Home Economics

Content Page

- Cover Page & Content Page; Page 1 - 2 - Task Analysis; Page 3 – 5 - Research; Page 6 – 11 - Interview; Page 12 - Decision Making; Page 13 - Evaluation; Page 14
Cooking Vitamin Sodium Chloride Healthy Eating Tidbits Heart Attacks Junk food Snacks Carbohydrates Diabetes


Report - Task Analysis Explanation of keywords
Junk Food 1) Who normally eats junk food? A: Teenagers are the ones who usually eat junk food. 2) When do people eat junk food? A: People eat junk food at different times. Some when they’re sad, stressed, hungry, happy or on occasions. 3) What are junk foods? A: A high-calorie food that is low in nutritional value. 4) Where do people consume junk food? A: Some people consume junk foods at fast-food restaurants such as MacDonald’s, KFC, Pizza Hut and many other fast-food restaurants. Others consume junk food at home. 5) Why do people consume junk food? A: Junk food are easy to prepare and easy to cook. It makes preparations much easier and faster, as to save time, people would just cook or eat junk food. 6) How can we help people who eats excess amount of junk food? A: We can encourage them to exercise more, cut down on the amount of junk food they eat and eat healthier meals. Cholesterol level is high 1) What is the meaning of cholesterol? A: A waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver, and found in the blood and in all cells of the body but has gotten something of a bad name. 2) Whose cholesterol level is usually high? A: People of the age range of 20 to 60 usually have high cholesterol levels. 3) When do people have high cholesterol level? A: Normally, people have high cholesterol level when they eat animal meat, as animal meat contains a large amount of cholesterol. Even vegetables contain cholesterol, but in a small amount. 4) Why do people have high cholesterol level? A: Weight, diet, age and gender, physical activity and heredity are several factors that affect people having high cholesterol levels. 5) Where does the cholesterol come from? 3

A: Cholesterol comes from food that contains fats. Major dietary sources of cholesterol include egg yolks, beef, poultry, and shrimp 6) How can they lower their cholesterol level? A: (1) Following a healthy diet You will need to choose the correct type of dietary fat, and reduce your intake of high-cholesterol foods. In addition, your daily diet should include regular amounts of fresh fruit, vegetables and dietary fiber (especially soluble fiber). (2) Taking regular exercise Regular cardio-aerobic exercise (like walking, swimming) is essential to maintain the strength and resilience of your cardiovascular system. (3) Making lifestyle improvements Includes weight reduction if overweight or obese; quitting smoking; normalizing alcohol intake.

Healthy Eating
1) Who needs to eat healthy food? A: Everyone needs to eat healthy food, especially for people whom BMI is <18 or 26>. 2) When do people eat healthy food? A: Most of the time, people only eat healthy food when either people prepares the food for them, others nag them to eat healthy food, or they know when to eat healthy food when they need it. 3) Why do people eat healthy food? A: Healthy eating can both reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and lower an already elevated blood pressure. 4) Where can people eat healthy food? A: People can eat healthy food at home too. All you have to do is prepare the correct ingredient and you can eat healthy food. 5) What is healthy eating? A: Healthy eating is eating of healthy foods, which are good for your body, which contains low fat, cholesterol and enough nutrients for your daily needs. 6) How do people eat healthily? A: People can eat healthily by not skipping breakfast as it’s the most important meal of the day, eat more fruits and vegetables, eat less fat and foods high in fat and of cause, drink plenty of water!


Plan and prepare a healthy snack
1) Who can plan and prepare a healthy snack? A: Anyone can plan and prepare a healthy snack! All you have to do is list down the ingredients that aren’t bad for your health and you’re ready to cook! 2) Where can we find ingredients to plan and prepare a healthy snack? A: We can just find ingredients from nearby supermarket stores. 3) What are healthy snacks? A: One that contains little or no sugar, little or no salt (sodium), no white flour and no saturated fat. Check the food labels to see what is inside. Many foods are now labeled ‘fat free’ but are laden with sugars and will still cause an influx of calories. Do not assume that ‘fat free’ means healthy! Western societies are eating more and more fat free foods, and yet obesity levels are rising faster than ever. 4) When can people plan and prepare a healthy snack? A: Anytime, anywhere. You can even plan for the healthy snack when you’re out either at work or with friends, and prepare for the healthy snack when you’re back home. 5) Why plan and prepare a healthy snack? A: People plan and prepare healthy snacks so that they can be healthy, and they get all the nutrients that they need. 6) How can we plan and prepare a healthy snack? A: Raw vegetables, such as celery, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli, green pepper, green beans, cucumbers, mushrooms or zucchini may be served with a low fat dip. Fresh fruit can also be added into the snack.


Junk food Junk food is purchased as ready-to-eat or quick-to-cook, either from 'fast' food vendors or pre-packed in snack size portions. Burgers, chicken nuggets and chips are usually deep fried in fat. As well as being high in fat due to the cooking method, junk food is usually high in salt and/or sugar to make it tasty. The sugar, salt and fat are all thought to be contributors to obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Another favourite type of junk food is crisps and crisp-like items such as hula-hoops that are highly processed, come in various (artificial) flavours and is moulded into specific shapes (generally shapes with a lot of surface area). Fizzy drinks are also included in the junk food category. They contain a lot of sugar and often caffeine. Traditionally, the concern with fizzy drinks has been centered solely on the sugar content. A 12-ounce can of coke contains 10 full teaspoons of sugar. Lately, however, nutritionists are becoming concerned about the acidity caused to the body from the carbon dioxide. It is thought that this could be bad for bone development as calcium is taken from the bones to neutralize the acid balance. Places in which junk food can be found at would be Macdonald’s, KFC, Pizza Hut, Long John Silver, and many more. People eat junk food because it is easy to prepare and easy to cook. It makes preparations much easier and faster, as to save time, people would just cook or eat junk food. Listed below are some important health complications caused due to sumptuous consumption of junk food. Lack of energy: Junk foods do not contain any nutrients that are beneficial to the human body. In most cases, these foods are filled with harmful carbohydrates, fats and cholesterol that do not provide any useful energy. As a result, somebody consuming junk food has reduced level of essential nutrients thereby causing weakness in the body. Poor Concentration: One disadvantage of consuming junk food is that it contains high amount of oil and fat. As a result, human body finds this food difficult 6

to digest and needs to spend high amount of blood and enzymes. When a person consumes junk food in excess, a major portion of blood in the body is diverted to the intestine. As a result, the person feels drowsy and suffers with reduced concentration. Heart Diseases: Junk foods have been identified as a major cause of heart diseases including myocardial infraction, cardiac arrest and atherosclerosis. This is due to the fact that junk food contains excessive amount of lowdensity lipoproteins and cholesterol that get deposited on the inner linings of blood vessels. This result in formation of plaques and the heart is required to put an extra effort for pumping blood through the arteries. Presence of fat in the blood also causes reduced oxygen levels. Another harmful factor present in junk foods is excess concentration of sugars and salt. Excessive concentration of sodium ions causes an increased heart blood pressure. Liver Failure: Even liver gets damaged due to presence of ingredients such as fat, cholesterol and salt inside the junk foods. Diabetes: Junk foods also cause damage to the pancreas resulting in insulindependant diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

Clever junk food advertising and the lure of convenience in addition to taste get people to junk food addiction. Awareness on junk food facts is lacking dramatically in every corner of the society. Here are some useful tips to avoid junk foods.

Junk food and children have a strange affinity to each other. This is partly so owing to junk food advertising. Do not let children to get habituated to junk foods. Controlling children from eating junk foods in schools is another step that helps in a long term. Schools administration along with parents has a responsibility to educate children about junk foods in schools. Junk food, the name itself is tempting enough. Eliminating the temptation is one way to avoid it. Keeping good food nearby and having meals right on time may help in this direction. Controlling the temptation is not as hard as alcoholism can be. Develop awareness for fitness. This helps you separate junk food and diet from your regimen.


Finally, not all foods are junk; moreover, our bodies have enough stamina to take care off occasional junk food eating. However, beware; the lure is strong enough to get you addicted. It is in your hands choose junk food or health. Cholesterol Level is High Too much cholesterol in the blood, or high blood cholesterol, can be serious. People with high blood cholesterol have a greater chance of getting heart disease. High blood cholesterol on its own does not cause symptoms; so many people are unaware that their cholesterol level is too high. Cholesterol can build up in the walls of your arteries (blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body). This buildup of cholesterol is called plaque. Over time, plaque can cause narrowing of the arteries. This is called atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. Special arteries, called coronary arteries, bring blood to the heart. Narrowing of your coronary arteries due to plaque can stop or slow down the flow of blood to your heart. When the arteries narrow, the amount of oxygen-rich blood is decreased. This is called coronary heart disease (CHD). Large plaque areas can lead to chest pain called angina. Angina happens when the heart does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. Angina is a common symptom of CHD. Some plaques have a thin covering and can burst (rupture), releasing cholesterol and fat into the bloodstream. The release of cholesterol and fat may cause your blood to clot. A clot can block the flow of blood. This blockage can cause angina or a heart attack. Lowering your cholesterol level decreases your chance for having a plaque burst and cause a heart attack. Lowering cholesterol may also slow down, reduce, or even stop plaque from building up. Plaque and resulting health problems can also occur in arteries elsewhere in the body. Help yourself: Lose weight: Reducing excess weight will help to lower your total and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride (fat) levels. Watch your diet: Limit your intake of all types of fats, both unsaturated and saturated. Replace some saturated with unsaturated fats. Cholesterol is only found in animal products. Major sources include organ meats (e.g. liver, brains, kidneys, intestines, heart), egg yolk, squid, fish roe, shellfish, prawns, crabs and animal fats. Eat less of these foods. 8

Eat more fibre: Fibre found in oats, oat bran, barley, fruit vegetables, legumes and whole grains can speed up the removal of cholesterol from your blood. Take less alcohol: Excessive alcohol intake can lead to high blood pressure. Alcoholic drinks also contain many calories, which can contribute to weight gain. Don’t smoke: Smoking damages the blood vessel walls, making them more prone to fatty deposit buildup. Smoking also lowers the level of HDL-cholesterol in the blood and reduces the protective effect against atherosclerosis. Exercise: Lack of exercise is associated with a low HDL-cholesterol level. Try to accumulate at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity (in a single bout or multiple bouts of 10 minutes) on 5 or more days per week e.g. brisk walking, cycling (leisure).

If your cholesterol is between 5.5 and 6.5 your risk of heart disease is only increased by a small amount. Don’t panic but make a few moderate changes to your diet. However if you already have heart disease, or one of your parents developed heart disease at an early age, (less than 55 years of age) then you need to make bigger changes. If your cholesterol is higher than 6.5 then you need to make more changes. If despite changes to your diet your cholesterol level remains above 6.5 you may need medication, especially if you have the other risk factors mentioned or you have a family history of heart disease- see your doctor. Manage Your Diet. There is a saying "YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT". Certain foods have types of fat that raise your cholesterol level. Saturated fat raises your low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level more than anything else in your diet. Trans fatty acids (trans fats) are made when vegetable oil is hydrogenated to harden it. Trans fatty acids also raise cholesterol levels. Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal sources, for example, egg yolks, meat, and cheese.


Healthy eating Eating well is often hard for teens. Hanging around with friends, frequenting fast food outlets and snacking can lead to excessive intake of fat, sugar and calories and insufficient intake of important vitamins and minerals. Adolescence is a time of increased nutrient needs. During the rapid growth of puberty, the body has increased need for calories and key nutrients including protein, calcium, iron, folate and zinc. Iron and calcium are particularly important nutrients for your body during adolescence. Iron helps your blood carry oxygen to all your muscles. It helps your brain function and helps your immune system fight disease. Menstruation increases a girl's need for iron. Choosing iron-rich food sources can help keep your body working optimally. Your body will actually absorb more calcium from the foods you eat during puberty. The increased need for skeletal growth signals your body to "grab" all the calcium it can. The problem is most adolescents simply are not eating enough calcium-rich foods to meet their needs. If you do not meet your calcium needs during this critical time when your bones are growing, you may end up with weaker bones that are more prone to fractures. Experts estimate that for every 5 percent increase in adolescent bone mass, there is a 40 percent decrease in the risk of bone fractures later in life. There is a limited time window to deposit calcium into bone. Bones grow and incorporate calcium rapidly during teen years. By the time you reach your early twenties, however, calcium is no longer added to bone. Worse yet, when you get a little older, you actually start losing calcium from your bones. Currently most teen girls are getting far less than the recommended 700 milligrams of calcium per day. So, reach for foods rich in calcium now. Eating Disorders Adolescent and teenage girls are at particularly high risk for developing eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia (the binge and purge disorder). 10

The desire for a 'perfect' slim body can be so strong that some girls will make themselves sick trying to achieve it. Some young women have an inappropriate body image, believing they are 'fat' even though their weight is in the normal range or below normal range. Eating disorders are serious; health consequences can be severe, even life threatening. If you think you or one of your friends might have an eating disorder, talk to an adult about it right away; you may save a life. If you are a parent, you should be concerned if your child shows any of the following behaviors:
• • • • • •

Refuses to eat or eats only small portions of food Loses a lot of weight in a short time or shows great fluctuations in weight Displays an extreme fear of being fat Exercises excessively Thinks she is fat even though she is not Appears depressed, moody, insecure and/or hyperactive

Plan and Prepare a Healthy Meal To create a healthy meal plan you should do the following:

• • • • • • • • •

Eat a variety of foods as recommended in the Diabetes Food Pyramid to get a balanced intake of the nutrients your body needs - carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Make changes gradually because it takes time to accomplish lasting goals. Reduce the amount of fat you eat by choosing fewer high-fat foods and cooking with less fat. Eat more fiber by eating at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables every day. Eat fewer foods that are high in sugar like fruit juices, fruit-flavored drinks, sodas, and tea or coffee sweetened with sugar. Use less salt in cooking and at the table. Eat fewer foods that are high in salt, like canned and packaged soups, pickles, and processed meats. Eat smaller portions and never skip meals. Learn about the right serving sizes for you. Learn how to read food labels. Limit use of alcohol.

Breakfast is still the most important meal because it provides the fuel children need for school and play during the early part of the day. It breaks the fast of the sleep hours and prepares the child for the learning period at school. Children who eat breakfast are more alert, energetic and creative, and they perform better in school than children who skip the meal. To make mornings less hectic, set out breakfast bowls, cups, utensils and cereal boxes the night before. If you do not want to sit down to breakfast, have quick, portable breakfast foods available, such as bread buns, fresh fruit, and 100% fruit juices and milk in individual containers with straws.


T o find out if you are eating healthily when eating out, do the following:
• • •

Write down what you have eaten in one day; Look up the nutrient content of each food; Total each nutrient up for the day.

See how many calories, fat, sodium and other nutrients you had in that day.

• •

If your meals are high in fat, look up items that are lower in fat. (Hint: Look at items in soup rather than fried items; also baked, stewed or steamed dishes are lower in fat). Cutting back on fat also cuts down on calories too; If your meals are high in sodium, avoid dishes with salted vegetables or fish, and preserved or pickled foods. Don’t forget that sambal, chilli sauce and other sauces you add to your foods contain a lot of sodium too. If your fibre intake is low, try to have more vegetables & fruit with skin on. Dishes with beans & legumes are also high in fibre.

Development (Interview)
Q: Do you know what are junk foods? A: I would say that junk foods are tidbits as they contain a number of fats, and are called junk food like snacks Q: Name 5 junk foods you normally eat? A: Potato chips, Twisties, Roller coasters, Fries and sweets Q: How often do you eat them? A: Thrice a week Q: Do you know the effects of eating them? A: Obesity Q: Why do you like to eat them? A: They're sweet; maybe they contain colourings to make it attractive and some

Q: Do you know what is healthy eating? A: Eating with a balanced meal with no preservatives Q: How often do you exercise? A: Once a week Q: Do you have a healthy meal plan? A: No.

I can conclude from the interview that Samy does not eat healthily. He eats junk foods such as potato chips and fries thrice a week. If he continues to eat so much junk food in a week, his cholesterol level will remain high as he only exercise once a week, which is during his Physical Education lesson. 12

He should exercise more often so he would not gain excess weight or fats. He can improve his diet by having a healthy meal plan or eat less fried food and snacks. Anyone can plan a healthy meal! If he can’t cook, he can also go to healthy food restaurants to eat, such as Delhi Restaurant. He can also learn to do other exercises such as skipping, playing badminton or even cycling. These sports or exercises are very helpful in burning excess fats. Also, these sports can be fun especially if you do it with a bunch of people together.

Decision Making
Chocolate brownie with low fat and calorie
This "recipe" uses packaged chocolate brownie mix from the supermarket. Look for the lowest fat brownie mix to buy, as packaged not as prepared. Replace 1/2 the fat with applesauce, then replace each egg with two tablespoons of applesauce. Vegan vegetarian recipe. For example: Recipe calls for 2 eggs 2 T oil Use 5 T applesauce 1 T canola oil 1 egg is replaced with 2 tablespoons of oil or one small, ripe banana One-half of oil is replaced with applesauce. These brownies do not stick together as well as conventional brownies, but they are just as tasty. In fact, they are delicious! Using the banana will make them stick together better. Of course, we never met a chocolate brownie we did not like!!!


I chose this particular snack for Samy as I think that Samy would like chocolate brownies since most people love chocolate, and it is not unhealthy. Also, it is easy to make since only little things are needed to make it. The ingredients can also be found at neighborhood supermarkets. This snack does not contain much fat since it’s a brownie and the chocolate will add more taste to the brownie than regular brownies. It does not contain much calorie either.

In this coursework, I’ve done a task analysis, which includes explaining keywords (junk foods, cholesterol, healthy eating, snack), identifying keyfactors by asking questions based on the 4 keywords using the 5W + 1H (who, when, why, what, where, how). Lastly, I explain the keyfactors, which means for each question asked, the answer given will be in 2-3lines to explain the question. Next, I’ve done some research to find articles and information on the keywords such as; what is junk food, why do we have high cholesterol level, what is healthy eating and how to eat healthily. I’ve also learnt more about healthy eating in my daily lives. Then, I conducted an interview with my friend, Samy, to know more about his eating habits. I’ve learnt that he doesn’t eat healthily, doesn’t exercise often and he eats junk food very often. These are often the causes of obesity and high cholesterol level. I’ve advised him to cut down on his junk food intake and exercise regularly. For decision-making, I’ve chosen chocolate brownie as I find it unique and most people would like chocolate. Also, it will be easier to make since the ingredients can be found at nearby supermarket stores. I’ve learnt the importance of being healthy, eating healthy food, importance of keeping your cholesterol level low as it causes diseases. Junk food is not healthy food as it contains high amount of fats. Excess fats are not good. Don’t eat more than you need to. Well, the thing I disliked most about the coursework is the interview. I had a hard time looking for people to help me with the interview. Also, it was not easy finding a 14

snack to prepare since I do not cook that often, and its hard to find one that’s easy to make since most sites won’t show the nutritional value of the snacks. My strengths when doing this coursework is that I am able to do the task analysis well since I kind of like doing it and the research was rather easy for me since I’ve been doing lots of research for the past years for my various subjects. My weakness would be that I cant always describe things a lot. I wish to improve this, as it will definitely affect me in the future. I hope the coursework’s in the future will be much more interesting as to get the student’s interest in Home Economics. Home Economics can be fun, but also hard at times since we have to remember a lot of things for the tests.

-The End-


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