aberdeenshire), in Logierait (78)

were ten men listed fifteen

sixteen (Perthshire), These lists

(Moray), in Hawick,

in Jedburgh,

and one in Auchindoir discontent,

(Aberdeenshire).

gave rise of course of

to considerable those

the most outspoken Lord Ogilvy


the successful

objectors adjudged

being these
of

who had been named. men' to be vital


the 1627 regiments. the three Privy Colonels however Alexander that which to to hand these

lists
full

'enrolled
for to lots from

for

recruitment

the

numbers

Therefore Council (Spynie, should Strachan Spynie directed over writs areas warrants and the such the vther their being of

he pressed a division Nithsdale be the areas of

Nithsdale the shires

most

urgently

seek

through

by drawing Excluded family

among the this which

and Sinclair). of in being particular a special assisted

lottery Sir

influence

had listed was already the burghs

memorandum. by warrants parishes officers. Ogilvy he pressed Ogilvy lands of

Ogilvy from north the east

was disturbed Chancellor Scotland objected of Angus to earl were liff to

and landward men to to Spynie's

enrolled applied Mearns. enrolled Advocate.

Ogilvy parishes for

traditionally On 9 July men in the

and Strachan obtain

the for Lord

Nithsdale from the

of being

Melrose granted

He believed even further ans

other

recruiters

authority. said warrand,

He went subscryved quhair

and counselled blank, with

ye can procur insert some '(79) weill.

with

roume ye will

paroches,

my freindis

landes

lyeth,

do exceeding

(78) (79)

1,604-5,689-93 RPC 2nd Series, ii, 80-81,85 Carlaverock, Fraser,

79.

two idle those Council the but earl 'the

days

later

Ogilvy men and

requested their him of

a detailed parishes recruits

list

of

the

names of forestall

the

and masterless who sought warrants. from gritest the to

so that in his

he miGht own area could himself

deprive This

by presenting by locally,

information, of of the the that Council. ministeris I

he thought, Ogilvy does lerne been keip of

be obtained had tried their

Clerk pairt

and conseill them thair in

inrolled Nithsdale's to direct

(60) naimes'. Charles three I

men so secretly, influence in his letter each respect at

can not

Court of

may have to to

decisive that, their recruits of shires

causing while the

15 July

the

Council

Colonels own means, distributed. reached choice previously whether company. Lord at Ogilvy the

should in

be permitted of 'enrolled this

strengthen these

companies were by the with other to

by their be 'equallie

men' division

1(81) Ogilvy

News of

Council Nithsdale's captains had

on 7 August, Nevertheless to take could

and he was truly he felt

delighted that

of

Angus. managed

aggrieved Angus, return

enrolled not

men from be forced to

and questioned them for the Ogilvy again, read and Kirriemuir,

these

officers

To make doubly in his of

sure

that efficient

no similar manner

development

occurred

own highly Forfar,

had proclamations Montrose via

crosses

Dundee, to the issue Peace,

Coupar, warning ministers

Arbroath, letters

and petitioned to In all the

Nithsdale Justices of

messengers-at-arms heritors of parishes

and chief

Angus.

(82) in idle course or

The procedure men serves could the take. Privy

followed

a particular clarification

case of Robert

of

and masterless such Hawick investigations brought and remarked' befoie

as an illuminating On 1 November Council suitable fifteen for the

the scott

1627

Bailia

men reported German wars. 11,86-87 11,10 11,93-94

to

be idle The Lords

and masterless 'narrowly

therefore (80) (81) (82)

Fraser, Fraser, Fraser,

Carlaverock,, 'Carleverock, Carlaverock,

80.

the them. ate that

fifteen Their seven they

men,

and decided were their not

that

seven

were it they

not must

suitable

and dismissed that the fortunor

reasons

given,

but that of for

be presumed gainfully

convinced were eight

Lordships for find reasons caution if in to have later that decision of the this Privy

were

employed Two of each the

unsuitable had to the

age or

health.

remaining reappearance were

300 and 200 marks and thus The six of Nithsdale content their

against

their

before than

Council

required, nature. earl far

dismissals left were not to

no more

conditional allocated to

Borderers for with

so lucky Germany. for they

and were They appealed Tolbooth Privy

the been

transportation this in decision, the

appear five

from their not

days

against they were

confinement masterless. bnd their

Edinburgh ,he original refused. occupied matters of these

claiming Council feature seats and in

Not petition

surprisingly was

was confirmed case was that

An unusual one of were the

Nithsdale days

himself when these the employment Sir six of Sir and Douglas James were James

Council

on the

discussed Germany.

gave

personal to

assurances deliver commander, Drumlenrig, been to

regarding them to

men in of

He promised to any other of

Captain the

Douglas

Mouswald of

and not William

because the brother to of

men and servants Douglas. masterless' is unknown. The three (83)

Douglas men should

Why these when they

have

adjudged

be 'idle William

were

acknowledged

be servants

colonels

recruiting

in

Scotland

for

Danish

service

in

1627

were also vagabonds directive

granted

permission

to press

for

their

regiments

stutdy

beggars, the that by

and gypsies. that gypsies

A further should

ruling

in April

1627 repeated in particular

be enlisted their attempts

and ordered

measures be taken escaping to Ireland.

to prevent (84)

to evade such impressment retreat could be found,

Even there

no sure

because the impressment


(83) (84) RPC RPC 2nd Series, 2nd Series,

procedure
11,105-6 11,540-7,565-8

was also

in operation

in Ireland,

but not

81.

always

with

the same effectiveness if his intention

as in Scotland. to impress made by Sir 'I

A recruiter's

success

was much hindered This

men became common knowledge. George Hamilton to presse greatest forty for his short-

was one of the main excuses

coming in numbers of recruits. but the rumour thereof is

haus warrant that ' the

as I desire, parte of all that

soe divulged

may be pressed

are gone vpon their all but

keeping.

Of the

men he had hoped are were

managed to gather, to make use of his gone that in with deserts them. ' will will

one or two were volunteers, warrant. 'When they is

but he still expect the last that

impressment

goe hence,

and that

your Lordship

away, these ... be able

come home to the doores, had prevented

and I shall

to deals spies

and other

Only sickness (85) diligence'.

him from pursuing

them 'with

There Is no shortage
law and order occupied the

of evidence
attention Lord of

to prove
of the

that

concern
in to

for
Ireland

social
and

authorities

England that Sir

as much as in Pierce idea; We could Four years Crosby's it will spare

Scotland. intention give twice Sir

Esmond commented raising the (86) idle 3,500 young Not all

Lord

Dorchester 'is an

men for men here agreed the

Sweden

excellent to do.

some of ad many'. George Ireland the looked

something this Deputy

with Lord

view. that leaving doubt the

earlier in or the but with the

Hamilton 'objected

informed to their

Catholics the country in

Northern entering North rather the City

idle

swordsmen (87 No men' trouble planted there was of not

King

of

Denmarkts 'idle for North Captain for service

service'

Catholics

on their

and masterless themselves so recently Francis with if

as a social shculd break I.

danger out In to take

as a protection of in the

Protestants of London idle

by James authorised

1628

Trafford the king

up eighty

vagrants

(85) (86) (87)

11,97-99 Fraser, Carlaverock, 1625-32,615 CSP Ireland 1625-32,227 CSP Ireland

82.

Denmark. received assistance vagrants bodied' deliver

(88)

In June 1631 the Lord Mayor of London, from the king to the effect in his that

Sir

Robert

Ducle,

instructions

he was to render by seeking for among the 'stronghe was custody/tc the I himself on of

to the marquis and masterless

of Hamilton

levying

men who pestered Ilooset

the city

suburbs put

ones and the

men, and then having officers. letter that The views to lord 'the

them in

them to the marquist stated It in his

of King Charles of counties disburden

were expressly 19 June 1631. unnecessary

lieutenants Kingdom ...

was his

will

itself

men that

want employment. t(89) experienced


were thoss

Recruiting
among these other

officers

many forms
by rival were

of obstruction.
recruiting to arise the officers

Not least
of

obstacles

caused

regiments, officers of

because

complications the to

bound Clearly disputes took

when different for recourse when in numbers when those for 1629-31), steal

-recruiting to

claimed arbitration in the in

same men. settle such

need

some form

was greatest place annually

captains England of in their Danish

recruited when officers companies, or Swedish

same area. Dutch service captains

Levying came over

to

supplement the in

the

and Scottish pay. regiments to These

followed for men, were

same practice addition in the to

demands of which

newly led, recruits

commissioned perhaps from

(many conflict In

created

years to English

inevitably, each other. set

between 1627

captains

and attempts for

March

when a rendezvous the Privy the Council rank of might ) it In difficult of

companies recruiters king's (The that Master

had been from

at to for

St.

Katherine's,

strictly ensign from (90)

forbade the

Holland

lenveaglel the rank in

men below of or

forces fact the of that

intended those of

assistance of ensign

Christian above troops. found

Denmark. be spared 1631

the

shows

shortages Forbes

occurred and Sir

rank-and-file Hamilton

Alexander to agree

Frederick

(88)
(89) (90)

APC Jul.
CSP APC Domestic Jan.

1628-Apr.
-Auq. 1627,,

1629,10
182

1631-2,83,95

83.

about

their (91)

respective Captain

powers, Beaton in

and in particular 1627 requested that

about

certain

men at

Dundee. returned collect,

twenty

men be

to his

company, whom he had authorised to another Colonel

but who had been delivered William Steele for

George Ogilvy of Arns to (92) 3ohn Sinclair captain. Hamilton in 1631, but a to

had recruited burgess force Patrick Captain Sir

Alexander

of Edinburgh

him to join Bryson. Bannatyne

and man of Captain Cochrane's company had attempted (93 ) Cochrane. The most interesting case was that of by Lieutenant but Ensign Kinkaid Haitly on behalf of

He had been enlisted for Swedish service,

representing and attempted

Thomas Kelly him into

had seized service for

him in

the High Street Even though

of Edinburgh Bryson

to press teer claim favour for

Denmark.

had been a volun-

the Swedish forces the lords Haitly

and Kinkaid of the Privy

would appear Council

to have had a prior the dispute in

to Bryson, of Ensign

decided

though

he had to reimburse soldier's

Kinkaid troubles

the recruitment were not at an

money paid

to Bryson.

The unfortunate

end because on 5 Oune 1628 he complained the past Rival obstruct six weeks in great recruiting misery

to the Council

in the tolbooth were not to enlist by the

he had spent (94) of Edinburgh. that people for to

military

captains endeavouring This is

the only soldiers frequent for

the work of those regiments.

the companies

of the mercenary made by recruiters letters unusually

proved

petitions of

to the Privy Blair

Council

of Scotland

the issue

of horning. effective

and Beaton in particular or else turn.

either

encountered determined Earl

obstacles

were aggressLve recruiters On 20 October 1627 William

to seek legal Marischalt

remedy at every

on I November 1627 John Turing all

of Foverant suspension

and on 18 December of the letters regiment. of (95)

1627 George Gordon of Dilspersie horning


(91) (92) (93) (94) (95)

sought

laid

against
2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd Seriesp Seriest Seriest Series, Seriesg

them by these
iv, viii, ivp iit viiif

two captains

of Spynie's

RPG RPC -Pc RPCRPC

349-50 377 255 319p 327 423-4,450

e4. Apparently certain applied petitioned Magistrates there individuals was disagreement in the category as to the of inclusion

or exclusion men$. Pressure of Leith

of was also likewise

Imasterless.

to burgh officials. that the horning

On 10 October sentence against

1627 the bailies themselves of warding Beaton sought delivery (96)

be rescinded. the the Privy tolbooth Council

on occasion

exercised

their

right

to the detriment assistance enlisted occurred enrolled the against

of the recruiting the officials in

captain. of Dundee for

of one of his instances

ment George Duncan, at Jedburgh for in 1629.

November 1627.

Similar

In June John Young of the Myresq already was still imprisoned in the Tolbooth Three much to

the Dutch wars, of Sir William Kerr#

disgust

Kerr

who had recruited of Colonel Hint hold

him.

months later

Lieutenant the release

Gilbert

on behalf

George Cunninghamq demanded in Jedburgh enrolled Tolbooth for but of

of Thomas Coxson alias

to the lieutenantfs according t97) Sweden. In many other


work a of private

statement

already

Gustavus

cases

the obstruction

of recruitment
1629 for Francis illegal Sweden.

resulted
Sinclair warding (98)

from the
laid at a time of

individuals. against a tailor, report

On 4 September Michael for Gibsong

complaint

when Sinclair Ardowny recruits pay from

was due to

service 1627 they

with because

Ramsay three

was summoned on 20 December from the Captain Danish Beaton king. after Arthur

he had withheld received of their similar

had already Forbes Troup Patrick against Robert

enlistment

Lord

was guilty and Captain of John

obstruction from Sir taking

when he prevented away one of their

Lieutenant soldiersp action

Adam Gordon Pittochis. Home of (99) North in

Carlo Sir Forbesg

James Hamilton the

brought of

legal

Berwick having

concerning

detention

a recruitt

and succeeded

(96) (97) (98) (99)

RPC7 RPC RPC RPG

2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd

Series, Series, Series, Series,

viii, iii, iii, viii,

420,430 169g 282 284 390,452-3

85.

Hiome put Captain Bunkill


their him. John

to the horn. Alexander

(100)

The situation a complaint

was somewhat more specific against Thomas Kinkaid burgesses


young son

when

Bruce lodged 1629.

and David

in September
sons from joining

These two Edinburgh


Bruce, the though both of

had prevented
men had enlisted by a letter from with

CEptain to prove Sir

Bunkill Livingston at

managed to

discharge

his (101)

Colonel since regiment

George Bruce had

Cunningham. been

This for unit

defies

explanation Alexander different.

present

recruiting

Colonel was entirely

Hamilton's

and George

Cunningham's

Obstruction people place of of banded in Angus

of together in the

recruiting to early thwart

assumed

a more physical levying

aspect attempts.

when local This took

a captaints of 1627 his

summer

when Alexander namesake, his

Guthrie a servant to

younger of follow Maxwell

Kincaldrum Tailing, John

and his

associates him from

rescued fulfilling with

and prevented Lindsay IV of North Sir of

obligation

Captain with in the

Balinshoe (102)

whom he had enlisted More violent intervention

fcrservice occurred to embark with by

Christian 1626 in the of of

Denmark. of

Scotland Mackay.

when Angus This

Gunn attempted was not superior. the

regiment

Donald

departura feudal riot' in in

approved The of of the

Sutherland outcome Dunrobin being

Duffus,

who was probably 'tumultuous Sutherland the Tolbooth Gunn's

Gunn's

was a serious in eastern in

and armed which of resulted Edinburgh. is

vicinity

John

Sutherland Whether

Clyne

imprisoned in

(103)

Sutherlands

succeeded

preventing

departure

unknown. of the desertion problem and

The central

government

was well

aware

issued
officers

a stream
to

of instructions
their

to local
deserters,

officials
e. g. the

to assist
letter from

the recruiting
the Privy Council

recapture

(100) RPC (101) RPC (102)-PC (103) -PC

2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd

Series, Series, Series, Series,

111,163 111,288-9 379 viii, i, 443-5

86.

of

England

to

lord

lieutenants 1625. highly (104)

of

the

counties of

of such

England orders 'wee

and Wales often depicts many

on 25th the of

February in lye

The wording

situation them ...

descriptive in the most

phraseology, private

understand

lurking 'doe '

and obscure corners

placesto(105) in against fugitives rietous deserters from to was On of

Or again,

deserters

lurke (106)

upp and downe in General

and disorderlie ware one Issued regiment

mnner. annually were required difficulty 1627 the

proclamations 1626-30, colonel 1626 Sir and the

during sought,, total. with resetting

the by the In his

years next June levying of

who was struggling Donald Mackay

make up his experiencing +4-29 March

due to from

desertions. the

(107)

deserters

regiments

Spynie, followed landers to return

Nithsdale

and Sinclair concerning

was forbidden Spens' the unit.

and a similar In June

prohibition certain were Highordered

a week later and other to this their was also and very in twenty effective November for

degerters captains the two

from 'under month in

regiments of

forDenmark 1(108) Blair

pain which

death.

As noted charged thirty appear deserters situation who Gordon Ayr to

above, deserters have were

Captain These to

resetters. for of warrants the

warnings

do not further

been issued

apprehend (109)

same year. to to take the

Nor

was the from

improved had

in

1628,

commissions were sent

depositions earl of sheriffs George

those Lord

resetted Lovat

deserters in (110) the

Seaforthp of

and Lord and

Highlands On 31 March

and to 1629

the Sir

Abardeeng

Galloway.

Hay was granted

permission
(104) (105) (106) (107) (108) (109) (110)

to seize

deserters

from the earl

of Morton's

regiment

APC Mar. 1625-May 1626,43-44 APC Jan. -AuQ. 1627,252 APC May 1629-May 1630,34 1,295,310-11 RPC 2nd Series, i, 561-4,568,628 RPC 2nd Series, 429 RPC 2nd Series, viii, ii, 295-7,303-4,325-6 RPC 2nd Series,

87.
recruited being Captain 16309 in two action Campbell and in years earlier. It seems after in that their Argyll some had deserted return and Lorne to levies from the deal for from in before

abroad charged 1635

and others resetters magistrates

La Rochelle. November with those (113)

(112)

ware

enjoined

who had deserted It appears and that then

Lieutenant-Colonel sometimes attempted 1627 Continent cases escape the to

Hepburn's deserters fled

France.

colours

when Council home of

abroad Scotland deserters

return

to ship the the

Scotland. captains soldiers Border to

The Privy not to bring

on 9 August from In avenue are to the other of

ordered unless crossing from

possessed England of the fare the

a lawful offered Scottish fledd countyes where out of a

(114) pass* possible men that of that

detection,

'diverse service) into

be imployed and have Cumberland

therein' withdrawns

(Danish themselves ...

kingdoms

Northumberland, Scottishmen those lurking proviouslyt masterless had West where been parts are to

and Westmorland thelse twos from fugitives, safety of out in

discover , last

these

(which withdraws

within

monathes the presse like Ireland.

past

came into yett noted and they to

themselves Other seek east

and are the gypsies

thereabouts)' endeavoured men' enrolled., in the Ifled

(115) . to north

Three

sidle heard

Scotland# of*the

when they

quietly other

placelp themselves

one going to the

Flanders

and the of

two'betaking be got. '

Hialands,

no knowledge The facts about

them can particular

(116)

deserters

are

seldom

recorded,

but

(111) (112) (113) (114) (115) (116)

RPC RPC TP-C

2nd 2nd

2nd 2nd RPC APC Jan. 2nd RPC

111,120-1 111,55-56 v, 493 11,40 1627,325 -Aug. 11,229 Series#

Series, Series, Seriest Series,

88.

details enlisted agent

of in there

three Ireland in

cases

have

survived. Hannay

Samuel who acted for his

Sayer

was originally

by David recruiting Sayer for debt. and would returned

as an administrative brother next Sayer in Captain Durham where the the

the

conducted deserted

Alexander

Hannay.

and appeared

he was imprisoned grasp fact of that to of his captors

The resourceful surely to have

however free but

eluded for

remained possibly the town

he unwisely Ireland. Kirkdals,

Wigtown, in

seeking by another

a return Hannay,

passage Patrick

He was recognised and was once concerned again

(117) arrested. Coupland of Didoch.

The second

instance

Alexander

According

to Lord Ogilvy year his enlisted

Coupland with

was an experienced

desertert

having

the previous and accepted Coupland 1627,

Captain levin

Annen of Mackay's

regiment

entertainment with looked

wnto the last Ogilvy for

randewouest. regiment at At his in

had enlisted

Captain after in

Nithsdale's and on arrival

had been wall

Aberdeen,

8urntisland this point

had received

at least

L40 Scots that

from his

captain. for

however he had decided When he deserted his son-in-law,

the time with

fias right him for

disappearance. his son and also

he took both

good measure listed his an the

of whom were also he had concealed

provisional till Ogilvy and try Nithsdale quhair Ito keip Captain

muster-roll. Ogilvy that

Apparently the

intention Lord south captains. 'to try had them

had crossed Coupland with

ferry

northwards

to Fife.

believed

and his

colleagues earl

would travel of Morton's servants the

the same deception was requ3sted thais men ar,

some of the six

to direct

or seven of his Meanwhile

and be sure of them. ' quyit' till they

captain

him selff and put

immediately
(117) (118)

them on board

were found, (118) ship.


(London

and then arrest

Hannays S. Francis, Carlaverock, Fraser,

of Sorbia 11,95-97

1961),

74-75

89.

The third put

case concerned failing taken

Andrew Davidson to appear service before with

of Moffat. the Privy

He had been Council to been

to the horn for

explain reset

why he had not by various (not

Spynie.

He had since

individuals

from villages Council in arresting They broke

and farms record)

in Annandale. to

A person assist injured great

named in

the Privy

who attempted was seriously ribs

the clergyman by Davidson's stones at him'

of Moffat friends. and might present.

Davidson two of his if his

by 'throwing had not out of his (119) recruiting to provide and

have gone further 'They pulled

they

been prevented scheithl Uith colonels recruits Axel David

by others

whingear

and had apparently desertion

intended

to stab

him through

the body.

so common the Swedish to turn left

government which

and Scottish appeared able

were prepared to fill

to any source by fugitives.

the places therefore

Gustavus of troops

Adolphus in

Oxenstierna

favoured

the levying

Ireland. Captain

in 1627-8 for his brother in Ireland Hannay was recruiting (120) Sir George Hamilton As noted previously Alexander Hannay. reported troops of his in to the earl Irelandq of Nithsdale and Captain in Ouna 1627 that Stewart he also

was raising part

Robert

drew a considerable Colonel for

company in 1629 from the same source. permission to levy 2,000 in Ireland

Edward Dowda in the

was given

Gustavus

summer of the same year, was granted himself wrote that permission

and the to transport

following

May Captain to Sweden. of Irish

Bryan Fitzpatrick (121) Gustavus for he

men over

seems to have commended the levying to Mackay from his camp at Werben in with the

troops,

Brandenburg Irish knight note

in Ouly 1631 Sir Pierce

he approved for three

Crosby
(119) (120) (121) (122)

of the agreement (122) regiments.


iip

Yet a discordant

was sounded

RPC 2nd Seriesp Hannays Franciss APC May 1629-May SROt Reay Papets,

599 559 74 of Sorbie, 1630,32t 402 GD 84/2/184

90.

by Lord

Esmond in his

a letter

to

Dorchester that are not Ralph

three

months plans

later had

when

he expressed nothing, that this

disappointment that 'people 'will Sir 'If it against them ' his and . was being (son of

Crosby's offended the at

come to the King Perhaps loyalties will be will will be no fight that credit of

and also

hearing ' (123)

country' was mere

(Sweden) hearsay.

trust

Irish. viewed

Bingley that

Irish Irish

somewhat dangerous cause against 1,000 under of

differently, to fear their be carried for bring

be alleged the where

the

Spaniard they shall his

I answer gain

there

and they by recalling with Sweden

fathers. under colours account' behalf White

He emphasised brother 'were

opinion behaved King of

Irishmen Swedish

had already held Certainly carried Sir of the

great in

(124) extraordinary an the Stewart, Swedish Captain

by 1637 out in

further

recruiting by Colonel (125 officers.

Dublin and

Nicholas), on enlisting than

some German farm labourers

Whether and servants apprentices mention From (one of

recruiters from from rural towns

concentrated areas is but not rather certain. are

skilled Burgh

tradesman records rural smiths, a cooper,

and

make little records. two servants

recruiting, in in

there it is

no comparable that two

Aberdeenshire of whom worked had been in 1627

1627

known

an alehouse), (126)

a seaman, Among the tailors, From Fife

and a

gardener volunteers a Istaibler' year (123) (124) 1125) (126) (127) (128)

recruited. there were four (127)

twelve a mason,

Midlbthian a cordiner, in to the same (128) a gardener.

and a lpostl.

and Angus,

came a piper,

a wright,

a cordiner,

end a servant

1625-32,629 CSP Ireland 1647-60 CSP Ireland and Addenda 1625-60,86 1633-47,165 CSP Ireland 423-5 RPC 2nd Seriest viii, from Records Extracts of Burqh of Edinburgh 389t 430 RPC 2nd Seriest viiij

1626-41,35

91.

provided (129) a cutler, two pipers,


made special recruits, Thus it is

Leith

two workmen, while the

a tailor,

a Itasker',

and a servant

to

Imasterless'

a miller,
mention a piper, clear were

a maltman,
of the

men of Hawick in 1627 included (130) Lord Ogilvy and an officer.


abilities of several of his (131) and a virginal recruits and that drawn they into served player. these along-

musical

a drummer, that some at men,

a 'clachocher', least of the

regiments side the In people. from It the prisons

skilled

even and

craftsmen, farm labourers. included

unskilled fact the

servants mercenary was certainly

regiments a large

many different of malefactors

types

of

There

proportion individuals

drawn

and also that

many shiftless reliable, motive service to

(? idle valuable less

and masteriesst). members likely or those relations criminals. misfits of to local who

might

be argued

hard-working, volunteer

community into It

had less military

and were

be pressed lairds. presented of

by governmental sound policy to the

authorities send abroad

was unquestionably at home, the

problems

unemployed, and vagrants, that

landless

agricultural at opted scale at of

tenants,

beggars

and hardened these

The future willingly but the

home was so unpromising for foreign service shows that

some of

social

when the most abroad. of

opportunity them

was presented, known

desertion unknown

preferred

problems

home to

hazards

The other
Scottish the in/ranks those the ment time eldest tenants. (129) (130) (131) to the seek

side

of the coin
were

should

not be forgotten.
and vagabonds. economic By the pressure social

Not all
Some of of unemployof from sons the the of

mercenaries were their simply fortunes brothers but

criminals by the

driven

elsewhere. of a laird arrangement may well

system

younger

received existed have been 586

bad and board for younger

brother, Yet

no such them

many of

men of footnote

character-o@4+4-

420, and vii, RPC 2nd Series, viii, 11,105-6 RPC 2nd Series, 11,91 Carlaverock, Fraser,

92.

and ability by not force all of

who found circumstances. sons, It upper of is

themselves Even at that but it least

deprived so,

of

a place

in

society were been

Scottish are

mercenaries known mainly to from have the

younger sons. and

for true

thirty

eldest middle family Nor army scribes of can

these must the

stemmed also

classes, soldiers that

be recalled classes found are

that not

the known. in the and

origins it

from all

lower

be stated they write

mercenaries

themselves the officers

because could

lacked well

intelligence. and at least nine

Many of

commanders joined

had experience these regiments,

university upper nobles.

education. end of (132) functions actually earl that Scottish not the

Lairds social While in served of the

and knights ladder

and the Scottish

was represented the latter

by nineteen merely

a few the in

of

parformed of

administrative most Foulis It of them and is

original the field, were

formation and killed three

regiments of them (Douglas,

George, likely of though

Crawford) mercenary society

abroad. constituted all types a broad and classes as made up ranking king himself) some of by name nobles served

regiments

cross-section of the of in the in people, Scottish Scotland, the

representing in the

necessarily population. of Hamilton

same proportions the of highest the

domestic the

One of (cousin

marquis as the

same army

broken of

men of whom at

Scotland, least seven

including are

notorious the armies

Macgregors, of Denmark

recorded

and Sweden.

(132)

Marquis Argyll, Spynie, Forbes

earls of Hamilton; Irvine and Crawford Cray, Livingstone# (2) Gordon and

Lothian, Buccleuch, of Nithsdale, (2); baron of Foulis; Lords Douglas, St. Colme, Saltoun, Reay,

93.

CHAPTER ,

FIVE:

In clues to

the the

absence areas

of used

other for of

evidence the these

two

factors of

provide companies native The second

valuable of Scottish and a list

recruitment is the

mercenaries. often of the It narrow drawn to those of

The first his of

captain's also.

area, is

lieutenant the

and ensign the

surnames cannot

men comprising that but all the the

company. a company likely to came from have been one

be proved areaq

man in is

geographical from the

majority

same general in areas the in would counties Sir

region. of

The English Hamilton's probably

counties in

allocated 1631 of displayed

some captains range of

marquis Englando facilitate allotted William

regiment caused in

a wide or in

by ties these

family but

friendship most cases For Wales Roger

which the

recruiting lay in

regions, region four of shires

one general was accorded

England. in south

example

Valentine Pembroke to levy in

(Cardigan, Powell

Brecknock,

and Radnor)9 Wales and the Carmarthent

while west of

Captain England Brecknock, west

was expected Hereford,

(Gloucester, Monmouth

Salopq

Montgomery, Captain

Radnor, in the of

and Glamorgan). Salop east south in the

Vavasour's contrasted Suffolk

counties with those

(Warwickt Sterne Paulet

Stafford, in in the the

and Cheshire)

Captain Captain

(Cambridge, (Southampton, north (l)

Huntingdon, Wiltshire,

and Essex)p and Dorset)p

Somerset

and Captain York,

Clifford

(Carlislev

Cumberland,

Westmor. eland,

Nottingham The clearest

and Lincoln). cases of

regional

specialisation

in

recruiting

in

(1)

APC June 1630-June

1631,376-8

94

c" scale 01

30

Km. 20mile

ANUS

Waterston Balgilloo Tannadice*

Brechin Montro

For-far 0 Coupar 'Grange Newtyle Denhead* Balmachle -"'eArd4owny z Fotheringharn Guthrie G rang

Buttergask

Pourie

Dundee

Newburgh

FIFE

Burntisland

map

95.

Scotland the

concerned in

two the

captains of

of 1627.

different

regiments

interested

in

same area Intensive

summer

recruiting Captain Ogilvy

rivalry of with near of

arose Nithsdale's the shire

between unitp of

Captain because Blair

Blair both

of

Spynie's

tegiment-and strong the family of

men had from

connections Tannadice

Angus.

stemmed into contra

Blairs

Forfar,

and he had been Brachin. (2 )

drawn

recruiting activity Angus county. against his three these

by Erskine focused around

Dun near Bolshan preserve

The Ogilvy Lord lay

of

near since to failed

Friockheim. his the to

Ogilvy in for

considered this letters in

as his

particular Blair

own lands Privy honour Council their five

On 14 June thirty (3)

appealed who had nine

deserters Of these

enlistments from Brechin,

company. from places

were

from

Dundee,

Montrose, are

and one each in eastern Newburgh pressed a further or the Angus,

from but

Guthrie, several

Ardowny of from the

and Grange. other deserters House, in east

All

located

came from island in

more south

varied Fife,

areas, in

one each Fife,

Holyrood

Burnt-

north

and Buttergask those

Perthshire. deserters, they were

He also and listed the from resetters Forfar, Balgillo, in

charges twenty

against two

who had aided (it is not clear whether and

people Four

deserters). Newtyla,

came from

Dundee,

one each

Denhead,

Coupergrange, (all in Angus).

Ardownyt Others and Kinloch and Graomar Haliburton,

Pouriewere in in Low,

Fotheringhamg situated east nearby

and Waterston counties, Glassel

neighbouring and the

Craighall Kincardine, to

Perthshire,

Balmaki6 Many of

in

Aberdeenshire. Wedderburn,

surnames Pherne,

pointed Durwart in the

Angus,

Ogilvy,

Guthrie, became

and Thom. eyes of Lord Ogilvy during

The situation

more

serious

(2) (3)

Lairds V. Jacob, RPC 2nd Series,

of Qun_.(.Lapdon 389 viii,

1931),

167-8

96

'20Mil 30 K tn.

scale

01

ANC

US

GLEN ISLA CORTACHY LINTRATHEN KINGOLDRUM Airlie Kirriemuir

Montrose C's ose a Brechin* Maryton,, Bolshano KINNELL '0 Friackheli.

0 Alyth
Coupar, Angus

Forfar*

Arbrooth

Claverhouse

Dundee Perth 0
Klimanyo

IF

oTorrie Burntisland

ii

97.

the

following letters

week

on 21 June the in

when it

was apparent enabling his

that officers best

Blair to most

had levy pairt Ogilvy but

obtained fall of the the

from

Chancellor the haill

men enrolled men in Angus.

borrowes, not involved on the This

and the least were rolls in not

enrolled in

the

landwartf,

the

areas

of

influence the 'idle

The soldiers men$ listed in June.

volunteers,

and mastarless from territory, all parishes

demanded by Blair concerned, Thus

by the into was urged shyris

Council Ogilvy intolerable Nithsdale of this

'intrusion' were

bad enough

when volunteers being Counsell the peper counties were colonellist penned being

when pressed to Imoue the

men were Lordis betuix in the of off

uplifted. to

Ogilvy all the

distribut with the

kingdome

equalie contined

reseruationes 1 He was of Strachan's

and prouisiones not averse to

be Thorntoun. decided

the

allocation as special

#be casting to

lottes19 proposals, deteriorated all waged,

as long but for

regions wanted

preserved (4)

according The situation wolenteris 1 ar

Ogilvy Ogilvy

himself

Angus. because but

had alreddie Privy Blair Till same that he

by 9 Oulyp

$the

and no nan can however to gather

be apprehended were being issued

ane warrand. other parts

These and

Council

licences

to

captains, of Angus. the

had authority there

enrolled

men in

various

was an area If

allocation could

by the not

Council

Ogilvy for or him

desired

assistance. he be allocated might his have attention

Angus Fife,

be reserved Marp neir to

he requested So that

Strathearnp shyr

Buchan

Aberdeen ' out

lane

commodious for

my duelling. for

he concentrated men in and also

on Angusq

he sought (where

a warrant

enrolled bailie),

Arbroath

and Coupar

Angus

he was heritable

(4)

Fraserp

Carlaverock,

iiq

60-82

98

Map

iii

99.

for

men on his

own lands

in

the

parishes

of

Kinnell,

Kingoldrum, As a Nithsdale and

Cortachyp postscript to Dundeep

Lintrathen, he added Perth, (5)

Airlie, that

Alyth,

Glenisla needed Brechin,

and Kirriemuir. letters Arbroath, from

Captain

Ogilvy

Aberdeeng

Montrose,

Forfar

Kirriemuir.

The outcome was the division Privy country central pattern Caithness, (which Council among the three into three

of the shiras

of Scotland

by the the

colonels

on 3 August. north

In general

was divided Scotland

broad areasq

and west to Sinclair, This Sinclair particular was from

to Spynie, might

and the south

to Nithsdale. since

of allocation Nithsdale

have been expected,

from Dumfriesshire, in his from this central pattern region).

and Spynie

from Aberdeenshire however which

was included

More interesting indicate the areas for since

are the deviations

which

must have been specially captains. gained Ogilvy's Angus,

sought

by particular

colonels

individual Nithsdale however decided for that -

persistence as wall.

had been worthwhile, The Lords

and Fife division details

of the Council

on a three-way area. The full

of Midlothian of the shire Caithness,

as a compromise division Sutherlandt Spynie

solution

are as followe: Roxburght - Aberdeen, Tarbot,

- Sinclair Peebles, Banff, Perth,

Invernesst Nairn, Berwick, Kinross, Dumfries,


Selkirk, Ogilvy recruiters (5) (6)

Elgin,

Forrest

Cromarty,

Orkney and Shetland; Stirling, Linlithgowt

Lanark, Renfrew, Nithsdale Wigtown,

Kincardine,

Argyll,

and the stewartries Ayrt Fife, Forfar,


and the

of Strathearn Dunbarton,
stewartries for decision

and Monteith; Butet


of

Haddingtont
Kirkcudbright the

Clackmannan, was still to not

and Annandale. of other

(6)

satisfied, the

he feared

machinations Council's

circumvent

and make the

distribution

Carleverock, Fraser, iF, RPC 2nd Seriest

ii, 83-86 33-35

100.

fals letteris

unprofitable off

as may be ... 1

be thair

pauerfull to

recommendationes lawful maines

and

requyst. any vther '

He wanted

Nithadale

'provyd

to impetch your

colonell

to incrotch

upon the

shyris

destinat

to

Lordship.

Angus appears as Ogilvy

to have been much in demand as a the other requyst for colonellis (7) ittJ . thocht

recruiting it not It Ogilvy doubt varie

area;

commented liff would not

mutch worth Council

they

was this to withdraw

decision

regarding

areas

which

caused Captain There is no

from Aberdeenshire

to Angus and Fife,

that

he had been working fiftis

in Aberdaenshireq men presentlie them this with long

because he was reported coming from the north$ in some men,

on 22 Oune to havelsome

and on 29 Ouna to have Ikeiped Abberdein. probably south '

tyme alltogither contributed

Lord Gordon was credited

having

from Aberdeenshire,

from there

and Captain Ogilvy sent twenty nine men (B) Even as late as 7 August Lord Ogilvy on 17 Ouly. his cousin Ogilvy was 'sending had withdrawn to Kilmany with heir from the north. '

was referring

to soldiers

But by the next and had arrived bringing with

week Captain in Angus,

from Aberdeenshire in Fife,

en route

and Burntialand

him a virginal-player and also

a distinctive

Aberdeenshire who are known to but who would but

namat Gariocht

Mowat and the two Couplandsq for several weeks,

have been entertained later those desert. that

at Aberdeen

Few other

names of the men in his with

company are knownt

are extant shires,

are consistent

the recruiting Balfour

area of Angus from Torria applied men for of in to

and surrounding Fifsp Carnegies

Wass from Kirriemuirv (9) Pressure

Ramsay and Gordon.

was being enrolled it

the Provost Captain (7) (8) (9) (10)

of Dundee and his on 17 September.

bailies (10)

to produce On 1 October

Ogilvy

was the turn

Fraserv Carlaverock', ii, go Fraser I Carlaveroc, 11,829 849 102 Fraser 9 Carlaverock, 11,90-93 11,71 RPC- 2nd Series,

101

Map

iv

102.

Sir idle

William

Graham of

Claverhouse the

who had parish of that father

to

promise near

to

hand

over to

the the

and masterless (11)

men of There this is

Maryton young

Montrose

same captain. provided men for Blair

no proof as his

Lochinvar

actually (12)

company himself the from

had promised. by the Council

Captain shires for the Blair of in Blair Spynie

found quite

affected of

division Captain concentrate in August in Sir the William Pitmunis,

of Ogilvy, on 1627 parish

a manner

reverse Angus

that

involving had to Early

was excluded counties of

and therefore

Aberdeen

and Kincardine. Bellastraid Drum. to area Blair of (13)

was seeking

enrolled from to Inver letters

men in Irvine deliver in of from the of

and Ruthven In October

Logia-Coldstone was instructed Cluny and

Forbes

men from

Enzeant

Monymusk, and Blair

Monymusk/Kintare/Kemnay, the from Earl Marischal and one like area as action

(14)

had laid

horning

against two (15)

for each

eleven from

enrolled Aberdsenp

(three men Deer, Craichis

Kinnadiet

Elric,

and Pitfour). and Docker Blair's John next of

Surnames the for

Bannerment north another to Hill Oaffray his

Pendreich, On I

Hetherwaik November laird,

confirm target Foveran,

eastern.

legal

was

Aberdeenshire masterless

Turing

who was required Kinknockiet of Blair Dilspersis all Fiddes, Ironside, completed for common

produce of

men from (16 )

Pitmillan, Here the again

Newburgh, the

Fiddes,

and Minnes.

surnames

and Craighead in

emphasise

county

concerned. Gordon of

activity

Aberdeenshire men,

by pressing

further names in It surnames (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)

enrolled the north

named Couttst (17)

Murieson

and Patersong

east. noted in several the 11,84 11,94-95 408 viii, ii, 97 423-4 viii, 424-5 viii, 450 viiip area instances in which above recruiting that distinctive took place.

has been often

confirmed

RPC 2nd Series, Carlaverock, Fraser, RPC 2nd Seriesp RPC 2nd Series, RPC 2nd Series, RPC 2nd Series, RPC 2nd Series,

103.

The following local pointers actually redelivery by Alexander were assaulted them officials to

examples

show

that

the

names of would in

the alone which

levying have the

officers, provided recruitment helpful

and soldiers the broad regions Captain

concerned of John Scotland Lindsay

occurred. of

Alexander Guthrie

Guthrie, younger of of

the Balinshoe requested of at who had been freed servant/Tailingo Kincaldrum. The Guthries of Finnarak to are

by soldiers in the tolbooth

Lindsay's of Forfar.

company (18) All

who threatened these given

imprison in Angus,

placenames by the on behalf but Douglas. in (19)

and thus of Guthrie.

confirm Captain

the

suggestion

of

area

distinctive of the

surname earl of

Edward John

Maxwellg Maxwell

operating of Monreith,

Nithsdalev 1628 of the the

had enlisted latter previous Buittle. is

September In of the in October

had been year the

imprisoned same captain Names like while and Sir

by Robert

had requested Maxwell Buittle William

the

arrest suggest

masterless south,

men in and Monreith

(20 )

and Douglas is Kerr 1629. located were (21) late

near

Whithorn, Kerr in June against

Kirkcudbrightshire. in levying in

Lieutenant 3-edburgh a complaint

both

involved Ensign

and September Robert

Houston

brought

Cunningham,

bailie Ensign

of Kilmaurs, Alexander who

the small for

village

near Kilmarnock (also

in north

Ayrshire.

(22)

Lindsay

Lord Spynis

a Lindsay)

sought

redelivery of

of a piper Kilconquhar the Lindsay

had been rescued east that

from the custody

of the bailie

in Fife, lands in

few than from miles Largo more a no and of (23) Campbell William Captain country.

complained

in 1630 about

company from Argyll (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) RPC RPC RPC EPC RPC RPC RPC 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd 2nd

of his the resetting of twenty deserters (24) Roxburgh Kerr Andrew Larne. Bailie of and 379,392 viiir 11,462-3 420 viii, 111,169,282 380 viii, 378 viii, iv, 55-56

and

Sariesp Series, Series, Series, Series, Series, Series,

104.

Captain service connections are

Towers in the

were French

alleged wars surnames

to in

have 1642.

imprisoned (25) In all

men in these

Edinburgh instances of

for the Scotland

between

and appropriate

broad

regions

striking. In fact surnames, when sampled in substantial numbers, provide

a reliable the extent

guide

to specific

geographical

regions has taken

of Scotland. place in

Despite

of population and which might

movement which

the last

350 years

have been expected to area,

to decrease there in certain areas.

significantly to be an over the

the usefulness impressive centuries, name-lists registers still

of surnames as guides to which

appears areas

degree perhaps like

surnames persist in rural street this is

most strikingly directories, to which

Study

of modern or school Cunningham is registers in

telephone

directoriest true today. in school 'Mac'

shows the extent

one of the most frequent and surnames bearing

names to be found the patronymic

Kilmarnock,

are much more then in the

common among telephone east. The figure is over for

subscribers the Inverness,

in the west of Scotland Glasgow, for and Scotland

West areas Dundee, and

combined Aberdeen

57tOOO9 whereas totals

that

the Edinburgh, 26)

areas

combined

barely whether
modern

17,000

To ascertain
general in areas of

statistically
Scotland in

surnames really
a close This of survey

give
of that were

a guide
the the Smith, names ten

to

times

telephone

directories in

was undertaken. Scotland Wilson, the in order

revealed frequency Campbellv

most

common surnames Brown, and Miller. all ten

Robertson, Anderson, Ulast (25) (26) areas, RPC

Thomson, In

MacDonald, of

Stewart, Edinburgh, and

directories in the

Glasgow, most

names figured vii, 576

dozen

frequent

meffies -iii-

2nd Series,

Directoryq Section PO Telephone (Aberdeen, Moray, Nairn Banff, 1,, eg, Directory,, Section p18bTrY; ap (Invernessp Ross and Cromarty, in this 'Inverness' survey called Directoryt Section PO Telephone PO Telephone Directory, Section PO Jelenhone Directory, Section PO Telephonm nirmotnrX, Section

140,1969, & Shatland), 140,1969t Sutherland, 275,1970, 280,1971p 142,19699 141,19690

Area, Aberdeen in this called Aberdeen Caithness Glasgow

Group A survey

Area, Group B and Orkney), Area.

West Area Scotland Area. Edinburgh Dundee Area

105.

names Dundee list

in

each

of

the of

areas, the

though most

the

order

varied

slightly. the

In above

area ten,

nine but

twelve and areas, frequency first

frequent areas the

names came from showed of five more

of

Aberdeen other the in

Inverness with

variation. showed the which and Taylor,

'Aberdeen, Smith above retained Thomson, Davidson, at tan

like the

the top of

exception but only

Inverness, names

table, twelve for

from

appeared their but

the

Aberdeen

area.

Those Stewart Raid,

position the others

were were

Smith, displaced In

Robertson, by Milne, area

Anderson# Duncan, the most formed in Rosso from very

Frasert

and Gordon. with above

Inverness

common name the the far mere north.

was MacDonald trio of names

and along from the

Robertson ten which

and Campbell were prominent Mackay, clear were

The others Morrison, that in Brown, lowland

were

MacKenziet

MacLeodg It

Fraserp was also

MacRae, investigation

Sutherland Scott, areas of

and Monro. Wilson, central are Miller

this

and Young

common surnames

and southern soon discerned

Scotland. in the statistical The real the frequency signiof

Two separate compilation ficancs the are of of the

features surnames, former in

frequency only

and distinctiveness. in comparison other with hand

emerges other

same surname seldom large area. directly

areas. but usually

On the

distinctive totals in

names one is or when

numericallyl They from are

show relatively most e. g. reliable Dunlopp

high

particular derived a family of

when the Chirnsidep house,

surname Udny, Turing

a placename, connection with

has special Hannay was also A group directories, to the of

a definite

e. g.

Foveranp A check

Sorbie. the directories on the names pattern of distinctive in areas The Esslemontf all

made in of eight and

surnames. the were area

Aberdeenshire then distinctive

investigated was, . from other

surnames results

subjected

same procedure were

and the

tabulated. Cheynep

Aberdeenshire

names chosen

Ironside,

Craigmyle,

106.

Oaffray, (Angus),

Kelman, Pennycook

Leask

and

Shand,

while

the

others

were

Auchterlonie

(Midlothian), were as follows:

and Moffat -

(Lanarkshira).

The results

Aberdeen Ironside Craigmyle Cheyne Esslemont Jaffray Kelman Leask Shand 48 27 73 32 33 40 67 96

Dundee 7 0 4 1 3 6 4 19

Edinburgh 14 0 30 4 5 5 34 34

Glasgow 11 1 27 3 8 13 18 46

West 8 2 10 6 10 7 13 14

Inverness 3 0 4 1 1 4 7 4

Auchterlonis Pennycook Moffat The conclusions density of population

a 2 10 are in obvious the

13 10 27

8131 30 150 and impressive. of in in their Scotlandt their 12 247 Despite distinctive own area. areas the 80 221 modern 8

south totals

Aberdeenshire The extent is confirmed to by

names still which the other lower

show much larger names tend half of the to table. the

remain

native

As a final Edinburgh Ogilvy, each in

comparison were

Post

Office (27 )

Street Three totals

Directories Angus of

for selected, for

and Dundee Carnegie, both

contrasted. and the which

names were entries

and Auchterlonie, The figures Dundee

checked

directories.

emerged Edinburgh 38 2 1

were,

Ogilvy Carnegie Auchterlonis When the (27) process Office office was reversed Directoryp Directory,

62 16 11 and two

south-eastern

names chosen, 1969-70

Hepburn

Post Post .

Edinburgh and Leith, Dundee, 1971

107.

and Home, the

pattern

was reversed. Dundee Edinburgh 27 52 today Scotland, surnames and it taken is in bulk

Hepburn Home There provide certain is no doubt general the past therefore guide to that areas of

8 13 even of

a broad that in

virtually reliable

a pattern

surnames

was even

more

as a geographical The accumulation centuries a broad is period more of to were name. of

guide. of evidence about Information 1300 (when of time surnames and areas in relating becoming because being past to more the

complicated. timep 1800. from

was collated surnames were

standardised) references for each

The range without sources

was extensive number

valueless Three main

a substantial were for utilised.

available Blackfs before area of Old,

Firstly, and references whether

Surnames 1800

Scotland each

was searched relevant the the

comments to ascertain

regarding

surname Moncreiffe main of areas

any

predominated. map was checked Thirdly, the

Secondly, to note

and Pottinger shown for

'Scotland

particular was carried

surnames. out in of prone to which

an independent ministers 1550 area for

survey were

Scott's for

Fasti the

names of

tabulated

various

counties been more

Scotland leave pattern minister laboured tables their

between local

and 1800. than

Ministers

may have tenantsq

agricultural It areas

yet the

even

so a clear of If in the he the apparent. sent sons in

emerged which in shown

most

counties. but the his

was not in which

origin

was noted

he worked. to each

several below. involved

counties

name was credited of large. have Fasti been survey the Fasti

The limitations are not really must this

survey

are

The numbers to the

Many familits Episcopalian was to or provide

never

ministryg But the

and others purpose of

Catholic significant

faith.

108.

guidelines, in addition complemented Several


place, areap widely Baxter, bearing defined as county Finally other of lises standing unique particular surrounding though e. g.

both

in

frequency

and distinctiveness above.

which

could the

be used sources

to the sources each other reservations


a particular with

noted a very

In many cases manner.

three

in

convincing

must be made at the outset.


surname Aberdeenshires claims and may be specially it is also

In the first
associated with it to like an be

Gordon

possible most of

for

spread. Watson the lines

No area

may be made from the same is it is true difficult

trade-names surnames draw sharply and

and Wrighto '-son'. indicate can always names are the

most to

suffix to

Thirdly

surname-areast be decided misfit these

and nothing areas belonged apparent shape of

as hard for

fast

boundaries there are

regarding which not

surnames. originally to stages crystalNotwitha the

names, are is

areas.

Which but they

in the

the

early

a surveyt

uncovered

as the area for

pattern names. to display to

and indicates all these of

predominant

Particular was found surnames from the

complications names resulting being combined

each from with

county those those

amalgam

native immediately

county

counties. of the Fasti survey were the as follows: fact that more populous

The results (Due counties allowance naturally

should provided

be made for larger raw

frequency

figures)

SUTHERLAND & CAITHNESS Monro 20 Ross 9 Rose 6

Mackay Gray

10 9

Anderson Brodie

7 6

Raid Robertson Sutherland

5 5

109.

ROSS & CROMARTY

Mackenzie Monro Ross

41 34 31

Fraser MacRae MacLennan

16 8 7

Reid Robertson Hay Urquhart

7 7 5 5

INVERNESS Grant Fraser 27 22 Clark Mack3nzie 6 6 Gordon MacPhail Watson 5 5 5

ARGYLL Campbell MacLa(u)chlen MacLean 65 13 11 Stewart Cameron MacCallum 9 8 a Fraser Lindsay MacCalman MacDonald There were 36 other MORAY/& NAIRN Gordon Dunbar Grant Leslie Chalmers Innes Douglas 28 23 16 15 13 13 10 surnames with Hay Stewart Cumming Spens Anderson Fraser Keith the patronymic 10 10 9 9 a 7 7 Rose Urquhart Brown Campbell Forbes Guthrie Paterson 'Mac. # 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5

ABERDEEN& BANFF Gordon Forbes Strachan Leslie Reid Burnet Robertson 37 35 26 22 20 19 19 Irvine Chalmers Hay Mitchell Ross Thomson Mill/Milne 18 16 16 16 16 16 15 Anderson Ogilvy Brown Garden Keith Seaton 14 14 13 12 12 12

110.

The distinctive Leask 59 Oaffray

names were - Cheyne llt 59 Turing 5t Scroggie

Garioch

8, Duff

8, Shand 7,

30 Cushnie

3, Udny 2.

KINCARDINE & ANGUS Lindsay Ramsay Ogilvy Strachan Thomson Rait 21 17 15 15 15 14 Lyon Robertson Guthrie Campbell Traill Anderson 13 10 9 8 8 7 Auchterlony Bruce Carnegie Gray Melvillp Mill/Milne Mitchell The distinctive Norie PERTH Stewart Drummond Murray Campbell Robertson Smith Anderson Moncreiffe 25 22 22 17 16 14 13 13 Ramsay Graham Young Menzies Scott Stirling Wemyss Lindsay names were - Dunning Ireland 4, Hering, 12 11 11 10 10 10 10 9 Strachan Balnavis Blair Ferguson Glass Malcolm Ross Row Playfair 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 2, Rollok 30 5t Patillo names were - Fulle rton 6, Arbuthnot 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5, Halib urton 5j

4j Auchinleck

4, Scrymge our 4v Tyrie

3f Maule 3.

The distinctive Butter, Indicative Comrie 3,

2, M acIntoshr Oliphant

Balvaird,

2, and Monteith. (Angus)

of the surround ing counties

were surnames

Inverarity

(Inverness). Badenoch and

Ill.

FIFE & KINROSS Thomson Bruce Anderson Balfour Wood Brown Melville 16 14 13 11 11 10 10 Wilkie Scott Simson Spans Wilson Nairn Pitcairn 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 Auchinleck Carmichael Leslie Martin Moncreiffe Murray Ramsay Walker Distinctive names were: 10 9 7 Distinctive Graham 39 Galbraith DUNBARTON Anderson Distinctive MacAulay RENFREW Hamilton Maxwell Cunningham Distinctive Grinockt LANARK Hamilton Lindsay Scott Brown Livingston Anderson Baillie 50 20 11 10 9 8 8 Somerville Thomson Douglas Wilson Bell Boyd Gray 8 6 7 7 6 6 6 Maxwell Forrester Inglis Jack Muirhead Sharp Young 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 Paisley. 11 7 6 Brown Fleming Stirling 6 6 6 Crawford Hay Miller 3, Knox 2, 5 5 5 2. 7 Stewart 7 Campbell Graham, MacFarlane 6 2, Stark 60 Wemyss 6, Durie 5, Tullidelph 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5.

'STIRLING & CLACKMANNAN Stirling Forrester Wright Anderson Simson Edmonston Buchanan 4j Shaw 2. 6 6 6 Cunningham Livingston Bennett 5 5 5 3, Elphinston 2,

names were: 2, Kinkaid,

Bruce 2 , Erskine

names were:

Colquhoun j Erskinet

names were:

Semple 4, Shaw 3, Houston

112

Distinctive naming allTE Stewart AYR Cunningham Hamilton Campbell Wallace Boyd Miller Distinctive Semplat WIGTOIJIN Boyd Distinctive KTRKCUD9RIGHT` Brown MacClellan 12 6 5 Blair 18 16 13 11 9 9 13 4t

names were: Lockhart

Carstairs, 4, Main

Cleghorn, 3,

Cleland 2,

3, Weir

Clydesdalet 4.

Dennistoun,

Symington

MacLean

Crawford Kennedy Montgomery W31ker rerguson Fullarton

8 a 8 8 7 7 31 CathcartMuir

Lindsay Raid Hunter Maxwell Young

7 7 6 6 6

names were: S. Fergu shill 2,

Dalrymple Eglinton.

3,

Dunlop,

names were:

Adair-21

MacCullocht

MacKie

2,

Vaus

2.

Thomson Gordon

6 5

Hamilton MacKie Murray

5 51 5 3, MacNaught 2.

Distinctive DUMFRTES Johnstone Brown Henderson Lawrie Hamilton 18 16 12 9 8

names were

Heron

2,

MacCulloch

20 Walsh

Scott Hunter Maxwell Murray Thomson

7 6 6 6 6

Williamson Young Douglas Home Little Ramsay

6 6 5 5 5 5 49

Distinctive Carlyle 3, Grierson

names were: 2, Armstrong

Jardine 3,

2.

Kirkpatrick

2,

Gladstanes

Glendinning,

Carruthers.

113.

WEST LOTHIAN

Hamilton
MIDLOTHIAN Hamilton Brown Robertson Walker Dickson Forrester Johnstone EAST LOTHIAN Hamilton Hepburn Home PEEBLES Hay There for each

Other

totals

were not

significant.

15 9 8 7 6 6 6

Knox Paterson Anderson Gibson Hunter Lindsay Lumsden

6 6 5 5 5 5 5

Murray Smith Spottiswood Thomson Watson Wishart

5 5 5 5 5 5

10 10 9

Lauder MacGhie Raid

5 5 5

Simson Sinclair

5 5

9 was a broad were small.

Dickson scatter of other

8 southern

Douglas names, but the

a totals

SELKIRK Scott ROXBURGH Douglas Scott Brown Turnbull Johnstone 17 16 9 a 7 Knox Rutherford Ainslie Dickson Elliot 7 7 6 6 6 Home Simson Somerville Wilkie Kerr 6 6 6 6 5 7 All other names h ad insignificant totals.

114.

BERWICK Home Douglas Johnstone Distinctive Pringle, Tweedie. These by Black confused names modern clearly It can for figures provide illustrated is in heavily the Fasti substantial in the support Lyon map. This the for the areas suggested is in more the for Redpath 39 9 8 names were: 4, Rutherford, sell Ramsay Smith Cranston 3, 7 7 7 Haigp 2t 'Hepburn Scott Swinton Kerr. Trotter Lauder 6 5 5 49 Lumsden 3.

Spottiswood

21 Turnbull,

and those if the area

The pattern is evident

populated. and in By contrast and

Edinburgh and in

tilephone pattern in the to

directories is the most Highland above areas

Glasgow outlined

Edinburgh. rural that

the

counties

especially noted in

areas.

be contended the

the, evidence of surnames the

survey general the

establishes Scotland. But guide the light it is to

validity the for Given of

as pointers more to reliable give in

of will be.

The larger not the possible area. pattern

numbers such these

pointers

evidence reservations the or

more the

then

a general of throw

interpretation can origin.

surname on their

any

company, unknown

names of

soldiers of

previously

uncertain

areas

115.

CHAPTER

SIX

The previous determining Scotland. however area Both areas sources relatively are Scottish of the the the

chapter area of of

illustrated origin these for

the

value of

of

two

key

factors troops area. to the

in from If

companies captain's

mercenary own native clues of his

The first captain's company of

was the is

origin

unknown,

constructive surnames

may be provided are for useful

by the for

soldiers. of recruiting Scottish and used. to mention in Scottish of Nor of

types in

information used

the

clarification service of

Scotland are

Danish silent are

and

Swedish

because recruiting, areas given

surprisingly few references

on many aspects made there generous in the the to the

exact

family commanders. makes which the

histories

the lack

space of

marcenary Copenhagen companies a giant regarding Scottish extensive in

Unfortunately task the of deciding king

muster areas the

rolls for

original like lost.

served of which service to for

Danish

rather are

construction

jigsaw

many vital is slightly

pieces

The situation references is even of less muster rolls in

Swedish sources than

better. serving IV, the

Though Sweden

mercenary those the under areas regiment Mackay.

captains Christian for to It

existence to in

Stockholm The first

enables Scottish of portsp Donald

many companies serve is Denmark to

be suggested. the Thirty in Years 1626

War was that from that and three the south of

known and

have

departed it

Cromarty, of

Aberdeen, three parts

Leith. in

Hence the

seems probable north for east, the from (1) and deserters

unit of

consisted Scotland

levied The Privy

north, records in

respectively. Mackay

Council

spring his also

1623

show that

was still

interested Caithness, had to

deserters

regiment that his

from

Invernessq Sir

Sutherlando Patrick MacKie

and Aberdeen, a list of

captain

submit

(1)

RPC

2nd Series#

Up

295-7

116

0Mey
I hurs4& Sandside Watten Z Nos *Muir kIe

77 d.

Wick CAITHNESS
V 9
t. ybsto r

SUTHER

L- AND

West Garty Culg -11 r

Golspie.

Dornoch

InvercarronEASTER
*Kildermarie Contulliche

Fearn
Priestl 0

Assynt Foulls*

sd .
calcots 0

KildunR0SS
01 le ol Map v

M0RA

K __40 25MIles

117.
In the south west to the sheriffs Mackayls native own influence Strathnaver his of Ayrp Galloway would and Nithsdale. (2)

Colonel

have been strongest At least originsq earl four

among the of the Gunn of

Mackays of his six

in Sutherland.

known names of men in Gartyt

company imply and Sinclairt

northern son of the

Wester Also the

two Mackenzies

of Caithness. to have been viz. two Mill,

drawn from northern soldiers of Captain

counties

of Scotland

would appaar near Evanton,

3ohn Monro of Assynt Ross of Priesthillp MacLeod, and Fraser.

Monros (one from Lumlair), Raev Mansong Hayp Duff, array of surnames for

Denunat This is

Oohnsont a not

unlikely Thomas Mackenzie lieutenant, The names five

the area north and hailed

of Dingwall. from Kildunp in

Captain and his Easter

was a son of Lord Seaforth the chronicler of his Monros, Caddellt men would shires. men leave Mackay, Dunbart Robert little flonrot

came from Obsdale of the general Grayt

Ross. viz.

doubt

area concernedp

Bean, Mackenziep MacLeod, Ross,

Brown, Sutherlandl Lochaber). neighbouring

Bromfield, Most of these northern John Monro 1626,

(from Tough and or other in

stem from Ross and Cromarty The evidence The extant that grouping Carnegie, proof in is not

so valuable

the case of Captain date

of Obsdale. so it less is

names of his

soldiers

from 1628 and not for the

possible

company amalgamations of three Garden, to suggest Monrost and Coull. that

are responsible Innest Philipp there

conclusive

Kerrq

Reidj does not procedure

Hayp Kennedy, seem sufficient of recruiting/his is likely

Nevertheless

he departed Ross.

from the normal

own area, in

i. e. Easter

Robert

Monro of Foulis and

to have levied another

the same region

of Ross and Cromarty, new conscripts

when he levied northern, viz.

company in 1628 his

were certainly MacWorche,

Mackay of Scourie

in Sutherlandp

MacWeattichep

(2)

RPC 2nd Series,

11,303-4

118.
Monro, Ruadh, of the (likely Rhode and more normally family to be an Anglicized version of the Gaelic (3 ) The considerable translated extent as Reid). among the many Monros in the Mackenzie in his history regiment has

relationships by Alexander Hector sister

been illustrated addition, Captain officers strong. The five Captain

Monro married was Colonel the ranks

Mackenzie's

In of the clan. (4) Colonel Mackay's sistert and (5) Both among the Mackay's wife. clan ties seem to have been

and among the men in

companics

noted after eastern those Sir

above were different disturbing port it

from those

which in following John

shipped out of Aberdeen (6) 1626. At this north companies Forbest Annan. one in were embarked,

the peace of that seems probable of Tullocht Innes that

burgh the another

of John Forbes Forbest

Duncan Forbesq

Arthur places

Robert

and Alexander including suggests

There are various

in Scotland Ross, but

called

Tullocht

the Monro area of Easter location. are likely Sir

the surname of Forbes region is from certain

the Aberdeenshire Forbes captains

In the same Aberdeenshire to have recruitedt Forbes in and it

the other that

Lieutenant-Colonel Craigievar already branch

Arthur

of the family

was descended (7) that shire.

the Corse and Innes has in

Captain

to seize men in the fields been noted attempting (a) the had Captain Annan soldier Morayshire, enlisted and Couplandt who later deserted after his entertainment

of Calcats named (9)

at Aberdeen.

(3)

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

(Edinburgh 1829)p 220-1; Mackay R. Mackay, House and Clan of i; Expeditiono Monrop in and references scattered and various RA Copenhageng TKIA. (Inverness 189B)p 83-84 Fowlis A. Mackenziet Munros of R. Mackayt House and Clan of Mackayp 324 1625-42 Aberdeen Ourqh of from Extracts CounciF-Ranister-of 5-71)pB-9 (Edinburgh Fischerg Scots in Sweden 126-8 1864)# 226 (ed. Aberdeen Innesq C. D. Forbes-9-Family of Inn% 11,96 Fraser, Carlaverock,

119.

Annan was assisted and another Further to the called

by under-officers, Hayl again very area

two of whom were named Arbuthnot (10) indicative of the north east. is revealed by the Council Sir commission Alexander

confirmation sheriff

of this

of Aberdeen, and Sir

the sheriff Arbuthnot

of Kincardins,

Gordon of Cluny, resetters about

Robert

of deserters

named by Captain

to put on trial of Arbuthnot (") is known Little Annan. Alexander Seaton.

the other

lieutenant-colonel permission haif in July

of the regiment,

He was granted most convenientlis

1626 to raise 500 men 'whair he may (12) thame', descent and since his personal branch (13) regiment countiess would appear the companies Little to have been of Major is known about called (14) of Scotland. captain of the family in Angus he may

may have been from the Cariston have levied his men in that section

region.

The third recruited

of Mackayls

in Fife

and the southern Boswell, or their

Dunbar and Captains. any of these Lumsden, Boswell Learmonth officers

Learmonth men.

and MacKie.

Dunbar had an under-officer may suggest the south east.

and the two names together is a surname common in Fife is most frequently of Lord Balcomie area for from found

and the southern in Fifeq thus Sir and this Fife

counties particular

was a brother appropriate ancestry spellings IMacKieI

there; men.

seems the most MacKis derived and the varied MacGie, and (16) his

him to raise

Patrick

the family name in well with

at Larg in mid-Gallowayg different Black's sources

(15)

of his accord

as 'Mackay',

comments on the name MacGhie. Wilkin, Scott, Marl

His men included

Homev Allang

Robertsonp

Dunbart

(10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16)

it 65; Monrop Expedition, RA Copenhagen, TKIA, A. 151 RPC, 2nd Series, ii, 325-6 LPC 2nd Serieso it 315-6 B. G. Seton, House of Seton (Edinburgh 1939), it Monrot Expeditiong it 38 R. Mackayq House and Clan of Mackay, 220-1 Black, Surnames, 496

262

120.

Jardinet and south

Murat and Glendinning. western

The last that

three this

are common southern particular officer named These

surnames and suggest with

Dunbar may have been connected four companies It original Inverness. Danish is are those

the Dunbars

of Wigtownshire. from Leith.

most likely that

to have sailed the majority

therefore

apparent were not

of companies north

in Mackay's of

regiment

Highlanders

from the counties

The totals but

of men for

most of the companies Seatont muster. Obsdale of the

are known from Major Dunbar

records,

those

of Lieutenant-Colonel listed at the original Assynty companies

and Captain northern totalled captains Boswell

Innes

were not

The five and Foulis four Forbes

companies

of Mackayt whereas

Mackenziev the five

622 soldiers,

and Annan amounted to 839 and the three companies of Learmontht (17) (No allowance has been made for the and MacKie to 490. by Captains company totals probably Innes and Sinclair inadequate. who both lost their

unknown number brought positions Innes' due to their company would

being

The men of east, and those

have been from the north but in neither

of Sinclair 100 otherwise northern

from the northt the captains thus

case can they their one third in troops Firstly records

have exceeded ) The

would not accounted

have lost for only

positions.

Highlanders

of the regiment. the history in the unit

The relative of Mackay's

prominence

of northern

Highlanders

regiment

to the exclusion fortuitous

of the other

has been due to several and Cromarty and family sourcesp nine

circumstances. served by official

the Sutherland and regimental

men have been well historians.

The compilation

of names drawn from these are not known, makes this Culcraggieq clear# Kiltearnt

showing

men whose companies included

Monros (these

men from Newmore, Fearn,

(17)

RA Copenhageng TKIA,

Milit.

regnsk.

Ilb/6/II

121.

Ardtulliet (from

Fyrishq

Contullich,

Kildermorie

and Coul),

two called

Ross

Invercarron)p

two named Gordon (one from Garty two Forbes# two Gunns

and one from Culgour)q and

two Stewartsp

two Murrays,

(one from Golspia Bruntfield,

one from Strathy)t Innes, Tulloch,

Hempseed, Cock, Sinclair

Gray, Crichtonq of Murkle

Barbour# and

(son of Sinclair series

in Caithness)p

Murdo Polson.

(18)

This

of names (with that

the exceptions majority

of Crichton

and Bruntfield)would men were in came from chaplain Robert fact

seem to imply Highlanders

the vast

of Mackay's George Matheson

from the northern

counties.

Shiness

in Sutherlandq

and Murdoch Mackenzie

from Gairloch

on the west coast writing men in in

the regimental (19) of Ross and Cromarty. naturally companies detail As luck concentrated he knew so Highthis

Monro the chroniclart which affected

1636, also

on the events wellq landers slant and his

the Highland

work was expanded in biographical the nineteenth of Mackay's the period century. regiment

of these would

by Mackay in to the history

have it

was intensified

by the events disbanded

of the war during in the early

1626-8. service

Neither

of the companies

was from the far north; nor was (20) (it had numbered the next company to be IreducedIq Boswell's which was (22 ) (21 ) Thus already This captain only 100). early in 1627. was killed months of foreign three into of the companies the others from the north lost their east separate and the south identity. was divided into two of had been absorbed

and thus

Worse was to follow, squadrons (18) (19) (20) (21) (22)

because when the regiment of Christian

in 1627 on the orders

IV the smaller

section

R. Mackayv House and Clan of Mackayp 220-1 A. Mackenzie and A. Macbsing Histor'Y of the Mathesons 28.141 Monrot Expeditiong 1.1 RA Copenhagenp TKIA, Milit. IIb/6/II regnsk. 1.4 Monrop Expeditiong

(Stirling

1900)p

122.

four

companies at

led

by Major

Dunbar was virtually

eliminated

after Learmonth

fighting

Boizenburg

and Oreitenburg.

The major

and Captains

and Duncan Forbes arrival captains little eastern squadron

died had Forbes killed, Sir Arthur soon after were (23) the been have Forbes in Germany, John of another may and who suffered along with Dunbar. At all records events thereafter narrative. at Oldenburg, of which five there was clearly north-

that

could

be written

in Danish

about

and southern survived it

companies

to season Monro's heavy fighting companies

The larger and by the comprised

in 1627 despite consisted far

end of the year Highlanders Captains Scotlandq

of eight

from the

north.

In 1628 the same process to return from their

continued. visit Even to

MacKie and Annan failed and therefore their

winter (24)

companies his

were cashiered. after

Lieutenant-Colonel (25) struggle. another for in this

Seaton

sought

discharge

the Stralsund

Yet at the same time

company of Highlanders increasing predominance

Monro of Foulis was recruiting (26) Whether the reason' from Cromarty. of Sutherland preference unknown. and Cromarty being It Highlanders

the regiment officers policy

was due to personal

shown to the was however with surely the fateful not

Highland deliberate instruction select

is to chance mere or an Mackay's part that of four

when he was faced companies

to detach

a squadron

in 1627,

he did

any of his

northern

Highland core

companiesq

but preferred

to retain

them together Details are

as the solid of the recruiting but

of his areas

own squadron. of Spynie's regions regiment for east. his

used by officers the most important eastg central

even more scantyg appear

in

general

captains (23) (24) (25) (26)

to have been the north

and south

Monro, Expedition, i, lp 38 1.82 Monrot-Expedition, RA Copenhageng TKIA, Milit. regnsk. 1.82 Monrop-Expedition,

IIb/23

123.

Scotland.

The concentration

of Captains

James Blair in

and Thomas Beaton particular has

on Angus at first already

and thereafter

on Aberdeenshire

been notedq

and the majority in Danish

of the surnames of men in Blair's records are connected with this

company which area, Gourlay near Blair "

have survived Douglas,

Leslie,

Meldrump Smitht

Durhamp Robertsong and Clashendrum

and Fullerton.

(27 )

The Allardices

of Allardice

Inverbervie with

were also in

service active

Spynie

to produce four men for possible constrained (28 ) 1627. Alexander Erskine of Dun may have been own behalf and Captain recruited in Angus apart John Lindsay there until from the commission

in recruiting for Blairt

he arranged in

on his (29)

coming from Balinshoe the Council division

the same county

probably

of shires counties, of men in Campbell, Major

would have compelled either his Perthshire

him to seek enrolled east.

men in neighbouring known names

or the north

The eleven

company are together Fraserg

reminiscent

Coulliep

Ramsayq Westgateq area is not stated

of Angusp Lindsay(4 (30) Petrie and Dun. in any sourcesp of the north for the allocation but it is The of

Troup't likely

recruiting that it

extremely claims

lay

in

the Troup lands

east.

of Spynie

and Troup may have accounted to this regiment. for

Aberdeenshire Southern Douglas' following

and Kincardine counties

were also service

important

Spynie recorded

captains. as having

James the

company in Danish under-officers,

in 1628 is Johnstone

Douglas(4), (31) clearly

(21 Brownhill, pattern. mentioned

Watsonp This b* Nithsdale

Meldrump Hathorn captain (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) is likely

and Young,

a southern

to have been the James Douglas

RA Copenhagent TKIA, A. 151 RPC 2nd Series, 11,82-83 V, Jacobt Lairds of Dun (London RA Copenhageng TKIA, A. 151 RA Copenhageny TKIA, A. 151

1931)t

167-8

124.

as coming from Mouswald in Dumfriesshire Douglas Council of Drumlanrig division in the north in

to related (32 ) The west of the same county. and as being to drive neither Douglas which Captain was worked Douglas

of shires

1627 must have tended and Roxburgh, quite possible Spynie no clear

away from the counties awarded to Spyniet thereafter shire. in

of Dumfries it is

since that

and thus

the nearest

appropriate

county pattern

was Lanark-

John Homels company displays Hannah, Hamiltont (33 ) but they Helliwellt are mainly

of names, Home(tt Clark, Fleck

Cunningham,

Fraserv southern

Rosst

and Sandersont

names and Helliwell himself would in was have been the to Thomas

and the Homes distinctively Sir John Home of Ayton which in

Berwickshirs. that county. Spynie

The captain Hence his voice

one of those allocation

influenced

to seek Berwickshire

of shires.

The same county Patrick before Cockburn. Spynie's

may have been of value Both these

Home of Ayton and Sir service no proof if they in 1626 well that did either they

levying

men were in Danish (34) began. There is 1627 or 1628, but

commanded a Scottish probably

company in

would very in

have sought Sir

most of their Cockburn county (35) direction is

men in the listed

south in

east

especially

Berwickshire.

Patrick in that

the records

of the Cockburns high

of Cockburn in Danish

as a Cockburn was

younger

son who reached captain

rank in

service.

the Spynie five

mentioned

the Privy

Council

concerning

Berwickshire Lauder men and two from Newbiggingg obviously (36) inhabitants. Theyfemes of some of Cockburnts under-officers in Copenhagen records (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) indicate a pattern strikingly suitable for

discovered this

RPC, 2nd Series, 11,105-6 RA Copenhagent TKIAt A. 151 RA Copenhagent TKIA, Milit. IIb/6/I regnsk. T. H. Cockburn-Hoodt House of Cockburn (Edinburgh 419-20 RPC 2nd Series, viiit

1888)p

318

125.

county, Sproule, Spynie's

Cockburn, Rutherford, regiment Staff

Rodger, Nisbet is

Home (3)t

Barclayo

Lothiany

Lauder, information for

Youngg on his some

and Scott. scattered. but his

Beyond thist

extremely

The names listed Life

Regimental Border

are very which

mixeds

Company contained Pringle

surnames for

Captain-Lieutenant Grier, Dicksonp

may have been the The

responsiblep others exact certaing Baldowie, noted region

Otterburn, in for

Pigott,

Johnstone Biggartt

and Home, besides Green and Pirie. is area, not

the accounts, Captain

George Oliphant's

recruiting

known for

but his Fraser,

ten names suggest Edward, This

the Perthshire

Oliphant, Gordon, Hay

Home, Shaw, Murray, is rendered convincing (near

Willcox, support

and Mackintosh. complaint (two miles with

(37 )

by Oliphant's and Cultmalundie from

against outside him.

men in Pitkeathly Methven) (38) for

Bridge

of Earn)

withholding Sir

one of his Baillie

recruits

service

On 31 August against the

William

of Lamington instigated of about the

was defending by Spynie Lanarkshire. resetting of Argyll Spynie

himself

threat

of letters parish Campbell's his for

of horning in the centre complaint men from

regarding (39)

masterless Though Captain is dated

men in this William

of deserters

4 November 1630, were recruited two, or possibly

the areas of

and Lorne in Argyllshire service at least

the regiment years

in Danish

three#

earlier.

The names of the deserters from the usual MacMichaelp array

are very

distinctive

and differ

considerably MacIan (2)t Macgregor MacNiven, (2)p

in other (brother (40)

companies, of the laird

MacDougall-(2), of Purbreck)t

Campbell

MacCookt and Cameron. (37) (38) (39) (40)

RA Copenhagent TKIAt A*151 RPC 2nd Seriesq 11,36 411 RPG 2nd Seriest viii, 'F-PC 2nd Series, iv, 55-56

126.

If

Spynie's his

officers

raised of shires,

any men from the remaining i. e. Stirlingshire, work is extant

counties

left and but it Sergeant but Spynia

from

allocation

West Lothian at present,

Renfrewshire, is just

no evidence that the

of their

possible indicate

surnames Captain

John Sempill in

and his England,

Stewart

Renfrewshirs. by the authorities his regiment,

No men were levied in Denmark to levy (41) after (42) are diverse that Cockburn

was permitted

250 Danes in May a similar

1628 to complete licence for

had received

160 Danes in April. of Sinclair's unit

Details evidence recruited belonged from

and largely

disjointed. captains himself the counties

No

has been discovered companies to Murkle in the far

to prove northq

any of Sinclair's the colonel all

though

in Caithness

and he was allotted to the Orkneys east.

Banffshire

west and north

and Shetlands. Captain Innes

There was of Crombie for

however in

some enlistmcnt claimed

done in the north to have had his

Banffshire

company of 240 men ready

shipment the that

disbanded out of Aberdeent but he waited in vain and eventually (43) Gordon of Ardlogie legal action against Sinclair's shows company. levying was at least (44) much success. the south east. being Other Major attempted officers Borthwick in Aberdeenshiret endeavoured though again

without for

to raise

companies with in 1627

him in

may be connected for Sweden late Captain

Captain and later belonged

William rose

Borthwick

who was recruiting under Gustavus.

to be a major

This point

Borthwick of

to 3ohnstoneburn East Lothian Edinburgh area for

near

the junction (45) (46)

of the counties recruiting

Midlothian, place in

and Berwick,

and his This

was taking was

in November 1627. a Borthwick

region

of Scotland the likely

the natural (41) (42) (43) (44) (45) (46)

to use,

and may indicate E. Marquardp

BrevbjKqer 1627-9 (ed. Kancelliets BrevbOger-1627-9,401 Kancalliats 11,147-8 RPC 2nd Series, ii, 406 RPC 2nd Series, Scots Peerage, 11,100 439 RPC 2nd Series, viii,

Copenhagen 1929)p 406

127.

district Danish

for roll

the levying Borthwick Mowbray.

of Major

Borthwick

for

Danish

service.

On the

has one name which Captain Alexander east.

supports Chirnside is

the Midlothian might have been of this in Forbes

possibilityv expected

to work in

the south

There

some evidence

(2), Dickson, the names of his men, Chirnside Troupq Home, Nisbet, (47) Though the Chirnsidesp Home and Nisbet suggest and Humphrey. Berwickshire, force county) significant of Lugton Chirnside if this county was eventually Peeblesshire working cautioner the village The problem who recruited awarded to Spynie. or Midlothian (the areas. This

would

to Roxburgh, already

shared It may be

he was not that (almost

in one of these in September near Dalkeith remains for however

Chirnside's certainly (48) one. )

1628 was the laird rather than the the and none

north identity

Ayrshire

concerning

of the officers Sinclair

Sinclair

in Peebleshire counties if

Roxburgh. of his which

would not them.

have been awarded these Borthwick lands Sir certain might well

captains is very

desired close

have used Peebles and Chirnside in Roxburgh Robert

to the

Borthwick

of Midlothian,

may have concentrated questioned Douglas for in August Sinclair's name is

on Roxburgh. 1627 whether regiment not given.

James Kerr

of Crailing

men sought masterless.

by Lieutenant (49)

were really It

Unfortunately descent of

the captain's

may have been the Roxburgh of the Canongate Councillors

of two of the five men in Kelso them all

prisoners

in the Tolbooth which decided (50) for

(sons

and Jedburgh) for is

the Privy

to award

to Sinclair

his

unit.

Less information regiment. The eight (47) (48) (49) (50)

available with

the other

captains Hay is

of Sinclair's hard to determine. Butterv Margie

The area associated extant

Captain

William

names from the company,

Hay (4)9

Chalmeraq

RA Copenhagen, TKIA9 A. 151 11,472 RPC 2nd Series, RPC 2nd Series, 413-14 viii, ii, RPC 2nd Series, 332

128.

though

Hay is

a very

widespread

name in Scotland. a south eastern by both feasible its

Hay's nobleg

cautioner

in shown

September

1628 was Lord Yesterv name for It is It

and Hay is

as the outstanding and the Fasti operated regimentv could is

Peeblesshire therefore would

the Modcreiffe that Captain

map Hay

survey. county. is

in this for it

explain

allocation

to Sinclair's in the other units

unlikely those

the claims

of any officer this particular Brome's Sinclair his

compete with

of a Hay for of origin

shire. company. without

Nothing

known about

the area also is

of Richard men for that

Captain success.

Donaldson All that

tried

to levy

complete in September of service in of Newcastle

known about

him is (52)

guarantor

1628 was the Town Clerk Englishmen who did not

of Edinburgh. belong

Some of the companies regiments in Danish assistance

to the English

may have been credited England for part of his

to Sinclair. levying, (53)

He was accorded and though to find of success

the officials for parts

and Northumberland does not Two further part obviate

reported

failure

volunteers in other with

Sinclair

this (54)

the possibility appeared for

of England.

companies

service

the Danes in 1628 as George Stewart with ship at

of Sinclair's

regimentt

those Sanders,

of Captain

Lieutenant Leith

Home and Ensign

(whose men were on board Francis Trafford with

on 26 June 1628)55) (56) company. Despite recruitment about the wealth

and Captain

a Welsh

of material earliert

about details

the Ogilvy are scarce regiment.

company and its and confused Particularly Nithsdale

in Angus noted

the origins is

of the rest the evidence

of Nithsdale's about

complicated

the possibility

of another

(51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56)

RA Copenhagen, TKIA, A. 151 ii, 472 RPC 2nd Seriest APC Jan. -Auq. 1627t 130 CSP Domestic 1627-8t 1260 128 ii, 608 RPC 2nd Series, 1,82 Monro, Expedition,

129.

recruiter his

working

in

the north

east. that if

When Ogilvy if Nithsdale Thornton at Montrose the enrolled in Angus.

was seeking

Angus as

recruiting

county

he remarked not

was awarded the got it. He also referred

Mearnsp he (Ogilvy) to Thornton's Thornton

would

object

lieutenantt

Troup, informed

being about those

and to the need for men in the Mearns when he of

to be as wall

as he himself explained Ogilvy also David in

wanted to be about

On I August for the troops

to Nithsdala

the shipping Lord Ogilvy ) Another

arrangements that

and Hamilton, that

stated instance

'Thorntounes

men war put of

ship. 1(57

concerned

the position

Ramsay.

In September

1627 the son of William guaranteed levied years that

Troup of Pendreich

and John Strachan

of Fettercairn

send back from Germany a recruit matter it was pursued that further four

Ramsay would (58) from Balhagartie. The David when an 5 October for Strachan 1631 and of the

later

was revealed

Ramsay was a sergeant

of Thornton the return

had been sent Balhagartis dead. (59)

from Copenhagen to GlUckstadt before Sergeant Christmas

to arrange

recruit (The only in Captain it

16279 but

the soldier

was already records in

David Ramsay to be found

in Danish regiment

was listed 1628/9, Lindsay's

John Lindsay's impossible during

company of Spynie's to connect Christmas Strachan the

but it

at present

two Ramsays since All these

company was in that Sir

Scania

1627. )

referencessuggest Nithsdalels name. about fear officers

Alexander soldiers

of Thornton

was one of in his

and that

were definitely in his letter

levied

Indeed

the observation officers

by Borthwick in the regimentp or Sir

from Hamburg

commissioned till I sis thatt

1yowr honour

either

yowr honour being 11,819 80-81 343 ii, lol

Alexander Strachan

may rest without (60) Straichan'. seems

to suggest (57) (58) (59) (60)

Nithsdale

colonelv 87-88

may have been

Frasers Carlaverockq iiq RPC 2nd Series, RPC 2nd Seriesq iv, Fraserp Carlaverack,

130.

lieutenant-colonel. records. in It is also

There

is

no Strachan that if

company mentioned was an important

in Danish personage

strange.

Strachan of Kincardine

Nithsdale's

unit., that

the shire

was awarded to Spynis. undeniable officers. claim to that

Strachan county Major for

of Thornton compakad with

would those

have had an almost of any of Spynie's

of the lattert The reason

Troup seems the most likely failure (a) Strachan in to obtain

to have sought Kincardine less

Kincardine.

Nithsdalels -

may have been one of the in recruiting the division for he

following:

was taking

interest after

was not mentioned shires; this about (b)

the Ogilvy

correspondence officer

of the

the claim

of a Spynie (c) like Spynie

was more powerful, reached with

though

seems unlikely; disputed shires

and Nithsdale

a compromise Captains for Blair

Angus and Kincardinev interest

and Lindsay giving shires. Council deserter Danish

yielding

their

in Angus in return of lots

Strachan the disputed

up Kincardine; Lieutenant letters

(d) or Troupq

the drawing for

decided

acting

Captain

Adam Gordong requested to produce enlistment a for

on 15 June 1627 charging who was being but there is

Lord Forbes

from Pittochie service; (61 )

withheld in

from his

no sign

the Copenhagen records there was

of Captain

Gordont

and the only Chirnside's

Lieutenant company.

Troup mentioned

by 1628 in Captain Nithsdale's of East Lothian statedt but both

agents

appear

to have followed

up their

allocation name is on not

by seeking Nithsda18

men in Dunbar. and Sir before

The captain's

Thomas Kelly the Privy

were ordered

1 September

1627 to appear

the seven Dunbar men was being captain for this company is would Sir

considered. Alexander

Council when the case of (62) The most likely Hamilton reason for of Innerwick close of

to Dunbarq and this

be a convincing

the allocation

(61) (62)

BPC 2nd Seriesq FP-C 2nd Seriest

viii, 11,66

390

131.

East

Lothian

to Nithsdale.

44"- Ensign in Ayrshire possibly for

Houston during

who attempted

to arrest

an 'idle' a Captain shipping

man in Kilmaurs Hamilton, quite

men out of the Forth seeking men in

the month of June represented (63) Sir Alexander. Hamilton was (64 ) Nithsdale but at the end of July; and experiencing great difficulty

he was also in bringing connections

Ireland (65)

them to Scotland. with Sir

He may have made use of family or Sir their Frederick Hamiltong both (66)

George Hamilton about

of whom reported Sir

to Nithsdale

George Hamilton Hamilton's

Frederick Irish

problems in Ireland. (67) was a landowner in County Donegal, while Sir (68) These area was to be found in County Leitrim. recruiting may of course William Irish be quite separate, for the records regiment

Hamilton

companies

in Copenhagen mention at GlUckstadt of an Irish information Captain indicates

a Captain )

Burke in Nithsdale's and likely provide

in 1628 t(69 company. that

himself

to have been commander

The same sources

Captain

Andrew Campbell's (71) ('English'

the meagre crumbs of (70) troops were Scots and in Danish records sometimes has

Darcy Swift's Irish,

English.

and may well relating

have that

meaning here. )

No information soldiers. regiments

come to light It served is

to the origin without of Major further

of Major clues

Thomas Kelly's

impossible

to decide and Captains

in which

the companies

John Douglas

George Leslie,

(63) (64) (65) (66) (67) (68) (69) (70) (71)

RPC- 2nd Seriest viiit Frasert Carleverockt RPC 2nd Seriesp 11i, Fraser, Carlaverockv CSP Ireland 1625-T2-, 1625-32# CSP Ireland RA Copenhagenv TKIAt RA. Copenhagenv TKIAt RA Copenhagen, TKIA,

380 iif 88 241t 335 iit 97-100v 105 254 253 Militv regnsk. IIb/16/II/257 IIb/16/I/825 Milit. regnsk. IIb/16/I/620 Milit. regnsk.

132.

William Alexander secretarial for also both

Haliday,

Ludovick

Leslie,

Herbert and Robert

'Preuszlv Murray.

Francis Haliday stage

Coningsbyq may be a of 'Hayedayelp It is (72)

Douglasq mistake

John Ruthven for

Hay through

the transitional for Sinclair's

Hay and Haliday that with

are mentioned Douglas

regiment.

possible

Alexander

at GlUckstadt Archibald

in December 1627 had Douglas (73 ) of Mains who his men were

some connection claimed however accounts

the company of Sir

to command a Scottish mentioned state that

company on 24 December;

at Stade in June 1627. the men of Ruthven Douglas' being

The Glackstadt

provisionswere Scots9 and Douglas, (74)

and Alexander

Douglas

and the names of Major point to Scotland

under-officers# more definitive. of Leslie, Price

Hay, Lindsay (75 )

without

The same GlUckstadt

that volume indicates (76 ) This is English.

the troops unexpected

and Coningsl? y were who by the

in the case of Leslie, in Hamilton's company there.

summer of 1629 had been made major and certainly Council commanded a Scottish instructions

in Swedish pay regiment (77) The English Privy regarding that the Campbe14 the with

however issued of Leslie's

to the Navy Commissioners must bapresumed to Captain

the shipping soldiers presumably

men in 16279 so it (78 ) The only

were English.

reference

William in

the same man as the officer lists him as being

in Spynie's

regimentp officers

Copenhagen archives Scottish

one of several over that capacity 1628. this is

names who were granted It

commissions seems possible in this

Landsfolk Campbell after

(Danas or sought further

Germans) in 1628 and 1629. employment. by the Danish of for Spynie's Landsfolk regiment is at

government

the disintegration commission the

the end of September 24 October 1628. for If

Campbell's true

dated

of Campbell granted

situation (72) (73) (74) (75) (76) (77) (78)

may have been similar

some of the other IIb/6/II IIb/28 IIb/16/j/849-56 IIb/16/I/643p

officers

RA Copenhageng TKIA9 Milit. reqnsk. RA Copenhageny TKIA, Milit. regnsk. RA Copenhagen, TKIA9 Milit. regnsk. RA Copenhagen, TKIA, A. 151 RA Copenhageng TKIAq Milit. regnsk. 1629/11/70 KA Stockholmq Rullor, APC Jan. -Auq. 1627,, 514

663-5

133.

similar

posts,

e. g. 15 February John Stewarttand Crawford; in

1628 David Russell; Alexander Nairn;

8 March George Lauder, 6 April Thomas Meldrum; (79) most

George Mathiesong 23 April Alex4nder

23 January

1629 Henry Monypennyj (80) which

of whom were dismissed The areas cannot Danish the but used for

the summer of 1629. for

recruitment defined

the regiments used for sources for

served intended

Sweden for of fewt

be so precisely service. Council lack rolls is

as those

the units like

References concerning

in Scottish recruitment balanced

the Register

Privy this

Sweden are relatively of Swedish the recruiting those of

to some extent

by the presence for

muster

from which companies

in some cases the main area may be suggested. John Meldrum,

of particular Colonels

Four regiments,

Alexander

Hamiltonp

James Ramsay, and Donald the

Mackay,

were studied recruiting Colonel family

in detail areas. Alexander

and the lists

of surnames used to clarify

Hamilton but his

was descended

from the Priestfield large (245 strong) and

in Edinburght

the men's names revealed northern southg or western, are well Irish

company was very (81) little pattern. other regions

The company was not especially is the

but all

of Scotland# feature

represented. (O'Dollat names O'Mulvany, regiment

The most unusual O'Doranq O'Neill also O'Doullf

the presence O'Lennon, of the LieutenantSir four of the

of eleven Morgan, other Colonel

O'Cartiep

O'Mulreavt in this

and Spallan).

Several

captains Baillie

mustered

a few Irishmen, (all

one (O'Mulvany)t two (both Flanagan, would

Captain

Bruce four and Hamilton The Itish

O'Neills),

James Hamilton (Coglan, Hamilton (79) (80) (81) Connor, family

McGallaghers), and Sullivan). account for

of Parklie connections

erhaps

the

Irish

names in Hamilton 624

Kencelliets BrevbKger 1627-9.377p 391,406t RA Copenhagent TKIA, Milit. IIb/9/II regnsk. KA Stockholm, Rullor, 1629/14/180-4

134.

companies,

but hardly

for

those

in Bailie's Saillie

and Brucels. appears to have originated in Lanarkshire. (82) and his

The company of Lieutenant-Colonel mainly Baillie lieutenant Hamilton southern in the central Lowlands

of Scotlandt

and particularly

came from Lamington was named Moffat. (7). Baillie (5). Baillie

in the heart

of Lanarkshirep names in

The most frequent Brownlees, Douglas

his'companyt 3 each)are

and Young (all specially

names, with

and Brownlees

being

common in

Lanarkshire. county is

Among the distinctive indicated southern by Crooks, counties

surnames in the company the same Burrell and Carmichael. Borders half (83) eastern ones. company present pigeon-hole. more of Major lieutenant central Leslie's a regional and south west

Somerville#

Neighbouring are also Perthshire well

in the Lothiansp are only

represented,

but there

a dozen Stirlingshire/

names and a few north

The 172 names in Major a problemg Lesliets and ensign and south Fife and do not fit

Ludovick into

easily in Fifeq

home was located (Galbraith eastern

(84)

f his and the surnames o. connected this with

and Cockburn)

are usually

areas.

Nor are the names in of Colonel were Leslie (2) might and (2)/Woods Spens' (10)v

company as convincing The most frequent and Williamson (2), and beyond hand some

surnames as those Leslie's list

men in 1624. Ogilvy, with Sinclair,

names in (4 each). perhaps these there clearly Coutts,

The eoupars with

be classed (3)

the Corstons for Fifeg'but

the Beatons is a shortage

as possible Fife eastern

there is

of distinctive of north

names.

On the other

a substantial Aberdeenshire Chalmerst

group

surnames including Smoltq This Gariocht

in origin, Forbes

Craigmyleg and Wilgus. coast

Kalman,

Oaffrayt in

company seems therefore with 1870)t the distinct 382-3

to have been recruited (82) (83) (84)

the east

countiesg

M, E. C. Brucet Bruces and Cumyns (Edinburgh KA Stockholmt Rullort 1629/11/68-69 Scots PBBranet vp 384

135.

possibility Fife proved Captain though it

that

Leslie

family (85)

connections

in both

Aberdeenshire

and

important. Robert

Preston's

company has no obvious His own exact in Edinburgh in

region identity

of origin, is doubtful. (86 ) he

was definitely was a Sir

not western. Robert Preston

Though there may not that this

the 1630s, little

have been the same man as this company was levied and ensign other their the (5), mainly (Lindsay

captain.

There is

evidence

in the Lothiansp and Stewart) left

nor do the names imply Midlothian in

of the lieutenant particular. recruiting still in is

On the

hand if

Preston

the main work of of Scotland, then he might names There Preston east

to them in with Smith

own native Edinburgh Murray

parts knight.

be identical the company, a lack

The most frequent are not

(4 Gray each) and eastern

helpful. only

of likely

Lothian

and south Pringle

names, perhaps

(2)9 is

Rudmanp Sandt Ancrum, indicated

and Dundasp whereas (3)t

the north

more strikingly Strangnitcht

by Forbes

Mearnsp Eassieg Duguid

Chalmerst It is

Innes, not

Falconerp north

Wattp Cruikshankp eastern

and Duff. of Captains

however as uniquely

as the companies later. Perhaps part

Forbes

and William was a native north account for eastern for

Meldrum to be considered of Fife counties

Lieutenant

Lindsay

or Angus who gathered without the aid

of the company in the family lack ties. of a large This would

of strong

the wide spread (87) name. any specific In the case of Sir

of the names and the

total

3ohn Hamilton's had his

soldiers

the region

is

not

in (88)

doubt. and his Almost

The captain lieutenant all

himself and ensign

home at Redhouse in Haddington, and Pringle

were named Cockburn men fall within

respectively. area

the surnames of his

the south

eastern

of Scotland (85) (86) (67) (88)

bounded by Lanarkshire

and Dumfriesshire.

At the top of the

KA Stockholmq Rullor, 1629/11/70-71 Black, Surnames, 672 KA Stockholmp Rullorg 1629/11/72-73 ip 25 Frasert Haddington,

136.

frequency (all 4).

table Apart

are Johnstone from these

(7)t

Hamilton east is

(5)p

Browng Kerr

and Pringle (4)t

the south

suggested

by Fleming for

Pettigrew# Lanarkshire: for

Nasmytht Irvingg

Somervillet Dinwoodie,

Cleghornp Armstrongg Blaikiet

Cleland Moffatp

and Lockhart Bell (2)

and Eccles Smallp of the

Dumfriesshire; Cockburn

and Sydserf, (2).

Cuthbertson, (3) for various

Napiert parts

Porteous# Lothians

and Borders. captain

and Livingstone (89) on Alexander

The next Alexander foregoing


His were two later

Hamiltonts

regimental

roll

was from the

Bruceq whose company differed examples.


junior officers

in area considerably in south east

Bruce belonged
were

to Airth

Stirlingshire.
though they

(90)

named Forrester LanarkshirB company with provide little

and Pringle, surnamesp Baillie

replaced frequent

by men with names varied in his quartet

and Flock. of area (5)p

The most being

no indication in

an extremely

commong Forbes

O'Neill, features

McIver about

and Carmichael the names in

(4 each).

There are however two striking no less than thirty three

general.

Firstlyp

(20% them of of the entire is relatively infrequent

company) bear the patronymic in most of the other companies.

'Mac't

which

The majority (2),, (2). MacWilkie

of these

names suggest (2)t

Perthshire

or Argyll# (3)9 MacNeil

e. g. MacElhallam (3), MacNachtan by south

MacKilpatrick (2). MacAllister

MacCorquodale and MacDonald.

These are supported Menteith

Perthshire

names like Stirlingshir8

Drummond# Condie, names# Darochq

Malcolmp Sword,

and Patillo, Forrester

and and Bruce. of south area, Pringle# legal 3ollyp Home charges

Galbraithq

The second characteristic eastern

of the company is are very

a small

block of that

names, most of which Brownhillt will also

distinctive

BarronpDuddingstonp and Scoular. (89) (90) It

Tockq Napierg that

Teviotdalev Bruce brought

be recalled

KA Stockholm, 1629/14/204-11 Rullort (Edinburgh W. B. Armstrongg Bruces of Airth

1892)9

22-23

137.

against with

two Edinburgh (91)

burgesses

for

withholding evidence perhaps

their

sons from service that some

him.

These factors place in the

provide east,

to suggest carried out

levying lieutenant

took

south

by the to and

or ensign, in

whereas east

the main core

of Bruce's Strathearnt

men appear Menteithq

have been recruited possibly in the Sir men from The exact unlike Hamilton all

Stirlingshire, of Argyll. that (92) Argyll

even on the borders company makes it James Hamilton's southern identity the in his other Scotland. of Hamilton Hamilton

(The absence itself

of any Campbells

unlikely

was used. ) to contain

company might This

have been expected

does not appear has not

to have been the case. but called

himself captains

been ascartainedt person

he was the only

own company. events if

He may have lacked

powerful in

family the company Rattray were

connections. would be best for

At all

the names of the soldiers Lieutenant

explained

Monorgan and Ensign

responsible found Gibbon in

the recruiting. area with

Both these of east Liffet

names are most commonly as are Ranniet Ireland Guthrie little but the (2). and decisive

the Tay Valley Din (2),

Perthshirev Lowv Wattv

(2)9'and

Thano nearby. evidencel suggestion Aberdeenshire Coutts. are hardly

The frequent Gray,

names in Petrie

the company provide (3 each)t borne out

Gordon (4). they contain

and Forbes east is

of the north

by the distinctive Coullie but east. and there (93)

names of Cheynet (2)

Slarothq

Jaffrayt

Pendreichv

Christie half

and Wemyss might

have originated activity unit in

in Fife, the south

a dozen names which captain of Alexander

imply

The junior of Parklie

Hamilton's

was James Hamilton (a name his original a

in West Lothian. in Midlothian

His ensign and east

was named Forrester while

commonly found lieutenantv

Stirlingshire)t by a Galbraith

Campbellt

was later

replaced

(usually

(91) (92) (93)

RPC 2nd Seriesq iii, RA Stockholmp Rullor, KA Stockholmt Rullort

288-9 1629/14/215-19 1629/14/212-14

138.

Stirlingshire no indication 4 each). respects. which This It

name).

The most frequent concerned, that

names in

the company again Stewart Bruce 'Mac' and Smith, in several patronymic, e. g.

give (all

of the area

3ohnstone,

company resembles possesses seventeen

of Alexander the

surnames with areas

may indicate (2)9

Perthshire MacCormick It

or western (3)p

of Scotlandq

MacAllister

MacNugitorg that

MacVorie, if

MacEndrist

MacDoughll9 hailed

MacLean and MacNeil. from Argyll particular

seems possible he might well

Lieutenant

Campbell

or Perthshire

have brought in

in most of these South Perthshire

men and the other Stirlingshire

two Campbells names are counties

the company.

and especially captain's Galbraith Calenderp Lothian Arneillp

to be expected look possible

in a West Lothian origins for Norvell, ringing West (3)t

companyp and these (3)9 MacIlhosev

Menziesq

Kerseq Keirp

Malcolm, Lothians Weir is

Meiklem

and Bruce. side could

Lanarkshire

and the for

an the other Fleckp

be responsible while

(3)9

Hamilton

Fenton

West Lothian Colonel

surname. Alexander

and Stenepep (94) Hamilton's of Scottish

Baderston

a specifically

regiment regionsq

therefore with

appears one captain

to have been from each Lanarkv

drawn from a wide range of the Stirling their east. though following and Fifet officers There is shires#

East Lothiang other parts

Midlothiang

West Lothiang

and the

two captains of Fifeq east

seeming Perthshire

to have directed and the north far north# Relatively Ireland.

to various

no indication

of many highlanders and Perthshire west and only mainly

from the

a few clansmen

from Argyll south

seem possible. a small

few recruits

came from the regiment

number from

In sumt Hamilton's Sir but (94) its

consisted

of Lowlanders* at the same time as Hamilton'st

John Meldrum's general

regiment is

was levied

composition Rullor,

even more variegated.

His own company

KA Stockholmg

1629/14/192-203

139.

is

complex

and lacking

in pattern. but like

It

does not

appear

to be northernp company portrays

western

or south

western,

Colonel suggest not

Hamilton's other that

a considerable addition to five

number of names which Irish names. It is

regions this

of Scotland colonel did

in

likely

much recruiting and this would

personally bring into

(there greater

are only prominence their

two Meldrums the role

in his

list),

of Lieutenant Fife. The

Kinninmonth most frequent (3 each)

and Ensign

Hay. in

Together

names suggest (4)t

names found

the companyp Johnston The claims (2)9 Others Neish, appear peninsula. two areas, of Fife

Hay and Smith

are rather (2)t

nondescript. Melville

however are backed Balfour, origins Bainst and

by Kinninmonth perhaps areas east Beaton

Lafreisht

and Torrie.

to owe their Numerically but

to the

north is

and south

of the Fife

the south east,

the more impressive Angus, provides

of these

the north

especially

the more distinctive

namesp e. g. Lyonq Auchterlonyj suggests that mainly this the

Low, and Toddie. might

Though the name of Meldrum initially company# it further southt

have been an Aberdeenshire areas used lay

seems certain though still

main recruiting (95) eastern.

Lieutenant-Colonel regarding resident area.

Sir

James Hamilton's

company presents

few problems

He himself in

at Priestfield Lindsay

was another member of the Hamilton family (96) Edinburgh, and his lieutenant and ensign respectively. This information implies out (4).

were called a south

and Pringle

eastern

company,

and the most frequent Pringle this and Wilson

names bear this (5 each),

immediately,

Thomson (7)t

and Hamilton northern

Out of the 179 names in eastern, south (95) (96) and barely

company only dozen belong

ten appear to other

or north

anoth3r

regions Lothian

beyond the and Border

east.

There is

a huge array

of Lanarkshiret

1629/11/48-50 KA Stockholm, Rullorp G. Hamilton, House of Hamilton, (Edinburgh

1933)9

421

140.
names of Turnbull Carmichael# Homep Todrigt company south which (3)9 the Kerr Cockburn, Slumant following (2)9 is

merely (2).

a representative Bell (2). Muirheadt Elliotp

selection, Carstairst Redpatht Clearly Laudert this

Ormistan Brotherstanest Bruntfield, if not

Porteous, Gullane entirely,

and Whippo. in Lanarkshire

was raised (97)

mainly,

and the

east. Study of Major William Ramsay's company directs attention to an

entirely officersq hint

different Major

quarter,

to England.

The names of the

three

company give no

Ramsay# Lieutenant revealed

Ramsayp and Ensign

Maxwellp

of what is

by the surnames of the rest different from those Roberts, is

of the men.

The

Christian usually

names are quite contains

of a Scottish Davidsp Richard

company which Andrews (B)p Edward (4)9

many Alexanders,

Williamsy Englisht

and Donalds.

Here however

the pattern Ralph (2)9

Henry and Simon (3 each)t Raest Francis, Anthonyp

as well

as Rowlandq Morgan# Oeffreyt

Nicholas English

and Lewis. surnames involved Delaward# Tristramp will suffice Powellt to Bucknellf

A few examples confirm Evans, It is the southern

of the origint

Delahayt

Frisbyq

Hazlewood, worthy

Osborneq Goslingq there

Bellingham

and Poindexter.

of comment that 'Apt

are two instances

of the Welsh two recruits whose

patronymic

(Ap Thomas and Ap Hugh) and a further suggestive of Welsh originp

names are strongly (98) Bowen. levied and his Lesliet southern (97) (98) Captain William

Morgan Williams

and Rees

Meldrum, men in

unlike

Colonel east.

Meldrump appears His lieutenant

to have

most of his ensign

the north

was a Drummond (8).

another

Meldrum. (5 each).

The most frequent Despite the north a scare east is

names are Meldrum of names suggesting the predominant

Brown and Reid and central

Scotland,

region.

There

KA Stockholmt KA Stockholm,

Rullor, Rullor,

1629/11/37-38 1629/11/39-40

141.
is like but body of Angus surnames presentp Cullen and Innes in addition to others

a strong Falconer,

common in counties

near Aberdeenshireq the Meldrums Riacht Broddie

the assortment is

of Aberdeenshire

names, even without (3)9

and Leslies Coullp

most impressivet Leaskq Still,

Forbes Blackhall,

Kelmang Ironsideq Faskant Ordt

Scroggiev (99)

Fiddes#

and Puttie.

The next leads west. his

company of Meldrum's switch

regimentp

that

of Uchtreid east

MacDowall

to a complete

of emphasis

from the north though

to the south

His main county officers into and his the

was Wigtownshire surrounding

he may have dispatched was another between names in and 'Alp

counties. Maxwell.

His lieutenant The contrast frequent

MacDowall, this

ensign

was called one is (8),

company and the preceding companyq MacDowall Five of recruits

shown by the

MacDowall's Pyle

Agnew (5)v Irish

Maxwellp

Campbell of f0l or

(4 each). that

bore the Evidence complete

patronymic type

and twenty is supported is

'Mact.

of this

suggesting eastern

the west names. Ensign of

by the almost

absence of north eastern

There Maxwell

a substantial might

group

of south

namesq for

which

have been responsible. of MacDowell's troops is (3)9

But the south hardly

western

origin

the majority round Muir Grier

in question. (2)9

From shires Glencors Carsont (2)9

Wigtown could (2). Paton (2),

come Crawford Cowang Kyle, Kintyre

Houston

Edgar (2)t

Lockhart# and south

Burnsg Cunninghamt Argyll

and Kirkpatrick. MacClachleng clearly

may have provided Wigtownshire and

MacCairtert itself is

MacNicol, by the

MacSwyne and MacMillan. juxtaposition (2)v that Adair (2)t

indicated

of the MacDowalls MacKie

Agnews with and Hannay. (99) (100)

MacCullocht (100)

MacConnell

MacClellan ,9 of MacDowall's

Some confirmation Rullort Rullor,

the name pattern

KA Stockholmo KA Stockholm,

1629/11/41-47 1629/11/51-54

142.

company really of parishioners G. M. Stewart

points In

to the shire

of Wigtown is

provided

by the list in 1684.

the presbyteries the 9,413

of Wigtown and Stranraer names and discovered 214p Stewart All these relatively with Stewart's

tabulated

the most frequent 1530

were MacKie 2529 Hannay 2419 MacDowall Gordon 1329 Agnew 84 and Maxwell in Captain MacDowall, MacDowall's 66.

1829 MacCulloch

(101)

names are included high totals for

company rollt correlate Robert

and his well

Agnew and Maxwell

statistics. recruiting

In the case of Captain region appears to be Ireland.

Stewart

the most distinctive about his lands

Some of the facts

personal in Leitrim, in

background

are disputed,

Cavan and Fermanagh in (103 ) 1637. His lieutenant respectively. no clear Irish Brian Farrellp no real pattern

but he was certainly granted (102) 1617 and he was recruiting and ensign were called

in Dublin

Hamilton

and Falconer his is companyp the

Though there

are many Scottish

surnames in feature

emerges from them, Christian names with Richard Nicholast (3).

and the unique a frequency Owen (3).

element. (5)9

of Patrick (2)p

(a), (2)t

Edmond (3). Tobiasq

Denis

Philip

Karig doubt

Oliverp of origin

Ochyp Cormack and Dorby leave of the individuals concerned. Wilson Falconer (23

as to the country surnames in

The most frequent and Penton instances Plunket. whether resident It

the company are O'Kane (4)v and 'A# patranymics to the likely Irish

(3 each). in all)t Whether

The lot in addition

are again

evident

names of Savage and and part Irish, descent or

this

company was part names are those

Scottish

the Scottish in Ireland

is

of people (104)

of Scottish

not

evident. to determine the exact identity as Captain of Captain John areas ip p. ix

has not

been possible

John Forbes, Forbes (101) (102) (103) (104)

though

he may have been the same person regiment 1626-9.

of Tulloch

in Mackay's

His recruiting 1914)t

Galloway Records (ad. G. M. Stewartp 343 DNB, livt FS-P Ireland 1633-47,165 1629/11/55-58 KA Stockholmp Rullors

Dumfries

143.

however with

is

virtually

certain

and would

appear

to confirm

the connection are

Tulloch in

in Aberdeenshire. this respect, for

The names of his both the lieutenant

company officers and ensign his

valuable Forbesq the

were called company with LBslie

and both

the sergeants

Strachan. (8)9

The names in Davidson the north (6)p

highest

frequencies 4) which

were Forbes strongly

Strachanp

and Duncan (all Aberdeenshire supports Chalmerst Essilmontv Captain company in southern eastern its this

suggest The vast

eastq

especially names Still,

and Kincardine. conclusion, Troupt

majority

of distinctive

Middletonp Falconerp

Fiddesq Ranniet (105)

Stronachp

Inchmethang

Machriet

Lendrump Marp Tosh# Cheynep

Godsmang Riresq John Hamilton's surnamesq

and Roggie.

company is

a fairly

typical

Hamilton of

displaying complete

a substantial

preponderance

names and an almost names. The captain's with

absence of northern not knowng but for his

and north he would appear

own home is Hamilton

to have been influential frequent Hamilton His the names indicates (12). 3ohnstone was called

tenantsp for

the list

of most

a commanding lead (5). Murray,

own surnamep (4 each). All south parts eastern frequent of

Robertson ensign

and Wilson Ferguson.

lieutenant south

Laing

and his

of Scotland

are represented from the Border areas.

in the names, but counties) seem a little

names (particularly than those of other

less

southern

The most prominent and Ayrshirep Lanarkshirs. (2)t Torrance

areas with This (2)9

seem to perhaps would Linlithgowt Pinkerton, Ensign

be West Lothian# the centre help of this

Lanarkshireq activity Lockhart

Dumfriesshire being (2), based in Douglas

to account Bluntp

for

Lawsont

Moffatq

Carmichaelt

Nasmythq Flemingg Boydt Glencors

Gilkersons

Cudninghamg Dunlopt

Neilsont

Herriesp

and MaXwello

(105)

KA Stockholmo

Rullorg

1629/11/59-62

144.

Ferguson

may have been the main agent concentrated

in Ayrshire (106)

while

the captain

and lieutenant Sir

on Lanarkshire, thus

John Meldrum's were almost

regiment certainly

displays in

a varied the north Fife

pattern east

of areas. and

Two companies William three

levied coast

(Forbes

Meldrum)q

one from

the east

possibly in Lothians

(colonel)p east, south

from the south in Lanarkshire

(lieutenant-colonel and Ayrshireq Irish troops As with

and south in the

Hamilton

and MacDowall of Captain Hamilton's

extreme

west), in addition Englishmen Highlanders as yet

to the

Stewart unit there

and the were few

of Major

Ramsay.

from the north. primarily the period

Hence Meldrum's

regiment

must be classed

another

Lowland 1624-9

body of soldiers. Scottish for companies a whole had been serving regiment In 1624.

Throughout in Sweden. family

Spens had received connections of Crail. officers

a licence

Spens' Fife listed

Nessp north several

near the point of stemmed from Wormiston, (107). On his regimental in 1624 were staff east of Scotland names, Major Beattie. Beatont Scribe

with

Borthwick#

Sergeant

Major

idamyss, and Provost origin being

The colonel's Wemyss and his

company probably Ensign Forbes,

owed much of its since the colonel, to Britain

to Lieutenant busily

engaged with tend

diplomatic delegated

commitments to others in

and Sweden, would of his

to have The most frequent Spens and Fife. is names names

the main recruiting this company roll

troops.

names to appear Traill Other (all

are Browng Robertsont

4 each)

and the latter indicate

two names would seem to signify the east coast. The north while east

names an the roll (rather

represented are impressive (106) (107)

Angus than

Aberdeenshire),

the south

east

in number.

The strongest

arearamong

the distinctive

1629/11/63-66 Rullorg KA Stockholmt Scots in Sweden, 94 Fischert

145.

is

definitely (2).

Fifeq Pitcairnt besides

Beanstan Tarvetq

(2)p Tullisq

Christiet

Flukerp

Kinnearp

Primrose, Cook (108)

Pryde

Wemyssq and perhaps groups mentioned

Buttert above.

and Bains,

the Spans and Traill, following year

In the course

of the

additions

to the company reveal Traill and

the

same name pattern, Beveridge south east. Captain appear at first for Fife

Wemyss (2), among the

Neishq others for

Monypennyq Buistt Angusp Perthshire

and the

(109) Oames Lumsden's to be similar troops were also recruited to those a few from in 1624, of Colonel Fife, and Spens,

in name pattern and quite

company. Crombiet this time

Angus names are presentg Dishingtong the south Douglas Tullisp east is

Couperp But

and possibly

Wood (3)

and Erskine. from which The most (5).

the most outstanding Carmichael Fifet 4). appears

areap

Lieutenant frequent Bennettq Lumsden's

and Ensign suggest (all

may have come. (6)p for

names hardly Home and Kerr troops

3ohnstone

Robertson

The main region

the recruitment south east

of

certainly

to have been the e. g. Carmichaelt Dewarp Hamilton Pringlet (3). Rutherford (110) record listed

bounded

by Lanarkshire Crichtong Moffat Trotterv (2)t

and Dumfriesshiret BeI19 Douglas, (2)t Newtont

Cranston, (2)9

Armstrong, Nisbet,

Colinton, Ormiston

Laudert

(2)p

Porteous,

Tweediet

Stobo and Richardson rolls for at

The Swedish muster companies colonel for Spens'

1624 do not this time#

any other under unit.

full the same The George

regiment

but for

in 1624 are two companies of these men almost and Ayrshiret companies all

intended

Seaton's

name patterns Cunningham's Lanarkshire (108) (109) (110)

are strikingly

in contrast.

bore southern as might

names, especially

from

have been expected

when the lieutenant

KA Stockholmt KA Stockholmt KA Stockholmy

Rullort Rullorg Rullort

1624/8/689-90 1625/3/96-105 1624/8/695-6

146.

was called Cunningham, Lyll (2).

Weir and the sergeants Carmichaelq Kennedy (2). Cochrane, Mure,

Cathcart Bailliag

and Hamilton, Clydej Crawford Somerville,

e. g. Cleland, (2)v and were almost Hamilton (3).

MacGis,

Sandilandsp

Wallace certainly Leslies, Cuming, Blackhall,

(2).

(111) in

On the

other

hand William east.

Gordon's

troops

levied

the north to the

There were eight north eastern

Gordons and four surnamest Arbuthnot,

in addition Burnett (3)9

following

Cheyne (2), Buchan, Ironside, (112)

Cruikshankv Duff,

Bannermang Chalmers, Forbes (2),, Fiddes, Meldrum,

Craighead, Guthrie,

Carnegie,

Farquharson, Murison,

Kempt Landrum,

Low, Ogilvy,

Strachan

and Spark.

In the course
Swedish Colonel mainly Scots. displays No less at least service. Ramsay of English

of 1625 the rest


Three of these William (113 ) soldiers, body of of are troops names, but

of Spens's

regiment
(those of

arrived

in

new companies

Lieutenantconsisted of (211)

and Captains

SpenS and Henry the for other three

Muschamp) were George form

composed Douglas the for

The large a wide than Elliott

noted but to

Captain ones

variety

southern which

majority. the south (2), Pringle,

fifteen (3)v

Douglases,

may be added Herriesp (3)9

Duddingston, (2)9 Tweedie in his the Jardine

Glendinningg (2), Johnstone (4). of In (114)

Hamilton Laudert

Gladstones, Turnbull belonged are area (4), to

Homep Kerr Storiep Mordington for to have

and Welsh north (115) east

As George these

Douglas names the the

Berwickshire Scott's

appropriate appears

company. Fife and the

Captain east. with Scott

case

been

south time

Once again eleven and thisq central and the

captain's The fact suggests Corston

own surname that Fife, (2). the

predominatesq was also the men's

this called

instances. ensign Wemyss (3), like would

lieutenant

and some of Cook (2), (3),

names support while Kersel east

Christie names

and Rankeillourg Ireland,

Dunp Drummond (111) (112) (113) (114) KA KA KA KA

Gibson# Rullor, Rullor, Rullor, Rullor,

Kinkaid

Stirling

Stockholm, Stockholm, Stockholmp Stockholml

1624/8/691-2 1624/8/693-4 1625/3/92-5,106-11,136-40 1625/3/119-27

(115)

Svensk Bioqrefisk

Lexikon,

xi,

369

147.

probably block the

be found

in

the same peninsula. names to leave south eastern

There the matter is

is

however

a large

enough

of south strength

eastern

in some doubt, than area

though in other

of this

strain

much weaker The exact

more definitely eleven vital Scotts factor,

Lothian (Fife but

or Border south is

companies. east not

for

the is a

or the their

are the main probabilities) known, except for one soldier,

origin

by noting that distinguished whom the scribe (116) Aberdeeni The names of the men in Captain Ogilvy's to provide Scotland the a clear pattern for the area of origin, region. but

3ohn Scott,

he came from company fail east central

emerged finally for Ogilvy

as the strongest (4)9 eastern

Angus was probably and perhaps Ramsay (2)

base county

Lyons Lows Pouriet and Perthshire while

and Wood, ringed Monorgang Rattray, Christie, Fyfe

by north Rollokq Philp

namesp Buchang Drummond, may have come

Strachan, (2)

from Fife (117)

(2)t

(2). Spens and portrays variety

Spens' recruiting so far. look

regiment ground

therefore

a considerable than other

degree regiments

of common investigated Scott's)

in Fife

and less

Two of the Scottish they

companies

(colonel's with east)

and Captain Fife, while

as though

were closely

connected the south

two others

(Ogilvy into Fife

in Angus and Lumsden in at times.

may have overlapped and the three English

Only the company of Douglas from that county.

ones seem to be dissociated When Sir


(known was very in 1627-8 later

James Spens undertook


as Ramsay's to that regiment) of but the 1624-5. the rest

in 1627 to levy
the pattern of of the to the

another

regiment
resulted raised and of

names which eleven been

similar were

Four appear of

companies Scottish

English, from

have

mainly

recruited

eastern

parts

country.

The company

(116) (117)

KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm,

Rullor, Rullor,

1625/3/128-35 1625/3/141-6

148.

Lieutenant-Colonel Kinninmonth) In the former

Lawson (perhaps of Captain Christieg

gathered Robert

by his

lieutenant

called surnames.

and that occur

Leslie

contain

many Fife Melvillev from

Fluker in

(2)9 addition

Kinninmonthq to those Edward, the

Primrose, ing shires

Pryde,

(2), Spens and and west,

the neighbourHeringg Cockburn, and and yet [Jurieg

to the north Menzies (3), (118)

Brucev from

Galbraithq east,

Guthrieq Crichton Porteous. also

and Low, and those Hamilton, Leslie's Christie

south Pringle,

Dallingp Robert

Lawson (2),, array (3)v

Penicuik

of names is (3),

different,

points

to Fifet

Balfour

Balsillie, Colvilleg

Kinninmonthq and Wardlaw. this their fact would (Both

Learmonth, (119)

Scotlandp Leslies influence

and perhaps could is

Inch,

Rollok but in

The five eastern

be north relatively This is

eastern,

company north origin that not is

weak and therefore confirmed that by the Leslie (120)

more likely of Pitcairn the are east in

to be Fife. in

Pitcairn transport

1627 guaranteed laird ) most of Francis of of

Captain out

son of the south Fife.

Balbirnie

of Scotland.

placenames The south

of Scotland William Douglas' Cairncross, (3)9

provides Douglasp

the

names for

the

companies

of Captains

Cockburno Bruntfieldq (3),

3ohn Bothwell Cranston Darling, (2)9 William in East Lothian. (122) (3). (4)9 Foulis, Richardson (2)t

and 3ames Bannatyne. Cockburn, Heriottq Sydserfq Douglas Gorthwick,

assortment Brownlee, Kerr (2)p is

Douglas

Home, 3ohnstone Turnbull was the (5),

Lauderp

Rutherford (121)

and Tweedie

convincing. of in Standingstone

son of Patrick is

Douglas evident

The same kind Cranston Home (7). Maxwellq Welsh.


(118) (119) (120) (121) (122) (123)

of division Carmichaelq (3)9 Turnbull

John Bothwell's Caversq 3ohnstoneq Scougalq

menj Bothwell Elliottt (2)p Mowbrayl and

(2)9

Cockburn Hepburnq (4),

(2). Kerr,

Borthwickp Nisbet Scott

Hamilton Newton,

Storieg

(2)9 originally

Swinton to

(123)

John Bothwell

appears

to have belonged

1628/7/201-5 KA Stockholm, Rullorg 1628/6/159-62 Rullor, KA Stockholmq 11,20 RPC 2nd Seriesp 1628/6/157-8 Rullor, KA Stockholmt 368 Lexikont Svensk Bionrafisk xi, 1628/6/166-72 KA Stockholm, Rullor,

149. (124) that

Stewarton, suggest village identical virtually similar lieutenant by the Fife substantial companies

but

the pattern near

of names for the Ayrshire

his

company does not

he recruited

town or the Wigtownshire exactly is are

bearing with

the name of Stewarton. Douglas' companyq but

The names are not the general area

involved

the same. to these, but

The cases

of Captains are not

Cockburn so definite.

and Bannatyne Cockburn's

the patterns

was called

by the Midlothian Numerically than

name of Dalmahoy and his Cockburn's totals

ensign

one of Beveridge. for the south east

are less

those

of the two preceding Bellt Ainsliev (2)9 (125) and thus Forrest# Ruthvenp

but still

considerable, Morton (2),,

Cranston, Nasmyth, Storie

Home, Logan# Kerrt Sydserf for that the this (2)9 Shielsq

Maxwell and Weir.

Redpatho

Somervillet particular

The figures it seems likely in on 7 June from

Border

names in

are smallerp was more distinctly some support

company of Cockburn's This is rendered sought

Lothian fact that

composition. 1627 Captain Haliburton, deserter

by the

Cockburn Grinlaw

the delivery

of men who had enlisted while a fifth

Deant

Edmistong in

was the son of an agent is much more complex, surnames. would

and Carkethillp (126) Edinburgh. since at least

Captain

Bannatyne's of his varied$ but (2). with with

name pattern troops the

a quarter

bore English areas Gullanep

The Scottish

names are very with

strongest (2)9

seem to be the Lothians Lanarkshire

Borthwick

Foster Baillie#

and Lawson; Moffat Lauderg with

and Dumfriesshire (2); the Borders with

Glondinning, Kerr (5); (2)t

and Somerville and Tinto; Gibsong

Horsburghp and Kinkaid The Lothians areas. (124) (125) (126) (127)

Stirlingshire Kilgourt centre

Buchanan (2)v (127)

and Fife

Spens and Tarvet. for these

would provide that

the most likely Bryson

different

The fact

Patrick

of Bannatyne's

company was

Scots Peerage, ivt 431 1628/6/163-5 KA Stockholmp'Rullort 379-80 RPC 2nd Series, viiit VA- Stockholm# Rullort 1628/6/153-6

150.

accosted

by Ensign

Haitlie in

in

Edinburgh

shows at least that

that

Bannatyne's had been

men were gathering originally enlisted

the capital (128) there.

and perhaps

Bryson

The only to differ that in

Scottish

company of this from this eastern

Spens/Ramsay regiment and south eastern

of 1627/8 was

radically

pattern

of Alexander the extreme from

Hannay. west, for

He is

known to have been actively brother was endeavouring

recruiting to send roll the

south Ireland

and his his

men over prove that

company. in part, Irish

The names on his but that Scots cannot

muster were in

the company was Irish The exact size of the

majority. from

contingent

be determined 12% of the Best, Butlert

the names alone, appear

but at least Irish,

fourteen,

(i. e. about Bethellq

company total) Burke, AlConnor,

Beaumont, Gearyt

AlReillyq Gilfoylep

A'Dalyv Quite

Farrellp possibly

MacMachanp Sainsburyp in the names,

and perhaps because similar. Christian very rare

Power.

others Ireland it

are hidden and Galloway is interesting

the surnames of Northern Among the Scottish names of Ninian in other (3)

are at times to see the of which are southern Boyd (3), and for

soldiers

and Mungo appearing, Many of Hannayls Wigtownshire Kennedyt appears

both Scots

companies.

possessed

surnames. Bell,

In the counties Ferguson (2).

round

would

be expected

Herries,

Houston, itself

Orrq Montgomery

Wallace;

whereas Wigtownshire Kirkpatrickt This

most appropriate (2)p MacKiet

Agnew, Hannay (12)9 and MacMurray in Meldrum's Study less (2). regiment

MacDowall

MacIlhench MacDowall's (129)

company thus

compares with

Captain company*

as an example of a Galloway regiment above.

of the surnames in Mackay's than for the regiments in 1629,

in one sense appears None of his no definite hand several companies pattern of his

valuable

noted

came directly of areas (128) (129)

from Scotland

and therefore On the other

in Scotland

can be expected.

iiq 319 RPC 2nd Series, 1628/7/208-11 KA Stockholm, Rullorg

151. are recorded (130) and birthplace. The muster spring and six Ross (5). phonetic involvedp since it roll companies in the muster rolls with details of nationality

of Lieutenant-Colonel seven Scots,

Robert five

Monrots

company in

the

of 1630 showed forty Danes.

Englishmenp

seven Germanst

The most common names among the Scots (3). The German language to discovery as might area.

were Monro (11)9 and the areas

and Sutherland spelling present

and script of the Scottish

obstacles

but Easter was Robert following,

Ross was important, Monro's own native

have been expected

There was a Monro from Foulisp Catvallq and

each of the Arlogie. from Other

Contullich, there

Kincraigp

In addition

were two Rosses from Gannis and a Smith from

and another Beauly. came from

Carron, areas

a MacDonald from Kincraigg too had contributed in Banffshire, recruitsq

because Forret

Letterfourie from Pertht in

Simpson from Strathbogiel

one Learmonth MacKenna from Castle (131) of


Scottish. the (4)

Buchan and another Anderson from St. Three

from Aberdeen, Andrews, of the

Moncur from Angus,

and Robertson hailed

from Blackness from London.

West Lothian.

Englishmen

In the company of Robert


the men were Germans in

Monro of Foulis
while have

approximately
the other half to

half
were that of

and Scandinavians areas appears above. of to

The distribution lieutenant-colonel and from Rindell To the of Mars Heatly Foulis from north while (4).

been

similar

noted The north

The most Scotland

frequent

names were with from in

Monro

was importantp and Hassach Badenoch Robb of of

one Monra Cromarty,

and another Shetlands east

from

Ross,

Manson from

and Mackintosh Duncan of

Invernessshire. and Forbes Keard

belonged

Buchang claim

Deer,

central

Scotland

could

Murray father's

Strathearnp

(130) (131)

In John Learmonth's KA Stockholmt Rullor,

company even the 1630/26/262-3

name was recorded.

152.

of Kettle Baxter

in Fifel

and Mitchell and Heatly


of in Assynt's the

of St. from

Andrewst the Mdrse.


is not

from Chirnside
Major John like July Monro those 1630

and the (132)


recorded but of

south

east

company

with the

useful names of

annotations his i. e. men in

companies that about

noted

aboveg

indicate

two-thirds Northern Anderson MacKandiet and Bell

his names

troops, are again

approximately Ross (5).

seventy Monro

men, (3)p

were Forbes

Scots. (3)p

prominentt MacDonaldq and of Mansont Scotland. Three

(2)9 Gunnt

MacGillichristp Chisholmp the South

Mackenzieg whereas (133)

Macgregor, only Cochrane,

Mac8ain, Prestons

suggest

further

companies

joined

Mackay's

unit

in

the

autumn

of

16299

those Sinnot's sixty Irish#

of Major

Sinnot

and Captains

John Learmonth

and Daniel thirteen

Bullion. of the were

men appear seven soldiers e. g. Brian

to have been mainly bearing British

Germanst only Eight

surnames.

of the latter

Nugents

Maurice

Murphyp John Kellyt Only three also listed and five

Dorby MacGilbeyt Gibson from Englandt (134) recruitsp

Murphy MacCarryq Cranston,

and two Sinnots. The scribe

were Scotst two soldiers from Holland.

and Scott.

seven from Norway, Captain four being

two from Denmark,

Learmonth's Irish (three

company contained from Dublin)t thirty four five

a majority English

of British (three

from York and From Aberdeen Forsyth and

one from Carlisle), had enlisted Gibson, while Young,

and at least Anderson,

from Scotland. (2), Dollasp

Cheyne,

Garioch

from Strathbogie Forbes. Robert

had come Strachang Angus belonged and William

and from Brux in in Kincardineshirep Central Alexanderp

Aberdeenshire Andrew Aitchison Scotland (132) (133) (134) also

to Drumlithie to Dundee. Clarkt

to Arbroath, contributed

Miller

some of Learmonthts 1630/26/266-7 1630/28/166-7 1630/26/264-5

troopsp

KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm,

Rullor, -Rullor, Rullor,

153*

and Anderson, Clackmannan, of Dairsiet origins

all

from Perthp

Kirkwood

from Stirlingq while from Fife

Corbit

from

and Byres

from Edinburghp

had come Learmonth A few had their MacEwen

Sands of Culross, parts

and Stewart of Scotlandt

of Falkland.

in more distant both

MacRae from Dingwall$ in Invernesshiret and Carlyle

and MacGillicallum Kintyraq Boswell

from Glenmoriston

Dorach from from Mouswald

from Auchinleck (135) troops for

in Ayrshire,

in Dumfriesshire. Captain the home-towns connected with

Bullion's noted

were almost

all

Germans# but

study

of background

them illustrates mercenary Hallelp

the wide geographical company.

one particular 'Swedish

Three men came from and four from Norway twenty two three

Sweden (Gottland, (three located (one from

and Ronneby),

Bergen and one from Nep). Schleswig Outland Aalborgt

Denmark had provided

as followsp

two (one from Ekernf6rde)t (including Saebyt Aarhus

Holstein twop Viborgt

from LUbeck), Nykbpingt (two

fourteen Skive,

Koldingt three Europe Purdie), south

and Mariagger)t

and Zealand

from Roskilde

and one from Copenhagen). (Robert

From western Gibson and Peter and and

were named ten Frenchmen and two Scats but no placenames east Europe came only were added for four, viz.

any of them.

From east

two from East Prussia (Breslau)

(Danzig

Braunsberg) Nor did (worms)

and one each from Silesia

(Prague). Bohemia and one from the Palatinate (bttingen and

many stem from southern and two from the northern

Germanyt only border

of Bavaria

Nuremberg).

The names become more numerous furthe+orth west two belonged to Hessen (Fulda and eight Brunswickt

in Germany. and Ebersburg)t

To the west and north two to Westphalia

(both

from Kalenberg)

from Brunswick/Lower WolfenbUttelp coast and immediate

Saxony (Hamburg twol K-6nigslutterg

Bremen, Buxtehude,

and Helmstedt).

The German Baltic

(135)

KA Stockholm,

Rullort

1630/26/268-73

154.

hinterland GUstrow final

contributed two, and Barth) of names is

Mecklenburg and Western focused in

eightt

(Stralsund

threep

Rostock The of Germany and John

two#

Pomerania the north

one (Wolgast). central area

block

based on the territories George of Saxony, with merely borders Fehrbellint Leipzigg Wittenberg). 128 men in of areas both

of George William sympathisers powers. in wordt FromIthe

of Brandenburg if not yet

(1629) there

in deed, were

the anti-Imperialist two soldiers (Goslar

Harz region but

and Nordhausen), eight (Trebbin

Brandenburg

and its two, Salzwedellp

were responsible Calbep Dresden, (136)

for

twov Strasburg another eight

and Berlin),

and Saxony for

(Hallet and of pattern the

Grimma, Reichenbacht These are the definite give

Waltersdorfp origins of

Leisnigt eight of the

the company,

and they

some indication Germany in which

in Scandinavia

and northern It is not

the Protestant could

armies be fairly

were recruited. confident

difficult support regiment

to see why Gustavus in northern comprised first half of Scots Germany. a further of 1630.

of considerable of Mackay's

The second squadron companies Mackay's strong which

six Colonel

were based in Sweden in the almost entirely

own company consisted evidence of the northern Gunn (8),

whose names display surnames

Highlands.

The most frequent

were Mackay (11). When to these MacCulloch MacDonaldt MacIntyrev of

Monro (6)9 (3)p

Ross (5)9 Dow (3)v

(5). MacLeod and MacQuillan (2)9 (2)p MacN8ilt MacConochy (2)t

are added Sutherland MacGillanders (2)9

(2)p

Roy (2).

MacPhail MacAllistert

MacEwenp MacConnellt Mackintosht origin

MacMillanp

MacMurchisp is no doubt that

MacTaggartt

and MacKeagant

there

the Highland

of much of the companyt in particular

and the names suggest contributed many of

Sutherland Mackay's 136 137

and Ross and Cromarty (137) soldiers, Rullort Rullort

KA Stockholm# KA Stockholmt

1630/26/274-9 1630/38/1-4

155.

The muster another from are mainly

roll Scottish

for

Lieutenant-Colonel company, but they

John Lindsay's

company reveals areas names

were drawn from different The most frequent (2)f

those Lindsay

used for (5)p (2).

Colonel (4).

Mackay's

soldiers. Bruntfield with

Pringle

Home (4)v

Monorgan (2)9 Cockburnp eastern

and Nisbet Kerrt

These taken Hamiltong

in conjunction

Auchterlonyt

Carnegie,

Learmonth, Fife, and the

company based on Angus, No conclusion Captain Scottish. Mackenzieq MacDonaldq like John Sinclair

and Wood point to a largely (138) south east. the exact area of origin

can be reached and his men.

about

for

The majority

seem to have been Sutherland (3)v Mansont

Many were Highlandq MacPhailq MacMillan,

(3)p Monro e. g. Cattachv

MacBeant MacEwanq MacDougallf hand there were also southern and names

and Mathieson. (4)t Maxwell

On the other (2)p

Johnstone (139)

Glendinningt

Logang Lithgowq

Cunningham. Nor is

there

a definite

pattern

for feature

John Moncreiffis is the

recruitst name,

most

of whom were Scots. Gideon Keith, and Essilmont which

A distinctive when linked with

lieutenant's

soldiers origin.

called

Gordonv Jaffrayt Moncrbiff himself

may indicate with

Aberdeenshire south

Captain and thus

may have been connected responsible for

Perthshire

have been (140) are

the enlistment

of soldiers

named Graham and MacNugitor. John Innes' muster


There 'Mactv are but

The two most striking


the numbers two of west Highland and

aspects
and two

of Captain
Irish with

roll
four no

names recorded. the patronymic and

Monros, Campbells. strain Irish (138) (139) (140)

Duffs,

twenty MacLeod,

Names like Highland viz.

MacPhersonq other hand

MacTaggart is the

emphasise of 'OtP

the

of

names. Docherty, Rullor, Rullor, Rullor,

On the

there with

no shortage patronymic

names,

MacMahon

and nine

e. g.

KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm,

1630/38/5-7 1630/38/13-15 1630/38/19-20

156. (141)

O'Hagan (3). Beaton"s Beaton It

O'Donnelly, almost

and OtBrogan. all

By comparison the

Captain exceptions (142)

John of

soldiers (2), Barrie,

bore German namesp with Murray, Buchanan, that regiment soldiers. regiment reason

MacLeod,

and Inglis.

may be recorded an entirely

in passing different of the

one other was also This

predominantly annotated

Scottish in detail

company in

to show the home-areas Francis Sinclair

was the company of Major Sinclair himself powerful can be including and May.

in Seaton's this

in May 1630. influence

came from Wick and for in his company. in (14).

Caithness

was very which

At least

sixty

five

of the ninety

places

identified Watten

the German language Wick (12)9 Thurso fourg east (9)t

and script Noss (2)9

came from Caithnessq and one each for

Lybster

Sutherland three. five

could

claim

including of Scotland

one from Dornochp

and Ross a further

From the north from Buchan, of this

had come two men from Aberdeeng Somewhat unexpectedly from Dumfries. Irelandq and four the Six

and one from Peterhead. company was listed

lieutenant Irishmen Prussians

as a Maxwell in

were recorded

as coming (143) from Konigsberg* impression


the has coast

from Munster

The overwhelming
part the north of of Scotland

left

by this
net.

survey
Evidence from have units, of soldiers

of areas
of the

is

that-no
from The

escaped

recruiting

enlistment surnames.

northern east

Highlands and the east military well

emerged certainly

convincingly appear to

contributed and Hamilton were Indeed the

hundreds southern

men for

ranks

of in

the the

mercenary regiments least

counties The areas of can there pay (141) (142) (143) the

were which

represented to have

and Meldrum. Argyll not and counties one company though foreign

appear like

yielded

south

west, with

Renfrewshire certainty Campbells service in to

and Ayrshire. the in these latter two

be credited were there

any

shiresp regiments other

and in

some individual is no proof of

the

Scottish

units

by any

Argyllshire

KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm,,

Rullorp Rullorp Rullorp

1630/38/21-22 1630/38/16-18 1630/26/306-8

157. company than It might that of Captain William that Campbell of Spynie's ever quick regiment. to defend the

have been expected cause in Scotland, for troops

Clan Diarmidt

Protestant to the calls

would

have responded the Protestant

more enthusiastically cause on the Continent

to champion

between

1626 and 1632.

158.

CHAPTER

SEV;7N

Once soldiers the responsibility senses of

had enlisted, of the tkeepingt word.

the his

recruiting new charges himself

officer in both with to the

was faced the their material

with and

physical food the the

He concerned while for

clothing# towards When when had was the to

and drink, agreed

and billeting, port there into to arose

he andeavoured across fear against of

move them Sea. but guards part thus

embarkation volunteers

transport was little service

North

men were

desertiong wills

soldiers be posted reached apparent succeeded

had been day

pressed

their

and night still

prevent due to

desertion. lack of

Even when the shipping. It is

problems that in

a recruiter's enlisting

difficulties man for though his it

were company.

by no means over

when he

On some occasionst invariable Edinburgh Mortonts because to obligation, volunteers regiment the city

is

not to

clear provide opted

whether

this

was an The twelve

he was expected who in September out

clothing. to join lane the auto

1627

earl of

of apperells,

were

fitted

by the it

burgh

with

councillors recruits. This against would L300 to

considered particular France, suffer Major service if

prospective pay of to the

to offer necessary was levy/for a regiment was believed were that

inducements in the In 1635

British prestige the

be sent burgh paid for the

and it no recruits 'for himp for

produced. of certain is

same burgh bound of

Moffat with

cloathing (2 ) but

sojoures' explanation this

Swedish councillors'

there the

no obvious on March 1629

motive

financing to

clothing men in

occasion.

When Sir

George

Hay was trying

raise

(1) (2)

Extracts from (ed. M. Wood, Extracts from

the Records of the Burgh 1936)9 35 Edinburgh Records of Burgh of

of

Edinburgh

1626-41

Edinburgh

1626i-41,166

159.

he reckoned to his

it

a serious (3)

disadvantage

that

he could

not

assure

clothing

new levies. Lord Ogilvy in

made frequent the summer or veris plea fiftie pretie for of

references 1627. sute ment

to

clothing

in the or

his

letters to

to

Robert

Maxwell of for they

He requested of bot apperrell, iwill

forwarding mor, if 1 they

Burntisland reddie, day

Ifortie ar his will the

be

apparralled. that ' of Ithey

The next not

he repeated with good

clothingg they got

contending their clothes.

will later

imbark Ogilvy dressed, soldieris cuntrey as being

except value for good,

A week having they passe

stressed fit waill weill

recruiting and incurages quhen

purposes

men smartly sie the the

does

mutch

manyp quhen they suits but ... sie them

vsed, apperralled.

and speciall 1

throch

Ten further Dikis in wyffit Germanie

were other it

mentioned articles

on 15 August were in give quhilk

Irestand

be William ar scant hattis,

short them could

supply, some ... not

Ishowes they

war wantis

not

amise

to

went

and some of 1 His

them

shirttist about several with Ogilvy

be had heir in September

vpon

suddentia. that

complaint

deserters and that

indicated accepted the the

one had been for

issued

a red and

suitt

another with

had been 'in in in the

as a page awin

Captain 1 (4)

equipped

a suit

Capitaine's form of (towns, for food,

lifrey.

'Entertainment' by the recruiter he used port. 'in the

drink

and shelter or towards large the

was provided country appointed he had beirt butterp houses)

places

villages,

which

as staging-posts Colonel touns 1(5 ) Sinclair

man moving described as consisting

rendezvous provided chaise

the

entertainment of 'drinking between Companies

and raids' Entire

and bread. not to

companies to the

numbering coasts.

100 and 200 took shape

men were

be found

marching

(3) (4) (5)

111,120 RPC 2nd Seriesq 11,81-829 Fraser, cariaverock, RPC 2nd Series, 11,608

92t

96

160.

gradually one group, fashion

as various a score

smaller In another. coast

groups

of men arrived, Ogilvy's

perhaps

a dozen in in this in then

Captain of Fife

men assembled

along

the south

at Burntisland twenty

and Kirkcaldy first,

the summer and early another Menzies twenty fifteen. two.

autumn of 1627, Lieutenant Ogilvy

seven men at

added sixty

seven and Thomas and others held

Some had been entertained in Angus before be preferable in Scotland, being

at Aberdeen,

at Bolshan coast. complete because his

and Kinnell it might still

marched down to the Fife a company in itsfinal this seldom happened Ogilvy showed

While

to assemble in practice

form while shipping

had to be utilised of the problems

when available. caused by embarking arrived

Lord

appreciation in

men of different at the rendezvous aboard port. the

companies (Apparently same ship make sure

the same ship soldiers

as soon as they Ogilvy Ogilvy

of Thornton,

and Hamilton

were all

in all

the summer of 1627. ) Captain Ogilvyls

recommended that immediately lay

Nithsdals on in the

man were assembled that the real

disembarkationp Scottish togither they port,

but he believed $I wold wish that

solution his

so many off can be; in for

men sould it

be put not good that

in ane ship

as possibill

I think shipes.

should

go away so scatteringlie of billeting

sundrie

1(6). near the

The problem
embarkation rendezvous authorities though in the ports point in

must have become more acute


from different instructions billeting detail at of areas

as men converged in Scotland. seldom England intended to

upon to

the local units,

Council mentioned were for the

issued for for

Scotland in

mercenary

arrangements south of

made in action Master

some home regiments and the the Ile

England were

La Rochelle St.

de Rhe.

Orders

forwarded

Katherine'sl

(6)

Fraser,

Carlaverockp

869 88# 92-93t

96

161.

Lieutenant billeting

of the Towerv and the mayors of Harwich

and Hull

to organise for the port in a authori-

for these troops in places convenient and lodging (7) It must be assumad that in Scotland the of embarkation. recruiting ties colonel's all warrant from Charles assistance would I which called

clause

upon local

to give

necessary help

inferred

billeting

as one of the

main fields Three


come to In April light

in which specific
due the to poor

be required. difficulties
by the the burghs Canongate billeted

instances
the

of billeting
caused Edinburght

in

Scotland

have

agitation in

concerned. and Leiths during the on upon

1627

people

whom some of previous their Register the that burgh the yearg behalf to or anus

Colonel had by the indicate by the for

Mackay's still not

companies been There the

had been

reimbursed is

despite in

frequent the Privy

appeals Council by

colonel. whether Privy

no evidence

shortcoming In billeting upon the this

was due to case finally colonel at least fell raising (8)

negligence it on the the appears

Council. 06 the than

payment rather the

central men, for

government's the burgh raising him lay Privy to

finances Council voted

petitioners

L21000

Scots. Captain

The second Maxwellq granting a warrant been with

register troops for to the

discontent the quarter marquis fifty recruiting

was Musselburgh. of Hamilton, in

John

requested the town.

a warrant (9) Such have

permission outwith

soldiers pattern the that burgh past

normal

and appears officials experience the resolve the to

to

occasioned the of captain. troops

by the It awaiting any

reluctance is not unlikely

of

co-operate of such the

billeting officials Burntisland lyffeslg 1627

shipping In loft

had hardened a third

of

local of

against complained and

repetition. of being

instance

inhabitants of their

tymes Council

threatened warrant

and persevit was issued

consequently

a Privy

on 20 September

(7) (8) (9)

APC` Oan. -Aug. 16271 147 RPC 2nd Series, 1,583 RPC 2nd Series, iv, 248

162.

to

the

magistrates

of

the

Fife

town

to

take

effective

measures

to

prevent there.

further (10)

disorders

being

caused

by the troops

awaiting

transport

The second precautions no difficulties were of in an entirely law

problem the

confronting escape in this of

the any of

recruiter his with

was that man. but have

of

taking

against

enlisted volunteersp

Obviously pressed men

existed different being harsh

respect

proposition. against were of their in

No instances

been

discovered

martial Scotland, to

invoked

men by recruiting force in to in 1627 England.

officers In a Council to bring one

but the lard

sanctions

letter proceed them to

lieutenant deserters to cast

Middlesex

he was directed law and and 'to

against the

four

according dice for

martial livest

gallowes,

theire

thereupon

of

them to suffer, is not

and the certain

rest

to be freed.

1(11)

Whether

such a procedure in 1627 for levy for even

was typical the king

because

the English

recruiting

of Denmark was regarded IV. In a sense these whereas

by Charles troops it

I as a personal fully

Christian while the still full

were considered

enlisted that to of

in Britain$ rigours

may well

have been more likely law normally applied Articles the (12)

of discipline only after

under mattial the formal soil.

mercenary War at the impression in the

regiments first given

reading This unit

of the

muster

on foreign

was certainly in

by Monro when Mackay's of Aberdeen shipwreck

landed

Germany.

Yet'

1637 when the magistrates Senate that their of L"Ubeck of the in danger (13) oath', which penaltyt

informed

Queen Christina troops, they

and

of Major

Kerr's

stated from under taken (10) (11) (12) (13)

of death

the men 'thought that

themselves of oatht

released binding had

suggests

some form

disciplinary place.

had been administered

when enlistment

RPC` 2nd Series, iit 79 APE Jan. -Auq. 1627,257 Monro, Expedition, 1,4 Propinquity Books of Aberdeeng

quoted

by Fischerl

Scots

in

Gmrmanyt 90

163.

In Scotland to prevent the earl

strict

surveillance

was exercised stressed

by the Ogilvy the difficulties it is to keip

cousins to ane

desertion. of Nithsdale,

3ames Lord Ogilvy 'how fescheous tyme togither, they

and hazardous for they

number of man ane long in the day tyme, the night; ane tour abouto So that

must haue good attendence watch they bot for it of fresh ar now keipad, is bulded theis Captain

and lykwys for having is

must haua ane strong quhair

man in is not

my hous of Bollaschone, the commoditiona not is

of ane gatt, strenth

round men. Ogilvy

quhilk

so commodious for the surest with

keiping (14)

ane ship

way to keip similar

them weill., for

had clearly 'I

been faced have bot your In his

difficultiesp avating on thamet

he wrote I will leist

from Aberdeeng arnestlie thay

feu keiperis

thairfor heast

requeist

Lordship next

to caus schip

thams in all

run avay. 1

letterg from his

a few weeks later next gryt group

he had been Ithay ...

experiencing ar werie

further

trouble

of recruits, in keiping indicated

strong,

and hes bred me werie of such security Scottish

fascherie is

theme. '

The general

inadequacy

measures regiments

by the

numerous deserters at the rendezvous Those soldiers areas in which they with

from all ports. who did

before

the men had embarked

not desert

often

proved

a scourge

to the must have of

were billeted. such disorders further

Though many Scottish consequent orders, only

burghs

been confronted mercenary burgh troops

upon the presence in the case of the by a local

awaiting

of Aberdeen

has a record

of precautionary by the

action

authority

been preserved.

Disturbed

#many dissordourist German service

tumultes with

and commotiounes' (14) (15) Fraser, Fraserp

caused by the levies 11,84 11,102-3

bound for

Carlaverock, Carlaverack,,,

164.

Colonel of this all

Mackay, burght

the town magistrates fensible personas, walk

appointed to wear their streattes

'the

haill

inhabitants about thame at

swordis so lon

occasiounes

when they within

on the

as the saides and craftsmen by keeping of these (16) laws

souldicures should nearby a fine

remaines

the toune. 1 to deal wapins. 1 with

Even merchants 'such

be adequately in their booths

prepared 'long

Insolencies, observance contravention.

To ensure for every

of five On board

marks was to be exacted ship even greater vigilance

was necessary Scotland. is

as recruits

made

their troops details quhairin

last

efforts

to escape before after

leaving

Some of Nithsdale's known of the

had rebelled

embarkationg beyond Ogilvy's

but nothing

of the incident your soldieris earlier.

I... the last ship statemantp (17) maid the mutinie. 1 and the case of Andrew The Scottish elements in Privy these Council mercenary was however so well regiments that it

Adamson noted

aware of the disorderly took the unusual step

in 1627 of establishing and local

procedures

to be followed should

by individual break

Councillors

out during

the Council's Council


of

law officers if (18) summer recess. uninformed


border ordered in him to

trouble

Nor was the Privy


conduct letter 'the of to trained recruits the lord forces growns the

of England
the of Scottish Essex

about
1627. to raise

the disorderly
In April a

south lieutenant of that

as many of 'groats in

county' souldiers causers troops as yet mutinie

as necessary at Harwich'# '

put and

down the to 'keep

disorders safe more 'Not

amongst principall

the

custodie satisfactory any of

thereof. from are of

The situation nearly at them the have three place

was little weeks of later,

concerning said souldiers the

Norfolk arrived

the but

theirs

ymbarqueing,

through

some of

soe disposed

(16) (17) (18)

from the Council Records Extracts (Edinburgh 1871). 8 11,64 Fraser, Carlaverock, RPC 2nd Series, 11,27-28

of the Burgh of Aberdeen

1625-42

165.

themselves same type May 1629. and Ratcliff, encouraged

that

it

is

not

easis

to recollect bedevilling and on land occurred. 'mutinous

the nomber. 1(19) the English near St. authorities

The in Wapping were

of problem

was still ship of

Both on board outbreaks to deal firmly

Katherine'sq

trouble with the

The Constables and disorderly

persons,

among the recruits quarrels


on active was requiradt return payment per to of

for fill carriageg misdemeanourt who were responsible (20) ' When the Scottish regiment which had been and mutinies.
service after in the long French delays campaign in 1628 landed about to the in England, to sum it

and discussions decided to

shipping, offer normal from be a lump

Scotland L19200 day

by land. to the

The Council in in

colonel, money, the

addition for that

eightpence Sir John

man per

conduct of any all

return

a promise there in would

Meldrum of

on behalf ...

commanders or it

$no occasion (21)

complaint In these and the

outrage

misdameanour was in the

their of

passage., the military troops

circumstances the local

interests to embark

officers from avoid the

government as soon desertiong

officials as possible. while

mercenary would

rendezvous losses danger not late of

ports from of

The former the latter soldiers. Hamilton shipping and of would

further constant did the

be rid

of

disorders prove of his easy

caused to

by the

Shipping Innerwick

however blamed 'difficulty a very Captain should of (19) (20) (21) (22)

always arrival the

procure. upon this

soldiers between

problems, Ireland has Sinclair been and Sinclair tho beginning time

transport $ (22 )

kingdom between

great Innes have

impediment. in sent but it December a ship did

The dispute really

Colonel

1627 to

revolved Innes'

around

shipping. at

collect leave

man at

Aberdeen

Octoberp

not

Leith

till

12 November.

By this

16279 209t 250 APC Jan. -Aug. APC May 1629-May 1630,33 1628-Apr. 1629,254 APC July iip 335 RPC 2nd Seriest

166.

'after plaices

long their

and wearisome about

attendance

at the hous of Crombie and uther to Aberdein, to disbands, and

expecting

the comming of the shippe

and being it would

of hope of her commingg thay war forced (23) be difficult to reassemble them. out there appears and control that to have existed over shippingt

In England system but it

a more highly at least

arganised

of authority is also clear

in the Thamest the

'ad hoc'

arrangements

were made to suit ordered officers

embarkation

part.

In March 1627 the Privy all water bailiffs Douglast

Council royal

the Marshal to provide near the transport the of in English

of the Admiraltyp shipping for Sir

and other troops

Archibald In August Danish

at St. Ludovick time

Katherina's Leslie

Tower of London. for his 160 men for

1627 Captain service,

required laid

and this

the Council

responsibility Trinity

on the Commissioners

of the Navy.

(24)

The Master instructions

House was the recipient shipping time for

of th3 Privy recruits for

Council Sir five

May 1629 regarding regiment, at that

James Spens'

totalling was told

800 men in to expect

was the number the Master authorities provision northern on the east of shipping Germany. for

companiest though 2,000 (25) Other eventually. times involved in the or

coast

were naturally across

at

troops

the North

Sea to Scandinavia was called service. required 1,400 upon

In February ships for

1627 the mayor of Hull 1,350 men bound for aldermen ships

to have in readiness June of the same year to provide to Denmark. vessels,

Danish

In

the mayor and his time four

were again to transport

this

or five

men

At the same time was to take

a similar

letter

was sent to

to Newcastle downs to (26)

where one ship Flamborowe (23) (24) (25) (26)

aboard

250 men and then ships which

'fall

Head' and await

the other

were to come from Hull.

iip 147-8 RPC 2nd Series, 1499 514 APC Jan. -Au2.1627p APC May 1629-May 1 309 16-18 ApC Jan. -Aug. 16279 1049 3579 389

167.

The procedure

was similar there

in

Ireland.

In May 1628 the the

king

wrote of the

to

the Lord Deputy Irish parts

ordering Captain

him to instruct Stewart (27) fact

officers for

to allow out of

and 200 men intended Yet there that there arc

Denmark records

to pass freely of shipping business North

Ireland. the

few official

orders

despite

must have been an extensive of men across the

carried

on transporting

so many thousands is that

Sea.

The probable

explanation

recruiting concerning they that

colonels shipping, and only

normally when they

made their experienced Council.

own private extreme

arrangemants difficulty the did fact

seek the assistance the levying for Denmark

of the Privy in

There was too in this

1627 and 1628 was givent of preferential

of respect/shipping, which would account

as in others, for the Council

a, degree letters.

treatment

The situation
between control refer required 6 November present upoun Angus ar the to at Fryday is to colonel over any to and shipping shipping determine 1627 their nixt-.

in Scotland
ship in captain, Scottish

illustrates
but ports. but there

the personal
is less

contracts
of in a ship Lards

made
official Scotland was on

evidence letters of

Few Council inspection Privy admiral two

authorityv its the

when the the kingts appoint to the the visite Erle shippe

sea-worthiness task to the

Council

gave

who was personally skilled ship men 'to whairof his goe Oohne regiment

meeting. to

He was to and some of to try ) if

Bruntilland

the of

maister

and whairin and sojours. shipping in

Nithisdaill

be transportit, Erle his

be tight

meete transport and/to in all local of

said

1(28

Normally simply

Council general

instructions orders the to

Scotland authorities. Captain

regarding

were England

Whereas James Duppa

use was made of occasions* in

services

an several

Scotland

(27) (28)

1625-32,345 CSP Ireland ii, log RPC` 2nd Seriesq

168.

no captain with troops

is

mentioned

twice

in

the Council

records

in connection ship for Nithsdale's 1620

the transportation

of recruits. Burntisland skipperl

The captain

of the

in November 1627 at Downiet a Leith

was John Angus.

On 22 April

to prepare for the shipwas directed (29) troops to Hamburg. In August 1626 Captain Wallace ping of Scottish (30) was ready to carry some of Mackay's troops abroad. Meanwhile Mackay had been drawing for up a charter between himself Robertson and Captain William (31) Leith. When captains of Forbes# regiment in written for

Alexander

the use of the vessel, to transport of

'Archangell'of men for

were required

the Master selected

November 1631 the Lords as James Henderson) (32) the purpose. It appears that

the Council

John Henry (later Cock of Pittenweem

of Prestonpans

and Frederick

captains

and crews were less On 28 April

than co-operativa

with

the recruiters instructions in order that

an occasion. to the affect Sir

1620 the Council

had to issue in the Forth to Hamburg. (33)

that

ships forces

were to be arrested might be conveyed the Council till

Andrew Gray's

When Mackay's 1626 directed gathered

regiment that all his

was nearing ships troops

completion,

on 9 August enough had been service. because were

be arrested to cross

and detained to Germany for

to enable

Danish

Yet by 22 August some Dutch ships directed


in March

the number must still had also with


and

have been inadequate, for his use. (34)

been hired

Warships

to help
1627 (35)

the transportation
from England in

of further
June. (36) to But work

levies
certain unless

from Scotland
of their these wage

captains

and crows

were

truculent

and refused

(29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36)

RPC RPC SR09 RPC RPC RPC _RPC

Ist Series, 255 xii, 2nd Series, J. 389 Reay Papers, GD 84/2/154 2nd Series, iv, 349-50 Ist Series, 257 xiit 2nd Series, 1.381-20 389 iq 556 2nd Seriesq 1627t 357 APC Dan. -Aug.

169.

arrears Baillie

were paid

and their

ships the

properly situation

victualled. over for

Sir

James of two of the

had to step in to tide (37) In 1629 a similar months. Crawfordt shipping had to petition

a period

problem

rrcurred. for a direct

Georgov earl order

the Council Sweden because likely Sir that

regarding had been temporary Nithsdalo boates of

of 300 man for (38) It is obstructive. service from was fairly that (39)

skippers

of ships for

pressing

of ships

common.

George Hamilton warrant for

informed pressing

Ireland

he had lobtayned Pressing of ships Adolphus

from my

Lord Deputy. ' Christian

was a frequent in the Baltic.

practice Alternatively, above,

IV and Gustavus shipsp

use and the arrived

was made of foreign Master mainly illustrates impressment trading the 'St. of Forbes in foreign that

Dutch ships the 1,800

were mentioned men sent

stated

that

to Stralsund

(40 ) vessels. ship captains ship but not in

The case of skipper could only be seriously

John Briggs affected by the normal His shipt were

of their

in the interruption loss

of their

activities Peter' the

also

the complete was arrested but

of vessels.

of Gothenburgg Ile

at Waterford, the French

and troops seized

mbarked for t La Flotte The ports in shipping departed port for

do Rhie expedition, (41) and burned its of departure end arrival

the ship

indicate

the voyages

involved

recruits

to the Continent. Sir Archibald Colonel

From London in Douglast (42)

1627 men and from the same Aston's levies but soma

Denmark under

in 1632 for

Sweden under intended

Aston's

command.

were originally

to arrive landed

at Greifswald German coast

in Pomaraniaq

of them were eventually (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) (42)

an the

at the mouth of the

RPC 2nd Seriesp 1,583 111,313 RPC 2nd Series, 11,98 Carlavarockp Frasart LPC 2nd Soriesp iv, 360-1 CSp Domestic 1627-8,528 APC Jan. -Auq. 16279 213

170.

Weser.

(43 ) for

The troops

from Hull those

and Newcastle from Kingston Germany. (44 )

in

Juno 1627 were were more of Hamilton1B

intended precisely fleet

Denmarkv but for

upon Hull

detailed

Stade in

The marquis

sailed

out of Yarmouth

and docked at Elsinore

in Denmark before

there between the troops disembarking the to Oder mouth and moving an (45) On the other hand Dover was the embarkation Wollin and Usedom. port for Alexander in 1624, for Hamilton's (46) 250 soldiers who were to reinforce Count

Mansfeld activity for

and the Southampton expedition.

the Le Rochelle tended

area was the centre of (47) the port selected Obviously the area proposed for

departure

to be the one nearest

disembarkation In Scotland from three

of the troops. embarkation Leith of m3rcenaries was mentioned was conducted in the original in general agreement

main areas.

between Mackay and David where ships It was also and victuals the port Arthur

Learmonth

in March 1626 as one of the two parts in readiness between for the recruits. of (49) and (48)

would be provided

agreed Forbes Kerrt

as the rendezvous for the Irish

the Master latter.

Forbes

and Sir

levies

of the

In 1637 Captains set out from Leith

Skens,

an route set sail

and Lumsden raised companies (50) The Ogilvy company for to Wolgast. Finlayson from the Firth of Forth. Arrqngements Ireddiest were still in July

Nithadale's were being that lyes

regiment

made on 21 June 1627 for in the raid ship of Bruntiland. board a ship first in

men to embark on the 1 Ogilvyts officers

ship

receiving

men 'in

Bruntiland ready

and Leith' at Leith served ...

and August, theiring

and in order that thay

to catch

lying

Captain

Ogilvy, the

quha cumis he couldq

will

be first twenty

maid all

expeditions$ (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50)

and sent

nine

soldiers

from Aberdeen

to

PRO9 State Papers Sweden, SP 95/3/224 403 APC Jan. -AL19.1627,389l Scots in Sweden (Stockholm 3. Berg and Bo Lagercrantz, 11,91 Fraserp Haddingtont 1628,130t 443-4 APC Sep. _1627-Junn SRO, Reay Paperst GO 84/2/149 GO 62/93 SRO, Lord Forbes Collectionp Scots in Germany, 90-91 Fischer,

1962)0

34-36

171.

Leith

by sea.

(51)

When Lieutenant he sailed

Dickson

of Nithsdale's

men however

embarked with (52) from Kirkcaldy. apparently north Sea.

the vanguard

The second part used as a final even from Leith Mackay's the ship regiment had sailed

of importance vassals

was Aberdeent coming from the

frequently or of

haven for before in

of Scotland One part

setting

out across

the North

1626 was to leave from Aberdeen, but only after (53) Captain Alexander Gordon's north from Leith. Alexander Cunningham's regiment in Swedish service.,

meng bound for sailed

Colonel

from Aberdeen and landed first in the Sound before moving into (54) the earl of Irvine's the Baltic As noted previously, proper. (55) (Footdae) to voyage to Dieppe. 1642 left in Aberdeen recruits The third This surprising embarkation fact port of importance for was Ferry of Unes in Cromarty. numbers of

may be accounted

by the considerable but also Leith

of recruits preservation coast yet ports,

who were levied of the port from which is

in the north,

by the poor state and the other

records

of Aberdeen,

east

many thousands extant. which

of troops

must have sailed, been more have

of whom there in the

no proof with with the in

Unes has certainly contemporaries

fortunate noted its

fidelity

and historians

association sailed

regiment

from there to Scotland during

Part of Mackay's of mercenaries. embarkation (56) 1626. In 1631 Colonel John Monro, in the northq which embarked at Cromarty (57) landed at Hamburg. Adam Gordon Kilcomkill sailed from Unes to progress

who had returned various Further shipping to join (51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56) (57) (58) companies levying

to recruit July

June,

and October

in Sutherland

in 1635 led (58)

to Captain Other soldiers

out of Unes to Gothenburg. Captain Alexander

Gordon at Aberdeen

in 1637 and then

11,819 102 Fraserp Carlaverockq 11,86 Carlaverockj, Fraser, SRO, Rea7 Papers# Gb 84/2/154 (Edinburgh 1813)t 485-6 R. Gordont Earldom of Sutherland C. D. Skelton ana O. M. Bullochp'Gardons Under Arms (Aberdeen 1912), 468 Monro, iq Itinerary appendix -Expedition, 17 (Edinburgh G. M. Macgregorq History iit A. 1901)t Clan Gregor of Frasert Sutherland#-ii, 160-2

172. (59) regiment. mentioned. Colonel It does appear however from were (60)

to Germany for Seldom is from the charges

Colonel any other brought

Cunningham's port in of exit 1612 that

Ramsay had departed but when they

Dundee and Captains ordered It to disband,

Hay and Sinclair their

from Caithness,

men were to be landed that both sides

at Leith

and Burntisland. and Unes

seems fairly

certain for

of the Forthp If

Aberdeen

were the main ports equally in suitable

departing

mercenaries. have used it unit This

Dundee had been for his Angus recruits the for

Ogilvy

would surely

1627 and 1628. via

One particular route

Scottish

set

out

for

Continent the Igens

the land

to England. king

was the reinforcement assembled in

Warmest

of the French

which

Lord Enzie

February transportit

1633p 'he has them landwayis theme be sea over of disembarkation, involved figure.

to Londong and from thence (61) to France. ' of course, varied with the field of

The port military the troops

operations would

and with

the country for

on whose payroll the mainland of Sweden and hardships through

Soldiers

intended to avoid

were usually of further

landed travel

at Gothenburg

the discomforts the necessity

by seaq and to obviate Zealand

of passing

the Sound between Danish Denmark and Sweden in always uncertain.

and Scania.

There was no war between between the countries were

the 1630s but relations considered it

Gustavus

worth

mentioning

to Chancellor

Oxenstierna difficulty

troops had passed without on 13 Oune 1629 that some Scottish (62) On 17 3anuary 1631 the Chancellor through the Sound. sought advice whether reinforcements the safer from Scotland course should

the Swedish kingIs risk sailing through (63)

the Sound or take Examples of this

of disembarking William

at Gothenburg. (59) (60) (61) (62) (63)

are provided

by Captain

485-6 Gordon# Earldom of Sutherland, Scots in Sweden, 76,82 Fischert C. O. Skelton and J. M. Bulloch, Gordons Under Arms, 429-30 1.499 AOSB 2nd Series, AOSB let Series, vi, 59

173. (64)

Gordon's 1635. near (65 )

men in 1624

and Captain

Adam Gordon's followed

Sutherland

company in

The more common practice usually landfall

was to land Germany.

the new companies Thus Mackay's (66) the

to the scene of action, is units found making Sir its

in northern

regiment English

at GlOckstadt (possibly directed

in 1626, including

under Spynie under

Archibald

Douglas being

of Nithsdale, and the Scots in 1632 arriving arranged since this fin

and Sinclair)

to Stade in (68)

soldiers (67) 1627,

MacDowall John Monro of Obsdale in 1631 and Uchtreid (69) the rendezvous port was Alternativelyp at Hamburg. or Mickleburghel the Baltic taken proper (Pomerania or Mecklenburg), longer This the and

Pomerland voyage into was normally

was considerably at Elsinore.

opportunity course taken

of touching

by the marquis

of Hamilton

an route

to Wolgast

was the (70) in 1631,

bound for Forbes' Stralsund the Master by soldiers of certainly and almost (71 ) Captain Alexander Gordon definitely As noticed in the same year. alreadyt (72) But in most cases British passed through the Sound into the Baltic. records other seldom provide than 'Germany', are given
but the

more definite

clarification

of the destination

Few det.? ils


can very at be computed, considerably. GlOckstadt been the

from which
of

the duration
occupied

of such voyages
appears from to have fluctuated arrived

number

days

The Monro Elbe only

company five

which

departed (73)

Cromarty

on the

days

later.

Conditions

must Monro of figure

have listed

relatively distance is

favourable

though

the

month As in

was October. all his estimates Even

as 300 German miles. no more than a broad

distance

this

approximation.

so the

(64) (65) (66) (67) (66) (69) (70) (71) (72) (73)

1624/8/693-4 KA Stockholmq Rullorg iiq 160-2 Sutherlandt Fraserl 1.1 Monro, Expeditiont APC Oan. -Auq. 1627,403 A. G. M. Macgregorg History of Clan Gregor, 346 ACSB Ist Series, vii, CSP Domestic 1631-2.139 iv, 360-1 RPG 2nd Series, 485-6 Gordong Earldom of Sutherland, iq Itinerary Monrog Expedition,, appendix

11,17

174.

would direct

equal route

lt5OO miles, scarcely direct

which

seems much exaggerated 600 miles. It

since

the

exceeds but

may be that from

the course of Scotlandf

followed England

was not

coastal, this

seldom far total, least

the shores still

and Hollan d, and in so inaccurate.

case his At the very of about

though Mackay's

highp

would not look have travelled which would comparison sail almost

man seem to each day, By days to than Mackay's, less

by sea a distance strongly suggest

100 miles

on average

progress

favoured fleet

by the winds. eleven journey

the marquis

of Hamilton's

required

from Yarmouth 750 miles

to Elsinorep

a somewhat longer Thus his which could

by direct

reckoning. factors force

speed was clearly account troops for this

then Mackay's. were the facts times in July the size

Among various that

the marquis'

of 6,000 that

was almost voyage took

three place Major

of Mackay'st

and also

Hamilton's to be light four days

when winds

would be more liable only

and variable. 'after a very

Borthwick's journey' .

voyage to Hamburg took (74) in the seventeenth


arduous in nature,

prosperous

Sea travel
in duration, noted

century

could

at times
to

be more extended
life than of of the

more

and more stated in

hazardous that 1637 five after

examples

above. regiment

Alexander arrived in

Leslie Stralsund of

companies a voyage

Cunningham's nine risk. join In weeks. In the 1631

(75) 1624 army Colonel

Drowning barely of Count

as a result of the

shipwreck force

constituted which reached set

a permanent sail to (76)

a third Mansfeld

British

on the

Contin6nt

safety. Stewart (77) and

Thomas Conway were lost

and Lieutenant-Colonel at to sea off escape the coast

George of 'Lilly

three

whole

companies himself

Denmark. Nichol',

Even Monro (74) (75) (76) (77)

was fortunate

when the

11,101 Carlaverock, Fraser, Scots in Sweden, 107 Fischert Collections Historical 3. Rushworthl 11,13 Expedition, Monrot t

(London

1680),

1,

part

2,153-4

175.

after

being

driven that

ashore

an Bornholm 'forty eight

and then souldiers

refloated,

struck

a leak

so serious by turns' it

even with

to pumpe continually wrecked near ROgenwalds incident of

soon ran aground (78) on the Pomeranian coast. all concerned the shipwreck

and was completely But probably October with Major four

the most tragic

in early

1637 at Aberdeen. Karr ships speat had brought

Captains men up in

Skenel

Finlayson

and Lumsden along by sea,

from Leith the harbour. occasioned The powerful forced

to Aberdeen

and their

were anchored of the water ships

Unfortunately by the extraordinary current

Ithrough raint

a great thir

of Dee, loose. wind after t

haill

four

brake

swept them out to sea, Shore sands.

and then

the south-east that

them an to the North ninety

Spalding

asserted not

the disaster

two recruits of these

were missing that

but he did

distinguish (79) escaped.

between the proportion The situation He wrote drowned, that that was slightly four

drowned and those reported

that

differently

by Lothian

to Ancram. fifty were

hundred stated

men were embarked and more than that the desertion had not rate

but he also that

companies this

had been complete

had been so high (80) twenty men each. than

Clearly Spalding's

would suggest total. for


to have

a much higher

number of deserters

Responsibility
recruits signed the ships his appears original in Clause

the arrangements
been a matter with his David master, on their did not for

for

the transporting

of

negotiation. Learmonth Count passage till in

When Mackay on 4 March 1626 provide of So the thus

agreement Four for the the

latter

bound troops

Mansfeld, up to the any the

to

and victuals (81) But

date

16 April. clause (78) (79) (80) (81)

regiment

embark

autumn.

lapsed,

and Mansfeld

himself

was killed

case.

Mackay

11,3-4 Monrog Expedition, iq 59-60 Spalding, History of the Troubles, Correspondence of Ancram and the of the Earl (ed. 0. Laingg ip 98 1875)9 Ed7burgh SR09 Rsay Papers, GD 84/2/149

Earl

of

Lothian,

176.

had to make his with Skipper

own arrangements; Robertson with

hence he is on 24 August,

found

signing

a charter

William

concluded contract

an agreement similar to that

Skipper

he had two days after (82) John Wallace. In 1631 a was finalised The former 'ready
' (83) in

between Mackay and Learmonth and Sir Arthur Forbes. ships


serve. issued to

between the Master that he would


tydes

of Forbes

undertook ...

arrange
warning

and pay for


after of wind

sufficient
and wather were levies

victualled
It is

an three unknown Mackay,

however 1631.

why certificates now Lord Reayt and in Sweden.

embarkation for

November

had arranged Scotland

be made in recruiting Conway's

England in his

by Thomas Conway name an behalf on 27 October 7 December substantiating months in of

by John

Monro, to verify

both

A certificate by Secretary following of Monro's of State during of

embarkation on English five

was issued French, the

State day

Viscount

Dorchester document the in

and the

a similar during Stirling.

departure by Secretary for

captains Viscount the

previous

(84)

was signed Accountability

behaviour

voyage

was no doubt

shared might

charge

between

the ship's that

captain

and the military captains at times

officers.

It

have been expected

military but in fact

would have accompanied they officers in Britaing full Sir seem to have sent with the main to

the men on board each ship, junior bodies ustle officers of troops

or even senior while they

non-commissioned remained

themselves

presumably company total. Archibald

up the stragglers order

and endeavour for 1627 bearing

to make up the his ships signature with

In an embarkation named the officers to Denmark. sergeants. (82) (83) (84) (85)

Douglas

to command on board

recruits

from London and five on occasion.

Of these

one was a lieutenantg of the ship

two were ensigns, was alsa'answerable

(85)

But the master

SRO, Reay Papers, GO 84/2/154 GD.52/93 SRO, Lord Forbes Collectiong SRO, Reay Papers, Go 84/2/188-9 PRO9 State Papers Donmarkp SP 75/8/125

177.

In June 1627 the against board a ship's his vessel

earl

of Nithsdale for

and Lord Spynie

sought

a summons on

captain

thirty allowing approximately recruits (86) to escape. On the other handq skippers were special levies instance for it protection. As noted in several extraordinary Council were

occasionally matters, priorities. letters appointed were taken

accorded

previous

the English In this

Denmark were given is apparent previously

from the Privy that warships Further

of March and June 1627 noted to convoy the troop-carrying

merchantmen.

precautions

because even merchant, disruption

Ordnance to prevent reported Scots English

were armed by the Master of the (87) Gabriel Oxenstierna of the convoy. ships on 28 May 1627 that having some ships with

to the Swedish Chancellor at Gothenburg# on the instructions

had arrived warships

been convoyed there by three (88) In 1631 the report of Charles 1. 'Bonaventurel the marquis that to the lords of Hamilton's of fleet

of Captain the Admiralty across before


This

John Pennington showed that Sea.

of the warship he had escorted remarked with


were

the North sailing

He also ships
that in

when he was at Yarmouth from the North.


safeguard there the the is no of

Scots

arrived
efforts

more troops
being made to Nevertheless for

(89)
man

would

emphasise them such

by transporting evidence all that

one large were

convoy.

measures from

common practice and Scotland. skippers for

shipping

mercenary The rates

regiments charged

England

by different The calculation sum for ' were the

carrying to ship have but

the been

soldiers made not

brare-, fairly on the of 'the basis

consistent. of a lump poll.

appears of the which merks

hire

by a counting in (90) each soldiert

men by the 1626 for

The Dutch to cost

ships five

were Scots

arranged for

August (86) (87) (88) (89) (90)

Mackay

RPC 2nd Series, 398 viii, 1627,141 APC Jan. -Aug. iii, 116 AOSB 2nd Series, 1631-2,139 CSP Domestic i, 389 RPC 2nd Series,

178.

'I

i. e.

about

5/7 appear

sterling, to have in a cost have mayor the of been of

a relatively been more

low demanding as the per

charge in above

it their

seems. rates.

British Mackay signed (91) and

captains Skipper for would

Robertson at to the for the

same week L4 Scots the

agreement 6/8 the

a contract This

shipping appear

man* i. e. rate, 1627 for to

sterling. Privy Council with in ship reason

standard in February 'which

instructed masters exceed comment Council are the then military

Hull

bargain cannot sterling.

transporting proportion of

troops a noble

wee conceive i. e. is for 6/8

a man, ' procedure

An interesting further price you

on seventeenth-century order to that presse 'if you

provided any

by the

cannot

agree

reasonable ' (92)

so many shippes concerning If the delays

as shalbe commissions occurred Mackay would

needful. there at

As with a

contracts inserted.

was occasionally or Glackstadt Robertson

penalty which

clause

Aberdeen pay Skipper

inconvenienced (presumably

captain,

L40 daily

Scats

currency). ships terms were for crowded and uncomfortable. 300 men no mention it so, must this be

Conditions When Mackay was made of presumed that

on board

these agreed than

and Robertson any ship all to other

transporting therefore If

'Archangell', on the carried Newcastle were

300 travelled the normal ship 1,400 ships

one vessel. in such

approximated In June 1627

number from

'troop-ships'. to uplift aboard necessary.

an English Hull

was instructed to

250 men, four Hence each the or at ship. arrival

and from five least

soldiers with

be accommodated taking

merchant

two warships nearer

some man if would

200 and possibly

250 on average reported to

be aboard on 6 August 1627

Quarter-Master of John

Galbraith ship

Nithsdale

'Draybruch'st

with

216 recruits certified the

on board. dispatch

(93)

On the (91) (92) (93)

other

hand

when Captain

James Duppa

from

GO 84/2/154 SRO, Reay Papers, 1627t 104 APC Oan. -Aug. 11,103 Carlaverockl, Fraser,

179.

London with

of

seven

ships

to

the

Weser only

for of of

Colonel these London. and for

Astont ships

each seem to

was listed have fives been 'Yong listed on

150 men. the 'Ould 'Housent Zuider ships .

Incidentally 'John' Tobias#, (94 ) and

two both

English, Tobias, from the Dutch

fSaral, 'Fortunsig

The other Oxel, name is part

'Rose' port

'Pide this the

are

all

The most would

likely again of sources ships.

Enkhuizen by

Zee, in

and this the

emphasise British tends

played

transportation Swedish aboard from

mercenaries. to confirm mentioned in the the that Western approximate when six Pomeraniap

Information number of troops were to

from carried

Monro to

companies three and lists Nyckeln' Unfortunately measures but the of is

be shipped

Pillau taken

Wolgast on board 1(95) vessels called

companies the of other

(about three

300 men) carried

were

'Lilly-Nichol' the the contemporary 'Lilla Slutzer British in 115start, 1. (9 6

were

by the for Ill't tonnage tonnage English 1630

'Hound. these

From were

Swedish and the

royal ISvarta

shipping Hunden of the

otherwise of of these the

lKleiner into listed

conversion not easy. like however tons. tons. ISvarta ranged (97)

vessels is

Swedish $tons in

period in its

#last', 1628 1300 three and the of crew

varied lists would the

meaning. 119stert,

The famous and in fact to

'Wass' displaced more 200 the

occurs

in

these this

as 400

Clearly By this Hunden between

mean a last 'Lilla

approximated displaced the

than tons size

reckoning 1110 fifty about

Nyckeln' On board two

240 tons. and seventy of twenty

former with

seven

seamen By

an additional comparison forty the six normal the crew,

100 soldiers ISvarta sixty

and an ordnance Ill't though

two normally Even if

guns.

Hunden soldiers

largerp guns.

carried the being places

only of

military

and eighteen on board taken by the personnel/were

soldiers

shipped

(94) (95) (96) (97)

PROp State Papers Swedenp SP 95/3/224 ii, 3 Monro, Expedition, 239,245 Sveriges Krin, vii, Stockholm Wasa Exhibition

180. (which below

is

not

definite strength

and would

in any case leave journey)t it

the is

vessel obvious

seriously that a

fighting

on the return

human cargo conditions. ships clue other of the

of three

companies tonnages in

of men guaranteed are reasonably the Skeppalista Scottish

extremely typical 1611-320

cramped living

Yet these time

of the Swedish and gives a

catalogued tonnage

to the probable ships Comfort bringing an board All recruits

of the

vessel

'Archangell'

and the

mercenaries such ships

from Britain. carrying 150-300 fact recruits that during must have been the sea-

impossible. crossing in the

the evidence

points

to the

were accommodated in but

the hold.

Perhaps point

some slept of view any Archibald Douglas

open on the main deck, would

from the skipper's

such deck obstruction in his appeal

be undesirable. Council might on several

In 1627 Sir matters

to the Privy that

concerning above the they that lay the

shipping ballast aboard. troops

requested since (98) it

planks

be provided

to lay

concerned

the health in

of the soldiers and it It is is

while clear

Ballast

was stored literally description

the holdt

were sleepih-g in his in that

on top of it. of

stated that

more explicitly the soldiers a-swim through

by Spalding 'sleeping the water

the 1637 disaster upon heather

the bottom

of the ship

were all

on the coast. make their heather the for

came in at the holes and leaks' caused by the shipwreck (99) At least the Scots appear to have endeavoured to conditions by stretching more tolerable out by using their native stones of

sleeping than

rather

an hard planks

or on rough

ballast. the stench

But even such amenities there With due to lack ventilation

can have been little and to those almost

compensation who succumbed

of sanitation in the hold

to seasickness. (98) (99)

non-existentv

APC Jan. -Aug. 1627,174 of the Troubles, Spaldingo istory

iq

59

conditions is therefore

of life readily troops

in

the hold

must have been primitive that the first in muster

indeed. rolls

It taken

understandable newly disembarked absent,

of Scottish mention

in Prussia in

1629 frequently

soldiers

as being

'sick

the ship. ' soldier was severely


tastes, provided for these in As noted treatment have been failed a it for salt

Though the diet


limited is difficult in comparison to troops meat, is 1627

of the seventeenth-century
with sophisticated

twentieth-century for 'Wass' (1003 the victuals barrels none of

express on board flour, in the these following

much enthusiasm ship. and the English troops rate fresh victuals The

mercenary fish, salt

carried but

wator, prescribed bound to

provisions February frequently and therefore

noted for

by the for

Council

companies tended of

Denmark. priority surely

above, the other

be given

provisions sailing

must abroad 'a butter

maximum which to equal. of '(10l) even

Scottish

regiments

may have of

Each man per biscuit It

day was to j lb.

be allocated of

pottle

bere, of

3 cakes cheese. ton

weighing has been

4 ownces 9 that a ton

and 6 ownces could weight

remarked For

North day

Sea voyages journey crew the

last and

days, of

several for skipper,

weeks.

volume problems for the

provisions for the

300 men plus especially an appreciation of ten would if

normal the of days

must

have were

posed already it can earmarked be and

300 troops stores with j lj ton tons of of

hold. that

To gain for of

the

involved

calculated a crew of if It

a voyage 100 there of

duration

300 soldiers cheese, of 41 that biscuit lb.

complement 4,000

be needed least three reached

12 ton (4 tons

butter, the is

bottles cake ration

beer,

and at

biscuit no wonder

was actually

pieces such bulk

each). abuses were

bHn when provisions Stockholm 1627,104

(100) (101)

Wasa Exhibition APC Oan. -Auq.

182.

common during he petitioned wher the

loading. the Council are

Douglas on this

displayed matterv darke,

his 'in

practical regard

foresight those places

when ...

victualls

laid,

being

much deceipt that therefore '

may be used in for (102) prevencion Nithsdale's that 'the that daunger of

the weighing thereof agents mariners if

out of the said

victuallso

some provision appear

of candles

mought be allowed. careful. that they they Galbraith

to have been less complaines

reported

and sojoures

war so bad prouidet, had been jn great

the wind had anie So that

wayes contraried what I cane learne of your

famishings. deceaued mentioned sailors in

be the prouiders

is altogether your Lordship (103 ) for soldiers The rations shipes. ' with those apportioned to Swedish four

above compared unfavourably 1630. Their daily share

amounted to one pound of breadt three ounces of dried grainp fish, j pt.

ounces of meat, ounces of salted

two ounces of bacon, fishp one pint

eight of flourp

of peas or barley

one ounce of butter, one ounce of salt# one ounce of cheese and six (104 ) though still bottles The range of foodstuffs9 narrow, of beer. was much broader than that loaded for the troops, who appear rations. by contrast The

to have been expected larger for in the

to live

an emergency subsistence a soldier and cereal. six for hardly

amounts of butter

and cheese for pulse

compensated

absence of meat and fishq (one bottle for

The wide difference a Swede) may

beer allocation either

a Britonp

reflect or merely quantities

the traditionally impossibility

bibulous

nature

of the Scandinavians such generous which the vessel

the sheet for

of carrying in excess

on board of that for

a number of men far It is now possible

was intended. of the (102) (103) (104) financial

to look

more closely

at the details with which a

balancing

of income and expenditure

APC Jan. -Aug. 1627j 174 Up 103-4 Fraserg Carlaverockp Wasa Exhibition Stockholm

163.

recruiting never Swedish of the

colonel eight but which century Swedes (105) pay

was confronted. rix the dollars per

His

income, This Imperial

it rix

will dollar dollarg currencies

be recalledl was not the of IV of coin the the

exceeded dollar, Empire

man. or

'Reichsthalerl of the main

was one

European that in

seventeenth that the

and valued the indemnity Hull, him as

so highly agreed from the

Christian the Peace

insisted in that to

Kn9red

coinage. Endymion than 15 /8 18d.

Captain informed of 3/-

writing that

Elbing

on 12 September dollar is not in

1629

Porterg instead

'Swedish by the dollar, assessed showed it worth is

worth England.

more ' (106)

represented one rix to have report but

Ambassador and hence the that value real that its

Swedish

dollars Spens would

equalled appear Hull's

by inference of a rix dollar might

Ambassador at

approximately radically that the

4/10-fd. from rix face dollar dollar

values

differ implying value. stable tended

values,

unlikely only half

he was theoretical

was also of which than constant dollar was based dollars are

The Swedish and acceptable to retain

he was speaking the rix value. was stated on the dollar

was a much less which by comparison

currency

a relatively value of a rix

The exact 5/-d. Papers starling. the rix dollar (107 ) in This which (108)

by Mackay In

in the

1685 Reay

to

be

conclusion 18,304 Even rix as late at

contract

mentioned

as equalling was called 4/10d

L49576 in,

as 1707

when the (109)

coinage i. e.

was valued the scales rix

L2.1V-Scots, was recorded troops i. e.

sterling. A statement contains a

On other of note the

occasions Danish Ll pay

dollar Morgants

a lower in

value. 1627

experienced approximately

that

equalled

41 dollars,

4/8jd.

(I 10) 1

(105) (106) (107) (108) (109) (110)

1.125 Roberts, Adolnhusq Gustayug 7 CSP Dnmestic 1629-31, 243 Mackay, Old Scots B-rinade, 173 SRO, Reay Papers, Scottish 162, c-1707 (ed. A. M. Mackenzie, Papeent PROp State Papers Denmarkq SP 75/8/60

Edinburgh

1949),

65

184.

In the agreement 1631 the rate Correspondence

between

Lord Reay and Sir to be 4/6d

Thomas Conway in August ("') In the Hamilton agreed upon a sum

was stated in

per dollar.

1629 Spens and Alexander

Hamilton

4/4-1d per rix i. e. approximately of L1.696 equal to 7,680 rix dollars, (112) dollar. Therefore the rix dollar's value lay between 4/-dand 5/-d sterling, of 5/-d possibly (though a little nearer the latter value) than is the former. for quick A figure approximate A

a slightly

exaggerated

useful and rix

computation colonel's

of the correlation income for recruiting

between sterling a regiment sterling

dollars.

may therefore per man. for If

be calculated the colonel of future 1627-9

on the basis

of a maximum of 40/-d

was shrewd he insisted payment were frequently the Swedes made their Venetian for

on payment in advancev worthless; recruiting

promises in

but at least advances promptly.

the period It

was reported Scottish infan-

to the try

Republic the King part

on 26 February of Sweden will of the money for which facilitates

1627 that be ready the levy

12,000 to cross having

raised

the sea in a been already of all

few weeksg a great remitted, matters. troops

a proceeding On the other destined for

the good result supply

hand the want of similar (113) Denmark. #

delays

the

Against
It would the

this

income the colonel


to fall short of

had to reckon
the levy number

his

expenditure.
agreed,

be costly constant did roll but the these

previously about

hence Not the

concern absconding thus

expressed soldiers danger already

by recruiters indicate of the have

desertions. figure coming on into money represented

only muster

a dwindling clause them such

(and

the would

penalty paid All

effect), and spent

officers

enlistment outlays

considerable

sums on their

upkeep.

(111) (112) (113)

SROt Resy Papersp GD 84/2/186 iit 92-93 Fraser, Haddington, CSP Venetian 1626-8,130-1

185.

complete Colonel

loss Sinclair

for

the

officers his troops,

concerned, financial 'I most

if

the

soldier in

deserted. June 1628 to when my

described to feed his

predicament suffer

he was unable

thame

go louse

utter

overthrow.

'

(114)

The transport as amounting

cost

across

the

North

Sea has

been noted the

previously

approximately

to 6/8d

per man to

Elbe estuary.

Presumably

the charge

to Sweden or the German Baltic

would

have been higher. The cost of providing of time that a recruit with food and drink would depend

upon the length Unless the recruit

he was the captain's in the embarkation

responsibility. port it is likelyp and of the days. in

was enlisted made for

when allowance for delays in

is

the movement of soldiers of shippingp that

to the port the duration

the availability provided

entertainment Alexander Aberdeen. and they write oustler estimated

by the officers

would be at least upkeep by his

fourteen captain

Coupland (115)

was accorded

a month's

The expenses

involved Elliot

in keeping of

man soon accumulated, Flaskhome, to

eventually

caused Robert

'Raidheucht

to Nithsdala wyfeis.

chargis of the seeking fmoneyis to defray their (116) figures t An idea of the approximate may be made in reference England. to levies sent Eightpence for per man per day service. authorities lieutenant

from allowances quoted stated with in

was frequently It was the rate

domestic

the instructions (117)

to various

arranging

billetihg, reported of Sir

in 1627. that

In December 1624 the lard

of Nottingham Robert for Douglas

he had delivered regiment

150 men to Lieutenant at Newark along with L70 (118) if

Andrew Cray's

their

fourteen

days journey

(i. e. eightpence adequate

per man per day), to subsist

Eightpence full (114) (115) (116) (117) (118)

per day was a barely costs

sum on which

board and lodging

were to be met.

On the other

hand officers

iip RPC 2nd Series, -Fr-asert Carleverock,

608 11,96 iip IOG-1 Fraser, Carlaverock, APC Jan. -Aun. 16279 183 CSP Domestic 1623-St 413

186.

made use of large relations living appear in

country

houses

(e. g. Bolshan, and this for

Crombie) would

belonging be cheaper would

to than

and friends inns.

whenever

possible,

A fortnight's a figure to keep. sundries off in

entertainment the region

one recruit

to have cost

of 9/4d

(14 x 8d. ).

Gentlemen

were more expensive occasions, will thairfor Ogilvy Ibecaus

Ogilvy thir

marked the difference soldieris that they well ar gentillmen

on several ... I '"19) are

requyst

yowr Lordship

got good enterteinment. 'be resone that they

Captain

had treated all

the Couplands this yair

gentillman, and has bein (120 ) table. ' Hence 9/4d the shipping 16/-d. The dolonel
of 'conductors' financial Yet that the

constantlie

entertained Addition a total

at his of of

appears

a minimum assessment. charges gives

cost

and these

entertainment

about

or his
or

captains

would have to face


to supervise for to the

as well
the

the wages

Ikeeperst would to

who helped leave little enough

These money.

outlays sum had colonel levies

new soldiers. as recruit/enlistment without Imprest 2/-d than per this man. when as his 1627. (121) being

be big or in captain

be attractive of pocket.

so large money for

the

was out in have 1624 offered

domestic for

England must

averaged more four for

Recruiters they sought

foreign

powers Patrick Captain

volunteers. money in definite

Bryson

was paid company figure.

dollars Sweden in If all would his

enlistment It is not

Bannatyne's was a typical the is

that

this

man had been

received severely Lord been

as large strained.

a sum as this Some support that Even

captain's lent to

finances this figure

have by had

however L3.6.6d)

Ogilvy's paid to

statement Coupland.

L40 Scots if his two

(approximately relatives ware

included

with

him,

(119) (120) (121)

Fraser, Carlaverockg Fraser# Carlaverock, iij RPC 2nd Seriesq

iiq 92 iip 96 319

187.

the amount is of Bryson

still

very

substantial

for

enlistment

money.

The cases could hardly

and Coupland 20/-

seem exceptionalv special man for

because officers circumstances

have afforded Bryson

per man unless

prevailed. officer

may have been an Edinburgh the entertainment port. period

whom the levying

considered Leith

would be shorter admitted 'the said ... that thrie it

when nearby Coupland men ... cleired rait. and his hes beine befor 1(122)

was an embarkation

Ogilvy typical, his

two fellow-deserters mor costlie your Lordship

were not

to him nor any off that is they further less ar his

soldieris

wilbe

waged soldieris by the fact dollars

at ana deir that

The situation sometimes

complicated than eight

officers Colonel Sinclair

received

per man.

was to receive Captain 240 men. Innes (124)

L300 when he had shipped was granted Clearly 20/this L240 for indicated freight 16/-. for that

hIs3OO men,

(123)

and his of of

the recruitment

and shipping

an income to the captain and entertainment Thus it signing appears on. costs that

approximately reckoned

to cover less than

already

at little

an enlisted sum would accord luck can still

man normally literally with

received

one dollar proverb (125)

This

the Gaelic from Mackay'.

the who is

down in

got a dollar

(122) (123) (124) (125)

11,96-97 rraser, Carlavarock ii, - 608 LPC 2nd Series, iiq 147-8 RPC 2nd Seriest Ti-scher, Scots in Garmanyp 74

188.

CHAPTER EIGHT

The conflict appear were likely certainly Catholics and there In to

which cause

broke

out

in war

Bohemia lasting

in

1618

did

not

at

first

a European which

thirty resolved Emperor of

years. in

There Cormany Carman

basic

issues

between princes, at

and Protestants, had 1608 been and in present. religious League, in the two

had not and /between recent

been the

and the

instances

thorny in these

problems, which had

Donauwoc; rth the for of

the

Cleves-Mark

Succession

1614,

indicated been solved

divisions the

Germany. More groups

Nevertheless troubling in Germany, might for

problems

the the

future

was the Union

formation and which also 1621 the

rival

Calvinist

Catholic

armed the

camps

which

exploit circles

situations in Europe duo in and Bohemia fore

arose expected after

anywhere that

Empire. of the

Diplomatic Spanish-Dutch intensify Europe,

renewal Years in

strugglev pro-Hapsburg

the

Twelve sympathies

Truce, the rest

would of or

anti-Hapsburg brought earlier the than

but

events to

in the

problem expected.

of

participation

non-involvement

The Bohemian Majesty, giving

Estates a broad

were measure

concerned of

that

the to

Emperor's Protestants, was known

Letter should to be a

of

toleration rerdinand, the Letter.

be maintained, strong been violent Prague. 1619, Catholic accepted in

but

the

emperor-elect, to of rescind Bohemia Imperialist

liksly as king

Nevertheless Opposition were Emperor But the

he had became in died in

in

1617. deputies

however

1618 Events

when two moved

defenestrated Matthias Bohemian

swiftly

thereafter.

and he was succeeded

by rerdinand.

insurgents

189.

revealed throne Elector Firstly, lation of

their

determination as their

by deposing new ruler This choice

Ferdinand

from

the Bohemian Frederickq consequences. Union, an esca-

and choosing of

a German prince, had two important of the Calvinist

the Palatinate. Frederick

since

was the leader into

the Bohemian problem Secondly,

became likely. princess interest history. shortlived, crushed

one involving many German princes was Frederick's wife/tlizabeth, a Scottish and this gave Scots a personal in German was by Tilly even

and daughter in the

of James I,

Bohemian crisis Frederick's

and its enjoyment

later of his

ramifications royal dignity

In fact for

in November 1620 the Catholic Prague. Within

League army led the next

the Bohemians outside own capital of the Spanish to seize Italy in

two years fell to the

Frederickts assaults concerned

the Palatinate,

Heidelberg,

Hapsburgs

and the Bavarians. to secure while their land

The former supply-route

were

the opportunity

from northern

to the Netherlandsp of Bavaria for sought himself.

the latter of

were involved the Palatinate

because Maximilian and the title

the territory

of Elector

For the next in western great deal

two years,

1623 and 1624,

the only

serious

hostilities but a

Europe were those of anti-Hapsburg action

between the Spanish diplomatic activity

and the Dutchy took place. Spain

Plans and Austria, Maurice

were mooted for by a league of the United

against James I,

the Hapsburg powers, Christian IV,

including Provinces,

Gustavus of France,

Adolphus,

Richelieu In fact this

on behalf did

and the German because many Polish Gustavus his terms

Protestant of these affairs did for offer

princes.

not prove

possible

powers discovered were the prime to share in

more pressing

commitments

elsewhere. government. but

consideration the coalition

of the Swedish against

the Hapsburgs, did he insist

participation

were unreasonable.

Not only

on sole

190.

military fleet 50,000 the

control of seventeen

for

himself, ships, four

but he demanded two German ports,

months pay in advance and an army of contribute only 16,000. Naturally

men to which powers their

the Swedes would

other

repudiated war against

such proposals, Poland.

and the Swedes determined of Richelieu as

to continue minister direction rising

The appearance

in France towards and the

in 1624 had not led which French policy

to any change from the anti-Spanish had been veering, leader Soubise Nor did As in 1621, but the Huguenot fully occupied

successes

of the Protestant government

the attention Protestant to take attitude adopted Christian the field

of the French princes feel stand free

in 1625.

the German they their viewpoint hesitated

to participate. the Emperor,

a concerted

against

and allowed

to be determined by john

by the customary of Saxony.

caution

and neutral

GeorgepElector

Only two German rulers, were prepared to take of the were

of Brunswick against

and Ernest

of Saxe-Weimar,

the Hapsburg

armies.

Thus when the Treaty signatories

Hague was finalised representatives

on 9 December 1625 the only Provinces,

of the United

Denmark and England. armed intervention


offensive with the in the

The Dutch were in no position


Germanyo James help I to because the Spanish to were

to assist
taking the breach in 12,000 they of

in
Netherlands. by sending he

had hesitated the in beleaguered 1624 the

cause Dutch

an open garrison of that

Spanish

Breda. troops not

Therefore for the

while mercenary to raise Both

permitted leader siege of

recruiting

Mansfeld of Sreda.

he stipulated The early of

might

be used

the James I

months the United Breda

1625

were

eventful. died, In of and the these their

England

and Maurice finally that the

Provinces on 25 May. problems upon the

Spanish

under it the

Spinola

captured Dutch had

circumstances own, of and that I

was clear

serious depend

anti-Hapsburg

league

would

activities

Charles

191.

and Christian likely to take Christian bishoprics. Christian circlaq

IV9 with the lead. IV's

the lattar

as the more established

ruler

more

interest

in Germany centred bishop

upon the north

German

His son had been elected cast covetous

of Varden in 1623, and in the Lower Saxon controlled however religion. and were opposed

eyes on the other and especially

bishoprics

OsnabrUckt

Paderborng

Braman which

the mouths of the Weser and Elbe. was intent Christian on recovering also these

The League army of Tilly for the Catholic of Halberstadt ambitions there

bishoptics the

hoped to acquire central

bishoprics but his his

Magdeburg in north by the

Germany, these for

Emperor who sought under Wallenstein

own son and sent claims in effective.

a powerful Thus in In Lower Saxony of

army north

to make his

1626 the war in Germany was concentrated Christian Brunswick Wallenstsin. IV faced Tilly, while in north

two areas.

central with

Germany Christian the efficient

and Count Mansfeld (1) was not

had to contend

Though England was slow

yet

embroiled

in

other

foreign

wars help by the further not

to materialiss. It

One payment of L46,000 but parliamentary Recruitment

was dispatched prevented did

new monarch Charles supplies get ately might under for being

obstruction of troops

forwarded.

in England even in

way with Christian

any degree IV this

of determination year

16269 and unfortun-

was the vital

when such mercenaries defeat$. On 24 January 0 to Captain troops for David the

perhaps

have saved him from two decisive issued with from Lauenburg prepared

1626 Count Mansfeld Learmonth (1) to treat

a commission Scottish

those

to bring

ivp 320 Cambridge Modern Historyg M. Roberts, Gustavus Adolphusq it 182-200t Sverines Kri iiit 1-31 . C. V. Wedgwood, Thirty Years Wart 11-181

220-45,

and iit

305-15

192

service
fighting the

of the king
for Christian cause the

and queen of Bohemia.


of and Denmark, the of London exiled Plackay's at that

(2)
time

In practice
the main couple.

this

meant
of

defender The between days levy

Protestant for

Bohemian regiment

royal

agreement Learmonth Mackay men for serving

levying in

was signed (3 ) licence show his of their Twelve to

Captain later

and Mackay from (4)

on 4 March a Privy

1626.

obtained Mansfeld. from

Edinburgh Danish 1626t

Council records the date

2pOOO as

financial presumably

captains

15 March

own commissions

from Mackay. colonel

(5)

On 9 April

1626 Mackay's

official

commission

to be

then of 39000 Scots in fifteen companies was signed by Mansfeld, (6) in Zerbst. During the same month Charles I nominated James Sinclair to be lieutenant-colonel later this recommendation while in in Mackay's was not these regimentq though (7) effect. were being madet the 1626 were as will be noted

put into

Unfortunately military Mansfeld repulsed Mansfeld with led situation stormed decisively switched

arrangements

Germany changed dramatically. over the Elbe, a retreat but

On 25 April his troops

the Dessau bridge by Wallenstein. his line of attack

After

to Brandenburg a junction pursuit month no

to Hungary and effected but Wallenstein's in October. prompt

Bethlen

Gabor of Transylvaniap and a truce

to peace overtures

The following

Mansfeld benefit

was dead near Sarajevo from the original these contract

and thus with

he personally (B) Mackay.

had derived

During (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

summer months of 1626 Mackay and his

recruiting

SR09 Reay Papers, Q3 84/2/148 SR09 Reay Papersy GD 84/2/149 RPC 2nd Seriesp iq 244-8 RA Copenhagen, Tyske Kancellis SR09 Reay Papersp GD 84/2/151 SR09 Reay Papers, CD 84/2/152 iv, 324 Camb. Mod. Hist.,

Indenlandske

Afdaling

(TKIA)t

A 153/1

193.

captains legislation pressing later

were busy,

led to Privy Council caused by desertions (9) On 30 June King Charles was on 2 June and 22 Oune. for speedy dispatch of Mackay's Council leviesp and a week to Theobalds

but delays

the Council sent

the reply

back by the Privy

of Scotland

L500 sterling had been advanced to Mackay to prevent further (10) desertions. The monarch approved this course of action on 18 July and authorised sterling. levies. contract dated (11) with the disbursement was also these to Colonel to provide Mackay of a further him with shipping for slow. L2pOOO his The is to

was that

The Council Yet despite skipper

measures progress for transporting that over

was still

Wallace it

some of the soldiers

22 August,

though

appears Captain

39000 men had been ready

however undertook to sail (12 ) Another shipping by 'Wednesday next' which would have been 30 August. (13) Robertson on 24 August. agreement was drawn up with skipper embark as early as 15 May. Wallace once again rapid British howevert while in administrative wheels turned slowly in Britaing

deterioration troops

the military failed overtook

situation for IV's army.

in Germany took the critical

place.

had again 1626 Tilly

to arrive Christian

juncture. and

On 27 August delivered troops

army at Lutter

a crushing retired

defeat

to Stade at prospect which

Many of the vanquished (14 ) This was the the mouth of the Elbe. to the Danish faced virtual the Scots on arrival in Germany. moment to

discouraging With Mansfeld

(Christiants

second-in-command) was naturally

at that transferred

inactive service (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)

in Hungaryv for

Mackay's king

regiment in person.

the Danish

RPC 2nd Seriesv RPC 2nd Seriesq RPC 2nd Seriest RPC 2nd Seriesp 'FR-OvReay Papers, Camb. Mod. Histl.,

it it it it

295v 310-11 313t 329-30 381-2 389 GD 84/2/154 iv, 324

194.

The actual known for noted certain.

date

of arrival The shipping that the

for

Mackay's

Scots

in

Germany is

not

contracts would

with

Wallace

and Robertson the last

above suggest

Scots

have sailed to arrive

during in

week of August in the first for

and might

have been expected

the Elbe estuary hand the by skipper by the

or second week of September payment of the freight

1626.

On the other was signed complicated levied itinerary

receipt Robertson fact that

of the troops is further

on 31 October. though

The situation

Monro spoke of the regiment in the left first item of his

being detailed

in August that his

1626 he indicated company at least at Glackstadt of doubt October. accounts army in made with calculated date, ler since Robert

Cromarty five

on the Elbe

on Tuesday 10 October 1626 and arrived (15) days later. Thus there is a degree of the regiment to soma extent arrived in September or

whether

the main part is clarified

The matter

by the military for the Danish

of Commissary Axel

Arenfeld

who was responsible These records contain

Lower Saxony and Holstein. Colonel

a settlement is

Mackay on 30 September 1627 in which the reckoning (16) is a significant from 12 September 1626. The latter it is almost certainly for list. that of the original muster.

Chronic-

Monro Was lieutenant in the muster over

Mackenziala It is

companyp and Mackenziela very likely they that were late at Glackstadt. muster Oohn 196# when

men are not noted Robert arrivals

thus

Monro brought for Mackay's

Mackenzie's which

man in October, had already regiment

regiment

assembled at this

The size is clearly

of companies

in Mackayls

original Annan 100, Le2rmonth

listed

in Arenfeld's

accounts:

- Alexander

Monro 196p Patrick (15) (16)

MacKie 194p Arthur

Forbes

1859 David

Monrot Expedition, iq Itinerary Appendix RA Copenhagent TKIAt Militieragnskaber IIb/6/II

195.

John Forbes Robert It is

190p Duncan Forbes

1772 John Monro 204, Boswell 100, in all

John Forbes a total

187p

Monro of Foulis later recorded

192v David that in

of 1,921. and

1627 thirty and that

men came with the total of ninety for

the colonel the regiment the figures

Captain then

Mackenzie 2,041.

from Holland

reached

The discrepancy explained. Problems

between

1,951

and 2#041 was not apparent. Monro's Robert of

of identification In fact

are immediately one was Robert from Assynt. title to the to the Ross

Two captains brother

are named John Monro. and the other them by calling or simply 'Obsdaleft

from Obsdale distinguished

Robert's the

cousin

usually

former while

by the full he referred

13ohn Monro of Obsdalel merely in Wester as 'John

latter area in like

Monrof

or as 'Assynt'. is also

Assynt

could

refer

Rossp but as it the latter

the name of a house in Easter area.

Monro countryp the list intended. called

appears is

the more likely obviously

But in cases to decide which

of figures

above it

impossible arises

man is captains

The same type John Forbes.

of difficulty sometimes

concerning as 'of record

the two Tullochl above

One is

described

and even occasionally one of them is the matter. captain Donald listed

as tCaptain

Tullochl. but this probably in

In the Danish hardly the helps

as $the Elder'# Learmonth was very agent

to clarify as the with

David

same person

who had been Mansfeld's Mackay was first unit

London when the contract

drawn up. into Glackstadt alien port in September in so far troops or October 1626 were in

When this it did not land in

sailed

in an entirely

as some Scats were stationed

already

the Danish

army and a few English Patrick

GlUckstadt. Home of Ayton early

Lieutenant-Colonel both figure

Cockburn rolls

and Ritmaster

Thomas army as seem to

on the cavalry

of the Danish but they do not

as 3anuary

and March 1626 respectively, or English soldiers

have commanded Scottish other hand during

at that

time.

On the Mackay

the summer and early

autumn months of 1626 while

196.

had been wrestling captains transported on 5 July had proved

with

his

recruiting

problems at getting Captain

in their

Scotlandt men levied

two other and

more efficient good time.

to Germany in 1626 received service, Council

Francis

Hamond of England

men to Danish by a further counties

500 to transport Council from the Privy pass a (17) two weeks his levying was supported and within defining Berkshire his area to be the (18) On 5 August and Oxfordshire. recruiting was granted a warrant to take (19) This unit first company. 1626 at their 220 sidearms, for

letter

of Kent,

Middlesexq

one of Hamond's officersp nine convicted

Thomas Freemant for this

Newgate prisoners

appears

in Danish

Buxtehuda first three

records kept by the Commissary on 24 August (20 ) The Stadholder notes that within near Hamburg. days of service of beer. they were issued with 349 muskets,

and five GlUckstadt from

barrels list

The provisions

and financial

accounts

Hamond's men as being 1626 and there for

English

5 October Almost

the rest with

and stationed (21) of the year.

in Stade

exactly

contemporary that

Francis

Hamond's company was the Alexander Seaton. by the

second

'free

companyl, to raise

commanded by Captain the king (22)

His commission Privy in for Council

500 men for

of Denmark was issued

of Scotland

on 4 Ouly 1626t Ensign

and on 10 Ouly the Council to transport Wilkins 160 soldiers to have

England Danish

granted service the

a pass for in Seaton's vanguard note

Wilkins (23)

company.

appears

embarked with received

of Seaton's from Ensign Alexander

ment for

the Danish

War Commissary on

a quittance (24) 24 August 1626.

George Wilkins Seaton himself

at GlUckstadt arrived shortly

Captain

(17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24)

APC June-Dec. 1626.v 58 APC June-Dec. 1626p 102 APC June-Dec. 1626t 166 RA Copenhageng TKIAl Milit. RA Copenhagent TKIA# Milit. RPC 2nd Seriesq ig 315-16 APC June-Dec. 1626,68 RA Copenhageng TKIA, Milit.

regnsk. regnsk.

IIb/6/I IIb/16/I/567

regnsk.

Ijb/6/I

197.

afterwards9 with

for

his

own first

receipt

is

dated

8 September. six

Along

him on this

day are mentioned men making a total present under

a lieutenant, of forty-four As with

under-officersq

and thirty-six figure troops already

to add to the unknown Hamondes company, Wilkin's with muskets and sidearmsp

Wilkins.

were equipped

between 24 and 27 August latter.

103 of the former soldiers sergeant. men newly

and 90 of the

On 9 October three reference Seaton's

seven further drummers and a is made to 115

are mentioned, Elsewhere

i. e. three

halberdiers, accounts under

in Arenfeld's

come from Scotland and taken (25 ) 30 September 1626. The company is unit in the list of troops is at Stade accorded

company on included as an Engiish

nevertheless

from 5 October the rank Seaton is

of the year, Monro's that the but died in

and Seaton information

the remainder (26) of lieutenant-colonel. He recounted to Germany till

1626 for

regarding

confusing. not cross

the absence

of Colonel

Mackayp who did Arthur after

spring that

of 16279 Lieutenant-Colonel the latter Captain fell sick shortly

Forbes reaching

was in commandp Germany and the regiment with

there.

Alexander

Seaton who had joined SouldiersIq

a 'strong

company of well against took

exercised the wills is

was then

lieutenant-colonel When exactly being story late this

of the regiment's With

promoted (27) officers.

place

uncertain.

the above comments taking Seaton the occurred

made by Monro in into 1627, it

the early

pages of his that this

book before for

seems likely the battle

preferment in

in 1626.

Yet after

of Oldenburg Forbes dying

the autumn of 1627 two days of reference to an

Monro mentioned being wounded.

Lieutenant-Colonel (28) This surely

within

must be a retrospective

(25) (26) (27) (28)

RA Copenhageng TKIA, Milit. RA Copenhagent TKIA, Milit. Monrot Expedition, i. I Monro, iq 31 9

regnsk. regnsk.

IIb/6/II IIb/16/I/559

198.

event

of 1626,

for

as early

as 29 May 1627 Seaton in a letter

is

stated

to be (29)

Mackayls But it is

lieutenant-colonel strange to his that

from the War Commissary. being wounded, action for

Monro spoke of Forbes history

according till after

own regimental

no hostile

was experienced

March 1627. then at the end of 1626 was that eleven the 'fat companies and fertile Mackayls regiment was

The situation of approximately stationed while the tion

29200 men in in

(including soyle

Seaton's) of Holstein't

near GlOckstadt

Hamond's English main English of Scottish Innes

troops

were at Stade awaiting of 1627. Even as early taken place.

reinforcement

by

contingents companies and Boswell clothed No action the

as 1626 amalgamaThe companies the others rix of which

had already were reduced their

Sinclairg

to strengthen

were mustered, (30) per head. would

and paid

muster

money of five but many Scottish

dollars graves

had been seen yetq end of 1627. volume of administrative and Scotland

be dug before To judge

from the

measures

taken

by the

Privy

Councils

in England

the Protestant

cause on the mainland leviesq but the

of Europe should year This proved did not

have been revitalised disastrous early

in 1627 by British one for

to be another seem so likely in both Charles

the anti-Hapsburg orders

powers. were

in the year when urgent for

circulating assistance In England should Hull

Scotland

and England to his

the long-awaited Christian that

military

I had promised

uncle,

of Denmark. 3,000 men

on 28 February 1,350 (31) while

1627 the Council of these should

insisted

be levied. by 30 March,

be embarked at Kingston-uponfrom Harwich and there company

the rest

were to sail Douglas.

London under appears (29) (30) (31)

the command of Sir

Archibald

But as usual for the first

to have been more bustle

than efficiencyg

SROf Reay Papers, GD 84/2/162 RA Copenhagen, TKIA9 Milit. regnsk. APC Jan. -Auq. 1627,104

IIb/6/II

199.

from

England

which

is

definitely

recorded

was that Douglas' 16 June, yet.

of Captain troops (33 ) but

Francis in

Coningsby

Germany in 1627 as reaching (32) Sir Archibald on I May. of GlUckstadt on

are noted several those

the provisions-records companies had not

other

embarked from England received in a warm

Nevertheless

men who had arrived which

probably reappears

welcome from Captain lists on 30 April Actually stantial English contract that than

Hamond's company,

the Stade (34)

1627 after

a gap from 17 December 1626. to the Danish would during imply.

the English

contribution

army was more sub-

the above information in Dutch service in

There were four but their

regiments

the summer of 1626, The Privy Council

was due to expire troops contract. intended slightly at 4,693. place should (35) for

November.

decided than renew

these

be diverted

to Danish

service

rather

the Dutch soldiers

On 8 November 1626 a total service

Danish

of 5,013 English (36 ) had been assembled. The 1627 the figure was

number fell estimated count Zuider took

in Decemberv but even in January The full truth

however emerged when a detailed at Enkhuizen to transport 2t472. on the shore of the west

of the men mustered for shipping

Zee in readiness The rolls in

them to the north were item

German coast. deficiencies shortage was 'that

showed only

Though there

the quantities 3,000

of arms the most outstanding for which

was a offered them

of swords#

(I)t them of

the explanation theire swords with

the souldiers Armes. '

that

ranne away carried their Lordships

but none other agreed (32) (33) (34) (35) with

No doubt view that

of the Privy difficiency

Council deserves a

the writeres

such Igreate

(36)

Ijb/16/I/665 RA Copenhagent TKIA, Milit. regnsk. RA Copenhageng TKIAt Milit. IIb/16/j/545 regnsk. Ijb/16/I/567-96 RA Copenhagent TKIA9 Milit. regnsk. E. A. Bellert 'Military Expedition of Sir Charles Germany 1627-91, English Historical (1928)p 528-9 PRO, State Papers Denmarkt SP 75/10/181

Morgan to Reviewp x1iii

200.

pertinent

examination

(37) and a smart troops exemplary punishment upon some., of the to The were still an the pay lists were officially

On 2 March 1627 English United Provinces, but high finally

on 23 March they rates offered

transferred (38 )

the attractively four regiments Charles

by Christian were placed

of Denmark. under

established

the command of

General

John Burlacy. was held where) near

Morgan and Colonels James Livingstone* John Swinton and (39) The total below 2,500 when a muster of men was still the Weser, but two recruiting (it is not clear sessions (40 ) These regiments on 6 June 1627. of the Scottish forty-eight connectiong Ogilvy and Ramsay. He was with the of captains

boosted mainly only

the number to 4,913 English troops.

contained involved Sir

Certainly a possible

four

names suggest Sir

John Seatong

James Livingstonsp Scottish

and Captains

Livingstone later Danish created

was definitely earl

and came from Brighouse. but despite his brief spell in

of Callendarg talents 1640.

army his

military till

the United While


the recruiting

Provinces these

were utilised (41) place


in

mainly

the service

activities
were

were taking
also being and

in England
Scotland. the Rivals

and Hollandq
New recruiting offered post of earl in no of

drums

beaten

officers by Christian supreme Nithsdale,

appeared, IV and

as nobles encouraged Scots

gentry

sought I.

commissions for the

by Charles appear to Lord

commander

over

have

been

Robert The latter

Maxwell,

and Alexander with the

Lindsayt Danish

Spynie. in 1626,

had been that

communication

monarch

and counselled

(37) (38) (39) (40) (41)

PRO, State Papers PRO, State Papers PRO9 State Papers PRO, State Papers E. B. Livingston,

Denmarkp Denmark, Denmarkp Denmark, Livingstone

SP 75/8/72 SP 75/8/414 SP 75/8/468 SP 75/10/181 of Callender

(Edinburgh

1920)t

144-75

201.

one person customary better In his

should rivalry

have command over among the nobles emerge in forward

the Scottish should result.

forces

lest

the that a

He argued

commander would next letter

time

from

the experienced Stewart

soldiers. agent. of

he put

Alexander

as an ideal

who would arranging

know the best shipping

people

to contact for

and who would the recruits.

be capable

and food

supplies

But the overall and this IV deprecating He to the ignorant

command of the Scottish development the king's considered Catholic of caused choice. Nithsdale religion ... arts. the

troops irate

was awarded to Nithsdalev Spynie to write to Christian

Spynie

missed

no possible

avenue of attack. or worth, Italy that ... 'addicted utterly

a man of no reputation not # long returned from

the military

He went on to suggest position

Maxwell

had resorted

to bribery and then pressed given

to gain betray

this

them to the

plans so that he might learn Christian's (42) In these circumstances he urgently enemy. but he does not Though Spynie's appear to have been criticisms Spynie

for

a thorough

investigationt in the matter. pride both

any satisfaction

scathing in naturet

were caused by his had reason entirely to feel

injured aggrieved

and were exaggerated then and later. Nithsdale's that Spynie

His men came almost from Scotlandl Joined Ireland

from Scotland and there them longer

compared with is than no doubt Nithsdals.

and England; and served of

the Danes earlier of the post eyes, is significant colonel.

The actual value

importance in Spynie's but it of senior

supreme commander assumed an exaggerated for reasons of status or of pay for in this

possibly that

the rankt capacity

Monro never Nithsdale's

mentioned licence

Nithsdale

from the Privy 3tDOO men for

Council

empowered him to raise later (42) (43) similar letters

Danish

on 27 February 1627 (43) and nine days service, and Sir Afdalingt Oames Sinclair Special

were granted

to Lord Spynie

RA Copenhagen, Tyske Kancellis Udenlandske 1572-1640 (Scotland) Part A. II/4 iq 531-2 RPC 2nd Series,

202.

(the

same man who had failed regiment), Scottish regiments

to take

up the post to levy

in Mackay's nothing for in

each of them also records in the to suggest first six

of lieutenant-colonel (44) 3pOOO. There recruits On the other

is embarked hand

that

many Scottish

these

months of 1627. of State

General

Morgan's

letter

to the Secretary a postscript

from Wasserbaden on that word had just

19 June 1627 contains come in three from Stade

to the effect

full

on 26 July It was little

arrival of the of 2,000 Scots there instead (45) When he referred to the Scots again regiments expected. (46) 1627 he mentioned that their total was then 2,200 men. wonder that Mackay was highly results in the esteemed by Christian IV. the

of the

At least field for

he had produced one regiment, for three

form of 2,000 total

compared with

a similar

in men actually Sinclair by Spyniqland arrived in

Nithsdale

regiments. having

Colonel started out

Mackay himself from Leith

Germany late travelled Brillq

in March,

in January. and visiting

He had

at a leisurely Sluys, the Hague,

pacep Isightseeing' Rotterdam,

in Hollando

Amsterdamp Delftj with Sir

Utrecht,

Arnhemq

Nimegen and Haarlem. colonels before join with of the eventually four

He had dined English

John Swinton, for Danish in

one of the service, Germany to bringing

regiments out

destined

shipping

of Amsterdam and arriving and the rest of the

Lieutenant-Colonel him at least thirty

Seaton

regiment,

Lieutenant cost repaid

John Barbour. Robert

Captain Thomas Mackenzie and men including (47) It may have been these arrivals who of Aberdeen the outlays which were men for this

merchant

Ferguson Arenfeld

to him by Axel

on 17 May 1627 for

shipping

(44) (45) (46) (47)

RPC 2nd seriesq 1,539-47 PRO, State Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/177 PRO, State Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/228 3. Mackay, Old Scats Brigade (Edinburgh

1685),

245-8

203.

regiment to Itzehoe

from Britain.

(48)

Mackay's

unit

then

marched

from Stsinburg Oath of orders dated (49)

to meet the Danish Immediately

sovereign

and to swear the his

Allegiance.

afterwards

Mackay received major that with while

27 March 1627 to dispatch This is confirmed

to Stade his

two companies. Colonel

by Monro who related Seaton crossed was put

Mackay and westp a

Lieutenant-Colonel garrison estuary. companies Meanwhile English

the Elbe and headed south into for Stade on the south Stade show that these

of two companies

bank of the two (50) the

The provisions-records were those of Major

Dunbar and John Forbes the rest

of Tulloch. joined

Mackay and Seaton forces of General IV's

with

of the regiment

Morgan an the Weser. strategy was dictated by the threat of the

Christian forces than of Tilly holding

defensive

and Wallenstain, the line If of the vital both

and amounted to little rivers be lost of north the

more complex

west Germany, the defences of the ruler made

Weser and the Elbe. entire Outland

should

final

peninsula forces

would

be breached. his

Thus the Danish

use of British centrated this

to strengthen own troops

position

on the Weser and conTo assist in holding four (51)

most of his

an the Elbe. to detach

riverline

Mackay was directed the bridge

Major

Dunbar with

companies Meanwhile Captain others

to occupy the rest

town of Lauenburg was to operate

on the Elbe. along

of the regiment

the Weser. with

Boswellq in Mackay's

whose company had earlier regiment, with was killed the rearguard

been amalgamated by peasants of the unit IIb/6/IJ IIb/16/I/709-209

when he was unwise in the Weser areap

enough to lose (48) (49) (50) (51)

touch

RA Copenhagent TKIAt Milit. regnsk. SR09 Reay Paperst GD 84/2/155 RA Copenhagent TKIAt Milit. regnsk. Monro, Expedition, 1,4

746-51

204

Map

vi

205.

possibly stockings.

near Riede where his men had been issued with new shoes and (52) Colonel Mackay left the Weser region to seek ready Christian IV for too. (53 ) his men, and Lieutenant-Colonel Seaton appears

money from

to have been absent bulk Major English at Achimt of the regiment Robert

For ten weeks in round

the summer the main the command of actingMorgan and the

remained close

Bremen under with

Monro in

conjunction

General

troops. about

Towards ten miles

the end of April south (Weser)

letters

from

'Visurgim'

Morgan and Mackay were based (54) Mackay dated two east of Bremen. (55) In Oune on 10 May and 28 May.

Morgan moved his Junction himt unit but

himself Verden and established at the (56) of the Weser and Aller. The Scots may have accompanied camp nearer stay there would have been brief (57 ) because by 9 Ouly Mackay's yet swept

their

was ensconced the Scottish would

on the Elbe. ranks

The havoc of war had not had been issued easily earned.

through the only

and if

cash payments them relatively

regularly The by

troops alarm

have considered sentries their

the Scottish

General

Morgan to test

was a mock night-attack experienced (58) watchfulness. of Spyniet arenap Nithsdale where their

The second half and Sinclair services onwards.

of 1627 saw the main forces appearance in

make their

the European

were sorely Spynie's

needed by the Danes during captains

the months from August in Scotland

were engaged in recruiting

(52) (53) (54) (55) (56) (57) (58)

RA Copenhagenp TKIA, Milit. IIb/6/II regnsk. Monro, Expedition, 1.7 Bellert 'Military Expedition EHRv x1iii of Margan't SR09 Reay Papers, GD 84/2/160-1 PROg State Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/148 SROt Reay Papers, GD 84/2/166 Monrot Expedition, 1.6

(1928)p

531

206

during for year,

the late

spring

and summer of 1627, at Stade men there

and provisions

were issued

Spynie's (59)

soldiers Thus his

from 27 Ouly 1627 till endured but the beginning there is little

the end of the of the siege evidence in to of

the town in Danish Spynie's of Scots 17 October of Spynie's. served Spynie's for

November and December, to indicate which of

records unit under

the companies concerned. listed stated and his

in Stade

belonged

or the number of soldiers Captain 3ohn Semple is elsewhere

However a company from

at GlUckstadt

16279 and he is Captain fifteen

to have been a captain officers appear 1628) to have

Oames Beaton

regiment. unit

months (60) operated

(summer 1627 - October

in Stade in

Spynie's

in

two distinct

parts,

one in north

west and

Germany garrisoning later his at Stralsund.

Stade and Glackstadtt

and the other

in Scania to take

On 30 November he was instructed of Colonel Sinclair's

under

command those pending

Scaniag is

Sinclair's

in men who had already arrived (61) these one captains of appearance. own Chirnside# eventually whose pay was reckoned Joined the part of his with in from

known to have been Alexander Spynie himself

13 December 1627. regiment his troops in Scania

and seems to have had little

or no contact captains

in Stade and GlUckstadt. the winter 1627/8

The names of his

Scania-. during His Life

have emerged from financial Pringle

reckonings. from James

Company under

Captain-Lieutenant

was assessed John Lindsayt

23 December 1627, Douglas and Sir

of Captains (62) John Home from 25 December. and Sinclair had sought into

and the companies

Meanwhile their recruiting

Nithsdale

permission This

to extend suggests

campaigns

from Scotland

England.

(59) (60) (61) (62)

IIb/16/I/685 RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. regnsk. RA Copenhageng TKIAq, Aq 151 (ad. Kancelliets E. Marquard, Brevbjqer 1627-9, , IIb/9 RA Copenhagent TKIAp Milit. regnsk.

'Copenhagen 1929)t

256

207

that

they

were experiencing Scotland England regiments

difficulty

in reaching

their

full

quota licences

of men from to levy that in

Both were granted the required alone. (63) It seems likely from 27 July 1627. included out both Scottish and English listed in Stade These units four English State

therefore This

their

troops.

appears in the

to be borne later the

by the companies

and GlUckstadt follow commanders

months of 1627 as being Burlacyt is certain did is of the not that

English.

after noted

name of Colonel but it

one of the from

previously, these

the Danish of his

London that

companies explanation

form part they

Papers in (64) regiment. English and Sinclair Nithsdale men before (65) by 15 July. to his officers (66)

The most probable companies before himself the sent

were in

fact

out as part of either

troops

of Nithsdale

the arrival had intended

of these

colonels

in person. of his

to send over

the main part

2,000

end of May and he expected delays occurredt

to accompany the remainder

The usual colleagues and soldiers

and an 20 September for a directive

he had recourse that all his

on the Privy should

Council

attend Seaton

him in bare out in

Edinburgh Nithsdale's

before

10 October.

Lieutenant-Colonel dispatch of his

statement from

regarding Boizenburg 11 June. (67) that

men earlier Scots

the year

by writing

some of Nithsdalels The earl asking had been in

had landed

in Denmark before Elizabetht

communication

with

queen of Bohemiap on

her to recommend a major

from Holland.

She answered

(63) (64) (65) (66) (67)

APC Jan. -Auq. 1627'. 448 75/9/140-1 PRO9 State Papers Denmarkt SP 75/8/4689 RA Copenhageng TKIAp A. 93 XII-XIII Indk. Breve 1627-30 RPC 2nd Series, 11,77-78 Frasert 11,79 Carlaverock,

208.

22 May 1627p putting colonel this with Mansfeld

forward

William

Cunningham,

formerly (68)

a lieutenantYet despite experience Indeed no officer

and now one of her own staff. and apparently to have taken recorded for ideal up the his

royal

recommendation does not appear is ever

military suggestion.

Nithsdale

lieutenant-colonel named was Major Axel


Swift all of

regiment.

The senior

Thomas Kelly. noted payments


and to

Arenfeld

to Captains
Lieutenant unit, and 1627. to

Andrew Campbell
Wauchope Captain These the

and Darcy
1627,

starting three of

on 3 August them in

on 8 August William companies

Nithsdale's

'Hayedayel were Campbell of and months then

Sinclair's for

regiment the in tedious Stade,

on 10 August task those during of of

(69 )

utilised and

garrison Swift in

duty,

troops and

of

'Hayedayet in (70)

GlUcketadtp (392 last

those

Wauchope in of Stade. 1627

Glockstadt Also

August

and September during regiment the led

strong) three

posted of

in

Glackstadt

were

companies

Nithsdale's

by Major

Kellyt George

Captain-Lieutenant Ogilvyt Captain from and Sinclair's Alexander

Adam Dickson men under of

(colonel's Major

company) Borthwick regiment, with Sir

and Captain

and Captain listed in

Mawbray. GlOckstadt Douglas was in the

Douglas 1627, (71)

Nithsdaless

3 December to

may be connected of Scots

Archibald which

who claimed also Stade stationed under

command a company in GlUckstadt. Alexander (72 )

on 15 November had another 22 October

Nithsdale from

company but

Captain

Hamilton

1627,

(68) (69)

(70) (71) (72)

Fraserv Carlaverock, Whether 'Hayedayet is identical with same regiment is unknown. There is in Danish records of Captain William TKIAt Milit. Ijb/28 regnsk. RA Copenhagent TKIA, Milit. regnsk. RA Copenhagenp TKIAq Milit, regnsk. RA Copenhageng TKIA, Milit. regnsk.

ii, /8-9

Hay of the Captain William a mention on one occasion RA Copenhageng 'Haliday'. IIb/6/II IIb/16/I/849-56 IIb/28

209.

regiment

for

Major is

3ohn Douglas recorded letter the

in in

Stada the

from 19 November is accounts

not

known,

George Leslie 1628t but

first

GlUckstadt

on 7 3anuary that sent Leslie 250

Nithsdale's hard during (73) for

dated

29 October

1627 indicates

had worked

summer of 1627 and had already

over

men to Germanye

The regiment GlUckstadt records

Captain

Ludovick 1627,

Lesliep is in

who appears doubt.

in the

on 26 October and this It in would appears Sinclair'st

His men seem to of belonging in Captain

have been Englisht to Spynie's Nithsdale's Leslie in this regiment. unit

eliminate more likely because

the possibility that there he served

than in

was another Hamilton

(George) regiment

Nithsdale's

unit. (note

In addition

influence

was considerable already

the recruiting and the fact

work of Alexanderp that the marquis the of

Georget

and Frederick supported pay).

mentionedg claims Leslie

of Hamilton Scots the

Nithsdale's Ludovick

to supreme command over was later to be mads major Alexander

in Danish

1629 regiment

in Swedish to fit

service well

under Colonel

Hamilton.

Hence Leslie regiments

appears

as a Nithsdale to Captain Herbert

captain. 'Prauszf

No definite who commanded who

can yet

be allocated

a company of Englishmen controlled

on 13 August,

or to Captain 1627.

John Ruthven

a company of Scots

on 16 September in GlUckstadt.

Mackay too had some soldiers men were there chronicler joined from 6 September,

Captain

David

Learmonthts

Robert troops

and came under the nominal command of (74) Monro from 2 October 1627. Monro in fact never of his in ClOckstadt. Lindsay More confusing is the

these

appearance with

of Captain

Alexander

described a company variously (77) In all these separate and $Scottish'. (73) (74) (75) (76) (77) RA Copenhagent RA Copenhagen# RA Copenhageng RA Copenhagenp RA Copenhagen# TKIA9 TKIAq TKIA9 TKIA9 TKIAp A. 93 A. 46 Milit. A*151 Milit.

of Crawford from 2 September 1627 (75) 'Scottish and English' as 'EnglishIq instances he is clearly stated

(76)

regnsk. regnsk.

Ilb/16/1/849 IIb/28

210.

to be in Is unlikely

Mackay's

regiment,

yet

Monro never

mentioned

him.

His company a new

to have been a new one.

Mackay certainly

negotiated

'Capitulation' 19 October of the

for 1,000 fresh ment but it with Christian (78) 1627. It is much more likely that Lindsay originally held with by a captain Quartermaster 1627. in Dunbar's Alexander (79 )

was dated took over one

companies

squadron. Crawford listed

He might in

even be identical as early

GlUckstadt

as 15 September in GlUckstadt

The situation at the end of 1627 is for Nithsdale Hamiltont

regarding still Major

Scottish

troops but

and Stads

rather Kellyt

confused, Captains

may be summarised

as follows:

Andrew Campbellv Douglas

Darcy Swiftt

Alexander and perhaps

George Ogilvyt Ludovick Sinclair Mawbray; Captains Major Leslie,

Alexander Sir

and George Lesliet and Major

Archibald

Douglas

John Douglas; Haliday)

for and for Mackay

- Major for David

Borthwick

and Captains

Hay (and/or

Spynie

- Captains

John Semple and James Beaton; Lindsayt and at least they in

Learmontht

Alexander of his soldiers English

temporarily to

Dunbar and the rest All these four

squadron

before

were posted of the

Breitenburg. Elbe at estuary

were supported regimentsp on I Octobert

the area

by the

estimated

at 4t707

strong

the

end of July in

the rest

and at 3,766 (80) GlUckstadt. with the units

the majority

in Stade and

By comparison
did not experience underwent 1627. to In the

lying

in Stade and GlUckstadt


and Decembert service in the in

which

much action six the lower months first Elbe

till of

November really his their active troops

Mackay's the second were just

regiment half of

place, to join

Bremen at

area

withdrawn

colleagues

Boizenburgo

(78) (79) (80)

RA Copenhageng TKIAt A. 46 RA Copenhagen# lIb/16/I/882 TKIA, Milit. regnsk. PROState Papers Denmarkv SP 75/10/181

211

Map

vii

212.

up river left via which

from

the picture to

king of

himself the

positioned route followed He rode men across the this south Christian north

at

Lauenburg.

Monro

has Bremen orders below Hamburg

a clear Rotenburg directed and

by this up to the bank Stade Elbe of

squadron for at

from

Buxtehude. to ferry

(81)

further Blahkenese

him then to

his along for

Hamburg and of At

march

the lay

river in the heath

past

Lauenburg. Imperialist this time and

The reason forces

redeployment bank in the

concentration region. Duncan

on the

LOneburg demoted

by command from John Forbes and

IV Mackay them with last

Captains

Forbes

replaced reunion to Major again.

James longg

Wilson for to

and John on 9 July Havelberg and (82)

Rudderhus. Colonel leave The

The regiment's Mackay was instructed four under met

did take Dunbar

not seven at

companies Boizenburg

the two

other

as a garrison*

squadrons body

never of

The main

Mackay's

regimant

was moved

to

Neu Ruppin

in

Brandenburg the

to assist

the

forces

of Slammersdorf the opportunity Imperialist the Danish

and Von Turlau offered

to hold

enemy at Havelberg, into Silesia. over the

and if

to make a counterestablished position route, His to Wismar. five town of Femerne

thrust

However when the Elbe at Lauenburg

armies

a bridgehead was split because captains in his

defensive retreat

twag and Mackay had to adopt men were cut off from return

an unexpected on foot

to Holstein.

were directed shipping

to march to Perleberg at the nearby into island

and then north of Poel, and after

They awaited weeks of delay

were transported an the Holstein

the harbour opposite

of the fishing the island

of Heiligenhafen From here it

mainland

was a short

march to Oldenburg

where Mackay's

regiment

(81) (82)

Monrop Expedition, Monrot Expedition,

i. i.

Itinerary 8t 10

Appendix

213.

was first displays

tested

in

the crucible courage resulted.

of battle. and valourt but

Many proved inevitably

themselves a heavy toll Robert

by in

of exemplary

dead and wounded also Captains Sir Patrick

Lieutenant-Colonel

Seatong

Monro and

MacKie and Oohn Forbes was scorched in the

of Tulloch face

were all

injuredt gunpowder.

and the colonel Despite the

himself

by exploding

bravery

of the Scats retreat

the pass had to be abandoned an 23 September They boarded the ships but by this again time

16279 and a headlong and arrived the the entire Scots

followed. capital

at Flensburg, Outland

town of Schleswigt being overrun

Peninsula

was rapidly

by the enemy so of the

were directed There

to the port the cost

of Assens an the west side and this 900, having (83)

Island

of Fyen.

of war was counted, to number only during

squadron lost 400

of Mackay's men killed

regiment in

was discovered or captured juncture


to 19000 is dated

the battle

the withdrawal. Mackay took

Not surprisingly
Christian with warrant himself Assynt, Seaton in then to the We king for dire for these

at this
situation a further troops Sir of

Colonel

advantage

of

make on 19 October Scottish very MacKisq lateg recruits.

a new 'capitulation' (84) The Privy (85) Council

31 March Monro

1628. of

Mackay Monro of

and Captains and Forbes went an leave the the island. in Maribo MacKis. side of unit. other

Patrick

Annant to in

Obsdale,

Tulloch to Holland.

returned Thus thrEe the

Scotland, November companies

while Robert on Fyen to quarters of

Lieutenant-Colonel Monro island was left and and the Mackay at Rodby were on then

command of ferried Laaland

He posted four across established billeted Captain the island,

Belts, his winter the

first

Langeland with Colonel

Monro and

burgomaster and the (83) (84) (65) Sir south

there

companies men were of

Patrick west

Mackenziels while

quartered troops

Monro

Assynt's 33

it 7p 12t Monro, Expeditiont Monrog Expeditiono it 34; RA Copenhagent TKIAt A. 46 RPC 2nd Series, 11,295-7

159 17-23t

27-28t

214.

settled they

on the west coast the winter

of Falster

Island

at Nyk5ping.

(86)

There the

saw out

of 1627/8 onslaught

hoping

to be able the islands.

to resist

impending fallen,

Imperialist and with

against

Femern had already prospects for

no fortified of 1628 looked might


which which

towns on Lealand far await

Monro's

the coming year Whatever


contemplate the unfortunate

from promising. Robert


than left

troubles
future squadron Captain

Monro he was at least


could under be said Major about Dunbar there the

able
most at

to
of

the

was more had

been

Boizenburg. later reported Apparently broken, General received at The two other Wilson ness in of these

David at

Learmonth Hamburg. Galbraith to

had been This is

wounded probably

and died incident 1627. the bons (87)

injuries

by Quartermaster Captain and his Morgan word Learmonth of from sterling

Nithsdals shot in date the

on 6 August,. thigh and

had been escape at

chances writing

that

had

seemed 1627

slander. had also

Wasserbaden service 'I

on 7 August rendered

of

the

by Dunbar's did very well.

squadron t(88)

Boizenburg, fort at

and he commented, Boizenburg of his

heare

they

was eventually man down the under Major it to Elbe

abandoned to to

by Dunbar but

who shipped he left Castle. carelessFor this the

companies two

GlOckstadt, garrison

companies

Wilson Tilly

Lauenburg and through also.

however the

surrendered of than at the the

on terms, lost of his the

wording rather

agreement capitulation

colours castle, Forbes

oversight, on his Major and to

he was demoted was reinstated. out of ClOckstadt south

arrival Dunbar defend

Gluckstadt ordered

and Captain to move his

Duncan four of

was then the

companies

Stadholder's

fortress

Breitenburg

a few miles

(86) (87) (68)

Monro, Expedition, 1,34,41-42 Fraser, 11,104 Carlaverock, PRO, State Papers ljnmark, SP 75/8/252

215.

east Dunbar that late

of

Itzahoe. and Captain

When the Duncan retreated

castle Forbes to

there were

fell killed.

to

the It

enemy both must

Major

be presumed mentioned the

the

survivors

GlZckstadt being

because'Monro there, the other (89)

Captain

Learmonth's records

company

situated there of till the of

and of in

the 1626. (90)

GlZckstadt There Is

show this evidence

company of the

middle troops

no extant but

fate account

Dunbar's at vanquished

squadron, Breitenburg may have At

Monro's

second-hand a bitter

the

six-day survivors

struggle of the

suggests been the few.

contest

from

which

end of

1627

the

locations

of

Scottish

mercenaries

in

Danish

service regiment,

had altered

considerably lay

from

the beginning of Fyen,

of the year. Laaland

Mackay's

much depleted, of Scots with the

on the islands regiments of Dunbar's

and Falster. Spynis and

A conglomeration Sinclair, ports these along

from the remnants

of Nithsdalet squadron

occupied English

the key force in

of Stade and GlUckstadt garrisons*

in addition

to the large unit

The second part

of Spynie's province

had recently across

landed the Sound. mercenary in

in Denmark and was based in 1627 had been a continuous troops. the course much longer Outland Despite the

the Danish series

of Scania for

of setbacks

the Danes and their and those expected

reinforcements seemed unlikely of occupying Stade.

from Britain that

of 1628 it as the tide

the war could forces

be continued swept through

Imperialist

and also

surrounded

(89) (90)

1,33,38 Monro, Expeditiont RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit.

ragnsk.

IIb/16/I/752-75

216.

CHAPTER NINE 1628t did IV, at first bring

The commencement of the any appreciable change in the

following fortunes

year,

not but

of Christian

the war altered

somewhat in character island Danish from bases. garrisons Only in

as the Danes endeavoured Holstein was the pattern

to operate unchanged. by their

from various Here the paid troops

at Stade continued

and GlUckstadt, holding

assisted actions. this

Britain,

to fight

The former accounts which for almost

town was the absence certainly Eventually

subjected

to intense

pressure, for there in

and perhaps

of provisions-records remained the siege 1628. The English inclined in service culminated

the Scottish during the

companies

the remainder

of the siege.

Imperialist

occupation

of the town of 27 April

and Scottish

companies

retired

to Holland,

perhaps to General I(l)

to agree with

the anonymous writer Denmark 'marching

of the letter this

Morgan in May that Official facilities, Stade request

to serve

way seems strangs. for garrison troops

was made to the United was granted 1,000 sick

Provinces

and billeting marched from

and when this while

the surrendering

to Holland,

and wounded were shipped at Zwolle


strength Charles end Sir

across

to

GlOckstadt.
English regiments John troops

on arrival
totalled a few Sir

at the rendezvous
2p374. days James later (2 )

on 11 May Morgan's
of these 5209 Sir 428.

The actual showedt Sir 481t

taken 497,

Morgan John each

Burlacy is

Livingstone companies

Swinton of these

When it

recalled

that

twelve

constituted

(1) (2)

PRO# State PROO State

Papers Papers

Denmarkq Denmark,

SP 75/9/136 SP 75/10/181

217

regiments, had become. officers an ensign, the total

it

can be seen how seriously Several their captains had only

under twenty Kirby

strength five

these

units company

man including

under

command and Captain nine troops Colonels

a sergeant, of English

had merely twenty one, viz. (3) By May 1628 pikemen and ten musketeers. to 1,882, but also present were (4) Spynie. because

had dwindled

ninety

men each for given

r1owbray and Hamilton, in this list

and 150 for are not

The ranks both

to Mowbray and Hamilton captains, but the former

accurate

were only

probably those

commanded the remnants of Nithsdale. back over their These period of

of Sinclair's English

men from Stade, soldiers

and Hamilton cannot

and Scottish

have looked with

of approximately satisfaction. had failed regiments

twelve

months service

Denmark with in Stade,

any degree and in

They had spent to retain the town.

the entire

time

the end

By midsummer 1628 the four into one, and before unemployed.

English the year

had been amalgamated captains letter

most of the Scottish Robert Anstruther's

the end of (5)

were also

to Morgan on 20 June 1628 explained regiment. of private for

what

had happened to Captain imprisoned

Burke of Nithsdale's on suspicion

Burke had been plotting with of

by the Imperialists the terms

Morgan against Stade.

of the agreed left

conditions

the surrender for

Apparently off,

when Tilly but

Stade orders gott

were given

Burke's

head to be cut

'he happily

out of prison,

awamme the Fosse, his

end saved himselfe service, in leavying

t by escaping ... a free

to Hamburg. foure

There hekloffered hundred halfe

Company of of,

or five already

men within

one Moneth; which (6) Company. '

was accepted

he having

of his

(3) (4) (5) (6)

PRO, PRO, PRO, PRO,

State State State State

Papers Denmarkp SP 75/9/140-1 Papers Denmark, SP 75/9/148 Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/101 Papers Denmark, SP 75/9/168

218.

The defence largely fashion. continuous because it

of GlUckstadt was never records 1628. the

proved besieged there

successful by the

in

the

first

half

of 1628t

Imperialists more complete,

in any determined and are there for

The extant up to July after

are thus

Some of Spyniels surrender Spynie

a ten day period before six withdrawal for

men are listed (7) of Stadet apparently later claimed that

in transit

to Holland. the garrisoning captains

he had provided but the these 1628

companies

of Stade and GlUckstadtq(8) known to have served James Beaton, Major Kelly in his

following

are the only

name in

two townsq Thomas Beatong John Learmonth. Ogilvy Campbell Leslie till continued till Nithsdalels

John Semple, men under

and from 5 August and Captain George Andrew

at GlUckstadt,

and were assisted Douglas till

by Captains 31 March,

21 Januaryl, 10 May. Lindsay (10) It (9)

Alexander Mackay's

and George those on

companies 'Moral

in GlUckstadt

including

of Alexander 3 May 1628. captains is fraught

and Robert must however of their

appear

to have been reformed that identification this period of

be admitted locations

and pinpointing with difficulties

during

in Holstein the relative or in

and uncertainties the Scots

compared with on the Danish of Spynie

clarity Scania. that it

of the picture No doubt recruited

regarding

islands

has been cast their full they

on the claims regimental totals this

and Nithsdale so

they

of 3tOOO man each, reasonably the figure known.

must be presumed that of Murkle but

performed failed failure

task

adequately. named in his this

James Sinclair undertaking, was laid expected (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

however

to reach is not

the margin

of his

Blame for

on Captains to provide

Hayo Chirnside 300 men. (11)

and Donaldson Hay and Chirnside

who had each been did in fact serve

RA Copenhageng Militieregnskaber RA Copenhagen, RA Copenhageng RA Copenhageno RPC 2nd Series,

(TKIA) Afdeling Tyske Kancellis Indenlandske IIb/16/I/685-94 IIb/23 TKIA9 Milit. regnsk. 7219 7769 825-49 TKIA, Milit. IIb/16/I/6949 regnsk. TKIAp A. 153/1 11,472

219.

Denmark for The first of Mackay's and early

a while half

in

1628 but no record

has been found

of Donaldson. to those April

of 1628 brought

many varied islands.

experiences In late

men billeted May Monro's four

on the Danish companies learned coast,

March,

from Laaland the tactics not unlike

and Falster

(reckoned raids

as 800 men on 8 January against the enemy-held

1628) Holstein

of sudden sharp the technique their rendezvous of

modern marine Rbdby, failure. but

commandos. first

The Scots

established the

at

their

attempt

to seize they

island it

of Femern was a dismal and from this English, of this base sent

(12 )

However on 8 April Ekernf5rde. approximately Mackay's there is regiment uncertainty

occupied that

2tOOO men against and Scots is provided that but

Monro stated equal

German, French force. There

proportions

no doubt

supplied

the Scots

and Count Montgomery

the French, who were led under ('absent General

by Captain

about the origin of the English (13 ) He had been a commander John Chamberlain. but his company was listed in May 1628. without (14) him Chamberlain the

Morgan at Stade, at

in Denmark#) the officer

the muster in charge

at Zwolle

was probably king

of the 800 men left troops

to serve

of Denmark while the rest of the British (15) to Holland. On 3 December 1627 he wrote of his sidelight of leading man complaining of grossly inadequate national is sixes but illustrated

in Stade retreated

from Copenhagen on behalf (16) An interesting provisions. rivalries for the honour statement seaof a that

on the method of resolving the vanguard of attack

by Monro's (17)

he won the privilege borne raid demonstration took place

by throwing against

on the dice. it

The next the nature

Kielt

was more in

than a determined

assault,

and had no positive

results.

(12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)

iq 45-46 Monrop Expeditiong 1,51 Monrog Expeditionp PRO, State Papers Denmark, SP 75/9/140 'Military E. A. Bellerg Expedition of Sir Charles Review, x1iii Germany 1627-919 English Historical PRO, State Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/412 1.51 Monro, Expeditiong

Morgan to (1928). 535

220

*Krengerup Ssens
FYEN

vendb

rg

Flons

rg

Laaland

*Maribo Rodby Ekernf6rde

Femer Kiel Hai

genhafe

rossenbrode
Map viii C) 500 !uI u Km

scale 0

;o 32M
Elsinore Elsin Isjnore

1les

Kalundborg

al OpIJ30nhagenore

00dense Nyborg EALAND FYEN

Svenstrup

UO

Vordin

borg

map

ix

221.

Nor could

it

be said

that

any real near

gain

emerged from for

the landing it was soon

at

Grossenbrode

on the peninsula

Heiligenhafenp

abandoned and withdrawal at Femern and EkernfBrde On 8 May 1628 Robert


all the companies of

made to Femern. from exploding Monro received


regiment on Fyen officials and to at to

Many injuries powder. instructions


Elsinore leave for

were incurred

to marshal
(18)

Mackay's for to in those royal

Shipping Orders and

was arranged were also sent (all the

a new venture. (19) Nyborg on 21 May. Selso, Fyen were to to Kalundborg provide be movement and

at

Svenstrup, in

Vordingborg for

Zealand), Those

Krengerup and Falster

shipping similarly began required experienced Zealand. shipped journey returned of action

Scots. to the

on Laaland before

transported on 12 Mayo but to march from

Copenhagen troops to with some of

30 May. been

(20)

Actual at

may have Elsinore local the

landed

Copenhagen

there

because inhabitants

Mackenzie's during the

company march been to in

some difficulty Alternatively

Scottish

companies islands

may have and left

merely on foot at long

across across last three

the the from

water actual

channels islands.

between

Lieutenant-Colonel to later the

Seaton new theatre the

Holland

and was dispatched Monro followed

with four in

companies, (21)

while Captain his

with

remaining to to remain

companies. Scotland, of the and thus

Alexander

Annan Alexander for

had decided Hay was preferred troops

Lieutenant

be captain

company.

The destination

Mackay's

was Stralsund. The north occupied German port defensive of Stralsund It to which the Scots were directed in shape

a strong

position.

was roughly

triangular

(18) (19) (20) (21)

Monrop Expedition, 1.61 Kancelliets Brevb4ger 1627-9 (ed. Kancelliets Brevbpfger 1627-9,412-3 Monro, Expedition, it 61-62

E. Marquardt

Copenhagen 1929)t

411

222

F+

(D

r4k

Map

223.

with shallow

four

lakes Strelasund by five

on the

landward seaward

side

of

the

town

and to east,

the the

relatively town was

on the gates,

side. in the

Entrance south

effected in the

Frankenport in the

Tribseesport and town gates, and the the town each depended more St. in of 1628 the Jurgen)

south

west, both in

K6terport the north and Gertrude

west,

and Hospitalsport of the the

Knieperport upon the old

west. built

The defence to the protect

town the at

wall St. the

sconces sconce

particularly Jurgen sconce

at

Frankenport of

Knieperport. 20,000. (St. two Mariat

The population For St. military Nikolaus, of raised

was approximately four quarters of to

lBtOOQ the town

purposes St.

Jakob

and St. force. force

was expected Further levies

contribute in the town

companies had

350 men as a militia the total of defence Stralsund's to

however the

to

approximately position emergency

4,800. this arose

Despite manpower during of

natural

strength to 1628. League$ of

however which

was unlikely spring Hanseatic XIV, duke to it of

be adequate

counter

the

the the

Stralsund, treaty which But agreed gave late in would the

a member between

had held

aloof and the

from

the

Bogislav

Mecklenburg, into Western

Emperor

Imperialists and early attempt arrived

freedom in to 1628 seize

march seemed

Pomerania. that the Hapsburg Imperial to commence

1627 soon

inevitable In with fact

armies

Stralsund. Stralsund such

commander, the siege

Arnim,

outside Having

8,000

troops the

on 16 May. sent a relief force, to

foreseen for to aid,

a development

Stralsunders issued first

had previously orders part of for this

Denmark

and Christian

IV had

expedition led

be organised Holck, of landed Mackay's

on 8 May.

The

by Colonel companies

on 25 May and comprised regiment group, four under the by

a German company control Monro, of

and three

Lieutenant-Colonel

Seaton.

The second of the

commanded

disembarked

on 28 May and consisted

remaining

companies

224.

of Mackayls
to garrison with ten west the

regiment
th+sland the

from Zealand.
of Uinholm,

One company of Scots


while the to other six

was detailed
companies During the

Scottish

along first north against but

German one were of the the town, siege had

ordered

the

Frankenport. from attacks militia Arnim had just his camp at particularly were switched taken

days of

Arnim,

operating his

Hainholz,

concentrated the

Knieperport the day

where after

Stralsunder arrival, the Scots

on duty; his up their

on 26 May, to

Beaton's where

offensive

the

Frankenport

positions.
town's

His night
resistance

attack

failed,

and he then
which lasted for

decided
the

to weaken the
of May and

by a bombardment

rest

most of June. Meanwhile defending reinforcements were shipped to Stralsund early to support the

garrison.

200 Danes appeared

in Oune and were posted assistance were They

to the Tribseesport. realised

On 23 June hopes of Swedish by Rosladin to bolster and Duwall

when 600 Swedes led to the Knieperport

came abhore.

were drafted there. his

the resistance for

of the militia brought Imperial the main of Seaton which were as up force

These forces

had arrived the

opportunely, on 27 June.

Wallenstein The total threw

own army to intensify Stralsund of his

siege

outside weight

now numbered 20,000. against

Wallenstein

attack

the Frankenport during

where the Scots the bitter Scottish

and Monro were extremely took high place there between per cent. for

hard pressed

fighting losses

27 Owe and 29 June. Casualties Colonel

as thirty

among the Swedes at the Knieperport Rosladin and Major Semple were killed, for the next

too were considerable, and Lieutenant-Colonel six months.

Duwall

was captured held firm,

and imprisoned and Wallenstein opportunity

But the defenders July.

reverted the town

to bombardment in early had passed, because

His best Danish

to storm

further

and Swedish

reinforcements

wepe 4e-

225

lsinorey--Helsingborq
Areik *F a red sb rg

00a 0 c C

andskrona Ir

i8ge openhage

z Z a
ra ---f

Lund

Maim

0cani
ad

eaIn

BA

LTI

E-

Falste

Rgen

Stralsun

III scale 0
Map xi

0111

:j

50K

Wolg
iles

ast

226.

were to arrive Unaffected his little future regiment half men spent positive role

in

Stralsund fury six in the

during

the month.

(22) campaign in Spynie and 1,100 playing of their

by the the first

of the Stralsund

of

months of 1628 billeted European hostilities

Scaniag

part

and unaware in

at Stralsund.

An amalgamation on 19 February

of companies

this below

had been ordered

strength

were to be divided those on the

1628 when all (23) among the others.

companies The exact

location known.

of two companies, Both were at unit Ystad

of 3ohn Lindsay south it coast

and 3ames Douglas, on 7 March.

is (24)

of Scania

Though this because Lord

had seen no action, was given

must have been below strength by the It will Danish monarch to recruit that Sir the

Spynie his

permission (25)

250 Danes for Patrick Scottish

regiment

on 1 May.

be recalled

Cockburn regiments listed

had been an officer had come into the

over

Danes early

in 1626 before IVt but in

service for

of Christian Spynie's life

1628 he is and his

as lieutenant-colonel

regiment. in Scania

Spynie because official (26)

close

retinue

may have been bored

with

Karen Hansen, complaint A royal This

the widow in whose house they the to that behaviour Scanian of his

were billeted,

lodged

about letter

men and the dated

damage they

had caused. result.

the

Commissary make full Krag at twenty (27) six

26 May 1628 was the and in financial repairs

directed with noted

Spynie

should Nils of

recompense end of the for

Spynie's year to the about house whose

reckoning there is

Commissary a deduction

the

dollars Captain

of Karen Christen recruiting in

Hansen in

Malmd.

3ames Blair, previouslyq captains,

Scotland in

many details rather later

have been noted than the other

appears for orders

to have landed

Scania

(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27)

Sveriqes 111,51-98; Krig, M. Roberts, Gustavus Adolphus (London 1958). Brevb er Kancelliets 1627-9.335 IIb/9 openhagent TKIAq Milit. regnsk. Kancelliets BrevbXger 1627-9,406 Kancelliets 1627-9,435 Brevb^er RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. IIb/9 regnsk.

11,357-70.

227.

concerning Spyniels longer.

the billeting regiment A royal was not missive

of his

company are dated the leisurely

27 May 1628. life of Scania

(28) very much

to enjoy issued

on 23 June 1628 ordered

arrangements Ships provisions for them. (29)

to be made for

embarkation for this for

at Malm6 of 900 Scots operation, fourteen and bread

on 7 July. and butter

were to be seized for

a month and beer

days were to be made ready troops en route for

These Scots

must have been Spynie's in

Stralsund. regiment by with

At Stralsund met those

the summer of 1628 the Scots in the warm comradeship danger. Heinrich total (30)

of Mackay's

of Spynie's

so often Holck

engendered along

common hardship Spynie's to take timely. town till with regiment charge

and mortal on 9 July,

arrived

a combined defences.

of 1,100 Their

men, and proceeded arrival was of the

of the Stralsund Lieutenant-Colonel arrival, but

Indeed Holck's

Seton,

who was acting

governor

had already

been driven brought (31)

to arrange by Spyniets Wallenstein The next 800 Swedish intents

a truce appearance withdrew day troops

the besiegers, the defenders and left Leslie

the welcome relief

enabled

to resume the struggle. Arnim to continue Brahe brought that the siege

on 15 July, Alexander

the struggle. in another was to all

and Nils

whose arrival at an end. and perhaps town with initial unit

confirmed Leslie

and purposes over-ambitious from the some Spynie's the

however appears

to have been rather He attempted

underestimated

the enemy.

an loutfall'

the regiments success before

of Mackay and Spynie. being forced severely. to retire,

They experienced badly mauled. Arnim raised

in particular

suffered

Nevertheless

(28) (29) (30) (31)

RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. regnsk. Kancelliets BreVbXger 1627-9,453 Sverines Krig, 111,95 1,73 Monro, Expedition,

IIb/9

228.

siege

on 24 July.

Unfortunately attempt

for

the weary Scots his position.

Christian

IV deteran

mined to make one final expedition The Scots to seize

to recover

He sent

Wolgast (led

and attempt by Captain

the occupation Mackenzie, since

of Mecklenburg. both forces Seaton at Wolgast,

in Stralsund

and Monro were injured) but Wallenstein Christian's units gained

were ordered revenge for

to join his failure

the Danish

at Stralsund

by crushing

army on 2 September.

(32)

The remnants

of the vanquished

retreated The Stralsund

by sea to the islands financial accounts

of Denmark and to Scania. kept by Heinrich Halck from May No limitation.

till dates

December 1628 make disappointingly are marked alongside Holck items, which

few references is of course.

to Scots. a serious

Nevertheless Colonel

does record

a payment of 200 rix rix dollars

dollars

to LieutenantSpynie's
(Pringle). one of (33)

'Zyton'

(Seaton)
Captains that

and fifty
'Shyngiscil Alexander

to Colonel
and 'Pringent

advance-guard It will

(Chirnside) Chirnside

be recalled Sinclair's to arrive

was originally the first had Pringle Company, of

Colonel captains Spynie's have injured rix

commanders in Scania, the

end certainly and that winter of In his

Sinclair's added to to

company John Life

been

regiment the

during

1627/8. Spynie's Holck

appears

been at

captain-lieutenant (34)

and he was twenty to to a Scots

Stralsund. paid to

addition in the

entered

sums of dollars dollars

dollars sent

other

Scats wounded

vanguard, and the six this

371 rix four rix

who were Scottish Walgest. regimant companies

to

Denmark previously

and

sick, of for

sergeant He later and of five

a prisoner provisions and on the follows

enemy but companies with

now come from of Spynie's to two Hay.

mentions of Mackayts, 'last

reference men of

Spyniets,

shipsl,

and to

Captain

(32) (33) (34)

1,75; iii, Monro, Expedition, 96; Suerines Krig, Roberts, Gustavus Adolphus, iiq 364-5 RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. regnsk. IIb/22 RA Copenhagen, TKIA, A. 151 1,78; Monro, Expedition,

229.

Finally Scottish sequel


mutinied

Holck

recorded

a payment of thirty had been without by Robert

two rix quarters,

dollars (35)

to three a

companies to the

which

presumably men
four

incident

mentioned
the

Monro when Assynt's


they had spent

and threatened

burgomaster

after

nights

sleeping year

in

the

streets.

(36) confirm

Financial that

reckonings

made later Spynie,

in

the

by Franz

Rantzau

the companies

of Lord

Lieutenant-Colonel

Cockburn,

and Captains served

John Lindsayp at Stralsund

James Douglas, and then at which

John HOMB and Alexander Walgast arrived before returning

Chirnside to Scania.

The two companies olSpyniets unit

of Scots

at Stralsund

after Francis port

the main bulk Trafford is noted

may have been those

of George Stewart, transfer 3 July to the

or James Blair. by Nils

The latterts between

Baltic (37)

Krag as falling

and 11 July.
Stralsund

Though

was not

the

last-remaining

outpost

held

by anti-

Imperial Stralsund in

forces

in

Germany,

the repulsion effects results

of the Hapsburg

armies

outside

had far-reaching Two immediate

on the course were directly

of the Thirty contrary

Years War

Germany.

to the ainsof togethert

Wallenstein. and Gustavus in Germany in not

Denmark and Sweden had found it acquired the last. a secure

possible

to act

base in Pomerania

from which

to Intervene

future. Early

In practice

the harmony between Denmark and IV sought in order peace, and him from a more had shrewdly Swedish

Sweden did Wallenstein his

in 1629 Christian lenient terms

was quick with for

to offer

to detach presented

connection

Gustavus. the Imperialist of alliance

But the Swedish king

awkward problem insisted troops

commanderg because Gustavus between Stralsund This

an a treaty actually

and Sweden before. the Swedes to

disembarked

in 1628.

had helped

(35) (36) (37)

RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. 1,64 Mcnro, Expedition, RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit.

Regnsk. Regnsk.

IIb/22 IIb/9

230.

oust

the Danes from Stralsundq of fleet the port. in 1630, The real the edge of boosted

and Swedish protection decided to land

soon led in

to virtual an protected

annexation invasion

When Gustavus he did

Germany with western flank

so at PeensmOnde with of the Stralsund against

his siege

by Stralsund. it blunted

importance the Imperial

however was that Baltic seaboard Years

attack

the entire

and thus

the morals

of the Protestant expansion

powers in

the Thirty

War at a time

when Hapsburg

seemed Irresistible. between opposing forces defence, strategical this

There are is tipped

moments in history decisively far

when the balance

in a psychological

sense by a successful or the

which value respect with

outweighs

the numbers of men involved Stralsund in 1628 might the English

of the action. Gloucester

be compared in War.

in 1643 during

Civil

The Scottish Lieutenant-Colonel

contribution Seaton played

to the success a prominent and when Holck

at Stralsund part in

was substantial. of the further

the defence seeking Scottish

town between 25 May and 9 July reinforcements soldiers formed Seaton

was absent troops.

was commander of a fifth

the Danish of the total

approximately

garrison

of 6,100 the gates

at the end of May, a sixth late the in June, brunt and a quarter

of the 6,900 of the 8,000 fighting at

when Wallenstein on 9 July.

stormed

Monro! s men had borne the cannon and the

of much of

the severest bullets

and had weathered Gertrude sconce

and hail (38) Frankenport. barrage regiment its timely

of musket Despite

the St.

the heavy losses contribution juncture

incurred

by Spynie's unit was

the most significant arrival

made by Spynie's

at the crucial Part

when Seaton was at for the Stralsund

the point victory

of seeking

peace terms. be given

of the credit

must of course

to the Swedish

companies

and the Stralsund

(38)

Monro,

Expedition,

ip

62-64

231.

militia there is

which little

together doubt

resisted that

valiantly

at the Knieperport, of the Scots have survived

but under the Seaton,

without

the assistance could it not

Monroy Mackenzie Imperialist despite in 1631,

and Spyniet

Stralsund reason

onslaught. the exciting throughout the less

For this exploits

can be contended

that at Breitenfeld at Latzen in

of Scots

in Swedish service

the Rhineland,

in Swabia and Bavaria, valuable nothing history

1632,

and in

momentous but essentially the Baltic for in coast, European

role of all with

of garrisons this service

throughout for

Germany and along

Sweden compares in by the Scots

importance at Stralsund

the service IV.

rendered

the name of Christian at Stralsund in for in the the the

The Scottish increased Alexander of Stralsund exact rolls by the Leslie

contribution fact that

to the action Scots were included behalf to ensure stronghold is uncertaing

was further brought by

troops future Baltic.

on Swedish

the position The

as an anti-Imperialist of these Stralsund troops in 1628,

composition exist for

because no Swedish muster for 1629 are likely the same. to Wijn

but the rolls

be fairly

accuratep that

especially Leslie's unit

when the commanders are was a Scottish to this view. regiment. At first those

has contended rolls five give only

The muster glance only Alexander

partial appear

support

companies

to have been Scottish, Alexander

of Captains

rarb3s,

Henry Ramsayt John Ruthvent Even here however

Cunningham,

and Adam show that

Cunningham. only

the surnames of the troops

the companies Scottish.

of Ramsay (140 men) and Ruthven Alexander than Cunningham's five Burkes,

(93 men) were almost quite a Caseyt surnames.

entirely few Irish Byrnat

company contains as well

(no less names Dillon

as two Tobins,

Lynch,

and Clenaghan)

in addition

to the Scottish Germang and only had Scottish

Adam Cunningham's approximately (39)

men appear

to have been mainly rarbast soldiers

a third

of Alexander Rullor,

(39) names.

KA Stockholmg

1629/22/1-13

232.

Thus it 3,000

would appear men garrisoning

that

merely

400 or so Scots for Sweden at

formed

part

of the but this

Stralsund

the end of 1628, to the part same Baltic points

constitutes by the Scots

an impressive in Danish sieges


great

contribution in the

when joined defence

played port.

service which

of the turning

Such epic
often Scottish the involve

force
cost

historical
to the

however
The that but for with

personal at Stralsund

troops

concerned. It seems

regiments of raid drastic landed of can colonel in

were the

crippled. experienced troops decreed changes might

intervention

Thomas none of

Home,

cavalry have

commander, (40) survived. king virtual in

a diversionary As it the was, Scots

Spynie's were These

amalgamations Denmark.

by the resulted of

Danish in his the

when

disappearance personnel of the

Spynia's

regiment. from the fact

The extent that James

losses the Sir

be judged himself

on 3 September Douglas, the late

companies John

and Captains

Home, and James Blair and formed final


Sir had The

were all

Into

a free

amalgamated (41) Major company. companies


captivity three

under

Captain

John Lindsay

William

Troup made the and 3 September.


Lindsay (43)

payments
John been other

to Spynie's
died to of in

between 30 August
of his injuries, wounds Stralsund

(42)

Home had fortunate remnants Mackay's the of

and John in the were Thus at

survive Spynie's

dangerous from

battle. used the distinct regiment' to

regiment

strengthen 1628 identity only

unit, of

as will Captain unit,

be noted John

below. retained term

end of

company

Lindsay

the

Spynie's

original

and the

'Spyniets

(40) (41) (42) (43)

Monro, Expeditidn, 1,80 Monro, Expedition, 1,83; RA Copenhagen, IIb/9; Kancellists Brevbiqer 16279,481 RA Copenhagen, IIb/9 TKIA, Milit. regnsk. Monro, 1,78; Expedition, RA Copenhagen,

TKIAp

Milit.

regnsk.

TKIA,

Milit

regnsk.

IIb/23

233.

can no longer for the Spyniets

be used. men is

Confirmation in the

of these financial

drastic

developments made with by

to be found

settlements

company officers himself Ensigns in

in September

and in

the many passes 1628.

signed

Spynie included

Copenhagen an 28 September Robert Hay, Alexander

The recipients George

Lindsay,

Andrew Blair,

Home, William Alexander

3ohnstonet

Mark Home, and Henry Barclay; James Hamilton, and Robert

Lieutenants William and also Penicuik. and the Hay, James Alexander

Chambers,

John Douglas, William

John Class, Douglas; Alexander

Home, William

Gordon,

Campbell,

Captain-Lieutenant These were officers above names indicate Blair, James Beaton, Alexander (44) fate

Adam Dickson

and Quartermaster which

from companies that

had ceased to exist, were William George Oliphant,

the captains

involved

John Home, James Douglas, Lindsay, Major Douglas

Chirnside, Cockburn.

and Lieutenant-Colonel

A similar

seemed imminent siege

for

Mackay's

regiment

in

the after-

math of the Stralsund Seaton withdraw his knee. resigned.

and the Wolgast Monro (the a surgical Mackenzie

failure.

Lieutenant-Colonel had been constrained to

Captain

chronicler) operation was fit

to Copenhagen for Though Captain from Stralsund

to remove a bullet

from

enough to direct was injured. for

the movement Mackay's its strength

of the troops unit could

to Wolgast, any longer


In Although of these six

he also

hardly
that

be described
of lost. a squadron. (45)

as a regiment,
weeks over

was not officers remained,

even

500 men excluding soldiers Wallenstein

had been scarcely

400 of were

the

original

a quarter

unscathed.

had indeed

hammered Monrols

Scots

an the anvil

of Stralsund,

breaking

some

(44) (45)

RA Copenhagen, TKIA, A. 151 i, 79-80. Squadrons varied in size, but Monro, Expeditin , 500-600 i. four approximately e. companies, normally comprised men.

234.

of

them physically of soldiers'. Colonel

in

the process,

but

forging

of the

survivors

twell-beaten

blades

Mackay had however reinforcements regiment in arrived the field,

spent

the

summer recruiting and these

In Scotland. enabled him to colonels

His

timely

in September the only

keep a full in Danish

one of the

Scottish

service
off

to do so.
under

Mackayts

own company was strengthened,


John Sinclair to Langeland island. (46)

and marched Robert Monro,

Captain-Lieutenant of Foulis, had been

baron

a new company directed with been three himself Robert the to

as early the

as 15 October vital island of to of

for a commission granted (47) his new troops 1627 and with during the winter There winter

he was along

hold

Femern

1628/9 must

reinforced of

companies relatives were

Assynt visit

and Obsdale. in the long

have while

no shortage Monro

months Obsdale Mackay.

companies returned

stationed more to

on the Britain the

same island. with colonel he would late for Colonel

however Monro

once

stated

that

on this 'Mackay',

journey (48)

and Obsdale appear in 1628, to

were have and though

accompanied meant

by Captain

by which

Mackenzie. had in just

No captain been

was called to

'Mackayl

Eye Mackay the the of not evidence company 1629. (49)

promoted

lieutenant to thdnew final valiant records

Captain

Mackenzie staying in in the 1628 The cashiered. Hay had other with summer is

Danish

records the

points till after

lieutenant dismissal service or

throughout Captain again both to Sir

winter

the his

Mackenzie in the

mentioned of failed

either Patrick

Danish

by Monro. were Captain to seek

companies Both had

MacKie

and Captain

Annan

return the

from

Scotland,

and although

exercised

command over

latter's

men he was forced

(46) (47) (48) (49)

1,82 Expeditionp Monro, TKIA, A*153/I RA Copenhagen, i, 82 Monro, Expedition, TKIA, Milit. RA Copenhagen,

regnsk.

IIb/9

235.

employment, The Danish

which

he eventually also

found

with

Ruthven

in Swedish the existence

(50) service. of Seaton's

authorities

intended

to terminate resigned,

company when the lieutenantL-colonel eighty Scots were ordered

because on 7 November his

to be amalgamated in

companies of this supported recorded

and settled

in Landskrona

with the other Scottish (51) But the lieutenant Scania. against this decision and letter

company, his that

Andrew Stewart, by positive

appealed action, notice for

plea

on 20 November a royal work in

the king

had taken

of Stewartts

completing command in German

the company to 150 men and that as a consequence Stewart should (52) them as captain. In his own account of the matter written Stewart explained that for with he had come from Scotland Seaton, and that and served for

eighteen to acting-

months as lieutenant captain at Stralsund strength

he had been promoted men which

a company of eighty

he had increased of of his

in numerical Colonel best Holck

to 130.

However to conform his lieutenant

to the orders with fifty

he had left was the

at Stralsund cause of his the winter

men, and this (53) eighty strong.

company appearing at Lund in Scania. back to its

to be only The former strength seldom that with at

He spent

company of John Forbes by the lieutenant mentioned Lieutenant those again

of Tulloch

was brought

and ensign by name in

is the but the captain company, of (54) It seems likely Danish service. command.

John Seaton

assumed effective under Lieutenant

These men along

of Captain Robert

Mackenzie Monro,

Eye Mackay were billeted promoted to

Malm6 with
(50) (51) (52) (53) (54)

who had now been deservedly

Monro, 1,82 Expedition, Kancelliets 1627547,562 BreVbjqer 9 Kancelliets BreVb, $q3r 1627-9,562 IIb/23 RA Copenhagen, TKIA, -Piilit. regnsk. Monro, 1,82 Expedition,

236.

lieutenant-colonel Sir recruit behalf

to fill

the vacancy had meanwhile of men.

left

by Seaton. his attempts to

James Sinclair his full

been continuing

complement those

Two new companies George Stewart 1628, (55)

arrived

on his Trafford. may he had


where that (57)

during

1628,

of Captains

and Francis and Trafford's that


Stralsund stated 1628.

The formerts well

Commission

was dated A petition


and that recruits. at

I April

have been similar.


214 men in 100 of these July

from Stewart
been

indicates
to

brought he lost

he had (56)

forwarded Sinclair

fresh ship

Colonel Stewart

he had 185 men on board

Leith

for

on 26 June

Like

the previous Scottish

troops

of Sinclair's in this

they instance

were given Mackay.

Into

the charge of

of another

colonel,

The companies

George Stewart remaining Stewart

and Trafford

were also of Spyniels

strengthened regiment.

by additions

from the

weakened units was settled

The company of George

at Helsingborg on the west Scanian coast across (58) the Sound from Elsinore, and they gained on 3 September thqmen of Alexander Spynie Chirnsidep former off Sinclair Captain taken into the regiment account of

and now paid is

on 8 September. of this soldiers

In this

financial

reference

made to 134 soldiers

company who had been quartered were moved to Lund, of Captain at Stralsund. his men in north George

Trafford near Landskrona. and his (59)and /he Malm6, east of was reinforced Oliphant's Oliphant Scania coopany which was listed had probably

by the remnants been in action

as a Spynie The rank found

commander when he mustered and file themselves troops from the into

in March 1628. and Oliphant

companies yet another

of Chirnside (55) (56) (57) (58) (59)

transferred

RA Copenhagen, TKIA, A. 153/I IIb/23 RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. regnsk. 11,606 RPC 2nd Series, RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit regnsk. IIb/9 RA Copenhageno TKIAtMilit. 1627-9,481; Kancelliets Brevbiger IIb/9 regnsk.

237.

regiment officers the winter Assyntq (George

when they late in

were moved under

the command of Mackay's of Mackay's on Femern island (Sinclair)9 Trafford late

senior

staff

1628.

The distribution three

companies

during

1628/9

was therefore

(Monro of Foulisp in Scania

and Obsdale), Stewart,

one on Langeland

and five

Andrew Stewart,

Eye Mackayt authorities

and Beaton). in December about A general was to be made

Concern was expressed the composition tightening to ensure Scottish

by the Danish

of the Scottish

companies

in Scania.

of discipline that all

was demanded, and strict Irish and Scottish

enquiry troops

English,

were in the the

companies

command of Falk The situation during

while all (60) Lykke. in north

Danes and Germans were to be put under

west Germany had not The four English officers

changed appreciably regiments returned were reduced to England little as

the second half in August, for

of 1628.

to one unit

and the dismissed their pay claims. their

to seek compensation petitions (61) March 1629. Sir 1628 who were intended successq for

They can have achieved as late

supporting Charles

case were submitted commanded lv400 of the garrison

Morgan still

men in October at Glackstadt.

as a reinforcement

There were even vague rumours returning from the abortive

reinforcement of possible (62) La Rochelle expedition. Morgants

from the troops Secretary was is not arrive in there Conway

wrote on 28 October as though (63 ) imminent, but his arrival confirmed in by the GlOckstadt

movement to GlOckstadt at this He did time in

at the German port

provisions-accounts. but his (64 ) troops were not troops

fact

the Elbe on 31 Octoberg till early

disembarked were present

GI*Uckstadt (60) (61) (62) (63) (64)

December.

English

1627-9,600 Kancelliets Brevbjqer PROP State Papers Denmarkt SP 75/10/95,127 PROP State Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/101 PROP State Papers Denmarkt SP 75/9/256 Expedition 'Military Beller, of Morganl,. LHR9 x1iii

(1928)t

536-7

238.

on 11 December objected to

when Wentworth of

sent

a report without

of

the

mutiny

of

soldiers of

who (65) coin. the (66)

an issue day seven

provisions English pay

an accompanying had signed distribution recruited a letter of by the

supply stressing

The previous problems of

officers

inadequate the

and inefficient originally

provisions. Scottish

Few men from

regiments

colonels evidence

appear

to have remained accounts is is

in

GlUckstadt,

at least William

as far Burke

as the (formerly

of these

concerned. there

Captain with

of Nithsdale's 11 August August Semple's remaining Captain 1628,

regiment)

recorded

a company of 211 men on in GlOckstadt Captain on 16 John (67)

but he had only menticn

sixteen is

men left

and no subsequent name remains soldiers in

made of him there. till

the records with

30 November when his for sixteen days.

were issued

seventy (68) in of

supplies

Thomas Beaton's in accordance for

company of 112 men was probably with the arrangements entry for concerning

disbanded the rest

September Spynie's

regiment,

the last

the whole

company is a little

dated

19 September. since further

The officers small issues

appear

to have stayed them till

longert (69)

were made to possibly Scottish

12 December.

Only two commanders with have endured was in at


(65) (66) (67) (6B) (69) (70)

connections 1629. Captain (70)

are known to John Learmonth Also still serving regiment.

there

through

1628 and into

charge

of 199 men at the end of December. were troops under Major

ClOckstadt

Thomas Kelly

of Nithsdalets

PRO, State Papers Denmark9 PRO, State Papers Denmark, RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit.

SP 75/9/337 SP 75/9/335 regnsk. regnsk. regnsk. regnsk. IIb/16/II/257 IIb/16/II/245-6 IIb/16/II/254-6 IIb/16/II/237-44

Map

xil

240.

His roll the turn If at least resistance of service It

showed 216 men in August (71) of the year. peace was not clear in that exactly

16289 but this

had dwindled

to 141 by

assured

in

the last

days of 1629, little

it

was taken

the Danes would Equally for

be able obviously Christian

to offer the really

more than period

the future.

valuable

by Scots

and English

IV of Denmark was terminated. monarch would manage the and endeavouring not provided to pay funds for

remained

to be seen merely of disbanding

how the Danish his mercenaries

awkward problem them after this

an unsuccessful

war which reckoning.

had clearly

moment of financial Little of importance 1629 until

happened to the mercenary

troops

in Danish

service

during

7 Oune M29 when the Peace of LObeck between king was made public. A last attempt however IV in

the Emperor and the Danish to achieve March 1629. west coast land. a minor military

success

had been proposed

by Christian off the

He hoped to seize of Schleswig purpose of Scots

the islands

of Fdr and Sild an assault

and from there

to launch

on the main-

For this

two companies rendezvous winter with

from Glackstadt with Morgan sailed on 10 April of to intention three/Germans. Their was and and German companiesp Mackay's Scottish before which had spent the

the English

in Denmarkq and with the island

regiment.

They managed the

to occupy absence meeting Angeln

of Nordstrand of this

the Peace of LUbeckv but account suggests that no

of any mention

in Monro's force

between the sea-borne (72) took place.

from Glackstadt

and the Scots

in

On 7 June instructions Scots. shipped (71) (72) (73) (74) (73 ) to According 'Angle

were issued

to pay off

many of the remaining had been lv400 (74) men.

to Monro most of Mackay's on 22 Aprilt a total

regiment of over

Islandt

RA Copenhagent TKIAp Milit. IIb/16/II/229-36 regnsk. Beller, Expedition 'Military of Morgqn#q EHRt x1iii Kancelliets 8revbj(qer 1627-9.713-4 Monro, Expedition, 1.85 11

(1928), 538-9

241.1

The companies Stewart

of Forbes

of Tulloch

(led

by Beaton) to lie

and Captain offshore from

Andrew outside

were embarked

on warships

Wismar during record

the peace negotiations. by the

and posted (75 )

These facts

Monro's On 3 March three (at the

are substantiated Scanian

Danish

Chancellery

letters. the

1629 the

Commissaries

were ordered

to assemble Scottish (76)

end of December 1628 there at Malmdt and hold

had been five) for service.

companies Of the

stationed known

them ready

companies

to have been at Malmo during and Andrew Stewart) third but company put no details of served an board the

the winterg on the warships the fleet of his

two (those

of Tulloch (77) The at Wismar in 1629. of Forbes to have been John Lindsay's. the winter are known

appears

location

men during

beyond the

general

area

of Scania. suggests that

The above letter John Lindsay The next was dated readiness

to the Commissaries had also been stationed from

on 3 March 1629 however at Malmo with the Chancellery that (78) Beaton which they

and Andrew Stewart. concerned at the Scots

communication 21 April for (79 )A and

ordered 4 May. directive to the

be gathered that

Malmo in

departure further is

on

Monro stated on 3 May laid

he left the leave south

on 22 April. remaining Malmo in coast

down that should an the all

Scots fourteen

(no clue

given and

identity

of these) to Svendborg stated that

days time (80)

be dispatched Monro however

of Fyen i sland.

Mackay's (81)

men were either the

at Angeln

(1,100 at

men) or an board Malmij in was the part (75) (76) (77) (78) (79) (80) (81)

the warships. from

Thus either regiment or the to

Scots

mentioned since

mid-May were not only known Scottish movement of

Mackay's there) from

(Unlikely transfer

Mackay's formed

unit

to Svendborg peninsula.

of the

troops

Scania

the

Outland

Monro, Expeditionp ig, 85; Kancelliets erevbpfqer 1627-9.714 Kancelliets Bre=vb er 1627-9.650 Copenhagen, TKIAp Milit. Ilb/9 regnsk. Kancelliets Brevbflfger 1627-9.684 Monro, Expedition, i, Itinerary Appendix Kancelliets BrevbXqer 1627-9,693 Monro, Expedition, 1.85

242.

Monro's 'Isle vdj of

itinerary Angle', which th+ainland

appendix and Christian would

indicates IV's to the is named

that letters

Mackay's in June in

regiment 1629 Angeln'. east IV had Angeln. are

sailed dated Angeln and south

to toe

Angeln', is

appear area of

mean lisland Outland that I/el

however of

peninsula

Flensburg. in is thus

The explanation a manorhouse rather June

Christian sited in

situated Monro's

his

headquarters statement

misleading. 1629 was important not only for Europe as

The month

of

indicating Danish

the Peace of Lubeck

but also

for

Scottish

mercenaries only major

in in

service. rank

On 11 June Robert to judge with

Monro apparently of the Skeil Assynt,

substahtive settled behalf Stewart his of

from the warding Commissaries captains,

Danish

reckoning, Krag on George as the

account

Jorgen Foulisq

and Nils Obsdale, as well for

five

of Mackay's

and Lieutenant (82) regimental staff. colonel, nor for

(acting-captain) He did not

Eye Mackay, draw any payment Indeed

the absent Beaton who to men

the men on the warships. soldiers wrote

Captain

commanded the latter prevent with the Major

to the Chancellor for

specifically of these

Monro making any settlement (83) fleet. rionro and the five

the account Scottish free

dismissed with

companies at ports Vrom

were to be shipped Elsinore could his with till Scots

to Copenhagen and provided ships trading with Danzig

quarters Baltic

and other

transport

them from Denmark. after almost three before

Monro retired years with

in grand the colours

style

Danish

service

by dining (84)

the king Naturally

at Frederiksborg enough in troops these

returning

to Elsinore. far-reaching 1629.

circumstances

amalgamations The companies

of (82) (83) (84)

the Scottish

were decreed

in mid-June IIb/9

RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. regnsk. Kencelliets BreVbJqer 1627-9,727 Monro, Expedition, i, 85-86

243.

of John Lindsay, were ordered of Spyniels, It will

William

Burke,

Francis

Trafford

and John Sinclair representing original remnants (85) regiments. from the in Danish the fleet records

to amalgamate, Nithsdalets, that in

a mixed assortment

Sinclairls, Burke's

and Mackay's

be recalled records

company had disappeared mentioned

GlOckstadt again the till

August

1628 and was not the

June 1629. details their

Concerning

companies

an board

following lost

have come to light. when he died

The company of Andrew at Copenhagen from a fever with in

Stewart the third

captain (86) week of May. the soldiers the capital

His company was not Wismar), himself.

him at the time funeral was of the

(presumably arranged planning burger, former latter for in

were based off by the Stadholder

and his

The details Jorgensen,

of the

ceremony were arranged churchverger with dollars fifty rix

by Albrett of the dollars

a Copenhagen The and the captain to

and David Mohr, was recompensed with twenty rix

German Church there. for his expenses

from the money due to the twenty rix dollars of their Seaton,

deceased

past

unpaid widow,

wages. Anna, taken for

A further

were allocated child. The

Stewart's

her upkeep and that by Lieutenant in

company was then control appears

over

Patrick

to have remained of Tulloch of Lieutenant in

the hands of Captain late

but the overall (87) John Lindsay. in 1628 largely Captain In any over the

The company of Forbes thanks Forbes to the efforts does not appear

had been reinforced Beaton and Ensign after

Johnson.

the reckoning

10 March 1629. became major this

case when Robert four that Scottish

Monro was dismissed, still

John Beaton (88)

companies over

in service. companies

Presumably

implied RRd

Beaton took

the four

of Lindsay,

Burkep Sinclair

(85) (86) (87) (88)

Kancelliets Brevbjqer 1627-9,713-4 RA Copenhagen, 1,86; Monrot Expedition, RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. regnsk. IIb/9 Kancelliets BreVb/ger 1627-9,713-4

TKIA,

Milit.

regnsk.

IIb/9

244,

and Trafford

in

addition

to his

own, though

this

is

not

explicitly

stated.

On 26 June a further instructed which to take under

combination his

was ordered

when Beaton was

had arrived of Captain

command the other four Scottish companies (89) from C16ckstadt. Two of these would appear to John Learmonth of Nithsdale's two. and Lieutenant regiment). Robert Crichton (commanding

be those for Major

Thomas Kelly

Conjecture have been the from the of Major

must surround English Gl6ckstadt and time

the identity

of the other Francis

one may well

company of Captain records Captain to refer on the

Hamond which 16 March 1629, (It was not

disappears as those

same day, (90) Learmonth. to strictly

Kelly

uncommon for as 'Scottish').

the Danes by this The other

English

companies

unknown company may have been that seventy man at ClOckstadt force

of Captain

John Semple who still

had

on 30 November 1628. of British troops late in June 1629 numbered that the

Major 1,300 in

Beaton's

all,

but Christian had decided

IV was apparently to honour the terms

satisfied

Imperialists because also

of the LUbeck treaty, the Scots and

he issued

instructions companies struck with still off Scottish

to Nils in

two French

Krag to pay off (91) This service.

was accomplished

by 12 July.

Also

the records

between 11 June and 11 July commands over James Hamilton, (92)

1629 were captains Danish native

names who had been given William Campbell#

companies, David

Thomas Meldrum, Russell,

George Mathieson, The threat Scots the in

Henry Monypenny, thus but

and George Lauder. faced who did many not

of unemployment Denmark during to return

as mercenaries

directly those

June and July

1629,

take

opportunity

home to Scotland,

conveniently

found another

(89) (90) (91) (92)

Kancelliets Brevbdger 1627-9 725 RA Copenhagen# TKIA, Milit. regnsk. Kancelliets 1627-9,727 Bre0jiger RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Milit. regnsk.

IIb/16/II/247-53 IIb/9

245.

paymaster Gustavus many Scots have will true been

proferring Adolphus actually a substantial later in of

the

ever-alluring Danish home at from

rix

dollar give but

for

their

services, of to This how

Sweden. returned

records this time,

no indication there appears service. the

movement the case of

Danish

into regiment,

Swedish but

be seen of other service

Mackay's

same was in two Russell. on his (93)

captains in the

also. latter in

Patrick half Denmark, of

Ruthven's 1629

second at

regiment least

Swedish captains Colonel as unit had

contained

who had served Alexander Leslie (94)

Alexander Ruthven John

Hay and David Leslie Alexander

had John

and George Forbes the of

roll

captains under been in

by 1630, Gustavus Mackay's

and Captain have under captains, this place

Hamilton's who was

may well regiment of

been

one of

John But of

Forbes there

Christian. and probably should even not

though their the

a considerable from Danish in to

movement Swedish

men as well, extent Of the of

service, which took in 1629. five

conceal

wastage sixteen into course

personnel

among captains. in their and 1626, only

original Swedish of

captains service three IV's of in

Mackay's Five

regiment had taken

five in the

moved

passes

these

years, intervention

were in the of

dead, Thirty

one had

been

demoted. been almost Lutter, lines

Christian entirely Oldenburg had entire this and devoid

Years actions and had

Wgr had

success. had

Most been of lost, Stade

the the

major Elbe

(Dessau, defence

and Wolgast) the

Weser fallen,

crumbled, Outland dismal the

garrisons

and Krempe

and the to

peninsula

had been the

overrun. glorious the

Th+nly resistance main Danish

exceptions at Stralsund

sequence of

had been GlOckstadt

retention

and

islands.

Christian's

(93) (94)

KA Stockholm, KA Stockholm,

Rullort Rullor,

1629/14/138-40 1630/35/9,80

246.

negotiators no territory due mainly Danes from

also being to the the

managed ceded policy

to nor of

obtain any the

lenient indemnity

terms being

from

Wallenstain, but to this detach islands but to Stralsund to was the

exacted, keen

Imperialists C16ckstadt Danish did not or

who were

anti-Hapsburg not to

camp. sterling

and the Scottish

Danish opposition attempts the

owed their the seize fact

survival that

Hapsburg places. Nor

strategy GlUckstadt

demand outright besieged to take in the

these

was never hope of the

manner islands to the utilise fact

experienced. without the that a strong fleet

could

Wallenstein Failure

Danish plans for

fleet. for this

Imperialist main reason

Spanish the In

purpose secure the

was the from

islands these

remained circumstances

invasion of

by Wallenstein the Scottish

and Tilly. contribution

importance

to the Danish pective. victories. situations,

phase of the Thirty from Stralsund, their in merits defeat

Years

War can be seen in its did not in share

true

pers-

Apart

the Scots

in stirring negative endurance

Indeed

were displayed at Oldenburg numerical 1626-9

relatively

e. g. valour

or Wolgastq size is

at Stade or GlOckstadt. forces figure sent is

The actual

of the Scottish not certain, troops 7,000. for The but the the

to Denmark during

the period

unlikely do not

to have exceeded appear

10,000.

English more than figures Mansfeld

same period degree from

to have totalled

of importance

to be attached

to these side.

can be gauged commanded 7,000 In the and the It is clear

the size

of armies

on the Danish Christian king could

men at Dessau Bridge, spring Danish that

while

IV had 20tOOO at Lutter. muster 300000 soldiersp was 8,000.

of 1627 the Danish strength

at Oldenburg the Scottish

on 23 September contribution

numerically

to the Danish army is

army was from

considerable.

But the weakness of the Danish

apparent

246.

negotiators no territory due mainly Danes from owed their the seize fact

also

managed to obtain

lenient

terms being

from Wallenstein, exactedv but this was the

being

ceded nor any indemnity of the Imperialists

to the Policy

who were keen to detach and the Danish opposition attempts islands but to

the anti-Hapsburg survival not

camp.

G16ckstadt Danish not

to sterling strategy did

or Scottish

to

that

Hapsburg places.

demand outright besieged in the

these

ClUckstadt

was never

the manner Stralsund Danish islands

experienced. without a strong

Nor could fleet. for this

Wallenstein Failure purpose secure

hope to take of the Imperialist

plans for

to utilise the fact and Tilly. contribution true pers-

the Spanish that

fleet

was the main reason

the islands In these

remained

from invasion

by Wallenstein Scottish

circumstances

the importance

of the

to the Danish pective. victories. situations,

phase of the Thirty from Stralsund, their in merits defeat

Years War can be seen in its the Scots did not in share

Apart

in stirring negative endurance

Indeed

were displayed at Oldenburg numerical 1626-9

relatively

e. g. valour

or Wolgast, size is

at Stade or GlOckstadt. forces figure sent is

The actual

of the Scottish not certain, troops 7pOOO. for The but the the

to Denmark during

the period

unlikely do not

to have exceeded appear

10,000.

English more than figures Mansfeld

same period degree from

to have totalled

of importance

to be attached

to these side.

can be gauged commanded 7,000 In the and the It is clear

the size

of armies

an the Danish Christian king could

men at Dessau Bridge, spring Danish that

while

IV had 20,000 muster

at Lutter.

of 1627 the Danish strength

300000 soldiers, was 8,000.

at Oldenburg the Scottish

on 23 September contribution

numerically

to the Danish army is

army was from

considerable.

But the weakness of the Danish

apparent

247.

its value in

lack of

of the

achievement. Scottish troops

There in

can

be no doubt actions role

that

despite

the units

rearguard positive service

and as reserve for European to

the

islands by the of 1628.

and Scania Scots while

the in

most Danish

history the Stralsund

played action

was confined

248.

CHAPTER TEN

The story Years War is

of Scottish

mercenary than

service that

for

Sweden in

the Thirty for

much more complex regiments

of the service

performed

Denmark. the period Scottish

Scottish 1620-40 officers

contributed

to Swedish successes units were involved. also participated, units led

throughout Numerous and by Scots and

and many different commanding foreign

troops

hence confusion easily alteration the narrative when Gustavus Robertse also king* arises.

between Frequent

Scottish

units

and foreign formation to confuse

amalgamationsg all tend

of new regiments the picture.

of senior

officers with

Nor can

be pursued was killed.

the same certainty

beyond November 1632 Sveriges period, Krig and

The main printed do not extend

sourcesp beyond this

Gustavus

Adolphus, Expedition

and Monro

terminated

his

shortly years to it

after

the death

of the Swedish sources tend

In 1633 and subsequent to refer For these merely reasons

Swedish manuscript and not

increasingly concerned. the history

$Scots' is

to indicate to follow armies general

the regiments in close after survey detail 1632. of between detail cross-

impossible with

of any Scottish

regiment

the field

The method adopted Swedish military history and then

was first as it to trace

to make a brief affected the Scottish

regiments

1624 and 1634, the history

separately

and in considerable a representative Finally

of five

Scottish

regiments

to provide

section

of the service

performed

by the others. concerning

some details of Scots I during

were added from Swedish records 1637-9 before service and the return the final

the service

of some of them to Scotland

between 1638 and 1640, of Scottish

broad assessment the Thirty

was made of the value Years War. mainly

to Sweden during

In 1624 Gustavus

Adolphus

was still

preoccupied

with

the

249.

war against by the Robert Polish

Poland

which in

he was waging 1623 to recruit Swedish

in

Livonia.

He had been disturbed Britain through this by Sigismund

attempt

89000 men in

Stewartp

and the

monarch was prompt

to counter in

effectively ambassador into

by commissioning Spans in 1624.

the raising When Gustavus

of a regiment carried

Britain

the war against

East Prussia

in 1626 further in

demands were made upon his Spans to levy

military British

resourcesq (mainly since helped latter instances garrisoning join the

and early

1627 he authorised This

another

Scottish)

regiment. colonel,

became known as Ramsay's with Spans$ earlier

regimentp unit until the In some e. g.

he was appointed

and along successfully the Truce

the Swedes to campaign were prepared the help Livonian field to sign rendered

against

the Poles late

of Altmark

in 1629. yet valuablev forces

by the Scots

was indirect enabled

towns like

Riga which

other

to

army in East Prussia. Adolphus in was willing to accept the 1629 truce his attention. with Poland The

Gustavus because Stralsund ness of, resistance Gustavus events

Germany increasingly

occupied

episode

in 1628 had demonstrated

the need forp of Danish

and the effectivemilitary convinced champion. accounts in

Swedish intervention, In 1629, that

and the collapse

marked finally

by the Peace of LUbeckf

he would to invade recruiting

have to assume the mantle Germany in mission Hamilton's

of Protestant This

He determined for the third

the summer of 1630.

of Spans to Britain and Meldrum's Monro for

which regiments Mackay's

resulted in

the levying and also regiment majority in

of Alexander

Britain,

explains just

the contract

made with

Scottish the duties in

discharged Scottish

from Danish companies

service. performed Baltic, plans

Though at first merely garrison

of these

the Swedish-hold

towns of the eastern ambitious

Gustavus'

arrival

northern

Germany in 1630 and his

in 1631 led

to many of

250

the

Scots

being

transferred advance After his

to central to the Rhine death

Germany and joining and into southern

the king Germany in few

an his

triumphant

1631 and 1632. spectacular battle Scots garrison

in 1632 however they any of the Scottish

experienced

successes. in

Hardly

companies

at the

of N5rdlingen tended to find

1634 appear

to have survived, to the

and the remaining role of

themselves

reverting

familiar

troops.

251.

(a)

Spens, Before

regiment 1600 service there with century. and especially Russia was not Sweden a strong but this like tradition developed Patrick Cockburn period of enlistment in by Scottish the Lesliet in the

troops early David Swedish Gdov, evidence

for

extensively Ruthvenp

seventeenth Drummond, campaigns Nerve of

Scats

Alexander parts

Samuel in

had played 1614-16 There being is

against

the

around however

Novgorodp little though Scottish John Hay,

and Pskov entirely predominantly

on the Scottish

Estonian regiments unit

border. as such contained appear to

involved,

Cockburn's (') minority. Balfour, Patrick Robert Stewart, Wallace. four at

English

a substantial have Robert been

The

following Crawfordq James Andrew

captains John

Scottisht John

Alexander Learmonth, Rutherfordq John (2)

Cunninghamq Daniel

Douglast

Ramsayq Sinclair, Gilbert Seaton

Hepburnp Stewartp John in the

Patrick John

Rutherfordp Stewartp William

Andrew Wauchopep appeared

Sutherland, Colonel totalling these hostilities there for James

Wauchope, Swedish

and Robert army lists and when the with

companies least 750 of resumed

over participated

1,000

men an 15 September in the 1624. the siege in of Riga

1618, in (4)

(3)

1621

Swedes was still

against in June the

Poles (5)

Livonia.

The unit

stationed

Of more 1623 of Robert

importance Stewart from

future 89000

was the Scots for to

fact Polish

that

rumours

in

raising Gustavus (6 )

service

broughta requesting at firstp men

vigorous him but to

response prevent this

who wrote No such Sir

James

I urgently was given

levying.

assurance to

Gustavus

had also

authorised

James Spens

raise

19200

in (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Scotland Sveriqes Sveriges Uppgifter

for

Swedish servicet

and this

was not

hindered

by the

1,586 Krig, Krig, it 617-31 rprande svenska

kriqsmaqtens

(ed. 0. Mankellp styrka Stockholm 1865), 35

11,566-7 Sveriges Krig, Uppqifter, 55 364 RPC Ist Seriesp xiii,

252.

government a licence

in

Britain.

The Scottish

Privy (7)

Council and its

itsued English

Spens with counterpart

to recruit

on 30 March 1624,

gave permission levy for

to James Ramsay and William for the for same regiment. the Stockholm a total

men in England the strength

1624 to Spens on 16 April (8) time was wasted# Little

returns

companies companies credited same is Colonel early though which unit,

of Spens'

regiment,

five list June 21 on area (9) these Three 912 of men. of Colonel Scottish Spens himself is

are known from the muster with 174 soldiers, of the 174 listed this all

rolls.

apparently for Captain only

in name, and the Lieutenantthe companiest companies

true

James Lumsden. five

James Ramsay had at arrivals not for his

time (10)

meng obviously alongside these

company. part

Recorded

apparently

of the same regimentt

are two other for

seem to have been reinforcements ninety led nine Scots for

from Scotland

James Se6tohIs and

Lieutenant-Colonel

George Cunninghamv

165 Scots

by Captain (") During was taking

William

Gordon who were mustered twelve only

at Gothenburg of also

an 4 May 1624. Scottish across troops the

the next place not

months transportation across Sea;ton's the North

Sea but led by

Baltic Leslie

from Stockholm and Thomas Kerr by Spans, troops

to Riga.

companies

Alexander

were moved to Livonia before the spring

on 11 May 1624 of 1625. first

(12)

and were followed Gustavus


of This to 1626 in

Adolphus'

aim in
secure

the campaign
his grip

of 1625 and the


and the

months

Livonia

was to

on Riga and also of Riga.

DUna valley. the key towns

involved the south

pressing east in this within

eastwards striking Three

upstream distance further

seizing Spans' to

men were his

instruments

policy.

companies

complete

(7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

478 RPC Ist Seriesq xiiiq APC June 1623-Mar. 16259 204 Sverigas Krigp 11,570-1 1624/8/6899,695p KA Stockholmq Rullorp 1624/8/691-3 KA Stockholm, Rullor, 2 iip 585 footnote Sveriges Krig,

697

Map

xiii

254.

regiment the

were billeted

near

Stockholm

in June 1625 while in Stockholm'.

several

of

officers troops

are recorded (Scots)

as 'absent

Captain

Robert

Scott's

were at Uppsala

on 1 Ounep Henry Muschamp's Ogilvy's fifty miles company (Scots) of the

men (English) at Sigtuna Swedish to the Spens' at least

at Enk6ping three

on 31 Mayo and Patrick places lying within

on 3 June, (13 ) capital. front

These units shortly eight

however must have been transferred for in the fighting of 1,336 in July men of whom

Livonian regiment

afterwardsp companiest

comprised appear

two thirds

a total (14) to have been Scots. the northern had seized

The whole regiment

marched east Muhlgrabenq Captain formed

on 5 July

along

bank of the D6na from the bridge at Keggum. (15)

and one weak later was put

Ogilvy part

in charge

of the 150 musketeers

who an 12 July

town of Kokenhusen just to defend the vital of the garrison (15) from the Poles. Half of the regiment was detached to captured (17) Radziwiliszki on 27 August, and four companies were in Birze in (18) Septembert one of which is known to have been that of James Lumsden. Control of Ogilvy's men was taken (19) Andrew Beaton. in over in this month by the major also shared of

the regiment, important

Spens,

regiment

in the

march early at Wallhof, since

1626 which

ended in

the decisive claims

victory the

on 7 January role

but no extravagant they appear

can be made for en routs at west.

of the Scots

to have been left quick thrust for

Kokenhusen while This the the (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) proved kingt

the king

made his turning with

to the south history

(20)

to be a minor

point his

European

because discontinued his next

apparently

content

successes

in Livoniaq

hostilities

in this

area and returned

to Stockholm

to plan

KA Stockholmo Rulloro 1625/3/128t 136p 141 KA Stockholml 1625/3/92-141 Rullort Sveriges Kring 11,183 Sverines Krig, 11,186 Sveriges KS12,11,200 KA Stockholmp Rullor, Kri t iip 203; -Sverines 1625/5/645 KA Stockholmt Rullor, Sverines Kriq, t 11,224

1625/5/633

255.

imaginative of men in listed the

strokev Spens'

the

switch

of the war to East Prussia.

The total

fit for duty at Riga on'29 March 1626 was regiment (21) in Four companies of the unit at least were still as 929. 1626t and some of the troops while others were permitted at Wenden. regiTent leave (22)

same area in August Kokenhusen the next but

to visit

and Mitau few years

were stationed location changes

During varied littler

the actual

of Spens' in

there

were considerable Sir

the command like James

personnel

of the unit.

James Ramsay and other

captains

Lumsden were called recruited but Mankell regiments. credited

upon to assume greater No muster rolls exist

responsibilities for Spens' in force

in newly regiment for 1627,

758 men in (24) 612p still their captain Colonel posts,

Spens with eight (23) January. By September at Riga and with while in other

companies 1628 the

Livonia

numbering to

had dwindled captains holding place

some of the

former

companies

promotions

had taken

to

from lieutenant

or ensign. William

The company officers Spens, and Captains

were LieutenantWilliam Douglast

James Lumsdang Major Traill

Henry Muschampp Patrick with fresh companies and William as follows, all in

and Andrew Beaton.

Four new captains

Borthwick quartered three

had appeared, James Dicksong Andrew Bruce, William (25) On I January 1629 Spens' unit was Monypenny. six companies at Wendeng two at Ronneburg, and (26) Most of the east of Riga. region during for yearg (27) June 1630. Scots this available reason that the next because

at Burtneck, was still

to the north the Livonian

regiment eight

companies The truce

numbering with if

745 men were noted

the Poles required.

in 1629 made Spenst It was perhaps for

for

service (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27)

elsewhere

63 Uppgifter, 1626/3/150-74 KA Stockholmg Rullor, Uppqifter, 68 Uppgifterg 88 1628/22/81-112 Rullor, KA Stockholmt 91 Uppgifter, 111,569 sveriqes Kriq,

256.

Henry Muschamp and William to recruit. the Privy

Douglas

had been allowed to levy

back to England

They were granted Council of England

licences

an 24 September mentioned

150 soldiers each by (28) 1629. These must at Ggvle (Hudiksvall)

surely on the

have been the companies Swedish mainland strength in

as being

combined the king's 1630 of

the spring of 1630. Mankell recorded their (29) When Spens' companies were included as 200. with force bound for Germany# the estimates in May

expeditionary

the strengths of these two companies combined range between 158 (30) that the levying and 172, suggesting of Muschamp and Douglas had not been too successful in England. These troops were recorded as being Mackay's has

an route regiment

from Sweden on 10 July, at the beginning to confirm

alongside and were at Stettin (31) No exact statement of September. the precise but it is date of the return that

been discovered of Spans' Colonel Pomerania

of the bulk

regiment

from Riga,

certain

when Lieutenantit into

James Lumsden, in it was no earlier

virtual than

command of the unit brought (32) the end of October 1630. in 1630 and subsequent gave his part

Identification is complicated

of Spens' by the fact that

regiment

years

Spans also in the later

name to a new, the

predominantly written records

English, of the

regiment following

of 16299 and thus two regiments called the

years

contained

attributed $Scottish'

to Spans. and 'English$ convenience. Englishmen, former (28) (29) (30) (31) (32)

They were normally regiments The latter but was for

distinguished but

by being these

respectively, was certainly a time

were merely

names of of the troops.

composed almost earl

entirely of Crawford;

commanded by the a considerable

however also

contained

proportion

of English

APC May 1629-May 1630t 140 Uppqifter, 96 Sverines Krig, 111,576 iiit Sveriqes Kriq, 5809 582-3 iii, Sveriges Kriq, 386

257.

Spans' 1625-30 various large led

IScottishl its

regiment experience

after

its

long

spell

of duty

around in

Riga

broadened parts

by spending

the next all

few years of 1631,

of Germany.

For the rest belonged it

of 1630t

and a field army

part

of 1632 the regiment himself, The unit

to the main Swedish in the epic

by the king Germany.

and thus mustered

shared

march of Gustavus Pomerania in 830

through

684 men at Damm in nine companies

December 1630, men at Pasewalk other units

(33)

and was listed

on 7 March 1631.

with (34)

numbering

These soldiers

to form the Scottish role under their

brigade

were combined with (35) at Schwedtp and took a

prominent leader leading recorded

regimental

commander Lumsden and the brigade in April, Muschamp was

Hepburn in

the storming

of Frankfort-on-Oder The strength

a group of vital

On 1 May they were stationed at at approximately (37) troops was given at Potsdam Kgpenick, number of effective and their (38) to 608 had risen slightly This figure on 10 May 1631 as 587. fortified camp posts in Gustavus' when in July these man took up their (39) into Saxony the the they Werben. There march and until remained at consequent battle at Braitenfeld on 7 September. William of Colonel Lumsden, present,

musketeers. (36) 600.

of the regiment

Lieutenant-Colonel

Muschamp and Major

Monypenny were all

and Lumsdan and Muschamp were in On 23 September of the year the regiment

the course

had reached

Erfurtl

the struggle wounded. (41) and by the close at the crossing of

had been in action

at W6rzburg

and also

the Rhine at Oppenheim along with fellow-Scots of the Ramsay and Mackay (42) As part of this Rhineland Army on 31 December 1631 Spens' regiments. (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) (42)

Sveriqes Kriq, 111,499 Sveriges Krig,, ivp 540-2 iiv 25 Monro, Expedition, 118 Uppgifter, Sveriges Krig, iv, 223 llb Uppqifter, iv, 388 Sveriges Kriq, 66-67 iit Monro, Expedition, Uppqifter, 122 iiI 93 Monro, Expedition,

258.

force

was assessed The exact date

as 584 strong.

(43) his connection with Spens' Swedish

when Lumsden severed Lumsden's

regiment records in

is

not

known.

name continues

to be shown in

this unit until alongside as late as the battle of Alte Feste (44 ) August 1632, but this is probably because his name was one of which of the two Spens regiments had been recruited in in was meant. for The

the methods used to indicats According

to Monro a new regiment

Scotland (45)

Lumsden and crossed only Privy that recruiting Council the year

to the Continent for is

the autumn of 1631. in the Register (46) It

licence of Scotland at least is

Lumsden recorded dated 26 April

of the

1632.

seems certain unless unit. but Monro The this

incorrect the date early

and should

read 1631t of this

himself location

was mistaken of this

about

of the arrival

new unit which

in 1632 has not from Dalkeith former

been recordedq joined

was the regiment recruit

James Turner Stewart, (47 )

as a young regiment, forces

and of which

Robert

captain

in Meldrum's as garrison

became lieutenant-colonel. in the period

Lumsden1s troops'acted 1632 in the north

October-November

Horneburg, In 1633 his Hamelin took part

Verden,

Bremen, Rotenburg were stationed Rinteln,

west German towns of (48) and Stade in Lower Saxony. further south in strongholds near and himself

companies

on the Weser, in the siege south

Pyrmontj (49)

Bevergen On 17 July

and Oldendorf, 1633'Lumsdan

of Hamelin. at Kassel. losses

was even further complaining to support dollars (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50)

From there which

he wrote

to Oxenstierna unable

of his his wife

financial

had left

him almost

and children.

He reckoned (50)

he was owed 59000 rix of the

by the Swedish authorities.

In 1634 the regiments

Uppgifter, 124 Sverines Krin, vi, 199 Monro, Expedition, 11,102 RPC 2nd Series, iv, 483 Monro, Expedition, 11,102 Sveriqes Kriq, vi, 480 167,189 -Uppqifter, RA Stockholmq Oxenstierna Samling

(to

A. 0.1633)

259.

English which in

colonel arrived at (51)

Aston

and

Lumsden too

were to

reduced take

to part

two in

companies the battle governor as leaving in a letter armyt there of

Nbrdlingen By 1635

late

September.

however in

he had been from (52 )

appointed Saner had the

CsnabrOck, Swedish to but

and he was noted service as late in February in as

a letter

Johan Lumsden from

5 May 1639. sought in his June.

Oxenstierna he was still

release (53)

Swedish

CsnabrOck

It

seems likely

that regim3nt

it

was not devolved

later

than

the spring

of 1632 that it the to

command of Spens' was under Swedish his

upon Henry Muschemp, and that of this unit accompanied

leadership

that

the troops

monarch on his sweep into south (54) Donauwdrth. By June they had penetrated Muschamp's men slept palace at Munich alongside Mackay's

Germany from Aschaffenburg to FOrth, in the (55) and court of the

great

to guard Gustavus after the expulsion of Maximilian (56) from his own capital. At Alto Fasts in August the regimental roll (57) had shrunk to 500. for the unit in Only one muster roll exists 1632. It contains no location or monthg but it The three is senior placed in the in

Krigsarkivet the regiment

volume for are there

June 1632. attributed

command posts

to James Spens, appear

Henry Muschamp and from the

William

Monypennyq and the captains of 16289 David

to be drawn mainly Traillp is

company officers

Ramsayq Patrick Captain Traill

James Dickson, known to have been (58) Like many

Andrew Lumsdan and Henry Primrose. shot through the throat units during Spens'

the Alta regiment

Feste after

struggle. battle

of the Scottish

this for

was detached

from the main field


51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 5B)

army intended

eventually

Saxonyg and was detailed

Fischert Scots in Germanyt 113 RA Stockholmv Lumsdain Biographicsp RA Stockholm, Samling*(to Oxenstierna Sveri2es Kriq,, v. 498 Sverigas 138 Kriq, vi, Monro, 126 iit Expedition, Sverines 199 Krig, vi, 150 Monro, iig Expedition,

A. D.

1639)

260.

to become part Patrick time to Ruthven

of Palsgrave and Robert

Christian's Monro. (59) All

army in of these troops

Swabia along Scottish thus lost

with at this

forces

were reported at LUtzen favour for

as tweakl. in

Spans'

the opportunity due

fight

November.

Some of the officers

were promoted

to Ruthven's about 416 of total

despite

the dispute

between Muschamp and Ruthven late in the year. Only

precedence

the attack

on Landsbarg

the regiment was only

remained on 8 September 1632 and by December the (60) 350. James Spans died late in 1632 and Major William to Lieutenant-Colonel between Spans and this was losing to muster under its three with unit Robert Leslie's regiment* (61)

Spans had been raised Thus the connection period (since six

was broken

at the very regiment

when the regiment it was impossible were listed

claim full

to be an effective companies).

Nevertheless an

companies

Muschamp's command in

the Rhineland

1 December 16339 and these companies, reckoned as 600 men, were operating (62) in Swabia in 1634. to Sir Thomas Roe from John Durie reported Frankfort had both on 8 September been killed in 1634 that the battle Colonel Muschamp and his It therep (63) is for brother that 200

at Nbrdlingen. the same fate Brigade.

likely barely

many of Spenst man were left

regiment

suffered

of the entire

Scottish

(59) (60) (61) (62) (63)

Monro,, Expedition, 11,159 Uppqifter, 152,, 168 1631/22/15 KA Stockholm, Rullorp Uppgifter, 185,195 1634-5,, CSP Domestic 204

261.

(b)

Ramsayls Almost

regiment contemporaneous The Swedish III with king's Spans' decision upon Scottish in regiment 1626 to was that his of

James pressure on the already Spans

Ramsay.

intensify

on Sigismund recruiting being was called of made in upon

by a descent in

Prussia Despite by captains

had repercussions the in to demands Danish raise pay, another was troops, (64)

mercenaries Scotland once he did in again not

Britain.

and England to exert

his

influence

regiment. issued but from the

Once more on Spans$ commander were

disappoint

Gustavus.

The licence 1627 for 1,200

behalf in fact

Scotland was to to

on 13 February be James Ramsay. in that faced Sweden 100 or with in ... at

The first the end of of them

transports May were of Kings problem. will were were

Scotland

expected it

arrive

carrying under-age.

500 men but (65)

was reported IV had been informed that through ar

more the

Christian Galbraith

same kind #the

Quartermaster haue none to

Nithsdale to younge

1627 (66) I*

that

passe

mustir

The troops There they

marched mustered

from

Gothenburg Palsgrave

36nk6ping issued off

to

Kalmar. with

by the

on 9 July, and shipped

weapons

made in they arrived

bstergbtland on 23 July in Sweden at

and Sm: land, Elbing.

to

Prussia from

where

Two further and other

companies ships rolls were for

Britain be ready

had arrived to have sail from

by 18 July, Unfortunately but a colonel's

said the

to

Scotland. for 1627,

no muster commission (67) In two

regiment

survived

was drawn this area of

up for the years. too late

James Ramsay at eastern Baltic his

Elbing

on 16 October to remain for

1627. the to it

men were

next have is

and a half completed listed

The regiment Dirschau sick) in in August,

seems for (68)

been

to

fight (937 fitq

at 86 in

first

as a full spent the

unit winter

September.

Ramsay's

soldiers

1627/8

(64) (65) (66 ) (67) (68)

RPC 2nd Seriasp ip 523-4 117 AOSB: 2nd Seriesp iiip iip 104 Fraser, Carlaverockp iip 327-8 Sverige Krig, uppgift! rp 75

262

Fischhause i Wofiram

ppi eII Bae-

lVirbigsberg

jDanzig

)Braunsberg

1, * Dirschau. go
0

4 vp cl, Marienburg a r! 8n

OEIbing
Wormclitt *Holland

Saalfeld

Marienwerder

IIIIIIS.

01
Graudenz

OuK

scale

-0

I10
I

3 OYM iIes

wI

Map

xiv

BOHNHOLM

undTroptuvv

Rgenwalde o1bg erg


Butow Elbing

eschivelbt'in

Stott!

fFrankfort

00C

it n. =j
Map xv

50

14( M.

scale

Iloomiles

263.

Elbing, having probably Colonel

(69 ) left

on 30 June 1628 were at Dirschau over (70 ) 150 men sick in Elbing. The additional by Sir William Lawson. Robert Robert Francis Colonel

but

1,100

strong, were

troops

brought

Ramsay, Lieutenantcommanded English John Bothwell, Sir William Lawson The Falconer's

George Douglas, whereas those

and Captain of Captains

Douglas Lesliet Cockburnt entirely

companiesq William

Douglast

James Ballantyne,

of Boghallq proportions men balance

and Alexander of Scottish fairly

Hannay were almost

Scottish. William

and English names among Captain (71) over the whole regiment evenly. to have been in why the regiment it the region was often

the approximate

number of Scats 350. Hence it

appears is clear

of 900 and of English referred English to as Ramsay's unit of south returned All and

'Scottish Sir

Regiment'

to distinguish Fair. '

from the later

James Ramsay 'the to guard

In August

1628 Ramsay was ordered Lawson apparently took place.

to Graudenz to Scotland

the Mockrau road.

(72 )

and a reorganisation Douglas# companies

of the companies into

Lieutenant-Colonel Captain Scottish Lawson's replaced rolls Cockburn's composition)t company. by Major

men were absorbed (which

the colonel's roll

gave the latter's

an Anglofor

and the lieutenant-colonel Falconer disappeared

became responsible from the listst in

Captain

and was the (73) own.

John Leslie, staff

who had been listed but never before with

previously

of the regimental

a company of his to winter

By December 1628 when the regiment q; iarters in Elbing Major Leslie

had once more returned Falconer's

had handed over were still

men to Captain but of

John Henderson. these

Over 19250 troops (74)

listed

as presentq

231 were sick. While

Mackay and the Scots regiment

in Danish

service

were relatively to share in the

'inactive Swedish

early
(69) (70) (71) (72)

in 1629p Ramsay's
Krig, _Sveriges KA Stockholmp KA Stockholmp Sveriqes Kriq,

was privileged

11,371 1628/10/252-84 Rullor, 1629/5/289-308 Rullor, iir 416

(73) (74)

1628/11/283 KA Stockholmp Rullor, 11,578-9 Sverigas Krig,

264.

victory triumph hastened soldiers later in in

at Gorzno in February. as Dirschau the Polish could

(75 )

Though not for

such a decisive effectively Ramsay's

in 1627 this readiness for

success genuine

Gustavus

peace negotiations. met Mackay's

now talk

of Gorzno when they for stories

veterans at Stralsund with 165

the year In late

in exchange April

of Monro valour

1628.

and early

May 1629 Ramsay was credited in various over towns in East fifty in

only in

860 man who were scattered almost still 100 in

Prussia,

Saalfeld,

Holland,

'Ko*nigsbergp in Elbing.

though (76) (77)

most of

the rest

appear

to have been stationed in

The following In uly at

month they sixty

were concentrated at

the area of Marienwerder. (probably Montauer Spitz

at least

were posted into

'Montaut

the division muster

of the Vistula 544 fit soldiers

Vistula

and Nogat rivers)p besides

could

at Marienburg of Altmark regiment The unit influx

while he (78) the 146 sick. 1629 led to

- The conclusion less role region enabled active service

of the Truce for Ramsay's force.

on 16 September in East Prussia remained of troops in

and to the the eastern in Baltic 1629

of a mere garrisoning in 1630 and the

substantial

from Britain force

the Swedes to move some companies John Bothwell's remained

of Ramsay's

up to Memel were

where Major based. instructed 3 April agreement badly

and the colonel's

companies

at least

Others

at Fischhausen his regiment,

and Pillau. but his report

Colonel

Ramsay was

to strengthen 1630 reveals with

from Memel on He had reached but they were so

the difficulties for 100 twell

he experienced. clothed that sogers' 'be this the Scotts

a captain

treated

by the Swedish paymasters ther

kynd of dealling hath a gryt (79) ' deall

sum runaway and informed worser (75) (76) (771 (78) (79)RA quarters then

commerads that which doeth

the Dutches

me mutch hinder.

iiq 448 Sveriqes Krig, 1629/9/271-87 KA Stockholmp Rullor# 1629/10/339-55 KA Stockholm, Rullorl, Uffnifter, 93 Samling (to Oxenstierna Stockholm,

A. 0.1630)

265.

Though Ramsay's the colonel

company remained was at

at Memel for

the rest 1630.

himself

Stralsund

on 2 October

of the year, (8(3)

In 1630 some of the


remained, Captains Cockburn Robert though company 25 strong. muster Scotland total roll Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander no longer Douglas. Hennsyq

original

company commanders of the regiment


Douglas# Douglas lists Major John Bothwell, and Francis by another this regiment, Ballantyne's only the in The 1630 was in to the the

George William in the

and Robert and had been

Douglas. replaced with

appeared Nor

was John the

Henderson

still

mentioned of 1632. of

he may have was still This as

been

Colonel but

Henderson

Captain mention recorded purpose 1630. (Bl)

recorded, captain #absent in

was hardly of but old the

worthy

being in

and several Scotland', in the

men were their in of

whatever companies last day did

no new man appeared of the

complement (82) By this 649. rolls and his

regiment Captain Patrick was the

on the William Sydserf Captain roll Robert of (83)

the not

year figure

time

Douglas

lieutenant Also missing England.

had been Robert records Leslie his

promoted

captaincy. a company

Douglas

who had brought detail with Major than the that

from

The muster 1629 squadron company.

no further was credited which force

he was dead. rank John of colonel

From September of a small his

own to

Leslie

had added

The year service half than

1631 was to provide 1630, but this

Ramsay's men with immediately remained

much more varied In the first a

was not

apparent.

of the ymar the regimental at KBnigsbargp

location

much as beforev

few soldiers Haff, spent (80) (81) (82) (B3) (84)

and the colonelts these early

one company at Fischhausen on the Frisches (84) Ramsay's men at Memel. company still May in East Prussia, securing the

months of 1631 till

RA Stockholm, Bialke KA Stockholm, Rullor, UPP2ifter, 110 KA Stockholmv Rullor, KA Stockholmq Rullor,

Samling, Gustav Horns Papper 1630/23/228-42 1629/16/145-7 1631/12/11D-23,1631/15/21D-24

266.

eastern

flank

of Gustavus' area

strategic

position

and thus

outwith

the

main campaign Oxenstierna

of Germany. to the year king

But changes were imminent. on 17 January with 1631 that

Chancellor he had in the Douglas to

reported

autumn of the previous return to Scotland

arranged

Lieutenant-Colonel to forward him with at his 2,000

and Douglas

had promised had issued

own expense rix dollars in

500 men.

The Chancellor

in return

and had promised (85) the spring. for a good captain

to pay muster-money Oxenstierna with had also

when the new recruits decided that

appeared demand

the kinges

500 or 600 men at Kolberg regimentt and he intended to the same port

on the Pomeranian to instruct the

coast

be met by Ramsay and his officials expected

at the Sound to direct to arrive

the new recruits Douglas. off (86)

at any moment with wrote

Lieutenant-Colonel that he had sent left

On 16 April his in regiment Kolberg

1631 the Chancellor to Kolberg. (87 )

Ramsay with men

Ramsay had already with

200 of his

and had marched to Stettin to join Horn's

where he was directed appeared Scrymgeour This that is from Britain

300 musketeers on 22 May 1631 (88) The new arrivals army. which Scots led under Captain William

were three

companiest and English

and John Kinninmonthp by Douglas'

by Nicholas

Mine.

confirmed

letter

from London on 20 March 1631 stating out with for levies Prussia and that (69) day with had

Captain

Nicholas would

Mine was setting follow shortly

Douglas

himself

from Scotland. that

On 22 May 1631 Ramsay informed received his word from Douglas for Kolberg

Horn from Stettin intention

he had that Scotland Douglas

of his

recruits

during

of leaving (90) the month of May.

for the strength been almost as good as his promiset of this (91) Garrisoning of Kolbarg was part of the general was 450. (85) (86) (87) (88) (69) (90) (91) AOSB lst Seriesp vi, 58 T= Ist Seriesq vi, 192 AOSB Ist Series, vi, 246RA Stockholmv Bielke Samlingg Gustaf Horns Pepper RA Stockholmp OxenStierna Samling (to A. C. 1631) RA Stockholmo Oxenstierna Samling (to A. C. 1631) Sverines Kriqt iv, 460

force

267.

policy

Gustavus

had urged

upon Oxenstiernat left

replacing

with

new levies field was a undertaken

the gaps in Prussia armies minor during for aspect 1631. The main section further followed focused regiment manpower.

and Pomerania

by the demands made by the companies to Kolberg troops

The movement of these reorganisation

of the broad

of garrisoning

of Ramsayls

regiment

however was transferred which almost

again,

west to the centre the location in the late

of martial

activity presence

invariably and this Elba. was The 1630. (92)

of the dynamic

of Gustavust

summer and autumn of 1631 on the middle for this field troops army as early which

had been earmarked part

as 12 April

Ramsay's men formed camp near KGstrin with the king

of the 6,500

marched out of Schaumburg

on the Oder on 25 July to move via Cottbus to rendezvous (93) In this army they accompanied Gustavus on the Elbe. to the battleground in particular squadrons of Braitenfeld distinguished on 7 September themselves in 1631.

to DOben and then

Here Ramsayla musketeers support of the cavalry

on the left

wing of the Swedish army.

Monro described the vanguard

Ramsay as the eldest colonel who therefore commanded (94) Thus at last Ramsay's regiment gained a major there. The strength it of the eight was only 470. companies (95) at D6ben totalled

battle-honour. 566,

but at Breitenfeld On 8 October

1631 Ramsay's
in the the which

troops
of

gave ample evidence


the episcopal castle

of their
of Marienberg the a Some ofthe bridge

valour opposite central single Scats

by their Warzburg arch plank accepted of

share

capture Main.

across the six the

The Imperialists the feet to bridge above struggle

had destroyed and left the only

supported fifty

across the

gap almost

water. the

challenge

and managed

across

(92) (93) (94) (95)

UPPqifter, 98 Sveriges Krig, iv, Monrot Ex-pediiion, Sveriqes Krig, iv,

390 11,64 453p 483

268

scaleol of

180Km.
150miles

Koblenz

har.

-!ch

Frankfort

Hanau
Bingen

-9

Mainz-v-

rOppernIh Riisselheim f Gemlinden schaffenburg . , a Urn Stockstadt o 1

*I<reuznach
Sobernheirn

Mrs orms Lalserslautern kent haI

WUrzburg " rg
Ochsenfurto

Heidelberg
Speyer,

11A -p 'A

Heilbronn

Stuttgart,

Map

xvi

269.

while

others

took under

to boats these

and crossed

the river

under

fire.

Not Colonel

surprisingly Ramsay himself along both valiant with killed

conditions in the left (96) possibly

losses

were incurred. Major

was shot twin

arm, and his his

John Bothwell were

his

brother, buried honour

Lieutenant

Adam Bothwell# But despite this

and later the

in W6rzburg Church. of taking the castle

service

by storm

was finally

awarded to the Swedes and Germansq much to the disgust (97) commanders. During 300 of his the royal the march down the Main Ramsay's musketeers artillery led train by Alexander down-river. just south cavalry Scots

of the Scottish

were again

prominent.

Hannay were ordered to escort (98) In December at the crossing of Oppenheim Ramsay's and were the writers in first troops the

of the Rhine at Stockstadt resisted walls the attack of Oppenheim.

of Spanish

to storm

Two contemporary views

the vicinity

have given confronting of the that the

somewhat conflicting Ramsay's castle garrison entering unit veterans

of the calibre Monro extolled

of the opposition the heroic storming

there. (99)

by the Scots, of Italians

whereas little

Grubbs gave the impression resistancesome fleeing

offered (100) Swedish Service.

and others of Ramsay's

as part

On 31 December 1631 the strength (101) 370. listed the Rhine as was army of concerning Ramsayls regiment 1632 his part in are much less clear

The details

in

1632 and later years. (102) Rhine, and played the Nahe river was besieged town taken Douglas
Ybi 97
(98) (99) (1100) (101) (102) (103)

In January a valuable

men occupied the capture

Bingen

on the on

of Krauznach

in the northern an 18 Februaryp

area of the Lower Palatinate. the walls day. breached two days latert

Kreuznach and the

by storm

the

following

commanded here during

that George one source states (103 ) but this does not Ramsay's illness,
(to A. 0.1631)

HA Stockholm Samling xenstierna Monro# Exped1tion, 11,79-82


Monrot Monrop Sveriqes Uppqifter, Monro, Svensk Expediti6n, Expedition, Krint v, 124 Expedition, Biografisk 11,68 11,93 103 11,97 Lexicon, xi,

369-71;

Sveriges

Kriq

v,

282

270.

appear, to be borne apparently Kreuznach letters a cousin

out

by the

of Sir

Alexander Ramsayp mentioned below. (104) James Ramsayy acted as Governor of letters 1632p for those of the twenty of Kreuznach. for grenadesp lead five

between 2 March and 5 July during this time

he dated

bore the contain

location requests

Though some of these and matchq the purpose of information R-amsay frequently to-day Moselle. Sobernheim, Kirchberg Alexander arrival shortly progress

letters

of most of these concerning his scouts

communications

was the transfer

to Oxenstierna mentioned

the movements of the enemy. and spies who reported crossed the daythe at Triert

of the Spanish

particularly attention

where they

He drew the Chancellor's Trarbachl which Kaiserslauternj a few miles

to enemy activity Speyert

Frankenthal, from Kreuznach. to be relieved

and especially however the

was only that

On 5 July

Ramsay said of Colonel afterwards,

he expected It

soon through this took place

Ramsay.

must be presumed that AlexandelRamsay

because though during these

had written no further

frequently letters will

to the Chancellor were forthcoming be noted after his

few months at Kreuznach 5 July 1632.

from him after

On the other of having held

hand it

below that injury

James Ramsay complained which for leaves

no command

at Warzburg,

the question

of the identity unsolved.

of the commander in Kreuznach Sir during James Ramsay himself the first half

the second half

of 1632 still

appears

to have remained from He wrote letter

in Franconia his regiment

of the yearg

prevented

Joining letters

by the wound he had received on 30 April and 1 June, that

at WOrzburg.

from WOrzburg

but Alexander

Ramsay's

abovep suggests

James Ramsay left also gave evidence

of 5 Oulyp noted (105) WOrzburg in July 1632. of their of courage and daring they in scaled Rhine

Ramsay's Scots January with (104) (105) 1632 by their

attack

on the walls

'Shaulel

which

ladders.

No town of this Oxenstierna Oxenstierna

name can be identified Samling Samling (to (to

in the middle

RA Stockholmt RA Stockholmt

A. D. 1632) A. D. 1632)

271.

areaq

but the

location

might

possibly

be Zell

an the Moselle. to major long and

Prisoners after

were taken

by Alexander Bothwell,

Hannay who had been promoted but Hannay did (106) continued from to protect the threat throughout both for not survive

the death victim

of Major

soon fell During western

to a fatal

oconsumptionl.

the rest

of 1632 Ramsayls strategic

troops position

this posed

flank

of the Swedish

by the Spanish. rest

Four Ramsay companies and four helped others

are recorded at Krauznach, Speyer

the approximately (107) time. Horn it is

of 1632 at Bingen

groups

250 strong.

In June they

to garrison

a short

Six companies from Mainz, not evident

(400 men) are also headquartersv troops called

mentioned

the Rhineland whether in these

as marching with (108) in August 1632, but 'Ramsayts' are entirely a contingent

different

from those

Kreuznach in

and Bingen.

On 15 August

man was included This confused

the army of over 4,000 of six eight existed

in Horn's

of Ramsay's (109) camp at Mannheim. over 400 at

situation

Ramsay companies companies

numbering almost

Mainz and at the same time Krauznach found (below and Bingen still

totalling

500 man in has been

in October.

No explanation numbers in 1632). ("0)

to clarify

the source

of the increased

the regiment Two new but these troops

400 in December 1631p over were recruited account for

900 in October

companies would

in October over south

and November 1632, The strength

hardly

500 men.

of Ramsay's

at the siege 1632, is

of Benfeld,

west of Strasburg Horn's of this to death

in Alsace forces total

on 3 November nominally

recorded

as 288 fit

and 68 sick. one quarter or 'Put

there

amounted to 6t5OO9 but almost killedt (106) (107) (108) (109) (110) (111) woundedt sickq deserted,

was missingt '

by peasants.

Monrop Expeditiong 137,143 Uppgifter, 144 Uppqiftert Sveriqes Kriq, vi, 158,162 Uppqifter, Sveriqes Krin, vi,

11,99

258 265

272.

Meanwhile year three other

towards

the end of July

1632 and for

the rest

of the at Stettin Ramsay's unit

Ramsay companies are listed troops as garrison (112) that Alexander One source states on the Pomeranian coast. regiment was based in Pomerania the It force will at Stettin, be recalled and that German troops from this

constituted (113) Oder. of Ramsay's Eastern 1632,

Damm, Stargard however direct that three

and Cartz British

an the lower companies in

regiment

had been sent

from the Sound to Kolberg are not mentioned there in

Pomerania and thus it

in 1631.

These troops that

seems possible in 1632. with

these

are the Ramsay soldiers Rolls for 1632 Major (114) but John

stationed Kinninmonth rolls

at Stettin is listed

In the Muster

the three

Ramsay companies, wrote

the on

do not

carry

any location.

George Douglas that

from Stettin

14 November 1631 to inform were short of pay and that (115) himself. In the course was imprisoned rrankfort which for

Oxenstierna their officers

the new companies were threatening

at Kolberg

Douglas

of 1632 however Douglas a short time. After

quarrelled offered dispute

with

Gustavus

and at at

He was then a further

a commission with the king from

he refused.

Nuremberg he was discharged. London about English January agent unpaid in

In December 1632 he was writing dollars. before He was later going

wages of 59000 rix

appointed in in

the Palatinate

at Mainz,

to Danzig Danzig

1635 and then

to Stuhmsdorf.

George Douglas his town. relative Douglas

left Colonel

March 1636 and went to Demmin to visit Cunninghamt centre Swedish governor of the

Robert the

died

there,

of mysterious

circumstances.

The evening

he arrived

in Demmin rang from locked.

the bells 8 p. m. till


(112) (113) (114) (115)

of the Congregational 9.45 p. m. p though

Church of St. the night

Bartholomew's

was calm and the church

146 UPPQifter, Kriq, 1 477,484 footnote Sveriges vi, Stockholm, Rullor, 1632/32 (to A, O. 1631) RA Stockholmo Oxenstierna Samling

273.

A search

of the church

and belfry

by torchlight Providence.

revealed

no one,

and

the phenomenon was ascribed spiritual Douglas activity fall

to Divine

The purpose

of this

was thought ill

to be revealed

seriously

and died

when the next (116) day. the following in 1633 is after 1632,

morning

Information No Ramsay units records for are far

regarding

the Ramsay regiment the Muster Rolls

very but

scanty. these

are shown in from complete.

Even Mankell's results for

detailed years

researches after 1632. The

sources lists

provide for

unsatisfactory 1633 and later

strength It also

are seldom dated these

or located to refer of which still

exactly. to Scots are

becomes increasingly of 'Scots, without

common for any closer garrison

sources

companies involved. in but 1633. later

description

In the Rhineland

towns Ramsay troops around

appear at first, (117)

They seem to have been concentrated distributed as followst Kreuznach

Kreuznach

1209 Bingen

40r Hanau 200.

In 1634 at least two companies of Ramsay's 230 man were stationed at (118) that Sir James himself indicate Hanau. Ramsay's letters was at Bingen a field that in January command, 1633. (119) He wrote from $Mentz' on 16 June 1634 seeking statement by his widow

and this

confirms

the later his injury

he had spent (14 any position.

eighteen His letter

months after

at WGrzburg without in 1634 bare fruit was in this town that Lieutenant(121)

however to Oxenstierna of Hanau, and it George Douglas,

because he was appointed in 1634 he received Colonel of this

Governor

the visit

of Sir

formerly

regiment, besieged

then Ambassador from Charles Hanau in 1635, Shortly but were forced afterwards

I to Poland.

The Imperialists siege temporarily

to abandon the of

in June 1636.

the investment,

the town was resumed and Ramsay was constrained


(116) (117) (118) (119) (120) (121) Lexicon, Svensk Giografisk 176 Uppqifterp 203 Uppqiftert Oxenstierna RA Stockholmp MA Stockholm# Biographicat DNB, x1vii, 243-4 369-71

to surrender.

xi,

Samling Ramsay

(to A. 0.1634) (undated)

274.

He was not content control sent which of the

with

the

terms but

however and contrived

to take

over He

town againg from Dillenburg

he was imprisoned castle to Oxenstierna

in February

1638.

a letter he said

on 7 March 1638 in

authorities. rank

he was hoping that he would be ransomed by the Swedish (122 ) (123 ) Four days later he was dead. Ramsay bore the in the Swedish army and had proved their deaths with in 1632 Gustavus rendered as his himself worthy

of major-general position.

of his

Before

and James Spens by Ramsay's unit. own lieutenantfor the

would have been well

satisfied for for

the service arrival

Spens had been responsible colonel in 1624, and then

Ramsay's

Ramsay's commission ties

as colonel

new regiment explained in

in 1627.

The close

between Ramsay and Spens are written by Ramsayls widow 'Isobel Spens. 1(124)

by the signature

below the letter Oxenstierna

her maiden name to Chancellor James Ramsay had been granted

in 1643t

two estates

in Mecklenburg, Ramsay sought rights

Teutenwinkel a reassurance to these

and Weseldorfq

by Gustavus

on I November 1630.

from the Swedish Chancellor and a confirmation

on 18 March 1632 of his by Oxenstierna

lands,

was issued

on 5 May 1636.

Ramsay's widow requested and also was still confirmation seeking

payment of wages outstanding

to her dead husband estates. She on because

of her rights redress

to the two Mecklenburg in a petition of these from lands

financial

'Andreapolis thereafter

21 March 1643. her son, David,

She must have disposed an 20 May 1647 supported

W John Leslie action

of Newton and taken by his his

John Cunningham of Barns repudiated mother rights and William Spans and indicated and Weseldorf.

the earlier his (125)

intention

of resuming

to Teutenwinkel Part

of Ramsay's regiment After the capture

may have continued of Donauw6rth

to follow

the Swedish

king (122) (123) (124) (125)

in 1632.

Monro commended the support

RA, Oxenstierna Samling (to A. D. 1638) Fischer, Scots in Germany, 102 RA Stockholmq Siographica'# Ramsay RA Stockholmt Biographicap Ramsay

275.

rendered lieutenant Douglas later

by Ramsayls of Captain had been killed that

men led William

by their Douglas'

new majory company)'. in February at Ulm with

Patrick (126) 1632,

Sydserf Captain

(former William

at Krauznach

(127 )

but Monro 1633 and against the shadow in

stated

at the rendezvous a strong The latter

Baner in Major

February Sydserf

Horn brought all

from Alsace

force

including

Ramsay's musketeers. dragoons (128) at

distinguished

themselves literally of this of 1633. in

hostile

the Pass of Kempten almost shared

of the Alps,

and probably

in the rest

campaign

Swabia and the Upper Danube reaches of the final about disintegration the disaster of this

in the spring regiment

The details but John Durie's Colonel

are unknown,

report

at NBrdlingen cut off,

contained a captain

the news that

Ramsay's regiment are only left

was $quite

and two under-officers

of it'.

(126) (127) (12B)

Monrop Expedition, Svensk Biografisk Monro, Expeditionv

11,116 Lexikon, xi, 368 ii, 173p 175

276.

(c)

Alexander Spens'

Hamiltonts recruiting in

and Meldrum's visit

regiments resulted in the arrival English

third

to Britain further

in

East Prussia led

1629 of three earl

regimentsp and also

one mainly

(later

by George,

of Crawford#

by George Fleetwood), Alexander appears Hamilton to have been

and two primarily and Sir

Scottish

(commanded by Colonels From the beginning Hamilton

John Meldrum).

The former's in his recruiting than Meldrum. number more successful the (thus It227 being a surplus in August was over complete muster at/first the required 992. William I July figure of 1,200). whereas the latter Sir had collected only and Major on

The companies Ramsayt both and 2 July

of Lieutenant-Colonel of Meldrum's regimentg

James Hamilton

were first

to gather

respectively.

Between 11 July

and 14 July with

Captains their for Major

John Hamiltong companies Colonel Ludovick the for

William

Meldrum and John Forbes and three

arrived

the same regimentp those

companies

appeared Bailliev

Hamilton's, Leslie

of Lieutenant-Colonel

William

and Sir companies

John Hamilton. for both

Between 11 August landed, for

and 14 August the and

remaining

regiments of Captains

Meldrum, MacDowall

colonel's Robert

own companyp and those Stewart; and for Hamiltant

Uchtreid

the colonel's Brucev Sir

own company,

and those and

of Captains

Robert

Prestonp

Alexander (129 ) for

James Hamilton, appears

James Hamilton remained though in

of Parklie.

Hamilton's most of its Danzigg

regiment service

to have

the Elbing

area

in East Prussiat or Braunsberg. but Captain

occasionally forces

man visited were also

KBnigsbergg

Meldrum's

stationed

ihitially

at Elbingp to

John Hamilton's (Marienburg, On 8 July (129) (130)

men are known to have been posted south. -west of Elbing) in at least the Scots

'Maribrig' and September 1629! the 13 0)

August

1629 Gustavus

had intended

to be used to relieve

KA Stockholmp KA Stockholm,

Rullor, Rullort

1629/11/37-72,1629/14/192-215 1629/14/204,1629/18/210

277.

German garrison to Oxenstierna posting of this Wormditt actually

at Braunsberg. more explicit

The following by detailing his

day he made his regiment of using

instructions for the

Meldrum's intention

to Braunsberg unit, also. took place. it when its (131)

and by stating

a squadron holding transfers

numbers were complete, Swedish records Following do not

to replace confirm

the troops these

whether of these

the recent

arrival in

companies for his Gustavus concern

from Scotland

must have been disconcerting from Uppeala regiments, on 24 October

the extreme

to have to write at hearing and seriously the Chancellor sending stressed those four

1629 expressing

particularly

the Scots9are

much diminished' he wanted by however

in need of large to establish

reinforcements. foreign

In addition

an entirely the

army in Elbing there. The king

back to Sweden all that the British

Swedish soldiers should in both Colonel so that not

officers

be dismissed, and England

especially he acknowledged. Scots might be

of Hamilton

whose service

Scotland Aston

Oxenstierna previously

was to work through in Polish servicet kept specific

or to recruit companies

the Scottish (132) regarding

made up and the officers In 1630 there location situated entrance is

in employment. information

the exact They were of the of

of some of the companies as garrisons in

of Meldrum's

regiment. north

the towns on the peninsula Haff. Forbes The sick lay men from in there

to the Frisches and Captain

the companies

the colonel soldiers

in Pillau patrolled

February,

and the Those in

of Captain

John Hamilton

in March.

the Lieutenant-Colonel's in Wogramq and the troops billeted not in Fischhausen at all.

company who were ill of Captains in April.

were under

attention Meldrum were were

MacDowall

and William

Many of the leading

officers

in Prussia

At the beginning

of 1630 the two colonalsp

(131) (132)

AOSB 2nd Seriesp AOSB 2nd Seriest

it it

508t 531

510

278.

(Sir Sir This

John Meldrum and Alexander James Hamilton accounts for and Captain the fact that early

Hamilton)p Sir

and also

Lieutenant-Colonel in Sweden. with (134) (133)

James Hamilton

were absent clashed

when Meldrum's in

regiment

Von Essen's (His listed identity

trumormeistart is not clearp

1630 complaint the former Possibly give

was made by the major. William incident of major Ramsay is

because 1630. (135)

Major this

as dead in January deathp for

happened before to any

Ramsay's other

the records

never

the rank

officer is

during

the existence

of Meldrum's

regiment, ) Colonel in supervising (He was later at Suhla of in

Hamilton the

known to have been engaged during 6rebro at

making of cannon either in a similar

the year (136) or Arboga.

employed Thuringia Artillery Leslie

capacity

by Bernard (137 )

of Saxe-Weimar becoming ) also

between 1634 and 1635t in the Covenanting

before

General

Army in Scotland. of Parklie regiment

In June 1630 Ludovick visited Sweden.

and Captain Neither

James Hamilton

Hamilton's

nor Maldrum's after

was engaged in hostilities 1629 due to the Truce Hamilton's The only regiment explanation

against

the Poles

in Prussia

16 September whatever

of Altmarko

but by Oune 1630 for 725 and Meldrum's figures being

numbered only given for

reason (138) a mere 277.

these

reinforcements suggests that

from Britain, desertion of the

of obtaining so low was the difficulty (139 ) but the need for so many replacements At any rate an

must have been widespread. was clearly

amalgamation and suited

two regiments

a practical

propositiont

the Swedish king's informed

new arrangements. from Stockholm on 29 May 1630 of

Gustavus

Oxenstierna

(133) (134) (135) (136) (137) (138) (139)

1630/22/226-68 KA Stockholmp Rullorp AOSB Ist Seriesq v, 308 1630/22/257 Rullort KA Stockholm, 3 253 footnote Sveriqes Krig, iii, Scots in Germanyt 110 Fischer, Sveriqes Krig, 111,569 Sveriges Krig, 111,242

279.

his

recent

agreement $elsewhere

with

Colonel

Alexander matter'

Hamilton

whom he intended

to employ though marquis

in another

(possibly in

the cannon manufactureP for the

Hamilton

may also

have assisted

the arrangements required

of Hamilton's

recruiting).

The king

the dhancellor and to

to amalgamate give

the regiments

of Alexander

Hamilton

and Meldrum, brother

the command of of Priestfield The rest of Sir

the new unit

to John Hamiltont

of James

Hamilton regiment. the wishes his far With (the

who had been lieutenant-dolonel of the officers were to be appointed

of Meldrum's according to and

James Spens. 'Redal

Both James Hamilton their

of Priestfield

namesake of as possible, the three Colonelt

were to be granted it appears they

outstanding

wages as their (140) service. present envoy, was

and thus senior as will

had terminated regiment

officers

of Meldrum's

no longer

be seen below, had intimated for the superior regiment

was acting his

as a diplomatic

the lieutenant-colonel dead), no contenders

retirement,

and the major

command posts a senior officer

of the new regiment was still in or William

remained. employment at the very Baillia.

But in Hamilton's

and he must have expected least to retain his

to be granted rankt

the colonelcy,

present

Lieutenant-Colonel

Unfortunately The new colonel in Hamilton's position regimentq regimentq appeared,

for

Baillie,

Spens'

plans

did

not

include only

him at all. a captain

was to be Sir regiment

John Hamiltont to Baillie. Leslie, former

previously

and inferior for Ludovick

The lieutenant-colonel's former major of Hamilton's

was designated

and the new major Richard Preston.

was another Controversial

captain this

of Hamilton's arrangement outcry when Spens them

though

the whole amalgamation captainst

caused a more violent and ensigns,

removed experienced (140)

lieutenants

and replaced

AOSS 2nd Series,

1.608

280.

with

men $who had never Baillie

seen action'.

Spokesman for himself appears insulted

this

discontent Spens and with solution

was of course Alexander his

who considered The Chancellor

by both

Hamilton.

to have sympathised that some alternative the entire

misfortune# be found.

and suggested Indeed

to the King

might

Oxenstierna

questioned

settlement

Spans had made, and sought permission from the king to moderate its (141) terms. Gustavus$ reply from the field army headquarters at Stettin on 11 August wanted 1630 was uncompromising young Sir was to observe of Baillie's had followed he praised time as regards 'for the amalgamation. reasonsto the other He and (142) posts.

to satisfy

John Hamilton Spens'

special about

the Chancellor In the matter Oxenstierna

decisions the king

position his first

was more considerate.

letter

by a second one an 22 July whom I myself to Your Royal solution trust Majestylt of Bailliess since and this

1630 in which

Baillie

as 'a cavalierv service about raise for

and who would in and he also problem. he could

render

excellent

made useful

suggestions that Baillie

a possible

He proposed

a new German regimentg at least) basis

speak German (adequate for a long time

the bare essentials As an initial

he had served unit both Ihis Saillie regiment,

in Holland.

for

the Chancellor had twelve was approved

recommended that should in

the Red and Green Regiments, two companies. (144 ) on 14 August 1630. for a largely own original formed

which (143) Hence

companiesq

each contribute Stettin

by the king

was mollified though

by a colonel's took with

commission

German

he also With

him some of his troops

company of Scats. half in of the garrison

George Cunningham his early

more than from there

of Elbing that (145 )

in 1632p and he wrote of the Prussian an the Silesian

June 1632 complaining his levying.

the Captain After

Mark had been front

obstructing
(141) (142) (143) (144) (145) AOSB AOSB 705B

service

lst Seriesp vt 454 1,632 2nd Seriesp Ist Seriest vp 468 ip 633 AOSB 2nd Seriesp -WA-Stockholm, Oxenstierna

Samling

(to

A. D.

1632).

281.

Baillie infantry known.

returned in

to Scotland

to become Lieutenant-General Army, but the date of his

of the return is not

the Covenanting

The amalgamated
eight companies, Colonel five Sir

Hamilton/Meldrum
of the captains

regiment
being

in

October
of

1630 comprised
the Hamilton Leslie,

officers

regimentg Major of

John

Hamiltong

Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander there Hamilton. to hold in Bruce remained Their East and

Ludovick

Richard

Preston,

and Captains regiment and John was still to have

James Hamilton Uchtreid the rest

Parklie.

From Meldrumls Robert Stewart into 1631 known (146)

Captains task Prussia for for

MacDowallt of 1630

and well the

Sweden. as as raise Vasa the

Some of late envoy

man are

been Sir

Pillau John

and K6nigsberg Meldrum was acting to the at

as 11 May 1631. between of the

Meanwhile of Hamilton

marquis Britain) siege (147)

(who

was endeavouring Meldrum visited to

an army monarch end of Leslie Hamilton reported to

6pDOO in the 1631.

and Gustavus. of Landsberg the with

during April

and returned winter 1630/1

Hamburg

During to to Scotland seek fresh

Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton regiment. for and James Oxenstierna Leslie more to

had gone of to

back

Captains for

John the

Parklis Gustavus

recruits 1631 that

on 8 January regiment. agreement. 400 or the rest

he had arranged days later

strengthen

Hamilton's about this

Eleven Leslie

he gave to

information levy dollars at his in

had returned he had been was to

Scotland

own expense his hand with ruler land at and

500 mang but of his

given

500 rix

outlay troops. these

be reimbursed referred sail via

when he returned to the (146) (147) (148) the Swedish or

the the

newly-levied decision

The Chancellor recruits should

whether (148)

Sound

Gothenburg,

1631/15/308-23 KA Stockholm, Rullorg ivp 363 Sveriqas Krin, AOSB Ist Series, vip 42,58-59

282.

Those of Sir must have greeted regiment

John Hamilton's with considerable

regiment

who had enlisted

for

adventure the to

anticipation

the news that

was to be transferred regiment

to Pomerania

in 1631.

The decision

move Hamiltonts early

as 4 January just over

out of Prussia had been taken at least as (149 ) 1631, but on 17 January the regimental strength had delayed its Oeparture to

was only await

600 and the Chancellor He was well units was again complete delaying were still

Leslie's

recruits.

aware that for

Gustavus

wanted both On till

Ramsay's 16 April

and Hamiltonts Oxenstierna

the summer campaign. troops lnvlpq

Hamilton's at Elbing

I May, but an 4 May the Scots was then wrestling Nor had they Oxenstierna out that left with

and the Chancellor (150) for

the problem

of sending their

them by sea or land* seemed imminentj Leslie sent had carried

by 23 May though

departure that

had received levy. should

word from Scotland The Swedish Chancellor

a successful the Scots

word to the Sound their regiment on 30 Mayt He had

be diverted regiment

to Stettin

to join

more quickly. when Oxenstierna balanced ships Polish

Hamiltonts had finally

marched out of Elbing to send them by land. and the difficulty the Polish and concluded

decided

the cost

of sea-provisions of offending the truce,

of arresting by violating former was via ten or

against territory

the risk during

government that the

the more convincing

argument.

Thus he had dispatched a journey the unit he reckoned

the Scots should take

86tow and Neumark to K6strinp twelve of days. men'. 1631 that He considered To his since

very

weak in numbers, able to inform for

but composed the king on

'good

relief-he Hamilton's (151)

was later regiment

12 July

had left

Prussia

there through

had been no disturbance. Polish (149) (150) 051) territory AOSO lst 7OS-8 Ist 7_0SB. Ist

His gamble of sending

the Scots

had been successful. Seriesl Seriesp Seriesp viv vip vip 19 246,296 350,353,385

283.

Hamiltonts out

unit

formed

part Ustrin

of the army of 6tOOO men'who marched on the Oder and advanced strength musketeers) with Horn

of Schaumburg camp near the king on the Elbe.

to join was 536,

Hamilton's 386 (mainly

at 08ben in remained#

September and these

but at Breitenfeld

were directed the battle.

to the vanguard where they fought on the left wing in (152) From there they marched with the royal army on the south regiment west to Wurzburg an the Main, but where Sir John of in

triumphal Hamilton final disgust personnel took major. either At this with also for over

progress and his

performed by Gustavus (153)

heroically;

the privilege

assault sought

was awarded his

to the Swedesl and Hamilton led to a reshuffle in the

discharge. in

This

involved

the command posts and Uchtreid Richard

of the unit. MacDowall

Ludovick was promoted majors

Leslie to

as acting-colonel, indicates the service, Captain that

This left time

Prestont

previously

had

been transferredp Stewart

or become a casualty. to lieutenant-colonel Ludovick Lindsay

Robert

was elevated lieutenant

Lumsden's departed, a troop

new regiment. and reappeared five

Preston's in

the early

of ninety

German dragoons

months of 1632 as captain (154) in Elbing. Thus this ensignq to take Alexander charge of

Preston Stewart. Robert

company fell John Lyll Stewart's

to the control was advanced

of the former

from lieutenant

company,

and James Drummond was transferred company to captain changes the regiment of Sir probably

from John Hamilton's remained

lieutenant former in

of Ludovick After vicinity

Leslie's these

company.

the general

of Mainz till

the end of 1631 because Major east of Mainz late in

MacDowall November.

and 200 men occupied (155) from the Privy

ROsselheim

A licence

Council

of Scotland

for

Lieutenant-Colonel

(152) (153) (154) (155)

iv, 390,453,483 Sveripas Krin, iip 82 Plonro, Expedition, 1632/10/12 KA Stockholmp Rullor, 11,89 Monro, Expedition,

284. (156) of

Ludovick This Major from

Leslie

to recruit

200 men is step

dated for

5 October

1631.

was probably Uchtraid Oxenstierna (157)

a preparatory

the recruiting are mentioned

mission

MacDowall

whose activities

in a letter

at Frankfort-on-Main In a later letter

on 29 March 1632 to Johan Adler Swedish

Salvius. agent over

from Mainz on 19 May 1632 this MacDowall's had apparently arrival

was instructed (158) 100 men. on this

to expect MacDowall

at Hamburg with to John

been accompanied

Scotland Hamilton as officers the

recruiting

campaign

by Captains

James Hamilton#

and Alexander in

Stewart,

and all

the regiment

of Bernard is

of them were at this time described (159) The fact that of Weimar. as half October a year makes it with

duration

of their that

absence

recorded dated

virtually this

certain

the warrant A further

1631 was connected however is that

recruiting licence

mission. (for

complication

another is dated

200 men) granted by the Privy Council of Scotland (160) 29 June 1632, and this was issued to Lieutenant-Colonel possibly promoted to colonel. MacDowall who by this time would have been Leslie had been

MacDougallq officially advanced out this

to lieutenant-colonel No evidence

when Ludovick

has emerged to explain the degree in


his

who carried experienced. in the

later

recruiting

or to indicate mainly
respect who both muster

of success

Leslie's
first from of half those of of

regimsnt-operated
1632, and in or this Monro

the Lower Palatinate


unit's history the 1632 king

differs south out some sick

Muschamp

followed roll for

the

Rhineland. of the

The one extant itinerary the of Leslie's

provides the

details

men by listing had been left

where and where

(presumably

including

wounded)

detachments

(156) (157) (158) (159) (160)

RPC 2nd Series, Seriesp AOSB* Ist Series, AOSB Ist Series, ADSB Ist RPC 2nd Series,

342 108 vii, 346 vii, 805 vii, 525 iv,

iv,

285.

had been posted. had been shot at Bingen there

Three

soldiers

were in

Koblenz is

and a further stated).

two lay at

(whether at Mainz.

fatally

or not

not

Five

and nine

One had remained

at Alzey

and three

Worms.

Along

the course seven.

of the Main riverg No exact location

Aschaffenburg is given for

housed two the regiment of at least at

and WOrzburg twenty at this time, six

but Captain

Drummond commanded a detachment and Captain

twenty

men at Kitzingen Excluding all

Bruce one of seventeen the average size

Windsheim. was only detached

the above troops total for

of company all

forty forces

five,

and the

the unit

370 (463 if

and sick

or wounded are added). of Leslie's forces till they rejoined his

Nothing the royal first

more is

recorded near

army at FUrth setback of Leslie's at

Nuremberg after

Gustavus (161)

had suffered

serious

the hands of Wallensteine Scots (162) at Donaowbrth. suggests that

Monro mentioned of this took part

the presence sentence in the

The position he meant they

in Monro's first

pages

occupation Leslie's third

of Donauw6rtho

i. e. in March 1632,

But the of

only

time

men could visit,

have been there

was on the occasion 1632.

the king's Leslie's through


his

i. e. at the end of September participation the heart


for what from

Though sweep the summer#


campaigno units Swabia. of months the of to were of

soldiers southern

had missed Germany into


up with the

in

the victorious during


final

of Bavaria
was to his

men linked after

king

be his

shortly

Gustavus those of

had departed Ramsay

other

Scottish them in

long-, standing, However triumphs the spring only

and Monrot

leaving felt

disgruntled of their

Leslie's colleagues the in

veterans in the royal

may have south army, in the

hearing

previous were

and summer with Scottish unit

they

now privileged forces

be the

the

LOtzen

campaign.

Leslie's

(161) (162)

Sverines Kring vi, Monrop Expedition,

471 footnote iiq 113

286.

present following

at

the rendezvous day. Leslie Hamiltonts army, (163 ) that

at Erfurt

on 28 October

and at Naumburg the of Ballantyne's of the marquis by these force at of 576. mainly units

had been reinforced regiments but the which drastic roll

by the remnants had formed losses for this part

and Alexander of HamiltonIs

suffered combined

a: ro shown by the fact Naumburg had risen At Utzen field

Lesliets

by no more than

approximately

100 to a total consisted

on 6 November 1632 Leslie's (360). along with only twenty

regiment four

of musketeers Their position

pikemen

and 192 officers. (one of Saxeas

was on the left brigades on the (164) in his

wing as part Swedish side) Monro's high

of the Green Brigade commanded by Bernard opinion of 1 of their worth

of the eight

Weimar and Wildenstein. a regiment officers is reflected beaten

description of souldiers. of Ludovick their army.

and old

blades

them as $old expert (165) regiment identity units the by being are listed to

Nothing remnants absorbed in

more is

recorded

Leslie's distinctive

of which into

after

LUtzen lost of Weimar's

Bernard 1633-7

Though various it is

the period

as being

commanded by Leslie colonels with this

impossible

determine Leslie is

which

of the different

surname is

intended.

mentioned

from Bernard troops but his

letter in Boo men a as a colonel of (166 ) but an I December 1633 at Straubingg to have been Scots. movements after on 24 August

of recommendation few of these at Nbrdlingen, He

are likely Continental in Elsinore

He may have fought 1632 are virtually

unknown.

appeared of

1638 writing

to Stockholm

the difficulty returning

of getting to play

payment of arrears an important part

complaining (167 ) before wages. of Army

eventually in Scotland

in the Covenanting force.

as quartermaster-General
viv vi, 471 4239 427

of the entire

(163) (164) (165)

(166) (167)

Lon, 11,164 AOSB 2nd Series, viip 128 Samling RA Stockholm, Oxenstierna

Sverines Kriq, Sveriqes Krig, Monro, Ljp. Lditi

(to

A. D. 1638)

287.

(d)

Mackay's

reqiment of of with were John Mackay's Robert regiment in for sending service Prussia# Swedish his with service to resulted Sweden, Immediately Captains Monro Robert for took in Prussia Monro of

The commissioning from for three Monro the place as of the initiative

Monro for to

auditor Gustavus. those of David

he returned companies of Foulis,

a commission dispatched Monro of

East

Assyntv (168 )

and Lieutenant The first

lieutenant-colonel's in July.

company. of John

disembarkations set foot of

The vanguard (169)

Monrols of

company the

early Foulis

as 2 July, and the on 20 July.

and large

parts are for the

companies to have

Robert out

lieutenant-colonel (170 ) Arrivals of

known these

shipped

Elsinore till this Elbing, River to

three in 'sick the East

companies Prussia the town

continued was at Pest' at

18 August. stage the almost

The strength 300. Though

regiment men lay Braunsbergq three

a few at Monro

with key

squadron

was located to is

on the were forwarded

Passarge. later.

According This the period

further Muster

companies Rolls of which

Prussia

confirmed mid-August Learmonth

by the to

which the

show the

arrival of Major

during Sinnot at Monro

mid-October and Bullion

companies the

and Captains (171)

joined

others

Braunsberg. maintained

the

definite

identity

of

these

six

companies

till official

the later

part

of 1630 when they returns with for

had left the region

East Prussiag

but

Swedish strength only along five with

in Oune 1630 surprisingly of 383 men. Meldrumt These Ramsay of (172)

indicate troops

companies those

a combined

total

of the regiments 19900t

of Hamiltong approximately

and Robert the (168) (169) (170) (171) (172) entire

Leslie

numbered almost stationed

one quarter

Swedish forces

in East Prussia

at midsummer 1630.

11,1 Monro, Expeditiong 1629/11/74 KA Stockholm, Rullarg 1629/14/231-4 KA Stockholm,, Rullarg 1629/16/181-39 KA Stockholmq Rullor, 11,1 Monro, Expeditiong 569 Sverigas Krigp iiiq

1629/18/263;

288.

A further account mentioned

disagreement concerns six

between

the

regimental of Mackay's

records

and Monro's Monro

the other

squadron sent

regiment.

other

companies

between November 1629 and January (led by Lieutenant Pringle) (173) Gunn), and Apparently

1630 from Holland Lieutenant-Colonel those they of Captains landed

to Swedent the colonel's John Lindsayls Innes, Beatong (led Sinclair

by Lieutenant

and Moncreiff.

at Gothenburg, V5stmanland of this

and after

moved to Nirks, list drebo at the

stay in V5stergotland a brief (174) Swedish records official and Uppland. regiment in Sweden in June 1630, two at

seven companies sent by water

from quarters

in Uppland (Sigtuna

and NorrIand

to Stockholm

end of May, two at Uppsala and one at V5sterAs, of a seventh between

and NorrtgljB)v in all

Enk6ping,

totalling

two at (175) 707 men. Monro no obvious point. invasion in Sweden. the relative of explanation

made no mention of the discrepancy

companyp and there the two sources

is

on this

The opportunity Germany in 1630 fall While the other half

to participate to the lot

in the epic

Swedish

of the Mackay squadron was stationed in

of the regiment

backwater

of East Prussiag of the

the Mackay companies expedition force

in Sweden were called Germany with intervention They sailed three freight (176) Detailed the by with

upon to form part king

to invade

at the end of June,

the beginning

of full-scale Years War. on board

Sweden in the

the German theatre squadron

of the Thirty fleet

second naval and landed of their half

of Gustavus' Pomerania lacking

shipst history the

in western progress is

at the end of June. Monro himself

since

was with

other

of the regiment

in East Prussiap in Pomerania

but Mackay companies and at Stettin

from Sweden were at Caseburg


(173) (174) (175) (176) Monro, Sverines

on 10 July

11,, 1 Expedition, 111,247 Krig, iiip 566 gas Krig, 262 Kriqj Sveriqes viiv

289.

at

the

end of August from

where they

were joined making

by three

of the Mackay regiment in

companies Pomerania

the Prussian

squadron,

up to a total

strength

of about

the combined (177) 1,000 men. been inactive. of these

Meanwhile July instructions

Monro and his

captains for to join (those

had not

Late six

in

had been issued in order

the removal

companies Pomerania. Monro)

from Prussia (178 )

the main field of Sinnotp with

army in Western and John

Three companies aboard the $Svarta

Learmontho for

shipped

Hunden'

victuals regiment

a week

and arrived Monro himself (the latter

safely with

joining his

the rest

of Mackay's

at Stettin. and Hector Monro

own company and those in place of Robert the

of Bullion

now a captain

Monro of Foulis 'Lilla Nyckeln'.

who had After

gained three

a commission

as Colonel)

boarded north

days at sea they Their

were driven there

and ran aground

on the island

of Bornholm.

repairs

were clearly set they sail

none too satisfactoryl again. to try Conditions to head

because pumping was necessary must have been highly back towards Pomeranian the capture supplies further great out Danzigq

when they for

unfavourable but in fact

decided

were shipwrecked Ingenuity

on the Eastern however led of to

coast

at ROgenwalds.

and resource

of the town and the castle Though the

and also

to the seizure

at Stolp.

Imperialists they

had garrisoned not

Kolberg, present in any

west on the same coastq strength as far nine (179) east

were obviously for

as ROgenwalde, relieved

Monro managed to hold fellow-countryman Sir was

there

for

weeks till The strength

by his

3ohn Hepburn. recorded assistance came ashore


(177) (178) (179) (180)

late

in August

of these three Mackay companies (180) but Monro had the 1630 as 225 men, of 300 troops of provisions. of Von Rosen's regiment

at R6genwalde

who

due to shortage

111,580,582-3 Kriq, Sveriqss Seriest AOSB Ist v, 485 11,3-5; Monro, Expeditiong Sveriges Kring 111,582-3

Oxenstierna RA Stockholmr (to A. D. 1630)

Samling

290.

Monro was next Imperialist hold the

directed

inland with

to Schivelbein

to interrupt to

communications town against

Kolberg. 8,000 relatively

His 200 men were unable but the Scots burned to join down Horn's

Colloredo's

some of the houses and withdrew corps three miles of 4pOOO at Greifenberg companies east at Priemhausen in

unscathed (181) November 1630. the Ihna river (in

Monro left fact across only the

his a few

near

of the rest

of Mackay's

regiment to visit

at Stettin Gustavus

Oder estuary)q he learned recruitingg that

and went downstream

at Gollnow. for

There further No doubt

Mackay was once more returning Monro would be acting-colonel shortly

to Scotland

and thus

once more. Winter

the whole regiment provided

was reunited for return

afterwards. and that Colonel

usually was

an opportunity On his

reorganisation, to Scotland

of 1630/1631

no exception. by Major Obsdale colonel. Colonel Stewart as major. refused

Mackay was accompanied for John Monro of his lieutenantof

John Monro of Assynt. to recruit a new regiment they left

Mackay soon arranged and Assynt were filled

was appointed

The vacancies Mackayls who both Sinnot

by the lieutenants Gunn and William

and Assynt's

companiest Captain

William

became captains. had died in

John Sinclair

was selected George Sinnot

Stetting

and when Lieutenant

the chance of promotion Captain Bullion

in the company Ensign was transferred

Semple became order

the new captain.

by the kinges

to be Quartermaster-Caheral another Fringle unit was introduced

of the Cavalry, for Bullion's

and Captain company.

Dumaine from Lieutenant died

Finally

of Lieutenant-Colonel and this provided 11,9

John Lindsay's the opportunity

company had also for

at Stettin, (181)

the lieutenant-colonel

Monro,

Expsdition,

291

Loitz

emmin \,, Ankla7i IV M. Ichl n It. \4

Treptow . Friedland

NEU
BRANDENBURG
'K )I In Gollnow c IIIn 43W Liicknit'z P18Pr I8 em rm hausen ha haus us en

Stett

in
Damm m Damm I,

Ga

Greifenh *Greifenhagen ag on rtz"

Schwedt/

Landaberg Berlin 10

FRANICFORT

50, Km.

-cale
Map xvii

301MIles

292.

to promote Mackay/Monro followsq Major

his

own brother at

Henry Lindsay the beginning

to lieutenant.

Thus the as

regiment

of 1631 was constructed LieUt8nant-Colonal Monrot William

Acting-Colonsl

Robert Captains

Monrot Hector

John Lindsayq John Innes, and

John Sinclair,

Stewart, Learmanth

John Beaton, Dumaine. (182)

John Moncroiff,

William

Gunn, Semple,

Monro's
pointt share against and They took were

regiment,
at

for

it
for

will
the

be called
first field But the

by his
of

name from this


and did up the Gustavus not Oder at Damm

remained in the Gertz

Stettin of

weeks army Scots policy

1631

successes and

Gustavust

further joined of

Greifenhagen. part in the

a prominent at Loitz

king's

securing of the

Mecklenburg. Peene river In March

and Demmin on the river crossings more were divided of

upper seized into

reaches in two Monro, and

when these 1631 of and Major the

vital regiment comprised (which

mid-February. squadrons. Hector two

was once the held

The first Monro, Dumaine under The second

these

companies Malchin

Robert

Stewart Sinclair

and Friedland) (which occupied

others

and Captain of the

Semple other to his six

Treptow).

squadron Lindsay

consisted

companies the outpost not unit. had been

led

by Lieutenant-Colonel at Neu in 1627,

who was directed (183) There

defend

position Major

Brandenburg. was virtually

squadrong

unlike

Dunbar's

eliminated

as a fighting Lindsay

Twenty-eight-year-old

reinforced

in

Neu Brandenburg

by some of Knyphausen's but a fierce Imperialist

troops assault

to make a total led to the fall to fight letter

garrison of the

of 750 men, town, The and and

defenders unfortunately
(182) (183)

had originally for Lindsay

been ordered the king's


11,11-12 11,179 74,540-2

$to the last this

mant, order

rescinding

Monro, Expeditiong Monro, Expedition, Svaripes ivp Krig,

19t

22;

293.

the town to be surrendered if (184) the defenders. Two of the Scottish permitting Lindsay Beaton, only himself and Captain Moncr6iff;

necessary

never

reached John

commanders were killed, three of them were captured, Innest escaped

Learmonth

and Gunn; and the sixth al6raffel there very giving is

captain#

by jumping

down into 'fury#

and wading difficult

through

a marsh. Monro was

The extent not present,

of the

to determine.

but wrote troops in it

critically

Imperialist strictly three major largely

of the of the behaviour (185) This may not have been no quarter. spread in the Swedish army. Beaton which The

true, imprisoned and later officered

but

was the version

captains

managed to ransom themselves. with Skytte's regiment

became was

lieutenant-colonel by Scots;

Learmonth

was appointed

captain

of a Ruthven,

company of dragoons; made lieutenant-colonel was first promoted

and Gunn was, through

the influences in Swabia.

of General Captain unit

of a German regiment to major for

Innes

in John Monro of Obsdale's of Forbes' troops.

and then Henry

to lieutenant-colonel Lindsay, in brother Life

the Master

Lieutenant

of the dead lieutenant-colonelg Regimentq and later rose

was found

a captaincy in

the Royal

to be lieutenant-colonel Obviously of battle if a Scottish

the regiment officer

of Alexander regiment

Leslie

the Younger. the hazards

in Monro's

survived

the chances to the

of promotion Oder via his

to senior

ranks

were good. at Stettin

Monro himself to recover

withdrew

LBcknitz,

and settled

from the hot action to Schwedt (186)

man had experienced

at Treptow.

They then marched off for the spring in

where the brigades Monro's Scots (184) (185) (186) Scots led found

were established themselves

and summer campaigns. with

associated

the same brigade

Spens,

by Lumsdan. 60 11,23 11,24-25

Sverines Kriq,, ivp Monro, Expedition, Monro, Expeditiont

294

scaleol 01

II

1110-krn.
154

,a

We

rb

en

*Rathenow 3ngermUnde Spandau* Brandenburg Potsdam* KBpenick


Bernau

'o

0 Berlin
0

Wittenberg

Fl-DUben IHalle

* Leipzig* LUTZEN

BREITIENFELD

map

xviii

295.

For the next His men shared on-Oder in

year

Monro's

squadron

formed

part

of the royal

army.

the march up the Oder and the storming when Major Sinclair and his using

of Frankfortmusketeers ladders and

on Palm Sunday 1631, first in

were prominentg then fighting

the scaling

of the walls

in the streets back to back against especially cavalry (187) They were then switched east along the at the Gubenporten. Warthe river caught Robert's not a fever cousin, to take Landsberg on 5 April. last There Captain Lieutenant (188) Dumaine Monro, did

and died. gained with

Thus at long his promotion thrust

David

to captain. south up the

Gustavus

however continue

his

Oder valleyt

but

turned in this

west to the Middle

Mark territory

of Brandenburg.

To participate on 18

movement Monro was recalled At Bernaug north east

from Landsberg

to Frankfort

the king in Monro entertained of Berling (189) his quarters and then moved via K6penickp Berlin, at the end of Junep (190) The Scots appear Spandaut Potsdamv and Brandenburg to Rathenow. April. to have suffered but is these losses at Brandenburg (more than desertion thirty or illness of men in one week), for there was the

must have been due to either of hostile

no record

listed

there. The strength action (191) helped Monro's soldiers in May as 502. 1631, Ouly the Werben end of at at and to DUben on the Mulde. in

the unit

to construct

famous leaguer the river

and then moved along Monro himself victory his troops, leadership of the

to Wittenberg

commanded the right at Breitenfeld and his

wing of the musketeers a major

the glorious honour under for

on 7 Septembert distinguished. Stewart in

battle

men further William

themselves

the inspired The size 11,34

of Captain (187) (188) (189) (190) (191)

the struggle

for

Halle.

iv, Sveriqes Krin, Monrot Expedition, Monro, Expeditiong Monrot Expedition, 119 Uppgifter,

31-6; Monrov Expedition, iip 40 11,42 i, Itinerary appendix

296.

Monro regiment fact that

in

these

two engagements

(800)

is

explained by the

by the brought himself

temporary

reinforcements for Obsdale's from Scotland.

were provided though unit, (192) south

troops

by Monro of Assynt had not yet returned

Monro of Obsdals

From Halle before they further by his

the royal

army continued seasoned with veterans

west

to Erfurt. inland

Never since Gustavus sovereigns across the

had Monro and his had first enlisted

been so far

Christian between

of Denmark in

1626.

emphasised decision

the contrast

the two Scandinavian into split Germany, south his army into

to penetrate Franconia.

even deeper Gustavus through

Thuringer columns for intact

Wald into for

two separate

the dangerous

passage

Thuringia

and the rendezvous arrived there

reunion having

at WOrzburg on the Main. followed the route assigned and not via

Monro's

companies

Schmalkalden tasks but the

and Neustadt. of

At WOrzburg the king Ramsay and Hamilton had to march through WOrzburg. the left Thereafter

the daring to Monrols, to seize

to the regiments latter with upstream its

Hepburn from down

the night they

Ochsenfurtg army in

joined

the field

progress

bank of the Main to Steinheim in the Rhine crossing

opposite

Hanau and to ROsselheim. and the consequent spent

They participated fall

at Stockstadt

of Oppenheim on the left 1631 and the nonro before early

bank of the Rhine. weeks of 1632, but

At Mainz they on one expedition the outskirts

Christmas down-river Koblenz

occupied

Bacharach

he was recalled

and even reached (193) to Mainz.

of

Monro was present at the muster in the fields (194) 1632 the beginning in March the Main which marked on Robert startling (192) (193) (194) marches into Monrog Expedition, Monrov Expedition, Monrot Expedition, Catholic southern Germany.

of Aschaffenburg of the year's accompanied

His Scots

ii, 59t 61,669 73 11,769 78t 83-840 88-89t 11,110

91p 95t 97

297

scaleoi 01

1111
11

-50

Km.

301milos

uppER
e. it
ro C 00 0 '0
N0u J-tadt 13 stadt

PA L AT PALATINATEI

Winds

he

lrn.,,

-'

Frth

NUREMBERG

Alte Feste
*Neumarkt 0 DinkelsbUhl

*Ni3rd

Ii ngen
Ing !! ! -., -

Donauworthe
Rain

x Ulm p14 0 w 8.1 Landchu Moosburg. /

Augsburg cc w J J

I-

*Memmingen
Landsberg 4e

IMun

ich

Kempten

AL
Map xix

298.

the king

till

the autumn of at the

the year.

Thus they

at Donauwgrth Joined of his for

end of March,

518 strong.

reached the Danube (195 ) There they were

by Robert cavalry,

Monro of Foulis' all apparently easily arises

regiment and a squadron own infantry (196) (In the military German. records among the units Monro of Foulis, as IMonrof unit of Robert Monro i. e.

1632 confusion

the former Obsdaleg for all

Mackay regiment, of which

Robert

and John Monro of Fortunately in 1632 Baudissinj and no was the in a 197)

are mentioned

regiments. operated under

the accuracy areat Monrols

of historians

Obadale's

different Robert

Lower Saxony under Tott companies at assisted

and later

Hepburn to seize

DonauwSrth, though

were also important artillery

present role

the famous crossing there by his

of the Lech, Scots.

was played

The key factor however aid in

barrage

of Torstensson.

They did

the capture of Ingolstadt. as Moosburg

of Augsburg It is also

on 10 Aprilq quite probable Isar

but were repulsed that (the

under

the walls east

when Hepburn pressed most threatening campaigns) thrust

as far

and Landshut Austria regiments entry into

on the

against

Hapsburg

achieved that

in all of Monro.

Gustavus'

he included

among his

The presence for

of the Scots

at the triumphal

Munich is leader it

undoubted,

they

of Maximilian, followegi that glary

of the Catholic

occupied the palace courtyard (198) League. As success had Sinclair and Stewart crowning

success

must have seemed to Monrol advance to Vienna

a further of this

victorious expedition.

must be the inevitable

Yet when the march out of Munich took the direction controversial (195) (196) (197) (198) (199) taken was north, not east.

place This

on I Oune 1632 decision Gustavus

(199) seems the

military but for

to twentieth-century

historians

Sveriges Krig, v, 548 ii, 111 Monro, Expedition, Sveriges Krig, vi, 467 11,117-21,125 Monrop Expedition, Monrog Expedition, ii, 128

299.

problem a lethal with

was that threat

Wallenstein in central This north

had reappeared

from Bohemia and was posing lines field of communication (524 army strong

Germany to the Swedish why Monro and the

the Baltic. tramped

explains to Farth that

on 8 June) giant they

fortified remained Fasts for

camp like over

a and Nuremberg and once more built (200) There year. at Werben the previous issue was joined with Wallenstein and William respectively Because Monro

two months till

at Alta Stewart

on 24 August.

A week previously to lieutenant-colonel as full

John Sinclair and major colonel.

had been promoted his

when Monro received was injured rear in this

own commission

battle his

he was relieved musketeers during

by Sinclair

of the army with

the who protected (201) The the withdrawal. unit during the next few on the Windsheim,

movements of the royal weeks were very Aisch, and then complex.

army including First looping they

Monro's

moved north

west to Neustadt via

by a long

route

to the west and south again and the had finally this time

and DinkelsbOhl (202) of Rain on the Lech. Rothenburg to head north to clash

back to Donauwdrth By mid-October

recapture decided in Saxony, of and the

Gustavus

once more with

Wallenstein, lay

king the Swedish 1632 6 November by and LUtzen. return At some stage north in the royal

dead on the battlefield between Dinkelsbahl

progress

from the Danube in October, Monro's Scots and other

most probably under

when the troops Ruthven and

were at Rain,

forces

General Swabia.

Lieutenant-Colonel regiments bring or for refused issue (200) (201) (202)

Muschamp were detached

to secure

Because the to

directed relonro was weak were needed manpower. to recruit

to recruit

in Swabia in order another requests

in badly

He himself in Scotland, with the

had asked for but these

regiment were and an moved

the opportunity

and he had to be content of recruiting funds for his

commission Thus while

of colonel the king

levying.

Sverines Kriq, vi, Monro, LMedition, Monror Expedition,

138,199 11,149 i, Itinerary

appendix

300.

north Scots settled 1632/3.

to the fatal struck into (204) south

field up the

of LUtzen

Monro's

soldiers

Lech and took Augsburg for

Landsberg.

along (203)

with

Spens,

They eventually the winter

quarters

around

two months during

Meanwhile new enlistments

Robert to his near

Monro seems to have been endeavouring regiment Stuttgart. at Ulm in Iller river. at a muster-centreq After probably

to-attract Waiblingen a

on the Rims river union of their

Baner and Horn had effected regiment was ordered to

forces the

1633 Monro's

march south

along

They seized -exit's-

Memmingen and reached from the Alps under of the

the

pass at Kempten controlling (205 ) Tyrol. Their northern of Monro were spent from along

one of the final

months of service reaches

the leadership

Ulm up to Esslingen. During these

the upper (206)

of the Danube and Neckar

months of 1633 the other Robert action Monro of Foulis in defence which

Monro regiments was shot in

were afflicted foot

with during

misfortunes. a rearguard

the right

of a Danube crossing

in WOrtemberg had

and died been killed Bacharach Assynt ioned

at Ulm of the in a fracas on the Rhine. sought his

fever with

resulted.

John Monro of Obsdale of another regiment at

German troops

When his discharge for

Lieutenant-Colonel from the Chancellorp the two companies Thus it his unit

John Monro of Robert left Monro petit-

then

Oxenstierna

at Heilbronn

when Obsdale's that Captains (207)

regiment

was 'reduced'

at Heidelberg. Ross joined an undated

came about in July

Adam Gordon and Nicholas John Monro dispatched he asked for and he sought new positions. (203) (204) (ZDS) (206) (207) Monrop monro# Monro, monro, Monrog at least

1633 at Donauwbrth. in which of credit,

request

to Oxenstierna,

a half-payp to depart that iit it ii, it ii,

whether for

in cash or in letters officers

permission He stated Expedition, Expeditiong Expeditiong Expedition, Expedition,

those

who had not been found last Mayq

the regiment

had been 'reduced'

147p 159t 171 Itinerary appendix 173p 175-6 Itinerary appendix 177-8

301*

presumably army. This

1633,

since

he claimed the

four

years'

service

with

the Swedish the Robert he too

was not

however as will for for

Swedish authorities Monro left would as its a small for the

for end of John Monro's lebours (208) At Donauwarth be noted later. good to return Sweden later) was killed to Scotland (though

the regiment recruiting

reappear

and appointed shortly

John Sinclair at Neumarkt, and thus by

new commander. town north final east

The latter

afterwards

of Nuremberg in

the Upper Palatinate, regiment

William place the

year Of its Service this Scottish (2 09) disintegration The ultimate Stewart. of Ndrdlingen in September to merely

was led

of the unit 1634.

took that the

at the battle regiment

Monro stated

Palatinate*

was thereafter (210)

reduced

one company at Worms in

(208) (209) (210)

Samling Oxenstierna RA Stockholm, 11,178 Monro, Expeditiong ip Title Monro, Expeditiont page

(to

A. O# 1637)

302.

(a)

Swedish

service

1637-40 Scottish mercenaries for the Swedish his

The final army took services place

phase of recruiting between

1636 and 1638. in a letter

Alexander

Cunningham offered

to Oxenstierna

from Hampton Court

on 17 June 1636,

and by 2 November had received he found the arrival predominantly for service inadequate of his to meet all companies is

a commission his not

and recruiting money which (211) The exact date of expenses. in the muster rolls, but five

recorded

Scottish with his

companies regiment in

to the Swedish authorities (212) the course of 1637. Alexander reported that during their nine weeks'

Leslie voyage that

informed they

the Swedish

Chancellor

had suffered

they

were almost

cruelly and their clothing was so threadbare (213) On 28 January 1638 Cunningham's naked. total had fallen to

numbered 504 ment but by the summer this (214) 300 men who served at Stettin and Marwitz. regiment Robert some of his He forwarded troops the Stewart captains his first Irish, was also busy recruiting

in 1637, in

because he and on 26 July. His In for (215)

were reported three English regiment

to be levying

Ireland

companies

to Germany during but six the Irish

1637.

included

and Scots, comprised (216) Scottish

predominated. but the total

course

of 1638 his

companies

the unit

never

exceeded 150 men. third

Robert recruiting

Monro was the for

colonel

concerned

in

the from

Sweden in 1637.

He had written money to finalise for

to the Chancellor his levying

London on 10 June 1636 seeking Apparently response in he already Scotland when the

arrangements. but the

had a commission

twelve

companies,

must have been disappointing drowning disaster outside

because no companies Aberdeen harbour which

had arrived (211) (212) (213) (214) (215) (216)

RA Stockholm, Oxenstierna Samling (A. 0.1636) 1638/3/176-180 KA Stockholmv Rullor, Fischer, Scots in Sweden, 107 KA Stockholm, Rullarg 1638/24/61-67 CSP Ireland 1633-47,165 1638/3/182-4,1638/23/59-62 KA Stockholmo Rullorg

303.

occurred in

early

in

October

1637 further to Oxen3tierna to Scotland Monro'3 arrived

delayed

the

arrival

of his

men

Germany. that

Monro wrote

from Elsinore

on 29 October his of Major

saying regiment

he was returning (217) by March 1638. and Captain during Lawtis,

and hoped to complete companies, those

first

John Kerr were joined

at Stettin

on 20 June 1638 and of the colonel (led

the summer and autumn by those Monro)v Lieutenant-Colonel to make a total

by Lieute nant William Captain soldiers Alexander

George Monro and of 451 men. Many of the

Sutherland

were Highlanders Colonel five

and the captains'

surnames were strongly Monros, Kerr the lieutenantseven All more

represented. colonel's Kerrs,

Monro's

company had eight Dingwalls, than Major

Monro3 and three Sutherland

listed

and Captain companies six not

no less

sixteen since

Sutherland3.

of these than

ninety It is

were relatively (218) men. whether


with

3mallq

none contained

clear

John Monro's
Robert Monro's from that but

interest
regiment far

in

recruiting
or with of from not letters that help for the to

at
of in

this his

time own.

was connected The number regiment joined In the of

a unit

Highlanders might this suggest regiment, most of earl on to

the

north Monro

Scotland the same

Robert area the

Monro's would have rolls. in

John his of

name does his four

appear sent the in the

on to

muster

the

informative he reported Argyll

Oxen3tierna marquis levying. transfer of

spring and the went

1637 of

an 26 April their channel

Huntly John

had'promi88d the i*e. that usual

Monro

recommend this timet

of

recruiting in his 1639 of

money at

Joseph letters (219)

Avery be sent

British

representative Scotland via

Hamburg, agentp extensive

and to

request in took April

William

Dick

Edinburgh. place

During in both (217) (218) (219) the area

changes Between

among these the and

three regiments those 1637)

regiments of

Stettin.

and May 1639 were disbanded

Robert

Stewart

and Robert

Monro

still

RA Stockholm, KA Stockholm, RA Stockholm,

(to A*O. 16369 Samling Oxenstierna 1638/25/101-5,1638/27/192-7 Rullor, (to A. 0.1637) Samling Oxenstierna

304.

prepared

to serve

were absorbed

into

Alexander lists

Cunningham's

unit. only

Thus two

in May 1639 Cunningham's of which himself had belonged and Captain

regimental original

show seven companies i. e. those of

to his Dunbar.

regiment,

the colonel of of of

Cunningham had gained

the companies

Lieutenant-Col6nel Major Captain troops). lower Kerr

White

and Captain

Lumsdan from Stewart, in addition

and those to that of English

and Captain

William

Monro from Monro, regiment

Foster

from Fleetwood's

(composed mainly

In all, reaches of

Cunningham. as a consequence (220) the Oder in May 1639. rolls do not explain men had died or Stewart, the year. of less than why these

commanded 684 men on the

The muster Over sixty least half

amalgamations

were affected. and at to

of Stewart's of the soldiers early in

by the beginning

of 1639,

Monro and Cunningham appear

have been sick men ill out

Even in June 1639 Cunningham had 256 700. Disease therefore may well have

of a total factors

been one of the Another

which led

to the amalgamations. letter been the have changes may in January in which 1639. It issued

major

cause of these in

by the Committee that every shire

or Estates should lieutenant,

Edinburgh

stressed lieutenant-

have a regiment

the colonel,

colonel, that

major,

and two sergeants

were skilled veterans it was in

soldiers

and

the best

and Holland. that Colonel

in lay to this recalling end means (221) It has been noted above that Lumaden wrote

rrom Germany February that appears 1639 he

to the Swedish Chancellor (222) to return On the other

explaining hand it

had been called that this

back to Scotland.

movement of officers in the later his here,

home was already

under way in at the

Holland

months of 1638. government both English country' .

The Venetian

ambassador

Hague informed the officers return (220) (221) (222) (223)

on 25 October and Scottishp (223)

1638 that

'a good number of permission to

are asking

to their

native

1639/16/62-73 KA Stockholmo Rullor, CSP Domestic 1638-9,409 (to Samling RA Stockholmq Oxonstierna CSP Venetian 1636-9,464-5

A. Do 1639)

305.

Two muster who returned of some of Captain

rolls

however

reveal

the names of a few of A short list records

the officers

from Swedish the cashiered

service. officers

the destinations (224) regiment. Poland,,

and under-officers Stargard, Sergeant for

of Monrols Martin England.

Adam Lawtie Robert

was bound for

Ross for

and Sergeants to Scotland officers and Hector

Warner and Thomas Griffin Hector

Coming back

were Lieutenants

Monro and William William but Finlayson, Is likely officers Captain

Geddesp and underAlexander Sutherland

Donald

Gunn, Thomas Glent The list is

Monro.

Undated, roll

to have been written of William four discharged

in May 1639. companies decided colonel, appear

The second muster

from Cunningham's

concerns (225) Robert

regiment. and Captain location

Cunningham had the

to go to Stralsund but the latter's

Cunningham was joining Most of the others e. g. Captain Ensigns John

was not noted. to Scotlandp

to have determined Lieutenants Francis

an returning George Bothwell Taborthp Bernard Bailliev

Livingston, William officers William

and James Lesliet Smellint Alexander

Foulis, Gilbert Ross.

James Frenn, Smitht

and underand

Gordong Robert

John Douglas

Fischer's and that Kingf Lusliep

list

shows that sailed Colonel

Colonel

Lindsay

also

returned

In 1639, ,

the following Guthrie,

back to Scotland R. Clerckt David Francis Stewart,

in 16409 Lieutenant-Colonel Tindale, Hugh Peter, David

Major

George Monro, (226) twenty ships Sir six

and Captains

James Turner,

W. Mure

and Grier. 1640 that in three

Thomas Roe informed leading colonels

Secretary

Windebank an 26 September were preparing to sail

from Gothenburg rolls

and officers (227) to Scotland. the rest

The Swedish muster indicate whether Scots

for

or 1639 and for to return

1640 do not towns at

were still the wastage

seeking

home from the regiment

on the lower a rapid regiment (224) (225) 226 227 pace.

Oderv but

of Cunningham's his

continued the entire

Between I March and 10 August had shrunk

total which

for

at Greifenhagen

to a figure

fluctuated

between

1639/16/78 Rullorp KA Stockholmt 1639/18/49 Rullor, KA Stockholm, Scots in Sweden, 114 Fischer, 'Scotsmen serving G, A. Sin-cl-airp

the Swede'# SHR, ix

(No.

33 Oct. 37

1911)

306.

277 and 255. muster appear though rolls that

(228)

Thereafter

the

regiment

is

not

listed

in the

Swedish

and must be presumed to have been disbanded. any other Scottish Scottish officers regiment retained remained their in

Nor does it

the Swedish armyt

certain

positions.

The value

of Scottish

mercenaries

to the Swedish not

government

in

the

two decades between 1620 and 1640 should never in constituted a majority armyt

be overestimated. minority influx the of

Scots the soldiers from mercenGustavus? in

or even a substantial there was a large 1629-32 regiments and later

the Swedish

and though during

of recruits for in

Scotland aries

particularly

the period

main market took part

was still

Germany. first

The Scottish In Livonia

which

successful Mecklenburg, small glorious in

campaigns

in East Prussial constituted Even in

then

Saxonyq the Rhineland of

and Bavaria involved.

relatively their most

proportions

the Swedish armies was true force 2,000. of

moments this

the Scots,

For example at Breitenfold which the

1631 the total contributed

Swedish barely

uas over At Alto

230000 men towards Fe3te in 1632 their

Scots

numvrical manp but regiment

proportion the Scots fought small served

was smaller. totalled less

The Swedish army numbered over than 2,000. fell, Though Ludovick his 576 Scots

43,000

Leslie's formed

at LUtzen fraction

when Gustavus

a relatively seldom is considered

of an army of over however, it is

(229) 20, COO. clear that forces size If

Since infantry

Scots alone

as cavalry

the Scottish larger. It

proportion is also true

of the Swedish that numerical

would appear is not the only

relatively criterion

(228) (229)

KA Stockholmf KA Stockholm,

Rullorp Rullorp

1640/14/161-B4# 1632/32

1640/17/322-41

307.

by which

to

determine occasiona

the far eego at the

value

of

the in

Scots,

and

that the

their actual

valour size In of the

on the

many crucial Scottish spring In were or of

exceeded at the

importance of

contingent, 1631, last or

storming of two

Frankfort-on-Oder later features size of in of the the in the their Scottish Swedes towns

capture however than the

WOrzburg other

same year. service forces made use round The Scots constituted relatively generals of

the

analysis vital in

probably

more

num6rical The first

their

performance to of useful threat garrison the

battle. vital

was that at in first

many Scots the were coasts also

strongholds, Baltic and later in in Lower 1632.

the

eastern

northern where

Germany. Pappenheim these his

reinforcements till tasks in in his Scots central northern regiments this vital daath

Saxony

a constant less to

By performing and later without

spectacular campaign about of helped Treaty freely

enabled and

Gustavus

other worrying

southern

Germany the Oder

unduly service 1640 at

avents the to British secure of

areas. around area

Even the which war

apparently mouth

featureless 1637 and

between Swedish

came into

possession

the

Westphalia main

when the of

ended* mercenaries to the Swedish

The second

contribution

Scottish

army was an almost they but ware employed also

inexhaustible

supply

of officers. as leaders proves

The extent of Scottish the high Alexander there

to which unitep in

by the Swedes, not only

of German, Finnish were hold.

and Swedish ones,

regard Leslie,

which

they

The fame of Patrick well majors A glance

Ruthven, but

John Hepburn and James King is colonelsq roles 1635, in lieutenant-colonels, the Swedish army. the extent

recordedp

were many other important e. g. of

and captains at a year occupied

who played

chosen at random, the officer-ranks

reifeals

to which Scots

the Swedish army. of two different

James Scott Finnish

and William William

Ley were leading Philp, William

commanders Nisbetv Thomas

regiments.

308.

Thomsong Samuel Thomsong David Norman Soutar In East Prussia Francis Story, all hold Robert Francis at least

Drummondq John Cockburnp the rank unit of captain was staffed

Thomas Scott

and

in Swedish by Francis

regimants. Sinclairt Alexander regiment Hay. Rose,

Cunningham's Clarks, Karr.

John Creichtonp

Henry Barclay, Francis

Cunningham and Gilbert with Alexander

In the same area lay Sandersong Alexander

Ruthven's

Hay, Robert new regiment

Ruthven

and Patrick Lachlan

Johan Skytte's Thomas Moffat, Alexander

was officared

by John Beaton, Forbesp while Colvillp

James Dunbar and Arthur dragoons included

the commanders of David Barclay and

Gordonts

Archibald

James Affleck. Kinninmonth, Alexander William It

In Pomerania Patrick

the pattern

was similarp Sydserft

e. g. William David Sibbaldt Hay, James Lyon,

Kinninmonthq David

Alexander

Baillist Stewart,

Drummond, James Drummondq Robert Monro, that for George Scottl

William

John Gunn and James Lauder. officers in a

can hardly

be doubted

number of Scottish decade in

foreign history

army no earlier can compare with

or later the

the whole of Scottish the service

years

between 1628 and 1638 in

of Sweden.

309.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

The last various history individual into is in

throechapters units

have illustrated but

the military the facts

history of regimental

of

Scottish alone

on the Continent, convey the detail this

cannot

of day-to-day reality it is

life

experienced to probe Army life

by

soldiers.

To capture of the early military all action

necessary army.

the organisation a blend the of specifically while

seventeenth-century duties and 'civilian'

activitiesp to fight in an emerin fact

sense that

soldiers

must be prepared many military which could aspects will

gency and some are in spend much of their e. g. cooks, will clerks,

or trainingt incrcupations

personnel be termed of military

career

$civilian', life how which

storekeepers. first,

The martial chapter

be considered

and the next the basic

demonstrate without

arrangements military

were made for cannot first steps


uniforms.

necessities for long.

of life

expertise

be sustained taken with

One of the
to issue them

new recruits
Years

in modern armies
in to respect

is
of most the

with

The Thirty of transition while

War however from armour tended IV9

military pikemen buff to

clothing still

was a period the

uniform, to adopt

favouring Though

former

musketeers

coat. impose

Gustavus, of to uniforms

and even upon

more Christian native

made some attempt different regimentsp definite dressed there uniforms. in 1627

a system

their the

armies-with

colour is It red. indicated colour, (1)

combinations to

distinguish that that

varied units

provincial possessed

no evidence has already The letter that $the Fraser,

suggest noted

mercenary some of

been

Nithsdale's at were last

men were GlOckstadt also attired verie

from Scats

Quartermaster in this did 11,104

Galbraith

an 6 August in another much. '(')

same regiment grace this

bleue

clothes

compagnie

Carlavarock,

310.

It

would

appear

that

colour about

of clothing a new recruit off

did

not

matterg liff your

because Lord Lordship V8rie weill will

Ogilvy

confided gius

to Nithadale

that

him ane sut (2) humoured. 1 If consisted named item, armour

of clothes,

any coullour,

he wilbe

was not

worn,

the normal breeches, headgear

attire

for

a mercenary

soldier The last was the

of shirt,

jacket,

stockings,

shoes and a hat. or pot helmet,

the alternative item of grey of felt

to a Istormhatt' this period.

most distinctive fashioned brims, out

clothing with

during

Hats were usually and very broad the

frequently

decorated that his

crowns of medium height (3) Christian with plumes. troops

IV informed

duke of Mecklenburg though early hatband Swedish green he possibly part of

In 1626 would wear white feathers# (4) Swedish troops in the meant the commanders only. Years War did not display any uniform colour of

the Thirty

or plume. army,

At Breitenfeld the their fact hats. that (5)

in 1631 green the Bavarian

tokens

were worn by the often thrust

despite into

musketeers

feathers

Red plumes and hatbands Imperialists. that no other Wallenstein colour then

had long re-emphasised red might near be

been the traditional this in May 1632, (6 )

symbol of the when he ordered in

displayed. Stockholm seventeenth senior colours Colonel

The portraits

the gallery in

of Skokloster

castle

depicting century

famouj3 soldiers show varied in

the Swedish army of for hatbands also

the early The

colours

and plumes.

British

officers the

the paintings

there Patrick

wear sashes but the (yellow)q Lieutenantwhile a

are not all

same, Colonel

Ruthven

Drummond (blue), is

Lieutenant-Colonel a pink one.

Muschamp (blue)v In the portrait

German captain (2) (3) (4) (5)


(6)

shown with

of Gustavust

Fraser, Carlaverack, Sveriges Krig, viii, Sverigme Krig, viii, Swedish Intelligencer

11,91 392 395 (ad. W. Watts,

London 1632)t
in

1,222
fOr Kriq, viii, 401

der A. Mall, 'Die Rote Feldbinde Heareskunde 1932), 37-39 (Berlin

Kaiserlichonly 331 quoted

Zeitschrift Sveriqe_s

311.

painted bears in the

in

1636 four

years

after

his

death

at LOtzen

the king's for

hat Swedes

the blue later

band with

yellow

edging

which

became customary It is not certain

phases of the Thirty wore the blue ornamental, that they since

Years War.

whether

Gustavus

himself

and yellow worn for high

ribbon.

These sashes may occasions$ but have

have been merely it is also likely

being depicted their

ceremonial

rank.

They would not unduly

been worn in battle, targets for

wearers intent

would present on killing for

conspicuous

enemy sharpshooters

officers. of clothing
to have for contain a been

Whoever bare the main responsibility


for the recruits responsibility while to in before embarkation of service the hiring for the

the provision
it provide Archives appears

Continent to

government The Hamilton

clothing however

troops

abroad. Bremer,

commission I of November Hamilton.

Robert at

a merchant, for to clothing furnish

signed

by 3ames Ramsay on the of (7) army of the marquis of

1631

Brandenburg

some of 500 suits capes.

He was required of stockings, foot

clothes, It it is is troops.

500 pairs not likely In clear that most

shoes, from the cases the the

390 pairs letter

and 260 large the bill

who would troubled

eventually, goods necessary 1627

and for

same doubt the

merchants authorities

who provided made the

governmental of

arrangementsfor the Danish English stockings Stadholder troops and

provision

64t- clothing. to provide in Danish

On 16 November Captain service

received certain

instructions French soldiers

Chamberlaints with clothes,

and shoes*.

Captain 800 pairs more but needs., (7) (8) (9)

Chamberlain of stockings

at Copenhagen in 1627 also and 29100 rix dollars

stated 'will

that

he had received doe very littall

which

buy the solldiers of which they stand in great shoes and shirts; (9) The Swedish agent, Didriksson, Oxenstiarna wrote to Chancellor CI/234

Lennoxiove, Hamilton Archivesq T 72/14 Kancellietsetevbyfger 1627-99 248 PRO, State Papers Denmark, SP 75/8/412

312.

in with

December 1625 to inform woollen shirts, government

him that

he had clad

Spens,

whole regiment and breaches. for the (10)

stockings

and shoes as well that it

as jackets

The hiring cost troops. issued

however made sure

was reimbursed from

of clothing

by stopping

the sums required

the wages of the were certainly 1627

Though Captain with

Boswell's

man in Mackay's at Riede near

regiment

shoes and stockings authorities, (11) stage in

the Weser on 4 April from

by the Danish his company. The first

the cost

was deducted

the wages due to

the basic

training

of recruits to respond

is

drill.

Just

as modern squads of recruits on the into ranks barrack-square, fresh units

are taught companies

to words of command

of men in 1630 were browbeaten officers The real with similar

well-disciplined to their

by non-commissioned counterparts. with

twentieth-century (comparable

work of drilling assisted consisted for into all

was done by rotmasters on occasion of six tactical by corporals

modern lance-corporals), by sergeants. A rot unit split

and supervised

men including movements. with

the rotmaster When necessary three

and this

was the basic rot could

the six-man and this

two half-rots

men in each, Adolphus

facilitated IV.

the drill These monarchs of

movements favoured appear Nassau's ranks

by Gustavus

and Christian closely

to have based their reforms, and these

military

exercises involved

upon Maurice and halving

manaeuvres

doubling formation

and columns, and vice

countermarching, versa.

and altering corporalsp eighteen

from column for four the full

to rank

There were six of either

each responsible pikemen charge or twenty either

a corporalship musketeers, complement seventy (10) (11) (12)

which while

consisted

the two sergeants (fifty four

had under men),

their

of pikemen (12) two).

or the musketeers

(numbering

AOSB Ist Series, 111,272 RA Copenhagent TKIA, Milit. Ijb/6/j regnsk. L. Tersmedeng 'Med pik och muskbtf, Aktuellt (Kristianstad 1969), 17-32; Sveriges Krig, v, 306-9; iip 239 Roberts, Gustavus Adolphus,

och historiakt

1969

313.

Efficient place to place

training to suit

in the

marching

simplified

the movement of troops government. claim The

fr. om

requirements

of the hiring and Meldrum could

regiments travelledt

of Mackay,

Ramsay, Hamilton journeying covered

to be farservice

and much of this the distance

was done on foot. by Mackay's regiment

In Danish in its

Monro estimated years English with

three 4t5OO

the Danish

monarch at 898 German miles, however that

approximately fighting

miles.

The fact round

so much of the of the

by the much mileage The

Danes occurred travelling was traversed situation voyages gave little fated of four for

the coasts About ship

and islands miles

Baltic

entailed

by sea.

39900 English or barge in in

of the

above total

on board the

the North

and Baltic though

Seas. the initial

was quite

reverse to Prussia of

Swedish service, and then character Monrots and his the return of the statistics figures

from Stockholm indication the Scottish (mid

to Pomerania future refer travelling to a period

the land

regiments.

years

1629 to mid 1633) 3,900

amounted to 779 The actual lesst was less years with distance the

German miles covered time for

(approximately

English

(13 ) miles). considerably not mean it these four

in Swedish service

was therefore This did

although

concerned the troops, colours

was 30% longer. since totalled between fast

demanding the marched

the marching 3,000 fifteen night

during

Swedish

English

miles.

The average English

distance

per day varied complained Ochsenfurt halt. the This (13) (14) (15) (14 ) Scots

and twenty-five trek led

milesq

but Monro

of the (twenty

by Hepburn from WOrzburg to in seven hours the observation without that a day' (15)

English

miles)

which was covered to substantiate

No evidence

has been found ...

$in case of necessity

are able

to walk 20 German miles milesi

would be the equivalent Monro, Expedition, Monro, Expedition, Woodcut in British

of 100 English

1, Itinerary 11,83 Museum

Appendix

314.

Despite of stationary

the extent service

and frequancy were also

of such movements, by the Scots, indicate

considerable

spells

experienced details three

most commonly where its seven would six

during Mackay's years

the winter. regiment

The following was posted for

the locations during

weeks or longer with in which Danish

service,

and thus a real

indicate

the places

the Scots pay,

have developed months (island eight early in off

sense of familiarityl 1626/7; five Weser,

Holstein, Pool

the winter Wismar),

ton weeks in spring

1627;

weeks in

summer 1627;

Fyen and Laaland coast), 1628;

islands, weeks

months in winter in 1628; Laaland

1627/8; island,

Grossenbrode six Scania, weeks in eight

(Holstein spring

three

Stralsund, thevinter 1628/9.

seven weeks in The situation (Prussia) weeks in Stettin, spring

summer 1628; in

months during

Swedish pay offers

some striking

contrasts,

Braunsberg nine

one year

from mid 1629 to mid 1630; Ppiemhausen (near Stettin),

RGgenwalde (Pomerania) three weeks late five

autumn 1630;

in 1630;

two months in winter 1631;

1630/1; five

Frankfort-on-Oder, weeks during in 1631; summer 1632; three

weeks in

Warben (on the Elbe), three three

summer 1631; ton weeks in near Nuremberg, autumn 1632; emsrges

WOrzburg (on the Main), winter three 1631/2; Munich,

weeks late weeks in

Mainz,

Hersbruck months in

weeks in late three of the

summer 1632;

Nuremberg, 1632/3.

and Augsburg, confirmation conservative between (often or three

months in winter fact that

From these pursued

figures

Gustavus than

Adolphus IV.

a much less is obvious service

military

policy

Christian

The contrast by units winter

the long six

periods

of hibernation

favoured

in Danish sojourn

to eight

months)

and the normal

Swedish

of two

months. soldiers of earlier and later the first ages, half men in mercenary seventeenth units

In comwon with in the armies

of Dormark and Sweden in to appreciate

of the

century

soon learned

the value

of earthworks

and fortifications

315.

which hinder labour during spent

could his than

give

protection

against

the projectiles

of the enemy and

advance.

The Danes appear probably

to have made more use of peasant this was because much of the war whereas the Swedish forces German provinces. fortifications for

the Swedes, though was fought time

1626-9

in Danish

territoryt

most of their

between 1630 and 1633 in alien by Christian attempt IV to build to hold to arrange conscripted

Certainly

workmen were employed in 1627 in

at Boizenburg Lieutenant-Colonel and 13 October.

the vain

the Elbe river-line, their pay on 10 July

!ioatnn was instructed (16) Peasants in 1628. were also (17) in

to construct

a secure

camp at Grossenbroda The situation complained they so often

was different of the digging accustomed high priority

the Swedish army. demanded from the with

The fact troops

that

Monro

shows that

had been less set a very

to such labour

the Danes and that At Schwedtt Frankfort-onW6rzburg

Gustavus

an earthworks.

Oderp Landsbergt and Nuremberg his Such work was not tactical positions

Brandenburg, regiments popular, but also

Werben, TangermOnde# Wittenberg, became expert in

the use of spade and shovel. not busy. only to secure his

but

the king

intended soldiers

to keep his

Monro believed for Sweden than General as to of

more such labour they would ever in three

was performed have performed years, even if that

in one year in

by the Scots

the service

of the States

Holland incentivaq work like but trees also

a bonus payment had been offered four country This Souldiers involved cannot not

but he admitted the Dutch'

endure only

(Germans)S18)

labour

digging,

the destruction

of houses and walls might provide

and the cutting cover.

down of They also and had

and hedges which tasks,

the enemy with

more positive (16) (17) (18)

e. g. the construction

of redoubts

and sconces

RA Copenhagen, TKIA, Militp regnsk. Monro, Expedition, i. 58 iit 39-41 Monro, Expedition,

Ijb/6/I

316.

the well

building

of scaffolding but

to assist their

musketeers. was proved

All

these

labours

may

have been detested,

value

by the consequences. fighting in any one and

The Swedes and Scots of their fortified launched at Alta

were never

defeated

in defensive the initiative

leaguers.

When however strong then

was taken

an assault defences bitterness

on an equally in 1632,

enemy camp, e. g. Wallenstaints of Gustavus learnt the

Feste

the troops

of repulse. essential them with mainly step in making a group of man into a military

A further unit is to issue

arms.

In 1630 a soldier

was distinguished he wore some form in the protective this agreement with the

from a civilian of uniform, value at

by his if

weapons though his colonel still

an occasion believed that rested in

or even armour

of metal.

The Hamilton

contract

indicates items

least

responsibility colonel# de calibre piques

to provide 'Sera tenu Is

these dit

squarely Is dit

recruiting ds musquetta tassets, chacun the

colonell

d1armer fourchattes,

regiment corselets,

ordinaire, moitie (19) 0

bandolierst il

piquesp les officiers

moitis selon

musquetsp This

armera aussi

as qualite. for

does not

however appear

to have been

normal in

practice, Britain.

no evidence

of such buying

has emerged from

records

On the other which marquis wrote showed that of Hamilton independently

hand several the hiring exchanged to Gustavus

instances authorities letters during in

were discovered provided the later first

in

foreign

records

the arms. part half

Reay and the (20) of 1630 and

the

reluctance is clear

of the Swedish agent from a draft

to provide

the agreed

of 1631 about the (21) It armaments. correspondence powdert

memorandum in the king

the marquis

of Hamilton's

dated bullets, 19 20 (21) (22)

8 October

1630 that

muskets9

bandoliersq

of Sweden had promised (22) corslets9 and pikes.

to provide

96 ii, Fras: r, Haddington, cl/193 72/14 T Archivesp Lenn X ova, Ramliton II Gustav Konungen till Skrivelser RA Stockholmt 15Bt 59 Hamilton Reay 6, II Gustav Konungen till Skrivelsor RA Stockholmt Hamilton 6

Adolfs. Adolfs

tidg tidp

317.

Chancellor

Oxenstierna Salvius-side-arms,

wrote

on 29 march 1632 from Frankfort-on-Main him to provide Major Uchtreid

to Johan Adler MacDowall with

instructing

man muskets and pikes for his newly-levied (23) Ramsay's regiment was equipped from Scotland. when they arrived (24) with weapons in Sweden before they were shipped to Prussia. In Danish service in 1626 the free Seaton squadrons of Captains Francis

Hamond and Alexander ments for exceptional records. their

respective is

were issued with musketav swords and accoutre(25) Whether this was normal or companies. explicitly stated army sent The Privy nor apparent to help Council from the IV the

procedure On the other

neither

hand the English authorities.

Christian instructed

was armed by the English Masters with of the Ordinance girdles the

and of the Armoury and hangers request

to furnish (26) It

these

recruits

39000 swordst Council that

or belts.

was to the same

English in

was addressed was taken

to remedy the deficiency of the troops' equipment at 422 these would

weapons found

when an inventory

1201 corsletts, Enkhuizen, (27) 452 gorgetts' pikes, . English forces were treated

8 bandaleirs, But as noted in

527 headpieceag before on several as militia that

206 rests, occasions levies

the same fashion Roberts believes

have been in England. colonel financial with reveal undertook

Professor

the mercenary

to provide for

arms and equipment costs Several

and made adequate terms quoted of contract above however the

allowances

these (28)

when he negotiated of the instances for

a hiring that it

government. was not his half invariable men.

practice

the colonel

to stand

expense of arming In the


(23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28)

first

of the seventeenth

century

armour

was fast

going

108 Series# AOSB let viiq 11,327 Kriq,, Sveriqes IIb/6/I TKIA, Milit. regnsk. RA Copenhagen, 1627,163 APC Jan. -Auo. Denmarkp SP 75/8/72 Papers PRO, State 11,203 Adolphus, Gustavus Roberts,

318.

out

of favourt merely

particularly the helmet

in

the

infantry

ranks.

Some musketeers time of the English pikemen

retained Civil

or morion,

and by the discarded. gorgets for

War even this in 1630 still

had been largely wore helmets, for the torso, Officers and appear in diameter

Swedish

however

the neck and shoulders, and Itasses' for the donned

'back-and-breasts' upper helmet parts

and 'besagues' in charge on occasion

of the limbs.

of pikemen

frequently

and breastplate, two feet

to have used shields pounds in weight. All


By two-edged by and some 1630

approximately Personal
soldiers there rapiers form pointed, without upon soldiers length the of were of bar and cutting point. of were the wore

and as much as twenty either blade


or but was The rapiers for waist most

weapons were basically


swords varieties slung from of length. guard was edges The 1630s uolike and era were at had close an overall (29) round the which of the thus

or firearm.
harness. were

a shoulder in use,

many

swords The the later

considerable or ring

hand hilt.

normally blade which their

protected was were edged

thus

fashioned solely and to the their

depended small-sword encumbered quarters. length

effectiveness not yet dawned, which due dated with the

had with One of

swords

unwieldy 1630

German 551

rapier

approximately alone measuring In the

inches,

blade

46-41 inches. years of

early

Gustavus'

reign

pikemen

were

issued

with

pikes

eighteen to have

feet taken the pike

in

length, in

but most feet heads

reduction European or even

in

the

length in the

of

this

weapon

seems

place

countries only to well

1620s long.

and 1630sp Pikes had

making relatively (flangets'). head the

fifteen metal

thirteen the shaft

feet

small

attached

by long shaft to

side-arms prevent the of

The latter snapped was usually off or

stretched cut off

down the

being pike

by a powerful bass.

sword-cut. Sergeants

The butt were issued

protected

by an iron

(29)

F.

Wilkinsons

Edged

Weapons

(London

1970),

43

319.

with drill,

halberds

which

they

used to straighten

lines

of man during frequently tactics

marching bore partisanE than 1630s stock, also

and officers More important

including for the

company. under-officars future development

of military

pikemen were musketeers. were awkward weapons. and carried bore a rest under or

Like

the pikes

however over

the muskets feet,

of the

They measured well a long

five

including

the barrel three

scouring feet

rod. high

The musketeer which

'fork'

and a half

was used to support or waist he carried were

the weapon when firing. an assortment put of other

From belts equipment

hung from shoulder his musket. Twelve

needed for

His bullets bullets

in a pouch or pocket,

and were quite each approximately because its

light.

were cast Lead was the His

from one pound of lead, chosen as the material, casting coarse process. gunpowder,

one inch point

in diameterg facilitated of powder.

low malting two different

He also for

required

types

use in

the barrelt cartridges

was already in outward

measured out into appearance, a charge. each These worn

wooden containers containing cartridge-type over kept exactly

resembling the correct

amount of powder for

containers

hung separately The finer belt.

from the bandolier-belt powder for Since priming

the musketeer's in a powder flask mainly

shoulder.

the pan was of 1630 i. e. cord and

hung from his he also which for his

the muskets

were still

matchlocks, solution a light

needed a su*pply of matcht burned slowly$ besides flint

soaked in a saltpetre kindling muskets to provide

match.

Wheal-lock popularp

and flint-lock they relieved

were however becoming from worry about

increasingly keeping his

since

the musketeer (30) weather. Stralsund being

match alight

in wet or windy of Hamilton troops from were of

But when Lord Reay wrote is

to the m, arquis that

on 24 December 1630 it with match-locks

clear

the marquis'

equipped

because Reay mentions


(London 1969)p

the difficulties

(30)

F.

Wilkinson,

Antique

Firearms

11-13

320.

obtaining

arms,

bullets for

(31) and match. weapons and ammunition


or 'captain-of-armst The company's under his care from in his

Responsibility
company corporals bullets of to an armourer and

was allotted
these

in

each
to and case

who issued reserve the of

items

rotmastars.

armsp

powder

was transported he sought the keep and army

company's to

wagon draw train.

and in

necessity from to

permission reserves

captain artillery and for

a further He was in

supply expected the

carried list whenever of of

by the weapons

an up-to-date to of arrange the

their the

possessors return to the of

company,

possible soldiers. regiment typical

artillery involved following involved.

store in bill (33) the

weapons of

dead

(32)

The types be seen of the from

weapons

equipping showing

an entire

can

the

a reasonably

account

charges

576 576 576 432 432 ltoca 19008 48

Muskets 02 red. 0 18 Bra Bandoliers Forks 08 Bra Sets of Armour 0 41 red. Pikes G 16 Bra 1 red. Swards CD Helmets aI red. 02 red. Partisans Total

19152 108 48 1,944 72 1#008 19008 96 5,436

red. red. red. red. red. red. red. red. r. d.

It

is

clear

from the above list one third of the total towards

that cost

armour for

for

pikemen

could

constitute

more than factor than

a regiment, pikemen with

hence the economic buff coats rather

urged armour.

governments

equipping

Once soldiers to train (31) (32) (33) the man in

have been equipped their use* Pikes

with

arms it

is

obviously simple

necessary

were relatively

weapons to

T 72/14 Cl/193 Lannoxlove,, Hamilton Archivest Aktuollt L. Tersmeden, 'Med pik och muskdt', och historiskt E. W. Dahlgrenq Louis do Gear 1587-1652TUppsala: - 19 1,. 136 quoted in Sverines Kriqv viii, 127

19699 13

321.

use,

but

strict

training

was needed to prevent a pike over thirteen

serious feet

confusion long in

arising

when each man was wielding situation of the ranks

the confined of muskets

of a formal procedure book,

satpiece

battle.

The firing drill.

was a much more complex Markhamts


mentioned

and required

an intricate published
there into relight

contemporary
forty I musk at

The Souldiers
(34) while (35)

Exercise
in

in 1639,
were actually a working

'postures' for

Bavaria

143 commands musketeer end from correct bullet powder could fine called the lit the amount in with cause powder the the

possible both other of

musketeers. of his of match accidental barrel so that

When going he might

action the

ends in

case

extinction. of his musket

He poured and then upon

the placed the a

powder

down the Next

muzzle.

he rammed the because to any

bullet

down tight bullet

his the

scouring-rodt entire weapon the which

gap between He then his

and powder the pan with

explode. end of bring Having fork this the

primed into match

and clipped serpentine soldier his

working would

match

a mechanism in contact with the the have

burning

pan when the rested

fired.

made all

these

preparations to aim at

musketeer target been

musket (36)

on the Despite

and endeavoured steadying aid

before hard to

firing. attain. have

accuracy but tests and

must with 50%

The maximum range shown only

was 250 yards, at

+Ote- old accuracy a highly Whether

muskets at

30% accuracy (37)

150 metres, of fire

75 metres

distance. point

The speed discussed is unlikely

by musketeers Roberts. (38)

is

controversial attacking or

wall it

by Professor that

defending

musketeers

had the

(34) (35) (36) (37) (38)

(London G. Markhamt Souldiers 1639), Exercise Sveriges Kriq, 106 footnote 3 viii, F. Wilkinson, Antique 14 Firearms,, Sverines Krin, log viii, Robartst Gustavus dolphusl, 11,177 A, footnote

23

322.

opportunity to-hand

to fire

more than

a few rounds

during

a battle a very in

before

handart

combat ensued. played

As musketry a crucial

was clearly role in battles

specialised

and as musketeers century, it is

the seventeenth of a company took and pike in drill,

likely in this

that aspect

the captain of training

and lieutenant than still for

more interest though

in marching

the main work of instruction and rotmasters. within two weeks. rolls of regiments Basic

would training

have resided recruits

the sergeants, to be

corporals, completed

was reckoned

The muster in

illustrate

that than

each unit pikemen.

of infantry The ratio of

the Swedish army included

more musketeers to 4: 3.

musketeers important, protection thus War. played

to pikemen approximated but till the invention This

Firepower.:

was becoming more required who Years

of the bayonet

musketeers

from attack. a primarily

security role

was provided in the battles

by the pikemen, of the Thirty

defensive squares in the front with field

On the battlefield so that of pikement along the line.

of pikemen were placed rank pieces all blocks

between groups alternated at mentioned

of musketeers with blocks

of musketeers placed

of artillery

intervals

Almost

of the memorable assaults

by Monro involved in the success

musketeers.

What appears was not their

to have been most important accuracy their which was far from of to a at once caracole

of musketeers

impressive, their prevent assault

nor their potential.

speed of first Since

but rather

appreciation fighting role,

pikemen tended

in infantry negative these

defeat

and in this attitude stolid

sense to play

a mainly in

corresponding secure, and pistol reliable,

of mind was engendered and dogged in

troops,

the face

of the cavalry of

attack.

By contrast

the musketeers

the 1630s embodied and resource, of the past. the

among infantry 01 . elan

the spirit

of aggression,

initiative

of the future

compared with

the conservatism

323.

Command of a regiment colonelt colonels alongside

in

the field

resided

nominally

in

the

but he was frequently like their Mackay, units Spens, for stay

an absentee. and the earl in

Several 6f Nithsdale

of the Scottish seldom appeared did so

action

the field, Other for

and even when they colonels like

the duration Hamilton were also annual

of their

was short.

Alexander periods rolls abroad and together

and 3ohn Meldrum who served frequently absent Their from their military

slightly

longer

units9 rank

as the muster and social large

registers

show.

position

caused them to gravitate or his virtually generals set

towards

the nearest

town where the king when campaigning

up headquarters. visited

In winterg the capitals to return

ceasedg colonels

of Stockholm home to Britain

or on leave. he too if

Copenhagen or took This left the

the opportunity

lieutenant-colonel

in charge fashion

of a unit.

In fact especially

sometimes his Sir social

behaved in a similar status

to the colonel, For example brother

seemed to demand it. of Meldrum's to this 'elite. regimentv If

Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander presence a regiment group of a

James Hamilton belonged

of Colonel

Hamiltong

the lieutenant-colonel's and command for to the select that

was irregular devolved which

the main burden

of administration seldom belonged it

upon the major. the king,

Majors

surrounded was often in

and thus

may be said soldier all

the major

regiment nature fieldg in

the highest

ranking almost

of a truly his time with

professional troops in the Borthwick

the regiment.

He spent

e. g. Major

Dunbar or Major and Major

Monro in Mackay's Kelly in Nithsdale's majorg

regiment, regiment. captain,

Major

Sinclair's

regimentp

The effective

hierarchy

of command in a unit position lay rather

was therefore outwith this

lieutenant.

The ensign's partly with Lacking in the first

patterng with care

and was concerned of the sick. commanders dependent on

the companyls

colours

and partly

modern means of communication half of the seventeenth century

an the battlefield, were greatly

324.

flags,

usually

called

scolourst,

and drums. concern

Colours of

were possessed and If5rares. cared for for

by every The former

company,

and were the special into Flags battle, served

the ensign the latter

bore the colours other for times.

whereas

them at all

as gathering-points Ignominy

troops to the enemy

and as symbols loss

man to follow colours,

on the march. glory

attached

of a company's

whereas helped

resulted

from capturing

standards

and such success

to build

self-confidence

in companies

and regiments. The importance


Monro's hold chest. failure Tilly to to his narrative. company's As noted insert

of the value
He related colours at

attached

to colours
David being

can be judged
Monro shot returned

from
to

that

Lieutenant after Wilson colours Lauenburg

Oldenburg Major

through because,

the through

(39 )

previously

was demoted in the accord in

a clause the

regarding of

he made with he was obliged were symbolised boasted their

concerning yield his

surrender (40 )

Castle

1627,

standards. To indicate ... could

The company the ever reliability

and the of

regiment his

by the that

standards. extremity

man Monro

'no

make one of

them

runne

away from

Colours. whentha leaving The point


inside yardstick involved standardsp on the

(41 ) 1 'most

He emphasised part

the contrast

at Frankfort-on-Oder disbanded

in 1631

of our souldiers

and officers Souldiers cashiering


were battles cost flying.

me and a few number of honest is likewise stressed


'when and the

to make bootie, (42) to guard my Colours. of a sergeant


#(43) In fact

by his
Colours in

for

brawling

the

regiment for success

Monrols often of three. cavalry their (44)

failure

and minor

skirmishes the to loss

colours. John

Pappenheim's Monro of Obsdale's

victories regiment

many units forced the

being

yield

other

hand

when Thomas

Home of

Carolside,

distinguished

(39) (40) (41) (42) (43) (44)

Monrot Monrot Monro, Monrog Monrot Monro,

Expedition, Expedition, Expedition, Expedition, Expedition, Expedition,

it 21 it 12 ii., 12 iip 33 iis 47 ii, 137

325.

captain, whole three cavalry. eighteen now over the art evidence

fought

heroically

in

the presence

of Oxenstierna

and the of his

Swedish army in troops (45) of horse Sir

the Rhineland was the capture

the measure of of nine

the success

standards with

from the Spanish no less than seem in tangible

3ames Lumsden's (46) but

iinit,

was credited

enemy colours. 300 years old,

Fragile they

and insubstantial occupied

such colours place

clearly century.

an important

of war in the seventeenth of success colours in the field. approximated


normally

They were often

the only

In size,
those for

to six
square or

square
oblongt

feet,

while

in shape
cavalry and

infantry preferred

were

whereas

dragoons design particular by the Scots cross of

swallow-tail was imposed but used or

or

single-point the of pattern. bear the

designs. fighting

No uniform for a given

standard country,

on all

regiments allegiance Thus

some indication the general to

was normally in Danish the service Danish and

tinctures found of

themselves on a red presence

expected field. of

'Dannebrog', objectadg refused sent to

white to the

Mackay's Christian the seek the issue the view

officare:

even

when

summoned They felt

IV still that support that they of Ithey

co-operate. their Not their surpriswill,

so strongly back to

about to took

one of I. obey

captains ingly the

England king

Charles should

British

under

whose pay they referred

were,

in a matter dispute

so indifferentl, letter concern

(47)

The earl monarch but

of

Nithsdale

to this

in his is

to the Danish about the

from Edinburgh shall also bear that

an 31 May 1627, Danish 1(48) cross This

Ithere only

flags,

I but

not

where your also appears

Serenity

commands it

in my heart*

subject

to have been a bone troops. In the

of contention
(45) (46) (47) (48)

between Christian

IV and certain

English

Monrog Expeditiong ii, 104 Scots in G, 112-13 Fischert ermany, Expeditiont 1,2 Monro, RA Copenhageng TKIA9 A. 93

326.

course Captain

of his

informative

letter requested

from Copenhagen on 3 December 1627 a clear decision in from Sir the year Jacob Astley Christian had this us

John Chamberlain

regarding offered offer

the same problem. them Danish colours 'the

Apparently when they king

earlier

were stationed angry with

at Krempe, but us and tould troops

had been declinedp

was very but still

he would make us English unless Pressure lyk other that a direct ruling in

Colerst, favour applied they 1

the English was given

refused Morgan. feared 'it is

of this in will (49)

by General

was again towards

being

December, urge it

and Chamberlain hard upon us iff

the

spring

we have not

order

from our generall.

Most of the standards scenes, eagle, particularly adopted

ranged

against

the Danes displayed The double-headed the early fess fifteenth

religiou3 black century, of

from the New Testament. in

by the Holy Roman Empire and flaw alongside

was also

prominent arms.

the silver

on a red field frequently

the Austrian the Virgin Bavaria. on which horizontal their

The standards

of Tilly's

veterans

showed of

Mary against Those Scots was imposed and a white

a background who served

of the blue

and silver flags

lozenges

Sweden often cross

bore

of light

blue

the Swedish vertical. eagleg

constructed

from a yellow exhibited of their

Against

them the Russians the Russian and Lithuanians

double-headed claims charged

golden

symbol of

assumption ranged

Byzantine red flags and Polish family,

after with

1495t a white

and the Poles eagle

or horseman.

Both the Swedish of the same (50) It was

monarchst

descendants

of different

branches

displayed No rigid

the yellow

garb or sheaf regarding

of the Vasa dynasty. colours was enforced.

uniformity

however

agreed (49) (50)

in

the contract

between Reay and Crosby on 20 April

1631

PRO, State Papers Denmarkt SP 75/8/412 Typed Catalogue Royal Army Museum Stockholmt Colours and Standards.

of Foreign

327.

should be free (51) In fact if and shape. sash, coloured cockade is

that

Crosby

to choose his battle

flags,

both

as regards

colour a

seemed imminent of local vegetation

commanders adopted as the associated indicate colour. writings fought situation with that

or sprig that

demanded. Swedish these

There

no proof Yellow, fought

the colour-names

five

regiments, always

Blue, Green, under utilising flags

Red and White

units

of the appropriate the seventeenth-century thatIthe White

Gunner Nordstrdm of Bogislav under that a white in

however,

van Chemnitz, flag.

has contended quoted

Regiment

He further archives

the evidence

of Reginbaldus

Mdhner volume and

the episcopal illustrations

of Augsburg standard

a seventeenth-century for the for Blue Regiment

contained three White

of a blue

standards Regiments.

each of (52)

the appropriate

colours

the Green and the

The Green Regiment regiment themselves. Regimentp fact unit the formed part

was connected

with

the Scots in which

because this distinguished Green in This

of the

Green Brigade link

Scots

Though there and though

was this

between Scots

and the

John Hepburn commanded this was almost entirely

regiment

in 1630,

Green Regiment

composed of Germans. troops in sent

stemmed strangely

enough from Brandenburg on'the Catholic side

to reinforce Years War, Swedish service. in

the Polish but in July Almost

army in Prussia 1627 they

the Thirty

switched

their

allegiance

and entered

for the Green Regiment the the rolls muster on shown names all (53) But when Gustavus decided in 1631 to incorporate 1630 are German. the regiments of Mackay, Ramsay and Hamilton and put this into one brigade he joined

them to the Green Regiment of John Hepburn. (51) (52) Thus both

new Green Brigade served

under in

the control the Green

Germans and Scots

together

(53)

Reay 5. till RA Stockholm# Skrivelser Konungen Gustav II Adolfs tid, 'Regiments Jaune# Bleut Vert, Rouge ot Blanc do l'Ancienne G. Nordstr8mq (Paris 1950). Revue Internationals Arm4s Suedoisel, Militaire d'Histoirs 345-6 viii, Rullor, KA Stockholm, 1630/22/156

328.

Brigade. for a very

In fact short

however period,

the really

Green Brigade for

retained

a distinct September

identity and his

the months between

November 1631 during command. even till

which

Braitenfeld parts

was won and Hepburn retained of the brigade was not regiment
for

Though the component 1634 the term within


trumpets

remained

in

1632 and

'Green

Brigade'

used. was achieved mainly


cavalryg

Communication
drums. since they Bugles almost answered all to and

an infantry
were soldiers of the

through
and

reserved in drum. in

the

use

of

the

Scottish the beat

foreign

service these the

were troops

infantry had in drum Civil War in and in the fact

Many of response to At six

originally beaten in the at

joined the local

foreign town appear at $Scots

service or village to have Call

recruiting of the

cross. sounded to the

the main

time

England morningt (54)

drummers Tattoo The at

beats, Marchg troops

Reveille Battle lost

night, March#

Colours, to recall sounded to

Retreat. smoke of orders Every usually roll of

was beaten It was also

battle

Breitenfeld. in 1632 in in

on Oxenstierna's the (55) enemy. and on the

at

Donauw6rth

a vain service to

attempt

frighten two

Scottish a piper the of

company as well,

Swedish in addition

mustered a drum also of major

drummers

who appeared in

regimental solemnity. the Articles

staff. At the of

Drums initial which

were

instrumental a regiment soldier that

imparting

a sense 'publishing into

muster bound the

before on entrance this was a and

War'

every message

foreign of

service, great

drummers They

beat were

out also

moment other

occasion. penalties.

sounded

before

executions

disciplinary With

a well-established

programme in the field

of

training it might

and a planned appear that

system from the

of

command and communication

(54) (55)

Battles H. C. B. Rogers, and Generals (London 1968)9 29 ii, Expedition, 66,113 Monrot

of

the

Civil

Wars 1642-51

329.

military

point

of view unit,

the army of the early over

seventeenth a unified life for

century whole. those

was a But

compact established

19000 man forming of military

one of the most frustrating in All recruiting organisations of this or training face

aspects

engaged men. the

must have been the wastage the problem varies of changes the

of trained but

in personnel,

intensity reasons rapid. all

problem

with

organisation. regiments

For several was extremely

the turnover Desertion, to create shifting. records


to there

in personnel death, injury,

in mercenary capture, in which

promotion

or resignation, of units was

helped

a situation

the composition

constantly Foreign
is not

very
calculate can

seldom give
exact

details
to it

of desertiong
indicate the

and hence it
extent of the of from

possible but

figures doubt that

problem, huge Britain, but in the March

be little

was a chronic even before was rife his

problem embarkation in

dimensions. has causes 16279 already

The frequency been noted.

of

dosertiong

The same problem found they from to many of

Germany,

varied. he blamed

When Morgan the treatment originated have

men had absconded from their ts Inn, so in the

had received 'Gray's play Inn, the

officers. or that time Middle they

The latter Temple, can to where

often they

Lincoln,

learned to

mauvais to

gargon but

hardly bring

be made fit them necks. ' to better

know what experiencep

belongs or else

command, I'll

I hope break

show them missing on the running lost thaset pay for their

way to captainst gallowst . away of colours 'seduced them

their

He particularly whose

castigated names should the in

the

sergeants being the rest.

and drummers, officers

be 'nailed of the

themselves ' off lt400 in

and partly later two

cause year

new recruits bands of one or

the

soon

and went by more or four

hundred. any master

Some of

experienced dollars

rogues@, (56) each.

sought Morgan

who would the Scots

three

singled

out

(56)

Bellert

'Military

Expedition

of Morgan 1627-91, EHR x1iii

(1926

530

330.

special thitmaight 'The our kings

criticism. Companies gives fall of 1628, with they the '1 them into

In of

his

letter

from

Stads

on I

November disorderly shows

1627

he complained and rude.

Scotts

and radd-shankes'were but only or bread mischiefs. from with more and they '( 57 )

no pays anie

the

ways

for

man to

tumult

He was little

more on 25

anamoured January especially of to late

Scots

when he reported hare who are ...

the

same garrison

am much troubled their officers, prooffe of our had

ye new Scotch debauched them refused then to

regiment, ye rest, which j58) s. as

gave

me good

I required they

muster,

ye great

disadvantage desertion

occasions to

with

much stubborne neither

Nevertheless

be expected

when men received

money nor clothes. year. his He believed soldiers

Even Morgan himself in October 1628 that

had not if

been paid offer report

for only

a whole clhthes,

he could Grubbs's

would return

to the colours. the

to Gustavus caused

Adolphus

in September

1632 revealed

extent

of the confusion He stated that

by desertions

and fraudulent root

re-enlistments.

'a great

abuse has taken other, indeed

among soldiers#

to run away from one army to the and since marcenaribs.

sometimes supply 'not

from one company to anotherl many new men are recruited, so that up their
Injury it might enemy. it is

were in short who desert to help


side at

but the same ones, service than

from other

regimentst to fill
' (59)

many do no other numbers and exhaust


and death be expected When the not in action

new recruiters
the of muster-places. military by contact is recalledg life,

the countryare occupational would

hazards

but with

that poor

these quality that

losses of feuds

be incurred the within early recruits units

the

many of

howeverp regiments Monro

surprising were second

and between century.

on the reached

same side only the

common in page of

the his

seventeenth

(57) (58) (59)

PRO, State papers Denmarkp SP 75/8/378 PRO, State Papers Denmarky SP 75/9/28 11,218 footnote Robertsq Gustavus Adolphus,

331.

narrative (loss over

before

he mentioned

one of Mackay's

soldiers

being

mutilated clashed

of a finger) disputes

by a German captain. shipping arose for

Infantry embarkation the Scots (60 )

and cavalry

regarding conflict

at Poel in 1627, and the Rhinegrava's in 1630 a confrontation of

and a similar

between

horsemen at Assens shortly between the troops Governor

afterwards. regiment which

Early

of Meldrum's place

and the

trumormeistert conditions

Von Essen took officer, Meldrum's trial. the

illustrates a complaint

in East Prussia. inhabitants, quarters but back men

Von Essen's rode into without

investigating

by the

local

camp and caused a soldier inajor sought redress

to be hanged in his from the Chancellor, and sent by Moldrum's

Meldrum's trumormeistarl

meanwhile

had gone by ship

to Elbing

some of his who shot

cavalry.

These were ambushed near Pillau seized

at them,

two of the horsemen and hanged them. the verdict of which is not

The outcome

was a court-martial Chancellor Oxenstierna

at Elbingq

recorded. serious enough by 2 May. (61)

had considered

Von Essen's

actions

on 28 February

16309 but

the whole case had become unprecedented disregard


it for

Though such mutual


caused powerful national seventeenth had a separate soldier's unit idea difficult situations,

between men on foot


appears conflict. somewhat each Yet of that national It is true in

and man on horsebqck


rivalries of the which course early broke out were that also

as motivating consciousness century specific of been, Britain#

forces was still and also cause.

undefined the disputes

that

no matter or Denmark been

how vague

a particular geographic the difference were of intensified

Germany to

as a national aware of

may have Scat, of

he appears

have

well such

between in times

German and Dana. dispute or hardship.

(As )

always Likewise

distinctions

when many instances

(60) (61)

Expeditiong Monro, Seriesp AOSB, lst

29 27t vp 308

ij

34

332.

Scottish-German that in some degree evidence Relations but

rivalry

made their

appearance,

it

is

quite

probable not constantly

of xenophobia ever just Danish

was an influential

factoro

below the surface. troops were far 1628, Danish from cordial at times. When troops

with

based an the island became involved in

of Femern in fighting with General with

the English soldierst rations.

and Scottish

Danes had been issued between the English December 1628. was raging are so nasty in

more generous

because the allegedly (62) Feelings ran high Rantzau on his of Gluckstadt mind, since 'the in

Morgan and Governor had other problems

The Governor the town, kepte

plague houses

but Morgan laid and the place

the blame on Rantzau, so vile, that

and il

the Governour

seem6th more fitt brave English his bin soldiers. forces '

to keepe hoggs then Indeed Rantzau

to have the commande of soe manie refused to allow the and training 'Veryly the Haven. ' had I (63)

had at first

to disembark,

ordering

them out of

the harbour

cannon on the English in the towne, I would

ships.

Morgan commented angrilyr him headlong be equally


the Rhineland in the

have throwne service could


in

into

Incidents
deliberately captain Scots Colonel German of had

in Swedish
locked out of

turbulent,
in 1632

Monro was
by a German and the (64) garrison. of a

Bacharach supposedly as his

the to

Red Regimentt entry of

an ally though life (65 )

same army,

gain Monro in

by a rusep Obsdals pay to lost in

against due to

a hostile the linsolency,

John regiment

Swedish

1633.

An intriguing 1631 rivalries. between indicates

inciddnt the

reported complex the

by Chancellor nature king (62) (63) (64) (65) of that the

Oxenstierna web of factors tumult

Gustavus involved

on 7 July in in these

He informed the infantry

a serious

had arisen

Braunsberg

Monro, Expedition, PRO, State Papers Monro, Expeditiong Monro, Expedition,

iv 61 Denmarkp 11,97 178 iij

SP 75/9/3089

75/9/324

333.

there major

and two companies and a captain

of cavalry

under neither

Streuff's fatallyp

squadron. but eight

The town or nine

had been shott The immediate

men had been slain. (unfortunately the their

cause epears

to have been a game detail) the between Germans, that danger. to (66)

the Chancellor

provided

no more exact

Germans and the Scots. compatriots,

The horsemen tried escalated the entire

to help

and the tussle about

to the

extent

Oxenstierna

was concerned either

town being rivalry

put in

There was no lack judge

of Anglo-Scottish letters.

and jealousy,

from the Chancellor's

The earl

of Crawford

seems to of

have been unable Spens''Englishl Lieutenant-Colonel Quartermaster in a trial

to work harmoniously with (67) Nor was the regiment. James Montgomery (68)

the English day of in

officers past.

the duel

was killed

combat on horseback

by wounded

Bulliont of strength

and Lieutenant

with lethal

Andrew Monro was mortally (69) All these a German named Ranso. hostility did not necessarily

instances

reveal

that

emanate from even when which to

the enemy camp alone. there fight. When troops that upset public

Violence

and death

were seldom distant a common cause for

was a common paymaster

and supposedly

behaved so irresponsibly in the countryside numbers of under a strict

among themselves

it

is

obvious

law and order

was bound to be seriously troops. system To combat this of martial law was

by the presence rigorous Martial

of large

situation operated.

discipline

law depended upon the king's of War. This

Articles

of War which over of by the men

were enforced senior officer

by a Council present those

body was presided and a jury i. e.

assisted holding

by an auditor posts,

thirteen

drawn from all corporal. (66) (67) (68) (69) Half

promoted staff

from captain held ranks

down to associated

of the regimental

of a unit

AOSB Ist Seriesp AOSB Ist Series, Monro, Expedition, Monrot Expedition,

vi, 376-7 vi, vi, 474; 11,99 1,82-83

42,58

334.

with in

the enforcement 1629 each had four to the Court

of discipline. provosts, four

The units stock-knights

of Hamilton

and Meldrum one

(men-at-arms),

clerk

executioner in the trial,

(also War known as the 'blood-scrivert), of and one (70) (hangman). The regimental provost acted as prosecutor while clemency could be sought on behalf of the accused

by the ensign

of the company concerned. was not always capital or in nature, 'loupgarthel but generally the prisoner while severe. was

The penalty Whipping stripped the

was common. to the waist a furlong

In the

'gatlopt

and beaten in length

by 200 of his between their for

colleagues files.

he ran

gauntlet

Just tails the rods

as in naval rested

discipline with

where the responsibility in

the cat-ol-nine armies

the master-at-arms, were all was laid cut

the Scandinavian

whipping Whipping other

according

to the instructions for ill-treating was put

used for (71) of the provost. peasants. in irons with For his

down as the penal'ty

contraventions

of the law the victim head. could For minor last

hands bound above his extra normal sentry-dutyg span,

offences

the culprit hours

was awarded beyond the while seated under

which

as long

as nine

or the humiliation It like occasions


a Scot a peasant

of being

mocked publicly that (72) of death

on a wooden horse. correction felt,

can wall Monro,

be imagined of life*. penalty


ranks,

many soldiers

tweary

On other
In the Danish daughter

the ultimate
from with the

itself

was exacted.
of raping

service of

MA'dMyerp

was accused and the the

whom he was quartered, of War. case Even when concerning of the law

capital was Mackenzie's out.

sentence inconclusive,

was decreed

by a Council claimed the full

evidence of

as Monro charge,

was the

three

men on a similar

severity

was meted

(70) (71) (72)

1629/18/22 KA Stockholmv Rullorg for Provosts were also responsible 11,113 Monro, Expedition, 1,44-45 Monro, Expeditiong

fire

security

in

camp.

335.

They were sent evidence valour in in they

to Copenhagen in were later in

irons (73 )

and despite Nor did

the

lack

of adequate outstanding

executed.

Andrew Monro's post

at Stralsund

1628 save him from the execution

at Stettin

the summer of 1631 when he was convicted of beating (74) his own house. This explains why an executioner member of the regimental a civilian staff and why it

a German b rger_ was considered was laid out death uictim down the sentences. by hanging was allowed

an essential that It at the if

he was absent

had to be hired for a soldier

to carry

was considered

dishonourable

to suffer cases the

the hands of an executioner. lesser indignity At least of being five shot

In special by his

falloWlcomrades regiment died

or of being at the execution

beheaded. post

men of Mackay's

from the bullets A limited degree

of firing-squads. of clemency was apparent in the treatment of the to

man of John Monro of Assynt's spend four and they shouting resulted. corporalships in but each group. then other consecutive nights

company in 1628. without quarters of rousing with

They had been forced in the streets

of Stralsundt and of War its three

had mutinied that It they

to the extent take

the burgomaster him. A Council into

would that

up residence

decided and that

the company should draw lots

draw apart till the

each should

gallows

was drawn

The outcome was the selection regimental only officers die. interceded Further (75)

of two Scots and a further lots

and abane, concession

was granted. three,

one should

were drawn among the

and finally The nature

the Dane was hanged. of a mercenary's Scottish take soldier

occupation in Danish

caused death

to shadow the the form ftem

career this

of every death might

or Swedish payg but normally resulted

varied.

Death in battle

(73) (74) (75)

Monro, Monro, Monro,

Expeditiong Expeditiont Expaditiong

iv 41-429 iit 47 iq 64-65

62

336.

from bullet. otherst his It is

being

shott

either

by a cannon-ball twenty eight persons

or more frequently killed thus in this

by a musket manner and seventeen According to

Monro listed including

himself

thrice,

as being

wounded.

account is possibly

fourteen

men had their to note

heads blasted that in his

away by one cannon-balls entire book only one man

significant

actually

stated

to have been killed (76)

by a pike-thrust, hand he implied the unfortunate

and he was a that victims in the

Scot

on the enemy side.

On the other of garrisons

sack of towns or slaughter literally Nordstrand 'cut

were

down# by sword or pike.

In a communication Dorchester in Outland hertofore out General with being of their

from

on 12 May 1629 to Secretary and his 'Certaine regiment Scotts

Morgan charged treatment in amongst promising

the duke of Serboni of Scot -tish troops.

barbarous driven

them by tempest all Courtesie,

he caused

them to be taken all the best

shippes

then he took

they

had from their sacked

backs and by

afterwardes Dragons'

caused them all (77) (dragoons). forms


might regiment

to be most viely

and murdered

Other
ranks. of did Life

of violent
be lost in

death

however caused depletion


e. g. the three

of the Scottish
entire companies Monro but exploding Foraging he

by shipwreckv or the

Conway's not

1631, any danger in

Aberdeen of death which cases

disaster from

of

1637.

actually out the

instance serious

cases to life

explosions, from

pointed powder.

resulted in

Many were too, the

'spoiled' especially vicinity.

two

such

Danish

service. or auxiliary

was hazardous units were in

when the Monro lost

enemy three

'Crabbats' of his

own servants

in

this

fashion. to detest detached


(76) (77) (78)

(78)

Almost

as lethal in

were the local

inhabitants

who tended

both sides from their

the war and to strike

down any men who became captains are known

companies.
il Ill Denmark, 11,144

Three 4W- the Scottish


66 SP 75/10/163

Monro, Expedition, PRO, State Papers Monro, Expedition,

337.

to have suffered James Lyal

this

fatet

Boswell

at the Weser in

1627 in service.

Danish

service,

and

in Westphalia occasions in

and Dunbar at Ulm in the peasants

Swedish

On other

were the victims

in such skirmishes$ and some Danish four peasants boors

e. g. when a dispute about their quartering (79) lives.

May 1628 between Captain men resulted statement hold in that a fracas

Mackenzie in which

of his Turner's to lay

lost and

he 'had learnd ... that

so much cunning for nothing,

become so vigilant horses, frequently peasants 1628. clothes,

on opportunities suggests

and wanted the native

meate or money'(80)

inhabitants

were

the victims could

of such exploitation. was illustrated that the

The type in Ruthven's German cavalry and that their they

of abuse to which letter of 23 August and

be subjected

He complained 'give with

to Gustavus

at Wittenburg are not to be

Haffenburg satisfied

annoyance any quantity It

to the people, of grass is against for

horsest

but are also of pillage,

consuming

the people's plunder Normally retaliated that

corn. 1(81) the ferocity in

this

background becomes readily

' rape and

of the peasants of large

understandable. the local populace opportunity.

powerless furiously

the face whenever peasants

units

of

troops,

circumstances struck truce

provided

a favourable

On one occasion soldiers of local cruelly

Danish

down in

who had surrendered resentment is

under

vengeance (82) conditions. comment that to plunder) their

unarmed Imperialist A similar in Bavaria expression 'Boors their

illustrated (that

by Monro's went aside pulling out

used our Souldiers

noses and ears, Guilman reported

hands and feete, from Falkenberg

off cutting ) Richard eyes. 1(83 Captain

in

on 2 January

1632 that

Needham had

been Ifowly A recruit without Lieutenant


(79) (80) (81) (82) (83) (84)

murdered could the

by an druncken not risk expect

mang pistolld

dead by a Russian. ' of the military arts

to make a profession Few Scats Monro,

running Rosst

of injury. David

escaped unscathed. Hepburn and

Lieutenant

Colonel

ip 61 Expedition, Monro, Turner# 7 Memoirs, Papers, CD 246/28/15 SRO, Pringle and Yair of Whytbank 1,46 Monro, Expedition, 11,122 Monro, Expedition, T72/14 CI/265 Archives, Hamilton Lennoxlove,

33B.

Captain of his

Mackenzie lower limbs

were all

struck shot

in

the

log,

and David were hit

Ross had one in the feetv was The


and James not

completely

away.

Others

e. g. Colonel

Robert feet

Monro of Foulis

and Hector from

Monro. the

The latter

wounded in both
body Ensign Ramsay always Captain (shot these proved

and had to be carried


for in Ensign the in David

battlefield.
in the chest) and Sir head eye, did but

vulnerable (struck injuries fatal.

Monro

(hit

Lindsay incurred prove Innes through serious Robert

shoulder). arm.

Captain Even wounds a bullet in the to

Douglas in in head) have the the

the

Hugh Murray Monro must

survived (both all shot

and Hector the throat)

and Captain succumbed to

Trail

be presumad

injuries. Monro the chronicler earned his promotions through being in

the thick

of the action thrice injuries.

hnd being his

wounded several deflected

times.

Fortune which could

favoured have

him too in that caused him fatal point Early of his

equipment

bullets

He was hurt which

at Oldenburg off

in 1627 by the

own partisan

had been shot

by a cannon-ball. damage by his he was burned in the summer

Ekernf; in 1628 at ;-, which deflected in

rde he was saved from serious a bullet. the church in his knee, Shortly there. afterwards At Stralsund

sword-hilt

by a powder explosion of 1628 a bullet treatment the but

lodged

and he required till

to seek expert with hanch-bonel The

in Copenhagen. Feste in

He then

survived

the confrontqtion 'above by his the left scabbard.

enemy at Alto the main impact

1632 when he was shot had been taken set in,

of the bullet

wound was neglected enough to survive Augsburg treatment on foot. (85) his horse

at Nuremberg and fever to be fully fellt before cured his

but Monro was fortunate Finally in 1633 at

at Dinkelsbhl. leg underneath.

pinning

Six weeks of of commanding

elapsed (85)

the Scottish

colonel

was capable

Monro,

Expeditionj

ip

18t 519 75;

iiq

1499 173

339.

To deal staff tants. without irons

with

injured (also

man every called their patients achieve

colonel

included along with

in his their

regimental two assis-

two surgeons

fbarbersl)p methods in

Howavar primitive anaesthatic these surgeons for did

the amputation

of limbs

and the cauterization a considerable own way quite for

of wounds by red-hot

number of successful expert these at the fitting barbers were the wound of

operations. wooden logs problems there

They were in their or streensig

More difficult

posed by illnesses. they could

Once gangrene do,

set

in

from a septic

was little

e. g. the deaths 1633. Nor could

of Sir they

John Home of Ayton cope with which he diseases.

1628 and Robert Monro noted described He also Hamilton's 1631 that admitted suffered

Monro of Foulis

by name sixteen

men who died 'pest#,

from illnesses 'fever#, of plague 'ague# in

variously said that

as 'plague',

and $consumption#. of

200 men per week died The marquis sick

the marquis

army in 1631. he had 1,400 that for they no less

reported men.

from Kustrin in

on 13 October 1630 Monro Turner 1638. (87) were


1628

or 1,500

At Schivelbein

'knew not than

the clean

from the foule.

(86) 1 ague in

seventeen

weeks of tertian hight


King

When casualties
made. to the the the afford After the

were particularly
expedition Urne but

spacial

arrangements

Femern

Christian the

IV wrote

on 7 April to in which

Commissary care troops services to of

Christopher the surgeonsg quartered such

commending also ordering surgeons

injured if

and burned the places should however did

that the (88)

were of

lacked

Commissary Those tended Forbeso

procure who could

medical

men elsewhere. to have their wounds

move to

Copenhagen Saatonq

so, After were

e. g. the left

Lieutenant-Colonel fierce fighting at

and Captains four years

Mackie later

and

Alto

Feste

many soldiers

(86)

Monro,

Expedition,

11,109

53;
Konungen Gustav II Adolfs tid,

(87) (88)

till RA'Stockholmg Skrivelser Hamilton 22 11 Memoirs, Turner, Kancelliets Brevi, 6ger 1627-9f

376

340.

under

medical

care

at Nuremberg. Gustavus

In fact Adolphus

all

along

the routes

followed out of the from

by the Swedish army under ranks KOstrin malades and being left

men were falling of Hamilton's sont villagest,

in hospitals. 1631 indicated lesquals j'ay

The marquis that loges

letter demeures (89)

on 14 September par Is chemin, roll for

'plusieurs dans les

but

the muster of an actual regiments sick three

Captain

John Hamilton

in 1632 makes definite Hamilton for

mention and Meldrum

hospital

at WOrzburg. set

Of the original of muster in rolls

of 16299 the single as follows:

1632 shows the five at Bingen, five to

distributed

- thirteen eight

the leaguer, at Mainz, four

at Wormsq twenty

at W6rzburg9

at Koblenzt appear their

at Windsheim, have tried wounds. put into

and two at Aschaffenburg. the unit in

Two other the Rhineland but

soldiers despite they

to keep up with They had both the care

been injured

at Koblenzq along

were eventually at

Wi)rzburg,

further of hospitals (90) and at Windsheim. strength of every

the line

of march,

The effective at least


ten

regiment

was normally roll


garrison the Monro, three

reduced than
in

by

10% by sickness.
in rose service Stewart, in 1638 forty a company, much higher. in 1637,

Seldom does a muster


and the figures for of

show less
towns Scottish

men sick

winter regiments

frequently in Swedish

The history those of Robert

Alexander of but three this in fact. course were three Monro's had lost

Cunningham Stewart's of the in and ninety

and Robert regiment year

provides never five

a clear

illustration strength, eighty

exceeded dead totals

350 in

he lost

and at were Only

least

sick dead

September. one sick had arrived dead. (89) (90) (91) (91) It in

Cunningham's the in

similar# companies months that

thirty of

same month. June, but within not

two

regiment seventy were tidt two

three surprising till

they

is

therefore Skrivelser Rullort Rullor,

these Gustav

regiments II Adolfs

RA Stockholm, 19 Hamilton KA Stackholmt KA Stockholm,

Kanungen

1632/31/87-102 1638/26/173-7

341.

amalgamated for these

in 1639.

The Oder valley

may have been especially in Stettin, the lower of deaths

unhealthy, Greif-

three

regiments all

were quartered on or around

Dammp Marwitzt

fenhagen

and Gollnow, had exacted

Oder river,

the same in of Stewart which

area which the marquis

such a heavy toll army in 1631. and added into of 684, is not

from sickness

of Hamilton's

By May 1639 the units Cunningham's regiment

and Monro had been jolned' showed a combined strength (92 ) The unit away to 255. Some of this accounted Covenanters, a crucial It losses for rapid decline

but by August listed at all

1640 it in

had withered years. may be

1641 and later regiments by the

in the size

of the Scottish

by troops but it is

returning also likely

to Scotland that of this disease

as requested

was continuing Ten. )

to be

factor.

(See discussion

in Chapter century

was recognised in military

in the seventeenth resulted

that

the greatest It

personnel

from sickness these their evils

and desertions. by treating for the

was hoped to avertg soldiers company. ' rotmaster men of his company. supervising responsibility earlierg appears military an ensign (92) carried in

or at least Ithey

minimiset lost not

such a way that To this end care after his

affection

of the sick rot,

was a shared being

responsibility, concerned for his for entire of

each the

looking

each corporal

corporalshipp

and ultimately

each captain bore

But two company officers arrangementafor for

in particular Both those

the burden already

the sick.

officers

shared

the colours

of the company. in battlet

The ensign, other side

as noted occasions of the sought such a in

the company flag the

but on all

to have represented hierarchy. above those

'human$ or sympathetic extolled any other the qualities officer,

De la Chapelle required for

since

KA Stockholm,

Rullor,

1640/17/322-41

342.

person integrity. expected assistant behind his

reflected

the honour for

of

the company in his the accused in

behaviour

and and was

He interceded to take in this a genuine task

in a court-martial of his men.

interest

the health

His

was the

If6raref.

The If6rarel

bore the colours but when in camp the corporgls ill. He had to in the

the ensign

when the company was on the march, the sick regarding and liaise

main task ensign

was to visit and captain for (93) those

between

and the

men who had fallen

make arrangements company's Other war, wagon. losses

who were unfit

to march to travel

in personnel

were occasioned of besieged both

when by the fortunes garrisonsp for troops

of were

and in particular by the enemy. of wholesale the defence Imperialists, that early

the surrender Monro criticised

captured guilty after by the

sides

at times

being

killing

of the soldiers stubborno

of a capitulating

garrison taken

had been notably

e. g. Neu Brandenburg by the Swedes. into

and Erankfort-on-Oder in 1631 Ensign

Monro also Neu Brandenburg

mentioned with

Graham was sent

a troop

of dragoons and kill

and to plunder that the

to seek out Tilly's sick and wounded soldiers (94 ) them. The Scottish chronicler contended behaved in a similar mainly with because it fashion. was customary side. Normally for of while and also Even a

Imperial

'Crabbats' were taken, service

however prisoners defeated allegiance In captivity because

men to take

the successful

Transfer soldier

to the victors could not

occurred expect

because the ordinary original