You are on page 1of 8

# 12

## Design of ventilation systems

Calculation of required air flow volume
The required extract or intake air
volume of a room depends on the
use and the contamination or
odours that are created within it.
A critical factor may also be the
amount of heat that needs to be
extracted.
I Calculation of air flow volume
using air change rate
Air change rates (see table 1) are
based on past experience and do
not take into account special
pollutants.
I Calculation of air flow volume
using the number of people in
a room (DIN 1946, Pt. 2)
pollutants (e. g. tabacco smoke)
the air flow per person has to be
increased by 20 m
3
/h.
I Calculation of air flow volume
using maximum pollutant
concentration levels.
To limit the level of pollutant to a
specific value.
I Calculation of air flow volume
using the amount of humidity
To limit the moisture level in the
air to a specific value.
I Calculation of air flow volume
using the heat to be extracted
To limit the room temperature by
removing the heat generated.
I Calculation of required heat to
temper intake air
To establish the heater rise for
the air flow selected.
V
.
= V
R
Ac/h [m
3
/h]
V
R
: Room volume m
3
Ac: Air changes per hour (from table 1)
V
.
= P A
CP
[m
3
/h]
P: Number of people
A
CP
: Air change rate per person (from table 2)
V
.
= [m
3
/h]
M: Hourly absorbtion of toxic agent mg/h
k
MAC
: Max. permitted toxic agent
concentration mg/m
3
(see MAC-table 3)
k
a
: Concentration of toxins in replacement
air mg/m
3
(MAC-table v. C. Hermanns
Verlag, Cologne)
M
k
MAC
k
a
V
.
= [m
3
/h]
G: Amount of water gram/hour
x
2
: Water content of extracted air
g water / kg air
x
1
: Water content of replacement air
g water / kg air
: Air density kg/m
3
(at 20 C, 1013 mbar
= 1.2 kg/m
3
G
(x
2
x
1
)
V
.
= [m
3
/h]
Q
.
Required heat extraction kW
c
p
: Specific heat capacity of air kJ/(kg K)
(Air at 20 C: c
p
1)
T: Temperature difference between
intake and extract air C
: Air density kg/m
3
(at 20 C, 1013 mbar =
1,2 kg/m
3
(1 kWh = 3600 kJ)
Q
.
3600
c
p
T
Q
.
L
= [kW]
V
.
c
p
T
Q
.
L
Heater output kW
V
.
: Air flow volume m
3
/h
: Air density 1.2 kg/m
3
(20 C)
c
p
: Spec. heat capacity kJ/(kg K)
T: Temperature difference (K) between
i Room temperature and
a Outdoor temperature
3600
T= i a [K]
The calculation of the air flow
volume may be done using various
criteria with the following equations
and tables. In some cases, several
ways of calculating should be used
and the higher figure taken (e.g.
restaurant: no of people air
changes per hour).
Table 1 Air changes per hour and (recommended) noise levels
Room type Ac/h Max. sound power Suggested method
level dB(A) of ventilation
Toilets Domestic 4 5 40 Extract
Commercial/public 8 15 50 Extract
Battery rooms 5 10 70 Explosion proof
Bathrooms 5 7 45
Tanneries 5 15 70 Acid protection
Libraries 4 5 35 40
Offices 4 8 45
Shower rooms 15 25 65 70 Pre heated intake air
Dye rooms 5 15 70 Explosion proof, acid proof
Spray booths 25 50 70 Explosion proof
Car parks 5 70 Extract
Cloakrooms 4 6 50
Restaurants, casinos 8 12 45 55 Intake and extract
Foundries 8 15 80 Extract, energy balance
Metal hardening plants up to 80 80 Extract, energy balance
Auditoriums 6 8 35 40 Intake and extract
Cinemas and theatres 5 8 35 / 25 Intake and extract
Classrooms 5 7 40
Conference rooms 6 8 45
Kitchens Domestic 15 25 45 50 Extract
Commercial 15 30 50 60 Extract
Laboratories 8 15 60 Extract, Expolsion+, acid proof
Paint rooms 10 20 70 Explosion proof
Photographic printing 10 15 60 Extract
Plant rooms 10 40 60 80 Energy balance
Sheet metal shops 8 12 60 Extract, energy balance
Welding shops 20 30 70 80 Spot extract systems
Swimming pools 3 4 50 Pre heated intake air
Safes 3 6 60
Changing rooms 6 8 60 Extract
Gymnasiums 4 6 50
Retail shops 4 8 50 60
Meeting rooms 5 10 45
Waiting rooms 4 6 45
Laundrettes 10 20 60 70 Energy balance
Workshops
with low pollution 3 6 60 70
with high pollution 10 20 60 70
Living rooms 3 6 day 40/night 30
Toxic cm
3
mg Toxic cm
3
mg
m
3
m
3
m
3
m
3
Acetone 1000 2400 Hydrazine 0.1 0.13
Aniline 2 8 Iodine 0.1 1
Ammonia 50 35 Methanole 200 260
Asbestos dust 2 Nicotine 0.07 0.5
2
5 9
Butane 1000 2350 Ozone 0.1 0.2
Chloride 0.5 1.5 Propane 1000 1800
Chromate 0.1 PVC 3 8
Carbon monox. 30 33 Quicksilver 0.01 0.1
CO
2
5000 9000 Saltpeter 10 25
Formaldehyde 0.1 1.2 SO
2
(H
2
SO
4
) 2 () 5 (1)
Hydro chloride 5 7 Zinc oxide 5
Type of room m
3
Type of room m
3
h x persons h x persons
Auditoriums 30 Museums 20
Canteens 30 Offices (open plan) 50
Cinemas 20 Offices (small) 30
Classrooms 30 Party rooms 20
Common rooms 30 Reading rooms 20
Conference rooms 30 Restaurants 40
Exhibition halls 20 Rest rooms 30
Hotel rooms 30
Gymnasiums 20 Shops 20
Theatres, concert halls 20
Table 2 Air exchange rate per person and room type
Table 3 Extract from MAC-table (max. permitted toxic agent)
Assembly plants 4 8 60 70
13
Design of ventilation systems
Acoustics
To adapt a sound power level figu-
re to what the human ear hears it
can be converted into a sound
pressure level. Stated with spheri-
cal sound level propagation (free-
field conditions) the reduction can
be calculated in relation to the
distance form the noise source
(figure 4). For an exact noise figure
within a room the absorbtion capa-
city of the room is of much higher
importance.
Sound emission levels affecting
the neighbourhood.
The following recommended sound
levels for neighbourhoods should
not be exceeded.
Area Emission dB(A)
day/night
Industrial (100%) 70 70
Industrial (mainly) 65 50
Industrial/residential 60 45
Residential (mainly) 55 40
Residential (100%) 55 30
Hospitals etc. 45 35
Noise levels for working environ-
ments
The following recommended sound
levels should not be exceeded per-
manently:
Activity dB(A)
Intellectual concentration 55
Computer and office work 70
Other areas 85
(Maximum deviation 5 dB)
First aid, rest and
recovery rooms 55
Figure 4
Difference between sound power
and pressure level at a distance:
Example:
Sound power level of fan = 70 dB(A)
Sound pressure level at 1 m (freefield cond.)
= 70 dB(A) less 8 = 62 dB(A)
Figure 5
Sound pressure level drop in
relation to distance
Example:
Sound pressure level at 1 m = 60 dB(A)
Sound pressure level in 5 m distance
without reflection (freefield): less 15 = 45 dB(A)
with part reflection: less 5 = 55 dB(A)
Figure 6
ces of equal intensity
Example: 10 noise sources of 60 dB(A)
Total noise level:
60 dB(A) + 10 dB = 70 dB(A)
Figure 7
ces with different intensity
Example: 2 noise sources with 60 dB(A) and
64 dB(A)
Total noise level:
64 dB(A) + 1.5 dB = 65.5 dB(A)
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

i
n

s
o
u
n
d

l
e
v
e
l

d
B
(
A
)
s. distance in m
The noise level of a fan must be
taken into consideration when
designing a ventilation system. The
affect of a sound source (fan) on
the rooms that need ventilation and
the neighbourhood can be
estimated using the following
information:
The noise is primarily created by
the fan, possibly also by ducting,
and other components like filters,
heaters, shutters etc. if the air flow
speed is too high (whistling noises).
Therefore a maximum air flow
speed of 7 m/s is recommended.
At the same time noise transmis-
sion by fan or other components
must be reduced as much as
possible when installing.
The maximum noise emission
recommendations should not be
exceeded.
Reduction in noise can be
achieved by installing the noise
source as far away as possible or
by use of attenuators. Generally
the noise level should be kept as
low as possible at its source, that
means selecting low noise fans.
Room absorbtion (Figure 8)
Each room has a specific
attenuation characteristic.
It depends on the state of the
walls, floor, ceiling, furniture and
of course the size.
The sound pressure level L
PA
is
different at each position of a room.
The figure is always lower than the
sound power level L
WA
of the noise
source.
With room size and average
absorbtion coefficient the average
room absorbtion can be calculated
(in m
2
Sabine).
Directivity factor Q
The directivity factor takes into
account at what position the noise
source and the listener are with in a
room.
Noise angle 45, Q = 4
Noise angle 0, Q = 8
Room attenuation L
Is the difference between sound
power and sound pressure level
(VDI 2081).
Example classroom
Room volume: 72 m
3
average absorbition coefficient: 0.1 m
average aborbtion area. :Sabine 14 m
2
Room position 1, grille in the middle of the
room
Noise angle 0, Q = 8
Distance 1.8 m
L = 2.5 (dB)
Room position 2, grille in room corner
Noise angle 45, Q = 4
Distance 4 m
L = 5 (dB)
Sound pressure level in room
L
PA
= L
WA
- L [dB]
Distance in m
w
it
h
o
u
t

r
e
f
le
c
t
io
n
w
it
h
r
e
fle
c
t
io
n
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

n
o
i
s
e
Number of equal sound sources
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

n
o
i
s
e
Difference in sound levels
Figure 8
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

a
b
s
o
r
b
t
i
o
n

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

m

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
i
n
g

p
l
a
n
t
s
,

p
u
b
l
i
c

s
w
i
m
m
i
n
g

p
o
o
l
s
,

b
i
g

c
h
u
r
c
h
e
s
C
l
a
s
s
r
o
o
m
s
,

s
m
a
l
l

c
h
u
r
c
h
e
s
,

h
o
s
p
i
t
a
l
s
R
e
s
i
d
e
n
t
i
a
l

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
i
e
s
,

o
f
f
i
c
e
s
,

t
h
e
a
t
r
e
s
,
h
o
t
e
l

a
n
d

c
o
n
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

r
o
o
m
s
R
e
a
d
i
n
g

r
o
o
m
s
,

t
e
l
e
v
i
s
i
o
n

s
t
u
d
i
o
s
,

s
t
o
r
e
s
B
r
o
a
d
c
a
s
t
i
n
g

s
t
u
d
i
o
s
,

m
u
s
i
c

r
o
o
m
s
Average absorbtion area = 5 m
2
Sabine
Room position 2
Room position 1
R
o
o
m

d
a
m
p
i
n
g

L

[
d
B
]
D
i
r
e
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

f
a
c
t
o
r

Q
Distance from sound source [m] Room volume [m
3
]
Room position 1
Room position 2
14
Design of ventilation systems
Resistances in ductwork
I Total resistance
calcuation
Pressure losses
Ventilation systems consist of
various different components like
fan, bends, grilles, filters etc.
All these components have a resi-
stance which needs to be conside-
red to select a suitable fan. The
pressure loss p
stat.
(static pressu-
re) of the total system is calculated
I Pressure drop in circular or
rectangular ducting
Equivalent diameter d
h
d
h
for rectangular fans
Correction factor for
I Pressure drop in shaped
sections like bends, T-pieces,
change in cross section area
I Resistances of components
I Velocity pressure at exhaust
p = p
1
/L L
1
+ p
2
/L L
2
+... [Pa]
P/
L1,2
...: from table in figure 10 [Pa/m]
L: Length of ducting [m]
Equivalent diameter d
h
d
h
= [mm]
2 w h
b + h
p
F
= p
F1
+ p
F2
+... [Pa]
p
F1,2
...: from tables in figure 12-15 [Pa]
Equivalent diameter c: air flow velocity [m/s]
: pressure loss coefficient
p
F
= c
2
[Pa]

2
A
Com
= p
Com1
+ p
Com2
+... [Pa]
p
Com1,2
...: from table 11 or diagramm
: Density [kg/m
3
]
(air at 20 C, 1013 mbar = 1.2 kg/m
3
c: Air flow velocity [m/s]
p
d
= c
2
[Pa]

2
A: Air flow cross section area [m
2
]
V
.
: Air flow volume [m
3
/h]
I Air flow speed
c = [m/s]
V
.
A 3600
w: Width of ducting [mm]
h: Height of ducting [mm]
Equivalent diameter d
h
w x h [cm] d
h
[mm]
30 x 15 200
40 x 20 260
50 x 25 330
60 x 30 375
60 x 35 400
70 x 40 500
80 x 50 600
100 x 50 650
p
R
= p
=0
Correction factor
p
total
= + + + [Pa] A B C D
Ducting
Ducting
Rain repellent
grille
Figure 9 Pressure losses in a ventilation system
Ducting
Shaped sections (bends, T-pieces)
Other components (filters, heaters, grilles)
Grille
Heater battery
Attenuator Fan Filter unit
90-bend
C
C
C C
C
A
B
A
C
B
A
B
C
D
Resistances of shaped sections
A
Figure 10 Pressure losses p [Pa/m] (roughness = o)
V
.
[m
3
/h], c [m/s], d [mm]
D
u
c
t

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

i
n

m
m
A
i
r

f
l
o
w

s
p
e
e
d

i
n

m
/
s
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

l
o
s
s

p
e
r

m

d
u
c
t
i
n
g
Correction factor for roughness of different materials
Metal ducting 1.5 Wooden ducting 1.5
Flexible ducting 7.0 Concrete ducting 2.0
Fibrated concrete ducting 1.5 Bricked ducting 3.0
Component Resistance
p component [PA]
Grilles, gravity shutters, louvres* 20 40
Helios VK-shutters* 10 20
Heater batteries, heat exchangers* 100 150
Filters clean* 40 60
dirty 250 300
Attenuators* 40 80
Cyclone 500 750
*more accurate figures see product page
Valves* 10 200
Figure 11 Resistances of components
(as a calculation guide)
Figure 12
Pressed bend 90
Figure 13
Pressed bend 45
Figure 14
Symmetrical reducer
Figure 15
Symmetrical reducer
15
Design of ventilation systems
Fan laws and performance curves
Fan performance units
Air flow volume
.
V [m
3
/h, m
3
/s]
Total pressure
p
total
= p
stat.
+ p
dyn.
[Pa]
Static pressure
p
stat.
= p
total
- p
dyn.
[Pa]
Dynamic pressure p
dyn.
= /2 c
2
[Pa]
Shaft power P
w
[W, kW]
Nominal motor power P [W, kW]
Sound power/pressure level
L
wA
, L
pA
, [dB(A)]
All figures were measured on a test
chamber stand to DIN 24163 Pt. 2.
The noise figures were measured in
an acoustic room simulating
spherical sound level propagation
conforming to DIN 45635 Pt. 1, 2.
= [kg/m
3
]
p
a
[hPa] 100
R
i
T
p
tot
= Total pressure increase [Pa]
= Efficiency of the fan
V
.
= Air flow volume in [m
3
/s]
Pw
1
= [kW]
V
.
ptot.
1000
Pole
figure
n
1
/n
2
Air flow
volume
V
2
V
1
Pressure
p
2
p
1
Power
Pw
2
Pw
1
4/2
8/4
12/6
6/4
8/6
2
1.5
1.33
4
2.25
1.78
8
3.38
2.37

P
w2
= P
w1
D
2
D
2
D
2
n
2
V
2
= V
1
; p
2
= p
1
;
P
w2
= P
w1

## Change in speed (R.P.M.):

Change in diameter:

2
3
n
1
n
1

n
2
n
2
n
1
V
2
= V
1
; p
2
= p
1
;

2 3
5
D
1
D
1

D
1
P
w2
= P
w1
= P
w1
[kW]
T
1

2
p
2
= p
1
= p
1
[P
a
]
V
1
= V
2
= const.
Change in temperature / density:

p
2
=

2
=
T
1
p
1

1
T
2
T
1

1
T
2

1
T
2
Performance curves
The characteristic of a fan is shown
in form of a performance curve. In a
performance curve the air flow volu-
me is given in relation to a static
pressure (p
stat.
) or a total pressure
(p
tot.
). The working point WP is the
meeting point between the fans
performance curve and the syste-
ms resistance curve (p
stat.
). The
air flow volume can be determined
by drawing a vertical line down-
wards.
System resistance curve
The pressure of a system changes
as a square of the changing air flow
volume.
Systems resistance
To be considered when selecting a
fan:
The static pressure p
stat.
is the
pressure drop of the system (duc-
ting, bends, filters and other compo-
nents).
Figure 16
In the performance curve of a mixed
flow VAR... fanthe total pressure a ,
the static pressure b and the
dynamic pressure c are shown.
Line d shows the air flow velocity
through the fan at a certain air flow
volume. The working point (WP) is,
where the fan curve and the system
resistance curve cross.
Figure 17
The performance curve of a speed
controllable rectangular centrifugal
fan shows the performance curves
for the various speed steps (trans-
former voltages).
Figure 18
For HELIOS AVD... models
(above > 710 mm), the fans per-
formance can be adjusted to the
required duty by changing the pitch
angle (at standstill).
p = k V
.
2
p
stat.
= p
tot.
p
d
[Pa]
p
a
: Air pressure [hPa, mbar] figure 19
R
i
: Gas constant (air: 287 J/(kgK))
1
1
2
2
3
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0
20
40
60
80
100
= 1.20 kg/m
c
m/s
h V m/
.
Frequency Hz Total 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
L
WA
Case breakout dB(A) 73 65 67 65 68 63 63 59
L
WA
Inlet dB(A) 84 78 70 70 75 74 71 68
L
WA
Extract dB(A) 86 76 75 79 81 79 77 72
KD 355/4/70/40
V

m
3
/h
p
stat.
Pa
= 1,20 kg/m
3

400 V
280 V
200 V
140 V
80 V
unsuitable area of
performance curve
Frequency Hz Total 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
L
WA
Air noise dB(A) 98 69 80 91 94 94 90 81
L
PA 4 m
Air noise dB(A) 78 49 60 71 74 74 70 71
VAR.. 400/2 n = 2900 1/min
p
tot.
p
stat.
Pa
= 1,20 kg/m
3
a
b
c
d
AVD 800/6
p
stat.
Pa
V

m
3
/h
= 1,20 kg/m
3
Fig.
16
Fig.
17
Fig.
18
Frequency Hz
L
WA
15 dB(A)
L
WA
25 dB(A)
L
WA
35 dB(A)
Total 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
80 65 66 72 76 76 72 65
82 67 68 74 78 78 74 67
84 69 70 76 80 80 76 69
V

m
3
/h
WP
10 15 25 20 35 30
Stalling
area
n=945 1/min
c
m/s
Stalling area
Table 19 Atmopheric pressure in relation to altitude
Altitude above sea level in m 0 500 1000 2000 3000
Atmospheric pressure in mbar 1013 955 899 795 701
Use of a fan in different altitudes
Calculation of density:
Calculation of the required shaft
power of a fan
When using a pole-switching
motor
Fan laws
The performances of geometrically
similar fan ranges can be calculated
using the relations between fan
speed, diameter and density.
T: Ambient temperature (T = 273+t) [C]
t: Air flow temperature [C]
Index 1: Original condition
Index 2: Modified condition
If you half the speed, you half the
air flow and quarter the pressure.
If you double the diameter, the
air flow grows by power 3 and
the pressure in square.
16
Design of ventilation systems
Explosion proof fans
I Explosion proof according to
ATEX 100 a
I For operation in or to move
potentially hazardous atmosphe-
res or substances, explosion
proof fans are supplied with
motors approved to ATEX 100
a or VDMA 24169. They offer
protection class e ll (increased
safety) or d (flame proof) to
EN 50019.
I The Eurpean Building Regulation
approval to 94/9 EG confirms that
the design fullfills VDE 0170/0171
and EN 50014/50019 and are
enclosed with each unit. The
reaction time t
E
(cut off time) is
stated on the certificate of the
motors and must be observed
when selecting the motor protec-
tion device (circuit breaker) which
must conform to VDE 0165.
I The temperature class of each
fan is stated on the individual
motor rating plate for correct
data. The material combinations
used in fans conform to the
recommendations given in VDMA
24169 Part 1.
I All relevant regulation must be
followed when making electrical
connection.
I Explosion proof motors
(protection e increased safety)
do not have thermal contacts.
Helioss rectangular explosion
proof fans (type KD...Ex) are fitted
with PTC thermistors (positive
temperature coefficient).
I Speed control is permited with
these models if connected to a
Helios MSA motor protection
unit.
I Models for non standard volta-
ges, frequencies and flameproof
models to Ex d are available on
request.
I Zone definition
The explosion proof zones are
defined in the explosion proof
regulations. If in doubt or for spe-
cial applications, the local autho-
rities should be consulted. Diffe-
rent zones (see figure ) have
been allocated to take into
account the different degrees of
likelyhood in which concentra-
tions of flammable gas or vapour
may arise in an installation. It
consideres how frequent and for
how long the hazardous atmos-
phere exists on each occasion.
HELIOS explosion proof fans can
be installed in zones 1 and 2.
I Types of protection
I For fan motors and terminal
blocks protection to class e
(increased safety) is the standard,
sometimes also class d.
I Temperature classes and
explosions groups
I The IEC-recommendations show
two groups of apparatus:
Group l: electrical apparatus for
mines susceptible to firedamp.
Group ll: electrical apparatus for
places with a potentially explosive
atmosphere, other than mines
susceptible to firedamp.
I For electrical apparatus belonging
to group ll there is a further
division into explosion- and
temperature classes.
I For EXe models increased
safety the degree of danger is
defined by the temperature class
where as for EX d models the
explosion group ll A, ll B, II C is
I The degree of danger increases
from explosion group ll A to ll C. If
an apparatus is suitable for group
ll C it can automatically be used
for the other two groups.
I An addtional way to categorise
gases or steams is accoring to
their ignition temperature . This
is the temperature at which an
ignition may occur e.g. through
a hot motor surface. The
maximum surface temperature
of an electrical appliance must
always be lower than the ignition
temperature of the substance
used.
I The gases are devided into 6
different temperature classes
(T1 T6) with a decreasing
ignition temperature for higher
classes. The gas will be put into
the lowest class where its ignition
temperature is still higher than the
one of the temperature class.
Apparatus with a higher tempera-
ture class can also be used for
substances classified with a
lower class. (e. g. T2 or T3).
I Installation
According to the regulations for
explosion proof apparatus a
protection guard must be fitted to
prevent items falling into the unit
if installed vertically. The (cooling)
air flow must not be affected by
this.
Flammable material Ignition temperature Temperature class Apparatus group
C
Acetaldehyde 140 T 4 II A
Acetone 540 T 1 II A
Acetylene 305 T 2 II C (3)
Ethane 515 T 1 II A
Ethyl acetate 460 T 1 II A
Ethyl ether 180 T 4 II B
Peroxyde production
Ethyl alcohol 425 T 2 II A II B
Ethyl chloride 510 T 1 II A
Ethylene 425 T 2 II B
Ethyl glykole 235 T 3 )
Ammonia 630 T 1 II A
i-Amylacetate 380 T 2 II A
Petrol 220 to 300 T 3 II A
Boiling point< 135C
Special petrol 220 to 300 T 3 II A
Boiling point > 135C
Benzene (pure) 555 T 1 II A
n-Butane 365 T 2 II A
n-Butyl alcohol 340 T 2 II A
Cyclohexanone 430 T 2 II A
1,2-Dichlorethane 440 T 2 II A
Diesel 220 to 300 T 3 II A
Aviation fuel 220 to 300 T 3 II A
n-Hexane 240 T 3 II A
Carbon monoxid 605 T 1 II A
Methane 595 (650) T 1 II A
Methanol 455 T 1 II A
Methyl chloride 625 T 1 II A
Naphthalene 520 T 1 II A
Phenol 595 T 1 II A
Propene 470 T 1 II A
n-Propyl alcohol 405 T 2 )
Carbon disufilde 102 T 5 II C (1)
Hydrogen sulfide 270 T 3 II B
Tetralene 425 T 2 )
(Tetrahydronaphthalene)
Toluene 535 T 1 II A
Hydrogen 560 T 1 II C (2)
Ignition temperature
* Extract from Selection, installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus for use in potentially explosive
atmospheres BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989
(1) Also explosion group II B + CS
2
, (2) Also explosion group II B + H
2
, (3) Also explosion group II B + C
2
H
2
For this substance an explosion group has not yet been determined
Data for flammable materials for use with electrical equipment
T 1 450 C > 450 C
T 2 300 C > 300 C
T 3 200 C > 200 C
T 4 135 C > 135 C
T 5 100 C > 100 C
T 6 85 C > 85 C
Temperature classes to BS 5345 : Part 1 : 1989
Temp. Maximum Ignition temp.
class surface temperature of flammable
of machine substance
Selection of apparatus and system according to zone and risk
Flammable Zones to Description Permitted apparatus Product- Product-
substances IEC 60079-10 group category
Gases,
vapour,
fog
Dust
Zone 0 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is Intrinsically-safe apparatus or systems,
continuously present, or present for long special protection (specifically certified for II 1G
periods. use in Zone 0).
Zone 1 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is Any explosion protection suitable for Zone 0 and 1G
likely to occur in normal operation. d flammable enclosure, ib intrinsically-safe apparatus II or
e increased safety, s special protection and p 2G
Zone 2 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is Any explosion protection suitable for Zones 0 and 1 3G, 2G
not likely to occur in normal operation, and and n type of protection, o oil-immersion, II or 1G
if it occurs it will exist only for a short time. q sand filling
Zone 20 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is Intrinsically-safe apparatus or systems, special II 1D
continuously present, or present for long periods. protection (specifically certified for use in Zone 20).
Zone 21 Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is Any explosion protection suitable for Zone 0 and 2D or
likely to occur for a short period due to the d flammable enclosure, e increased safety, II 1D
presence of dust in the atmosphere. with a minimum protection to IP 54.
Classification
II 2G EEx e / de II / IIB T3
Product group
Product category
Expl. proof protection to EN
Type of protection
e = increased safety
d e = flammable enclosure
with increased safety
Gas group / sub group
Temperature class T3
17
General product information
I The perfect technical solution is
of highest priority for HELIOS.
Experience and consistent
development of ideas and
methods has resulted in world
wide acceptance of HELIOS
products.
Research and development are
reflected in an extensive product
range which offers the technical
solution for most applications.
HELIOS is also your partner if
more sophisticated specials are
required. The combination of the
latest technology with the hig-
hest quality and design lead to
Economical operation through
high efficiency products. Impel-
lers and motors were developed
in house and are perfectly tuned
for each other.
Highest reliability even under
toughest working conditions is
gained by use of impregnated
windings, sealed for life ball
bearings, quality checks etc.
performance through speed
controllable motors using
transformer or electronic speed
controllers.
Innovative aerodynamical design
of parts and components.
Low noise levels make HELIOS
fans some of the quietest availa-
ble.
Easy installation and maintenance
free operation in combination
with highest electrical and
mechanical safety standards are
most beneficial for installer and
user.
I Operation of fans
Factors which are individual to
each installation have an influence
on the fans performance as well
as the electrical and mechanical
safety.
Before installation/use of fan and
accessories, the operation and
requirements of the fan system
must be clarified. The equipment
must not be used for purposes
for which it is not intended.
I Motors
Fans make special demands
on motors. Therefore HELIOS
develop and manufacture many
of their own motors, especially
the speed controllable models.
This guarantees optimal
matching to the fans needs.
This results in a range of specia-
lised drives serving the individual
fans requirement.
This guarantees for example:
Superb speed control
Low consumption
Low maintenance
Trouble free operation even
under difficult conditions.
Conformance to all relevant
regulations like VDE 0530 and
0700, DIN IEC 2J and IEC 61.
I Design of HELIOS motors
cast iron, totally enclosed with
cooling fins. Protection class:
see individual model.
Bearings: maintenance free
(sealed for life) and dust proof
through double lip sealing.
+140 C.
Full immersion, tropical moisture
protection to windings, insulation
class B.
I All other motors used by
HELIOS are manufactured to
IEC standard and conform with
all relevant regulations. Their
specification may vary. Specials
are available on request.
I Performance curves
Technical data (power, noise
figures, etc.) are stated in accor-
dance with DIN 24166 Technical
conditions of sale, tolerance
classes 2 or 3, DIN 44974,
Pt.1-3 electrical domestic
appliances, DIN VDE 0700.
I Air performance
Available pressure and air flow
volume are stated in performance
curves on the individual product
pages.
I All performance data is determi-
ned on test stands to DIN
24163, Pt.2. and Pt. 3.
Air flow volume and static
pressure p
stat.
for air flow
direction A (at free intake and
extract) are measured.
The total pressure p
tot
is
pressure p
dyn.
(from the cross
sectional area).
I Ducted fans are measured with
a bell mouth on the intake and
ducting of 1 diameter of the fan
in length attached on the outlet.
If the installation varies from this
(obstructions, bends, etc.) a
reduction in performance must
be taken into account.
I The performance curves relate
to an air density of =1.2 kg/m
3
and to the given nominal R.P.M.
figure. The actual speed of the
individual fans may vary and are
stated in the related tables.
The air flow velocity c and the
dynamic pressure p
dyn.
relate to
the extract cross sectional area
(casing cross sectional area).
I Electrical data
Voltage, frequency, current,
absorbed or nominal motor
power, protection class and the
wiring diagram number for the
fan can be found in the fans
data table.
The figures relate to normal
operating conditions (density
= 1.2 kg/m
3
, temperature
T = 20 C, 50 Hz).
The actual figures may vary
depending on the installation
conditions. When installing the
equipment the electrical figures
stated on the rating plate must
be observed.
For other environmental condi-
tions, in particular at low tempe-
ratures, an increase in the
current and power figures can
be expected. This needs to be
considered when sizing the
electrcial supply (wires, contac-
tors, circuit breakers). If in doubt
consult HELIOS.
I Noise levels
Noise figures are given as
A rated sound power levels
and/or sound pressure levels at
a distance of 1 or 4 metres.
The levels are illustrated in the
performance curves and fan
data tables.
The sound pressure levels are for
freefield conditions and may be
affected by reflections of walls
etc. The figures relate to the
details given in chapter perfor-
mance data and are in accor-
dance with DIN 24166. Installa-
tion conditions may increase
noise levels, in some cases
substantially.
If no other references are made,
the noise levels represent the air
noise on the intake. All figures
were measured in accordance
with DIN 45635, Part 38.
The sound power level is the
sound energy at source. The
sound pressure level is what
we hear and depends on the
distance from the source and
any reflections.
I Electrical connection
For each electrical item there is a
wiring diagram number shown in
the data table which must be
All relevant regulations must be
observed during installation and
electrical connection. The fans
must be protected against
overload of the motor (for each
phase, e.g. if one phase fails) by
a circuit breaker or via the built-in
thermal contacts connected to a
motor protection unit.
The protection must be provided
for all phases and fan speeds
(pole-switching models).
For selection of the circuit
breaker the electical figures
stated on the motor rating plate
must be used. If not it might
malfunction and invalidate any
guarantee claim.
HELIOS reverberent chamber to DIN 24163, Pt. 2
Unit
under
test
Damper
Determination of
air flow volume
Chamber
18
General product information
I Approvals
Helios fans have a high quality
standard and conform with
national and international regula-
tions. When correctly installed
they comply with the machinery
directive.
Various products undergo a
process of periodical testing by
independent bodies like TV,
VDE and the Forschungs- und
Materialprfungsanstalt des Lan-
at least one of the following
harmonized approvals:
VDE- and GS (approved
safety)
SEV-Safety certificate of the
Eidgenssischen Stark-
strominspektorat, Zrich
Certificate of the Austrian
federation of Electronics
DEMKO Safety approval
of Danmarks Elektriske
Materielkontrol
SEMKO Safety approval of
Svenska Elektriska
NEMKO Safety approval of
Norges Elektriske Materiell-
kontroll
M.E.E.I. Safety approval of
MAGYAR ELEKTROTECH-
NIKAI ELLENORZO INTE-
ZET, Hungary
Safety approval of
ELEKTROTECHNICKY
ZKUSEBNI USTAV,
Czech Republic
Safety approval of
DRAVNI ZAVOD ZA NOR-
MIZACIJU I MJERITELJSTVO
Republic of Croatia
Safety approval of
POLSKIE CENTRUM
Safety approval of
Bundesverband der land-
wirtschaftlichen Berufsge-
nossenschaften
Independant product
quality control by the
Materialprfungsanstalt
and by the TV Bayern
Approval from the
Deutsche Institut fr
Bautechnik
Explosion proof classes
EN 50014/50019
EU Declaration of
conformity
Protection class IP X4
Protection class IP X5
Insulation class II
I Innovative and functional pro-
duct design of Helios fans were
acknowledged in various design
competitions.
I Motor protection
All 1 ph. motors are fitted with
thermal contacts (TK) as stan-
dard. For some models they are
wired in series with the motor
windings on others there are
wired to the terminal block.
The majority of speed controlla-
ble 3 ph. motors (except explo-
sion proof) have thermal contacts
(TK) wired to the terminal block.
I Motors with thermal contacts
wired to the terminal block
must be connected to a motor
protection unit (see accessories).
The ports marked TK have to
be connected in accodance with
the wiring diagram. If temperatu-
res in the motor windings are too
high (e.g. caused by bearing
problems, obstructed impeller,
inefficient cooling, too high air
flow temperature, 2-phase
connection) the thermal contact
trips and the motor protection
device isolates the fan from the
supply. The fan must be restarted
manually. If this happens
frequently there is a fault in the
system which must be remedied.
This protection offers a full
protection of the motor even if
speed controlled. Most HELIOS
1 ph. and 3 ph. fans have built-in
thermal contacts as standard
(see fan data table). For other
models they can be supplied as
an extra.
I Motors with thermal contacts
wired in series with the motor
windings.
The majority of HELIOS 1 ph.
fans with smaller performances
have thermal contacts wired in
series with the motor windings
(see fan data table). They trip if
the motor temperature is too high
and open the electrical circuit.
After having cooling down the
fan will restart automatically. If
thermal contacts trip this indica-
tes a fault (e.g. stiff running,
obstructions, too high air flow
temperatures) which must be
removed before continuing
operation.
I Motors with built in PTC ther-
mistors (positive temperature
coefficient) are used for higher
performances where temperatu-
res rise quickly (e.g. under diffi-
cult working conditions).To offer
a full protection each winding
should be fitted with a PTC
thermistor (available at special
order; as standard for explosion
proof rectangular fans as well as
Axial and mixed-flow fans VAR
with large motor powers (see
product page). The thermistors
are temperature sensitive
elements. If a certain temperatu-
re is exceeded the electrical
resistance jumps up. The
thermistors must be connected
to a special circuit breaker (type
MSA, see accessories).
I Motors without thermal
protection
should be protected by a
conventional circuit breaker
(MCB miniature circuit breaker
or RCD residual current device),
which is to be wired between fan
and supply (each phase must be
protected). This option does not
offer protection against excee-
dingly high air flow temperatures,
insufficient motor cooling or if
the fan is speed controlled. For
pole-switching motors each
speed should be protected
separately.
I Air flow temperatures
The standard fan range is
suitable for operation in
ambients from -30 to at least
+40 C, or higher for a short
period (except explosion proof
fans).
The maximum permanent
temperature for each model is
stated in the fan data table.
Specials are available on
request.
I Speed control
Speed control causes an increase
in motor temperature. The max.
temperature figures stated in the
fan data table should be reduced
by 10 C when using a speed
controller.
I Flow medium
The standard models are
suitable for normally dirty, humid,
slightly aggressive air. For
differing operation conditions
I Protection against accidental
contact
Some fans come with a protec-
tion guard to DIN VDE 0700
respectively EN 294. Depending
protection may be required. The
installer is responsible to ensure
that sufficient protection is given.
All safety regulations must be
followed and a protection
against accidential contact to EN
294 guranteed. The contact with
rotating parts must be avoided.
Ensure that there are not any
items near the intake which
could be pulled into the fan (e.g.
curtains etc.) Fans which are
installed within a ducted system
might not need further protection
guards if the system provides
the required protection.
We emphasise that the installer
is liable for accidents due to
unsufficient safety measures.
A large range of guards is availa-
ble as accessories.
I Explosion proof fans
For operation in potentially
hazardous areas or to extract
hazardous fumes the fans are
supplied with approved explo-
sion proof motors and terminal
boxes to ATEX 100 a or VDE
24169.
They come in protection class
e (increased safety) or d
(flame proof) which means that
the fan is designed to avoid
excessive surface temperatures
and sparks and therefore an
explosion.
I The European Building Regula-
tion approval to 94/9 EG
confirms that the design fullfills
VDE 0170/017 and EN
50014/50019 and are enclosed
with each unit. The reaction time
t
E
(cut off time) is stated on the
certificate of the motors and
must be observed when selec-
ting the motor protection device
(circuit breaker) which must con-
form to VDE 0165.
The temperature class (T1...T4)
of each fan is stated on the
plate for correct data. It defines
the maximum allowed surface
temperature of the fan within the
explosive atmosphere. The
material combinations of the fans
are in accordance with VDMA
paper 24169, Pt.1.
I All explosion proof fans classified
Exe II are suitable for operation
within zone I and II. Models with
protection to IP 54 are also
suitable for use in zone 21
(explosive dust). When connec-
ting the fans, all relevant regula-
tions must be observed. Speed
control is only permitted for
models with fitted PTC thermis-
tors in combination with a motor
protection unit MSA (accessory).
Special voltages, frequencies,
protection classes Ex d are
available on request.
I IP ratings
An IP rating describes the
amount of protection against
solid and liquid objects entering
a motor and consits of two
digits. The first digit describes
the protection against solid
objects, the second against
liquids. The two most common
classes for dust and liquids are
described as follows:
IP X4: Motor enclosure protected
against the harmful ingress
of splashing water
IP X5: Motor enclosure protected
against the harmful ingress
of water, when water is
sprayed against the motor
(weatherproof).
IP 4X: Motor enclosure protected
against the harmful ingress
of solid objects greater
than 1.0 mm.
IP 5X: Protected against the
harmful ingres of dust.
Industrie
Forum Design
Hannover
e Ex e +
19
General product information
speed control
The requirement to control the
performance of a fan system is
based on various factors.
To increase the comfort.
To adapt the system to the
changing requirements within
building (number of people, air
quality, temperature etc.).
To ensure an economical
operation.
Speed controlling fans is the
best way of adapting the perfor-
mance with regards to energy
consumption and noise. The
required shaft power is reduced
by the cubic of the speeds
change. If the speed is halved
the shaft power drops to one
eigths of the full speed figure.
P
L
=
(
n
)
3
P
L,0
n
0
Key:
P
L
= Shaft power (speed controlled)
P
L,0
= Shaft power at full load
n = Controlled speed
n
0
= Nominal speed
How much of this reduced shaft
power results in energy savings
depends on the characteristic of
the used motor and controller.
HELIOS motors are specially
designed to match the impellers
power requirements. This gua-
rantees optimal efficiency at full
speed and when controlled.
I Controllers
The controllers offered by
HELIOS can control a number of
fans within their rating. When
selecting a controller it should be
noted that in some cases using
a control increases the current
above the F.L.C. (see product
pages).
I Frequency inverter
When a motor is speed control-
led using a frequency inverter it
must be observed , that peak
voltage passed to the motor
terminals are below 1000 V
and the peak voltage rise is
below 500 V/s (according to
IEC 34-17). If the false inductive
current exeeds 3,5 mA during
normal operation, the appliance
must be earth according to
DIN VDE 0160/ 5.88, chapter
6.5.2.1. In case of long distance
between inverter and motor, an
external filter must be used on
the inverter. The use of an inver-
ter for several different motors is
only possible if the an all pole
sinus filter is installed between
inverter and motors (to gbe
supplied by others). It must offer
protection for phases between
each other and each phase and
earth.
If the fan is to be speed control-
led by a frequency inverter this
must be stated when ordering.
The use of other brand control-
lers might result to malfunction
or defective motors. Controllers
not offered or recommended by
HELIOS invalidate the fans
guarantee.
I Electronic speed controllers
working on the principle of
voltage reduction by cutting the
phase may create electro-
magnetic (humming), noise in
the motor at low speed which
could be disturbing. For noise
critical (sensitive ) instalations
the use of a transformer is
recommended.
I Comparison of different con-
trol methods
1. Speed control
2. Bypass
3. On/off operation
anlge
ges of speed control in compari-
son to other methods used in
practice.
HELIOS fans are speed control-
lable by voltage reduction, by
use of frequency inverters or by
pole-switching motors (2 speed).
The suitable controller range is
offered on the accessory pages.
I Noise of speed controlled fans
speed control is the substantial
reduction in noise levels. The
sound level may be reduced by
up to
L 50 Lg (
n
)dB
n
0
(n
0
: Nominal speed)
and therefore is ideal for opera-
tion of fan systems at night.
Example: If the speed is halved
the noise level drops by up to
15 dB.
The graph shows systematically
the relation of air flow volume,
pressure drop, power and noise
level when a fan is speed con-
trolled.
100
75
50
25
0
100 75 50 25 0
1
2
3
4
Volumenstrom
L
e
i
s
t
u
n
g
s
b
e
d
a
r
f
%
%
100
75
50
25
0
100 75 50 25 0
Drehzahl
V
o
l
u
m
e
n
s
t
r
o
m
%
%
-6
-12
-18
G
e
r

u
s
c
h
r
e
d
u
z
i
e
r
u
n
g
D
r
u
c
k
e
r
h

h
u
n
g
L
e
i
s
t
u
n
g
s
a
u
f
n
a
h
m
e
I Speed controllable fans
are marked as such on the
product page. Suitable speed
controllers are shown in the data
table. Models which dont have
a controller shown must only be
used at full speed.
I Conditions of sale, guarantee
All sales are only made upon
HELIOSs Conditions of Sale, a
copy of which is available on
request.
The guarantee on HELIOS
products within the UK is
12 month from delivery and is
only applicable if:
the units are used for their
intended purpose,
all instructions given by
HELIOS were followed,
the unit has not been modified
or repaired.
The warranty is limited to the
material and workmanship of the
product. As a part of continuous
product development HELIOS
reserve the right to alter the
specification without prior notice.
Air flow volume
R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

p
o
w
e
r
R.P.M.
S
o
u
n
d

l
e
v
e
l
A
i
r

f
l
o
w

v
o
l
.
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

p
o
w
e
r