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2. Describe the characteristics of Valuable Information.

4. Write a short note on Management Information Systems 5. Diagram and types of Output !eport" MIS is a communication process which enables flow of information to be recorded, stored and retrieved for decisions on planning, operating the organization. Input # $rocessor # Output # Information % Information !ecorded& Stored& !etrie'ed& $rocessed& Summarised& (lassified # !eport Decision # )o plan& Operate * (ontrol System. An MIS provides managers with information and support for effective decision making, and provides feedback on daily operations.

Output or reports, are usually generated through accumulation of transaction processing data. sed for generating reports including inventory status reports, financial statements, performance reports etc.

!eports are essential for analyzing different aspects of business. "elp to answer #what$if# %uestions like what would be the effect on cash flows of a company if the credit term is changed for its customers etc. &ach MIS is an integrated collection of subsystems, which are typically organized along functional lines within an organization. 'unctional Aspect of MIS $ MIS is an integrated collection of functional information systems, each supporting particular functional areas. Diagram + ,usiness )ransaction # )ransaction processing system # Data base of 'alid transaction e.ternal data # Organisation MIS /ccounting & Mar0eting & 1!M& $roduction * Operation" # !eports 2.ception & Demand& 3ey%indicator& Schedule"

Outputs of a Management Information System Scheduled reports (roduced periodically, or on a schedule )daily, weekly, monthly* 3ey%indicator reports Summarizes the previous day+s critical activities ,ypically available at the beginning of each day Demand reports -ives certain information at a manager+s re%uest 2.ception reports Automatically produced when a situation is unusual or re%uires management action. 4. What are the characteristics of an MIS5 Describe. 6. (omprehensi'e in nature, ,ransaction as well as Information processing systems designed for decision making and control at all levels of the organisation. 2. MIS is rationally Integrated system. Integrates various subsystem and passing information )data* among various subsystem. It provides more timely , complete . relevent Information where and when is to be needed.

7. MIS is a (oordinated system, /omponents of MIS are developed and operated in a planned and coordinated way so that MIS becomes cost effective. &fficiency of MIS means to acheive organisational ob0ectives. 4. MIS transforms data into information , !aw 1ata 2 (rocessing on this !aw data 2 than it becomes meaning information 2 this information helps manager in decision making process. 5. MIS aims at providing only rele'ant information, It is necessary because managers often complain that they are over$burdened with a variety of information which hinders their efficiency. 4. 3hile designing MIS, a fact is borne in mind that it should conform to managers styles and characteristics who will use the information. A uniform information system does not suit to all types of managers. 'or technical personnel and professionals, information system has to be designed according to their specialised 0obs. 8. MIS should emphasise on selecti'e sharing of data. 3hich user will have access to particular data and which user will not have this facility. In organization, there may be some data, particularly of confidential nature. MIS is not the complete sharing of data. 9. MIS Should provide feedbac0 about its own efficiency and effectivness. ,hree aspects are taken into account 2 /ost45enefit , Supply of relevant and timely information and systemic failure.

9" What are the t:o types of )ransaction process Systems5 Dra: a schematic representation and e.plain each one of these. )ransaction 5asic business operations such as customer orders, purchase orders, receipts, time cards, invoices, and payroll checks in an organization )ransaction processing systems )$S" (erform routine operations and serve as a foundation for other systems. ,(S are computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business. ):o types of )$S+ ,atch processing A system whereby business transactions are accumulated over a period of time and prepared for processing as a single unit or batch, ,he processing batch can be daily, weekly or even monthly.

On%line transaction processing O;)$" A system whereby each transaction is processed immediately, without the delay of accumulating transactions into a batch.

<. Ob=ecti'es of )$S (rocess data generated by and about transactions Maintain a high degree of accuracy &nsure data and information integrity and accuracy (roduce timely documents and reports

Increase labour efficiency "elp provide increased and enhanced service "elp build and maintain customer loyalty Achieve competitive advantage

6>.2.plain )ransaction $rocessing (ycle :ith an e.ample . ?M(@ $*@ !e'enue (ycle $ &vents related to distribution of goods and services to other entities and collection of payments 2.penditure (ycle $ &vents related to ac%uisition of goods and services from other entities and ,making payments for that. $roduction (ycle 2 &vents related to conversion of various inputs into finished goods and services ?inance (ycle 2 &vents related to ac%uisition and management of capital funds )ransaction Input + &ither by manual system based on transaction document or by direct entry in the form of source data automation like scanner etc. Data Validation + 1ata validation is testing of input data records to determine if they are correct and complete. 6alidation tests are applied against each data item or set of items. $rocessing )ransaction + 3hen input data items are validated, the valid records are processed. ,wo ma0or activities occur during this stage 2 updating of stored data )Master file* and preparation of outputs.

Data (ollection # editing # (orrection # Manipulation # storage # Document $roduction. 66.;ist the common Office /utomation /pplications and e.plain any three of these. ?unctions of an Office + !eceiving . /ollecting Information !ecording . (reserving Information (rocessing . Arranging Information /ommunication of Information Office Automation Systems )OAS* provides all the information that a manager needs %uickly and in the form that he needs.

As a disseminator, the manager supplies the information to those who work under his supervision.OAS helps the manager to disseminate this information %uickly and effectively. In his role as a liaison)a channel for communication between group ), the manager receives the information from the environment as well as various organizations units. ,he e7tent to which OAS is effective, the manager can perform his liaison effectively. ,he managers effectiveness as a spokesperson depends to a very great e7tent on how the OAS have been organized and how the manager uses it. Ma=or applications of O/S 8. 3ord (rocessing ;. 1ocument imaging 9. 1esktop (ublishing <. &lectronic Mail :. 6ideote7 =. 6oice mail @. 6ideo /onferencing

>. &lectronic /alendaring ?. Audio /onferencing

62.Write a short note on Decision Support System. 67. ?eature * (haractertistics 1SS provides information for making semi 2 structured and unstructured decision, 1SS basic use is in the area of planning, analysing alternatives , and search for solutions. 1SS is a user friendly softwear. It is ne7t evolutionary step after MIS. 1SS is not fully illustrative )clarifying by use of e7amples or serving to demonstrate*.

?eatures + 8. 1SS are designed to deliver capabilities 9. 'ocused on specific decisions :. 'le7ibility and Auick response ;. 1SS applied a different set of skills <. !eliable communication networks and availablity of computers terminals =. 1SS developed through evolutionary process that re%uires e7tensive partcipation

(haracteristics + 8. "andles large amounts of data from different sources 9. (rovides report and presentation fle7ibility :. Offers both te7tual and graphical orientation

;. Supports drill down analysis <. (erforms comple7, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software packages =. Supports optimization, satisficing, and heuristic approaches >. (erforms different types of analyses a. B3hat$ifC analysis Makes hypothetical changes to problem and observes impact on the results b. Simulation 1uplicates features of a real system c. -oal$seeking analysis 1etermines problem data re%uired for a given result

65. With the help of a neat labeled diagram e.plain the 'arious symbols elements" of a D?D. Dra: a (onte.t ;e'el D?D for a specified conte.t". (rocess Modeling involves graphically representing the processes, or actions, manipulate, store and distribute the data between a system and its environment and among the components within the system. A common form of process model is 1'1 )1ata 'low 1iagram*. In the late 8@>Ds data-flow diagrams (DFDs) were introduced and popularized for structured analysis and design )-ane and Sarson 8@>@*. 1'1s show the flow of data from e7ternal entities into the system, showed how the data moved from one process to another, as well as its logical storage. ?our Symbols S%uares representing external entities, which are sources or destinations of data. &7ternal entity is either originator or receiver of information. /alled Outside interfaces. !ounded rectangles )/ircle* representing processes, which take data as input, do something to it, and output it. Arrows representing the data flows, which can either be electronic data or physical items. 1' shows the movement of data between process, data store and e7ternal entity.

Open$ended rectangles representing data stores, including electronic stores such as databases or EMF files and physical stores such as filing cabinets or stacks of paper. Aote + In this Buestion you need to dra: all the four diagram"

68. Write a short note on the @uidelines and !ules go'erning Data ?lo: Diagrams.

D?D guidelines * rules I Starting with conte7t diagram, 1'1s are refined and decomposed from level to level, with more detail at each lower level (rocess+s input . output are different ni%ue descriptive names to all ob0ects 5ut the same ob0ects )and names* may appear at various levels ,o minimize clutter a data store )or even dataflow* may be repeated even on the same diagram (rocess names usually start with a verb

D?D guidelines * rules II

64. Write short note on Decomposition of a D?D. 'unctional decomposition An iterative process of breaking a system description down into finer and finer detail ses a series of increasingly detailed 1'1s to describe an IS Act of going from one single system to many component processes !epetitive procedure Fowest level is called a primitive 1'1

Fevel$G 1iagrams A 1'1 that is the result of n nested decompositions of a series of subprocesses from a process on a level$D diagram

Shows the system+s ma0or processes, data flows, and data stores at a high level of abstraction 3hen the /onte7t 1iagram is e7panded into 1'1 level$D, all the connections that flow into and out of process D needs to be retained.

3hen decomposing a 1'1, you must conserve inputs to and outputs from a process at the ne7t level of decomposition &nsures that the input and output data flows of the parent 1'1 are maintained on the child 1'1 ,his is called balancing &7ampleH "oosier 5urgers In 'igure 8, notice that there is one input to the system, the customer order ,hree outputsH /ustomer receipt 'ood order Management reports