Management Information System (MIS

IMPLEMENTATION OF MIS The choice of the system or the sub-system depends on its position in the total MIS plan, the size of the system, the user understands of the system and the complexity and its interface with other systems. The designer first develops systems independently and starts integrating them with other systems, enlarging the system scope and meeting the varying information needs. Determining the position of the system in the MIS is easy. The real problem in the degree of structure, and formalization in the system and procedures which determine the timing and duration of development of the system. Higher the degree of structured ness and formalization, greater is the stabilization of the rules, the procedures, decision making and the understanding of the overall business activity. Here, it is observed that the user’s and the designer interaction are smooth, and each other’s need are clearly understood and respected mutually. The development becomes a methodical approach with certainty in input-process and outputs. MIS is generally used by medium and larger scale organizations. However, small organizations are yet to understand its application. There is dire need to build up computer culture by properly disseminating information about computer applications and its benefits. Implementation of MIS can be achieved by using any of the methods such as direct, parallel, modular or phase in. • Direct Approach Direct installation of the new system with immediate discontinuance of the old existing system is reffered as “cold turnkey” approach. This approach becomes useful when these factors are considered. 1. The new system does no replace the existing system. 2. Old system is regarded absolutely of no value 3. New system is compact and simple. 4. The design of the new system is inexpensive with more advantages and less risk involved. • Parallel Approach The selected new system is installed and operated with current system. This method is expensive because of duplicating facilities and personal to maintain both the systems. In this approach a target date must be fixed when the operations of old system cease and new one will operate on its own. • Modular Approach This is generally recognized as “Pilot approach”, means the implementation of a system in the Organization on a piece-meal basis. This has few advantages / merits 1. The risk of systems failure is localized 2. The major problem can be easily identified and corrected before further implementation. 3. Operating personal can be trained before system is installed in a location. • Phase-in-Implementation This approach is similar to modular method but it differs because of segmentation of system, however, not the organization. It has advantages that the rate of changes in a given Organization can be totally minimized and the data processing resource can be acquired gradually over a period of time. System exhibits certain disadvantages such as limited applicability, more costs incurred to develop interface with old system and a feeling in the Organization that system is never completed.

Implementation Procedures
• Planning the Implementation After designing the MIS it is essential that the organization should plan carefully for implementation. The planning stage should invariably include the following: 1. Identification of tasks of Implementation Planning the implementation activities, acquisition of facilities, procedures development, generating files and forms, testing the system and evaluating and maintenance of the system. 2. Relationship establishment among the activity Network diagram must be prepared to correlate concurrent and sequential activities. 3. Establishing of MIS For monitoring the progress of implementation and for proper control of activities, efficient information system should be developed. 4. Acquisition of Facilities For installation of new system or to replace current system the manager should prepare a proposal for approval from the management by considering space requirement movement of personal and location for utility outlets and controls. 5. Procedure Development This is an important stop for implementation of the system including various activities such as evaluation selection of hardware, purchase or development of software, testing and implementation strategies. 6. Generating Files and Forms The MIS manager should generate files and formats for storing actual date. This requires checklist data, format date storage forms and other remarks in database. 7. Testing of the System Test should be performed in accordance with the specifications at the implementation stage consisting of component test sub system test and total system test. • Evaluation and maintenance of system The performance should e evaluated in order to find out cost effectiveness and efficacy of the system with minimum errors due to designs environmental changes or services.

Software Maintenances
The proper maintenance is the enigma of the system development and it holds software industry captive lying up programming resources. There are some problems in maintenance such as regarding it as non rewarding non availability of technicians and tools no cognizance of users about maintenance problem and cost lack of standard procedures and guidelines. Most programmers feel maintenance as low level drudgery. If proper attentions is paid over a period of time eventually less maintenance is required.

Types of Maintenance
The maintenance of system are classified into corrective/adaptive/perfective. Corrective maintenance means repairing process or performance failures. Adaptive maintenance means changing the programming function whereas perfective maintenance deals with enhancing the performance or modifying the program. Primary Activities of a Maintenance Procedure Documentation is major part of maintenance in system development. Maintenance staff receives requests from the authorized user. Programming library should be maintained. Reduction in Maintenance Costs Several organizations having MIS generally go in for reducing maintenance costs and it consists of three major phases. 1. Maintenance management audit through questionnaires and interviews. 2. Software system audit. 3. Software modification.

Evaluation Methods
Evaluation of the MIS in an organization is integral part of the control processes. There are several evaluation approaches such as quality assurance review compliance of audits budget performance review computer personal productivity assessment computer performance evaluation service level monitoring user audit survey post installation review and cost benefit analysis. Evaluation performance measurement can be classified into two classes as effectiveness and efficiency. The relationship between effectiveness and efficiency is that the format is a measure of goodness of out put and the latter is a measure of the resources required to achieve the output.

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